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Transport in Humans

Mark scheme

(a) State whether the following are true or false:


1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.

A human has a greater surface area to volume ratio than a bacterium. F


The circulatory system in Humans is referred to as a double circulatory system. T
The Human heart is divided into two chambers and is made up of cardiac muscle. F
All blood vessels are of the same type and transport blood around the body. F
Blood is made up of red and white blood cells alone. F
The events that make up one heartbeat include atrial systole, ventricular systole and atrial
and ventricular diastole. T
7. A blood clot forms when red blood cells are exposed to air in damaged tissue. F
8. Coronary heart disease occurs when the coronary arteries become blocked by fatty
deposits. T
One mark each = Total 8 marks
(b) Fill in the blanks below:
Deoxygenated blood enters the right atrium of the heart through the vena cava. The blood is
then squeezed into the right ventricle, which then contracts pushing blood up and out of the
pulmonary artery to the lungs where it becomes oxygenated. This blood then returns to the
heart via the pulmonary vein into the left atrium. From here blood is squeezed in the left
ventricle. The muscles here are thick to contract with great force to push blood up and out of
the aorta to rest of the body.
One mark per word= Total 16 marks

(c) Briefly write your answers in the spaces provided below.


1. State the function of an artery and describe one way in which it is suited for its
function.
Function: carry oxygenated blood away from heart (1 mark)
It has thick elastic walls(1 mark) that can stretch and will not burst as high pressure
blood flows through them(1 mark)
Total 3 marks

(d) State the function of a vein and describe one way in which it is suited doe its function.

Function: carry deoxygenated blood back towards the heart (1 mark)


Contains valves which prevent backflow of blood (1 mark) keeping it moving in one
direction (1 mark)
Total 3 marks
(e) Describe three ways the red blood cell is adapted for its function of oxygen transport.
Red blood cells are: thin for easy diffusion (1 mark), have haemoglobin to bind to oxygen
(1 mark) and no nucleus to transport maximum oxygen (1 mark)
Total 3 marks
(f) Jenny is 15 years old. On a typical day she eats two doubles for breakfast, two kiss cakes
and coke at break time, KFC for lunch and Pizza for dinner. Her friend, Jim is concerned
and tells her if she continues to eat this way she would be susceptible to diseases of the
circulatory system.
1. State two diseases that Jenny is susceptible to.
Coronary heart disease
Hypertension
Artherosclerosis
Any two diseases= 2marks

2. What food nutrient is Jennys diet high in? How could the presence of this
nutrient cause circulatory diseases like those stated above?
The nutrient is fat (1 mark)
Fatty deposits can line arteries (1 mark) causing them to be blocked thus causing
heart to pump harder to force blood through (1 mark) (e.g. hypertension) or this
can prevent Oxygen and glucose from reaching heart muscle causing CHD (1
mark).
Total 3 marks
3. State two ways that Jenny can prevent these diseases and lead a healthier life.
Jenny can exercise regularly (1 mark) and have a diet low in fat (1 mark)
Total 2 marks

END OF TEST
Total 40 marks