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Forging Shop (Workshop Technology) by Waqas Ali Tunio

Forging Shop (Workshop Technology) by Waqas Ali Tunio

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Forging Shop Practical Journal
Forging Shop Practical Journal

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Forging Shop (Wokshop Technology) Waqas Ali Tunio (07ME34), QUEST, Nawabshah.

Forging Shop
1. SAFETY PRECAUTION
While working in any shop it is necessary to observe and adopt certain precautions. Precautions are most important for to save the accident. Most accidents are a result of some one’s thoughtlessness, carelessness or lack of consideration of right or other. Some important precautions are as follows. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 Keep proper discipline in the shop and no horseplay. Don’t play with tools because they are sharp they may be injured. Don’t wear any necktie, jewelry, rings and watches during the working in a shop. Always wear the apron, close shoes and no loose clothing. When you are doing any operation you select tools according to the nature of work. Don’t sun any machine unless you are sure how it operates. Protect your eyes by wearing goggles when chipping metals. Keep your working place free from oil and grease. If any accident happened do not secret it always inform your instructor or concerned staff at once. Forging temperature must be maintained with a regulator raise or low impulse. Lather shoes must be worm and hand gloves. Don’t stand in the front of the person who is forging.

2. HISTORY OF FORGING: As the man started to become civilized and
interred from Stone Age to iron age. He wanted to give various shapes to their weapons. For this re invented the method in which he heated the components and boated them, this was known as smiting.

3. INTRODUCTION: The Smithing and forging is a process of heating the metal
to a plastic state and then shaping it either with a hand hammer or steam hammer.

4. DIFFERENCE BETWEEN SMITHING AND FORGING

Forging Shop (Wokshop Technology) Waqas Ali Tunio (07ME34), QUEST, Nawabshah.

FORGING: The forging is a process heating the metals in a closed furnace and shaping it in dies under the pressure of heavy hammers. weapons and cutting tools. FORGING FUELS: There may be various types of furnaces and various types of fuels used for forging. such as cost iron. are suitable for forging. shafts. Manufacturing of tanks. hooks. shafts. spear narrows. QUEST. For example: Nails. crane hook etc. Leaf spring and helical spring. chains. spade. This is used manufacturing items at a faster rate. axles. FURNACE: Open type: Coal (Hard Coke) Closed type: Oil and Gas Forging Shop (Wokshop Technology) Waqas Ali Tunio (07ME34). APPLICATION OF FORGING: Forging has assumed good importance in view of its Applications listed as: • • • • • • • Domestic articles. QUEST. which need close tolerance and accuracy of dimensions. levers. cam etc. connecting rods. furnaces by process of riveting. axles. Those metals. cam connecting rods etc. 6. boilers. Gear blank. 7. axe etc. Arms. keys eye bolts. Various implements and tools used in agriculture. are unsuitable for forging because they break into pieces. Nawabshah. . It is an oldest form of forging and is largely used where heating them in an open fire or hearth shapes small parts. FOLLOWING ARE ALLOY STEEL: (I) Tool steel (ii) Carbon steel (iii) Finishing steel (iv) High-speed steel (v) Super high speed steel (vi) Low Tungsten tool steel (vii) Silicon manganese tools steel (viii) cobalt High speed steel (ix) Stainless steel (x) Satellite.Forging Shop (Wokshop Technology) Waqas Ali Tunio (07ME34). which have low percentage of carbon. nuts. 5. Nawabshah. which have high percentage of carbon. Nails. For example: Spanners. FORGING METALS: Those metals. SMITHING: The Smithing is also called hand forging and is done by the black smith.

fullers. In the forge a blower supplies a forced blast this producing more extensive heat types of forge: (i) Coal forge (ii) Gas forge (iii) Electric forge. QUEST. HAND FORGING TOOLS AND EQUIPMENTS: There are various types of tools used in hand forging. swages and hardy etc. Nawabshah. iii) Striking tools Various types of tongs. hardy vi) Cutting tools 8. 8. PARTS OF ANVIL i) Body (ii) Beak (iii) Ledge (iv) Horn (v) Hard Face (vi) Hardly hole (vii) Pritchel hole (viii) Tail (ix) Base. which are as follows. punches drifts. The round holes are also used for bending round base of different curvature. Nawabshah. SUPPORTING TOOLS a) ANVIL: The anvil is an important smiths tool.2. The ledge between the beak and the anvil face is also soft and may be used for resting metals when cutting through. with a chisel. TEMPERATURE REQUIRED: The forging process starts after brought the steel to the correct workable temperature between 9000C to 11000C. . The forge is providing high temperature heat.1. iv) Holding tools Swages. FORGE OR FURNACE: The forge is used for heating the metals. square and round holes are established.Forging Shop (Wokshop Technology) Waqas Ali Tunio (07ME34). In the top of anvil. The squares holes (also know as Hardy hole) are used for square shank tools. It is used for supporting the work while hot metal hammering. Open fire i) Forge or furnace Anvil & Swage block ii) Supporting tools Various types of hammers. QUEST. CONSTRUCTION OF ANVIL: The body of anvil is made of mild steel and the beak is soft like the anvil body its shape makes it use full for bending round section to different diameters. the round holes are used for admitting the ends of punches or drifts. 8. flatters. set hammers etc v) Shaping tools Chisels. fullers. Forging Shop (Wokshop Technology) Waqas Ali Tunio (07ME34).

There are three types of sledgehammer. Nawabshah. The shaft is mostly made of wood. Forging Shop (Wokshop Technology) Waqas Ali Tunio (07ME34). QUEST. SIZE: The size range from 50 to 500 lbs. Nawabshah. i) ii) Hand Hammer Sledge Hammer (i) HAND HAMMER: The hand hammers are generally ball peen hammers.Forging Shop (Wokshop Technology) Waqas Ali Tunio (07ME34). It is provided with holes. They usually have slightly convex striking face and should be from 1 to 1. hardened and tempered. 8. QUEST. The hammerheads should be cost steel. rectangular and half round groves. HAMMERS: The hammers commonly used in hand forging are of the following two types. (a) Double faced hammer (b) straight peen hammer and (c) Cress peen hammer. which are useful for holding bars while Bending and knocking up heads. . b) SWAGE BLOCK: The swage block is generally made and half round groves.3.5 kgs in weight. square. The weight of the sledgehammer varies from 4 to 6 kg for ordinary work and 8 to 10 for heavy work. (ii) SLEDGE HAMMER: Smith’s helper or striker uses the sledgehammers.

Forging Shop (Wokshop Technology) Waqas Ali Tunio (07ME34). ii) VISE: It gives additional support when work gripped in the vise is being hammered or so bent. a) Closed Mouth Tong: A closed mouth tong is used for holding thin sections. Nawabshah.4. c) Round Hollow Tong: A round hallow tong is use for holding square. hexagonal and orthogonal work. The various types of tongs commonly used for holding work are as follows. . 8. but not for holding work during forging. HOLDING TOOLS (i) TONGS: The tongs are used for holding the hot metal while is being worked. which has to be reduced and finished Forging Shop (Wokshop Technology) Waqas Ali Tunio (07ME34). hexagonal and octagonal section. d) Square Hollow Tong: A square hollow tong is used for holding square. b) Open Mouth Tong: An open mouth tong is suitable for holding heavier stock. QUEST. These are made of mild steel. e) Pick-up tong: A pick-up tong is used for picking up round bars. SHAPING TOOLS (i) SWAGES: The swages are used for work.5. 8. Nawabshah. QUEST.

It size is about 7. The black smith holds the top fuller and stroke by the striker while the bottom fuller is fitted into the hardy hole of the anvil. QUEST. It is made of forged steel and is hardened. It is used to set down shoulders or smooth out fuller marks near the shoulders before the blacksmith finishes with the flatters. Nawabshah. 8. QUEST. (iii) FLATTERS: It is made of tool steel.5 cm square or round. The fullers are made in various sizes according to the requirement. They are made of tool steel. The swages may be in separate top and bottom halves the top half may be connected by strip of spring steel. Nawabshah. The fullers are made in pairs.6. and are made with half grooves of dimensions. which have already been finished by swages and fullers. .Forging Shop (Wokshop Technology) Waqas Ali Tunio (07ME34). to round or hexagonal form. CUTTING TOOLS Forging Shop (Wokshop Technology) Waqas Ali Tunio (07ME34). (ii) FULLERS: It is mainly used to reduce the metal while making shoulders. It gives smoothness and accuracy to articles. iv) SET HAMMER: The set hammer is similar to flatter but is a smaller tool. The flatter is used for finishing flat surfaces and are made with a perfectly flat face. A fuller may be used to draw metal lengthwise or to spread it is width.

The hardening of the edge in not necessary This type of chisel is fitted with wooden shafts 8. FORGING OPERATIONS: The numbers of operations are performed in a smithy shop for the formation of desired shape of object by forging. oval etc. QUEST.7. It is made of tool steel. QUEST. Nawabshah. Nawabshah. DRIFTS: The drift is used to finish the size of the punched holes. (i) Up-Setting (iv) Bending (ii) Drawing down (iii) Setting down (v) Cutting (vi) Punching Forging Shop (Wokshop Technology) Waqas Ali Tunio (07ME34). i) Chisels: The chisels are used for cutting the metals. COLD CHISEL: The cold chisel is made of tool steel with a cutting angle about 600 degrees and its edge is hardened and tempered. They may be cold or hot depending upon whether the metals to be cut are cold or hot. These are made in various shapes and sizes such as square. Those are made in various shapes and sizes like punches.Forging Shop (Wokshop Technology) Waqas Ali Tunio (07ME34). The commonly used operations are as follows. 8. . The edge of a cold chisel should not be quite straight but slightly rounded. The main difference between the two chisels is in the edge. hardened and tempered. round. HOT CHISEL: The hot chisel is made of low carbon steel and a cutting angle of 300 degrees.8. PUNCHES: The punches are used for making holes when the metal is at forging heat. hardened and tempered 9. They are also made of tool steel.

. (vii) Drifting (viii) Forge welding (ix) Drop Forging. (i) UP-SETTING: It consists of increasing the cross section of a bar at the expense of its length. (a) Head Up-Setting: When heating is done at one end of item and pressure is applied at one end is called head up setting.Forging Shop (Wokshop Technology) Waqas Ali Tunio (07ME34). Up setting may be various kinds. Nawabshah. Nawabshah. The work is usually fullered at the place where the settings down commence. In this process first of all the heating is done and then heavy blow is given by hand hammer. (b) Full Up-Setting: When heating is done at both end of item and then pressure is applied at both end is called full up setting (c) Central Up-Setting: When heating is done at the center of the item and then pressure is applied at the central position is called central up setting. QUEST. Forging Shop (Wokshop Technology) Waqas Ali Tunio (07ME34). ii) DRAWING DOWN: In this process of reducing the cross-section of a bar and increasing its length. (iii) SETTING DOWN: It is a process of local thinning down effected by set hammer. QUEST.

Still in villages this welding is very common. . In this case. (vi) PUNCHING: With the help of punch a hole is made into heated piece. This is also called jump weld. it will not cause the weld to take place. QUEST. QUEST. Following four methods of forge welding are commonly used. (iv) BENDING: It is an important operation in forging and is very frequently used. the end of one of the bar is upset while other the bar is upset in the center. These two bars are placed at right angle and than welded. (b) Butt Weld: It is difficult to make by hammering because in this case the forces are to be joined and hammering is always done perpendicular to the joint line. if the temperature is too high it will ruin wrought iron burning it. Before welding. (viii) FORGE WELDING: The forge welding is very old and was widely used before the invention of gas and electric welding. Nawabshah. The correct temperature for wrought iron is about 13500 where as for mild steel the temperature is a little lower than this. (c) V-Weld: This is applied for joining heavy cross-section parts and should be used where the thickness of metal permits the preparing of Vee. In this process of joining the two surfaces of metal under pressure after they are heated to the correct temperature. In this process the item is heated and bent as desired. Forging Shop (Wokshop Technology) Waqas Ali Tunio (07ME34). (a) Scarf weld (b) Butt weld (c) V-weld (d) T-Weld (a) Scarf Weld: It is most reliable and straightforward method. On the other hand. (d) T-Weld: This method is used where two parts are joined forming tee. (v) CUTTING: The required parts are heated and cut with chisels.Forging Shop (Wokshop Technology) Waqas Ali Tunio (07ME34). Nawabshah. (vii) DRIFTING: Punched hole is widened with the help of tool knows as drift. It may be noted that the temperature is low. the ends of the work piece are rounded.

Drawing: Given piece 4" and required piece 5 1/2". Tool are to be selected according to the nature of the work. Forging Shop (Wokshop Technology) Waqas Ali Tunio (07ME34). QUEST. Anvil. When the piece loss its temperature. After squaring the piece. Hammer and Goggle. Do not stand in front of the person who is forging. Always wear the apron. Do not stand in front of the person who is forging. when the piece becomes in plastic state. Job Object: To make a square center punch by forging. Tong. Procedure: First we put the given piece into the forge for heating. QUEST. until the given piece gets completely converted into the required one. until the given piece gets completely converted into the required one. Procedure: First we put the given piece into the forge for heating. Always wear the apron. . Safety Precautions: Keep proper discipline in the shop. then again put it in the forge. Tool are to be selected according to the nature of the work. because they are sharp enough to cause injury. 1/2" diameter and 4" length.Forging Shop (Wokshop Technology) Waqas Ali Tunio (07ME34). Nawabshah. Drawing: Given piece 4" and required piece 5". When the piece loss its temperature. Do not play with tongs. Tong. no matter how many times you do this.S rod. Hammer and Goggle. Job Object: To make a square piece by forging. Anvil. Nawabshah. Material: M. then take it by tong and put it on anvil and then start hammering equally on both sides for squaring the piece. then again put it in the forge.S rod. no matter how many times you do this. Do not play with tongs. Tool and Equipments: Forge. Material: M. 1/2" diameter and 4" length. close shoes and goggles. then take it by tong and put it on anvil and then start hammering equally on both sides for squaring the piece. hammer one end of the piece for the punch. because they are sharp enough to cause injury. Process: Drawing down. when the piece becomes in plastic state. Tool and Equipments: Forge. close shoes and goggles. Process: Drawing down. Safety Precautions: Keep proper discipline in the shop.

close shoes and goggles. Procedure: First we put the given piece into the forge for heating. Tong. and required piece 5". because they are sharp enough to cause injury. When the piece loss its temperature. when the piece becomes in plastic state. Tools are to be selected according to the nature of the work. Then hold the piece in vise and with monkey wrench revolute the piece completely to make four twists in it. Do not stand in front of the person who is forging. Anvil. hammer two ends of the piece for the punch. Job Object: To make a four twist on a square piece by forging. Tool and Equipments: Forge. Do not play with tongs. Procedure: First we put the given piece into the forge for heating. QUEST. then take it by tong and put it on anvil and then start hammering equally on both sides for squaring the piece. then take it by tong and put it on anvil and then start hammering equally on both sides for squaring the piece. After squaring the piece. Job Object: To make a hook by forging. Do not play with tongs. Process: Drawing down and bending. Drawing: Given piece 4" in length and 1/2" diameter. 1/2" diameter and 4" length. Use the horn of the anvil for hook. close shoes and goggles. QUEST. Drawing: Given piece 3/8" diameter and 7" length. Vice. Forging Shop (Wokshop Technology) Waqas Ali Tunio (07ME34). Hammer. no matter how many times you do this. Tool and Equipments: Forge. Tools are to be selected according to the nature of the work.Forging Shop (Wokshop Technology) Waqas Ali Tunio (07ME34). when the piece becomes in plastic state. until the given piece gets completely converted into the required one. Safety Precautions: Keep proper discipline in the shop. Material: M. no matter how many times you do this.S rod. Do not stand in front of the person who is forging. Monkey Wrench and Goggle. Nawabshah.S rod. Always wear the apron. Anvil. Nawabshah. Safety Precautions: Keep proper discipline in the shop. . Leave 3" of the piece. plus four twists. then again put it in the forge. Hammer and Goggle. Process: Drawing down and twisting. Always wear the apron. Material: M. 3/8" diameter and 7" length. then again put it in the forge. Tong. and then hammer the rest on the horn to make a hook. because they are sharp enough to cause injury. When the piece loss its temperature. until the given piece gets completely converted into the required one.

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