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Group Members

Renee Mike
Joselle Corraspe
Teneka Eudovique
Crystal-Marie Sutherland

What is Cancer?
Cancers are a large family of diseases
that involve abnormal cell growth with
the potential to invade or spread to
other parts of the body that would often
form a lump called a tumour.

Cancer falls into different categories of diseases:

It is a physical disease as it involves a


malfunction somewhere in the body.
Cancer is also a social disease as it is
associated with the social setting in which a
person spends their life. ( cigarette smoke
can cause lung cancer).
It is also an inherited disease because it
can be caused by the combination of alleles
that a person inherits from their parents.

Gene Mutations that cause Cancer


Mutation in three main types of genes cause cancer
and these are:
Proto- Oncogenes: these are genes that code for
normal proteins used in cell division.
Repressor Genes: these are genes that normally
inhibit cell division.
DNA Repair Genes: these are genes that usually
repair DNA and once mutated can produce the wrong
combination on a DNA nucleotide causing the cell to
be a mutant cancer cell.

THE ENVIRONMENT
Cancer may be caused by certain
environmental exposures that harm DNA.
These exposures may include substances,
such as the chemicals in tobacco smoke, or
radiation, such as ultraviolet rays from the
sun.
Overexposure to ultraviolet (UV) radiation
from the sun is the main cause of skin cancer.
Dark skin provides protection against UV light.
It absorbs the pigment melanin, protecting the
cells beneath.

AIR POLLUTION
Air pollution is associated with an increased
risk of lung cancer.
Air pollution is often separated into outdoor
air pollution and indoor air pollution.
Radon:
Radon is a natural radioactive gas that can
increase the risk of lung cancer.
Radon is found in the air at a low level
outdoors, but it can sometimes build up to
high concentrations indoors.

ADDITIVES AND ITS EFFECT FOOD ON CANCER

What is a food additive?


A substance added to food to
enhance its flavour or appearance or
to preserve it. Some common food
additives are as follows:

Artificial coloring
High fructose corn syrup
Aspartame
Monosodium glutamate (MSG)
Sodium benzoate
Sodium nitrite

Signs and symptoms

Persistent cough or blood-tinged saliva


A change in bowel habits
Blood in the stool
Unexplainedanemia
Breast lump or breast discharge
Lumps in the testicles
Unexpected weight loss
Fever
Fatigue

Pain
Skin Changes
Sores that do not heal
Wite patches inside the mouth or tongue
Unusual bleeding or discharge
Thickening or lump in the breast or other
parts of the body
Indigestion or trouble swallowing
Recent change in a wart or mole
Nagging cough or hoarseness

Symptoms of breast cancer:

The following changes in the breast can be


a symptom of breast cancer:
swelling of all or part of the breast
skin irritation or dimpling
breast pain
nipple pain or the nipple turning inward
redness, scaliness, or thickening of the
nipple or breast skin
a nipple discharge other than breast milk
a lump in the underarm area

Treatment and Control of Cancer


1.)Surgery
Mastectomy - the surgical removal of one
or both breasts, partially or completely.
Lumpectomy the removal of a small
volume of breast tissue containing the
tumour and surrounding healthy tissue.

2.) Radiation
Radiation therapy is the use of ionizing
radiation to kill cancer cells and shrink
tumours.
3.) Chemotherapy
Chemotherapy is the treatment of cancer
with drugs (anticancer drugs) that can be
used in hopes of curing the disease or
prolonging life to reduce symptoms.

Control

Morphine and oxycodone: drugs used


to suppress nausea.
Hospice - palliative care for the
incurably ill given in such institutions
as hospitals or nursing homes, but
also care provided to those who would
rather spend their last months and
days of life in their own homes.

LIMITATIONS OF CANCER
TREATMENT
Radiation:
Radiation therapy is expensive, takes a long
time (approximately 2-3 months) and it also
cannot completely eradicate Cancer cells.
CHEMOTHERAPY
The drugs used in chemotherapy to kill
cancer cells can also harm normal cells. It
can also shorten the lifespan of the survival
patients overtime.

ANTICANCER DRUGS
These drugs are so powerful; they
may also affect the growth of normal
body cells, causing many side
effects, some of which may be
serious.

LIVING WITH CANCER


For most people with cancer, living with
the disease is the biggest challenge
they have ever faced. It can change
your routines, roles and relationships
along with money and work problems.
The treatment can change the way you
feel and look, therefore support from
others is important.
Fear of recurrence is perhaps the most
common reality for cancer survivors.

PREVALENCE AND
MORTALITY RATE

Mortality Rate

Statistics specific to the


Caribbean or globally on
breast cancer.

TABLE I
AGE-SPECIFIC AND AGE-STANDARDIZED INCIDENCE OF
FEMALE BREAST CANCER IN BARBADOS BETWEEN JULY
1, 2002 AND MARCH 30, 2006 PER 100,000 PERSONYEARS OF OBSERVATION
Age group

Number of cases

Person years1

Age specific rate

95% CI

04

33,891

010.9

59

36,670

010.1

1014

36,535

010.1

1519

37,676

09.8

2024

35,767

010.3

2529

40,035

7.5

1.621.9

3034

15

40,166

37.3

20.961.6

3539

25

44,333

56.4

36.583.2

4044

45

41,959

107.3

78.2143.5

4549

50

35,028

142.7

106.0188.2

5054

64

28,239

226.6

174.5289.4

5559

43

20,730

207.4

150.1279.4

6064

25

19,894

125.7

81.3185.5

6569

34

18,780

181.1

125.4253.0

7074

25

17,973

139.1

90.0205.3

7579

26

13,799

188.4

123.1276.1

8084

19

11,068

171.7

103.4268.1

85+

17

10,974

154.9

90.2248.0

Unknown age

Crude rate

396

523,517

75.6

68.483.5

Age standardized rates


(US)

78.1

70.586.3

Age standardized rates


(Europe)

78.6

70.787.2

Age standardized rates


(World)

58.4

52.565.0

Statistics specific to the


Trinidad and Tobago.

TABLE II
AGE-STRATIFIED AND AGE-STANDARDIZED DEATH RATES FROM BREAST CANCER
IN BARBADOS BETWEEN JANUARY 1, 1995 AND DECEMBER 31, 2004 PER
100,000 PERSON-YEARS OF OBSERVATION

Age group Number of cases Person years


04 0
90,360
0
04.1
59 0
97,770
0
03.8
1014 0
97,410
0
03.8
1519 0
100,450
0
03.7
2024 0
95,360
0
03.9
2529 4
106,740
3.8
1.09.6
3034 13
107,090
12.1 6.520.8
3539 16
118,200
13.5 7.722.0
4044 38
111,870
34.0 24.046.6
4549 41
93,390
43.9 31.559.6
5054 33
75,290
43.8 30.261.6
5559 45
55,270
81.4 59.4108.9
6064 47
53,040
88.6 65.1117.8
6569 36
50,070
71.9 50.499.5
7074 48
47,920
100.2 73.9132.8
7579 38
36,790
103.3 73.1141.8
8084 43
29,510
145.7 105.5196.3
85+ 67
29,260
229.0 177.5290.8
Crude rate 469 1,395,790 33.6 (30.636.8)
Age standardized rates (US)

32.9
Age standardized rates (Europe)

31.6
Age standardized rates (World)

22.6

Age specific rate 95% CI

(29.936.0)
(28.634.8)
(20.425.0)

Table III shows mortality rates by cancer type in Trinidad and


Tobago. From Cancer in the Americas: Country Profiles 2013.

Predictions and Conclusions


The incidence of cancer will double
between the years of 2002 and 2030.
Where are your references?- 0 marks
Format 10, Content 10, Pictures 10,
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Total 40 marks
Good presentation, but you must remember
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guilty of plagarism. Keep up the good work .
N Dulalchan