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Water and Food In Our Lives


By Denn-warren Tafah, Dest2Win director
3130 Dave Ward Dr. Conway, AR 72034
United States

Abstract Water is a powerful symbol


throughout the world, carrying with it ideas of
baptism and new life, cleansing and healing, and
the promise of growth and prosperity. However, in
a world of growing demands on a limited resource,
the increasing scarcity of clean water has created
devastating conflicts and catastrophe. For
example by 2025, 1.5 billion people will experience
absolute water scarcity and 2/3s of the world will
be living under water-stressed conditions.
Basically, our daily necessities like water and food
are in jeopardy. There are a couple problems with
water around the world. First, a lack of rain
across the world is causing droughts. Second, bad
infrastructure of water systems (pipes, wells etc.)
has led and is leading to poison water. Third,
defecation and toxic waste is polluting the water,
which effects the growth of crops, forcing the
government to rely heavily on Genetically
Modified Organisms to solve the food crisis.
Supposedly, GMO technology can help to reduce
water loss from agriculture and to improve
drought tolerance. However, we dont want people
to depend on GMOs because of the not soadvertised health hazards. GMOs are linked to
over 22 different diseases like cancer or
Parkinsons disease. (GMOS 10 reasons to not get)

A specific example for the water crisis is


in Michigan. In 2014 the city of Flint changed its
water reservoir from the Detroit River to Flint
River, which is very corrosive. This is more of a
problem than it would normally be because the
pipes Flint uses to direct the Flint River water
throughout the city are old and leaden. This
means that the new water has dissolved particles
of lead into the water that Flint residents use
every day for cooking, cleaning, etc. General
motors are the only location that was allowed to
switch back to Detroit water because they
reported that the water was corroding the cars. If
the water can corrode cars, which are metal also,
think about the damage it can do to the human
body. A lot of people are accumulating overdue
water bills, which is resulting in water shutoffs.

The government expects the residents to pay for


water they cant drink because of a problem
caused by the government. Some residents have
put their houses up for sale but the houses have no
value. A few lawsuits have been filled against the
city of flint. However, the woman who filled the
first lawsuit against Flint saying that her child was
poisoned by lead in the water, has been found shot
dead in her house according to MLive.
The other crisis that this has produced is
the Detroit water shutoffs, which has left 64,000
people in Detroit with no water service. 40 percent
of the citys households are at or below the federal
poverty level, which is $24,000 a year for a family
of four. The water bill runs from $80 to $160 a
month. When you add that to the cost of housing,
heat, electricity, transportation, and food, its sad.
Even though the other stuff is important, the
water is the foundation because our body can go
three weeks without food but only three days
without water. So, these problems are being
targeted because, water resources are inextricably
intertwined with food and the largest uses of
freshwater are for agriculture irrigation.
Keywords---- GMO, Infrastructure

I.

INTRODUCTION

There have been plenty of lead poisoning


cases appearing in the United States since 2002, like
when D.C water was deemed unsafe to drink. Lead
poisoning and corroded pipes are due to lack of care
by government. A few months after Governor Snyder
removed Flint from the clean fresh water they have
been drinking for decades, the brass from General
Motors went to him and complained that the Flint
River was causing their car parts to corrode. They
quietly spent $440,000 to hook them back to Detroit
water, while the rest of the city suffers. Also, this
crisis could have been avoided if an additive that
seals the lead into the pipe and prevents it from
leaching into the water would have been added,
costing $100 a day for three months. However, its
not just the water that was recklessly used to put
peoples lives in jeopardy. To add, there are many
things that happen in Flint that would give one the

impression that there is a low value place on human


life. For example, Flint has one of the worst murder
and crime rates in the country. Also, General Motors
installed faulty ignition switches in many of its cars
and instead of easily fixing the problem, they covered
it up from the public. Flint isnt the only unfortunate
city a lot of cities in the United States still use lead
pipes for water provision, instead of just sewage
disposition. To avoid any future complications all
citizens should personally go get the lead levels in
their water tested because there have been multiple
reported cases of poisoned lead water around the
country, from Boston to Texas.
II.

BODY OF PAPER

Due to the lack of clean water in many


villages in Cameroon, water-borne and water-based
diseases are a primary cause of preventable illness
and premature deaths, especially amongst infants and
children. The company DEST2WIN Incorporated is
run by Denn-warren Tafah, Marie-Noel Tafah, and
Peter Tafah. They have experienced and tackled
water problems in the past individually, for two
different villages in Bamenda, Cameroon. First was
the problem in Menka village, which is
predominately focused on farming for the economy,
however farming couldnt be done because the water
system was old leading to severe water scarcity. No
water means no crops, no crops means no food,
which lead to sickness and there are no hospitals in
that village. So they built a 40 cubic meter water
storage tank.
Second problem was at the villages of the
western region of Cameroon, called NDE. This
village lacks water as a whole, so what was propose
is to build hand-dug wells. The hand dug wells were
drilled 85 plus meters in the ground, the pipes were
installed into the hole, and a hand pump was use to
pump the water out. That is some work we did in the
past, that we were successful at.

Different Charities
They are many of organizations that are focused on
solving water issues around the world and some of
them are Charity water, MIYA, Water.org, Columbia
Water Center (CWC), and Three Avocados.
MIYA has a four-stage plan:
First, In-depth analysis of the citys water
system.
Second, planning the strategy and financing;
developing the financial model.
Third, Implementation of the plan
Lastly, Maintenance.
Charity water uses sources:
Population, and terrain to determine what kind of
technology is required for the people in need of
water.
Some that technology includes: hand-dug
wells, rainwater catchments, piped systems,
bio sand filters, latrines, drilled wells, spring
protections, water purification systems, and
gravity fed systems.
Colombia Water Center concept is:
The earth has all the tools needed to address some of
the worlds most difficult problems, from climate
change, environmental degradation, poverty, disease,
and the sustainable use of resources.
Three avocados is actually a non-profit coffee
company but they have participated in a couple water
projects. For example; Compassion International to
provide funding for their Water of Life program in
Uganda, working in Uganda
Water.org provides
Innovative, market-based solutions that
change lives everyday through safe water
and sanitation.
Those are past works that we have done in
Cameroon, and some other organizations that do the

same. Right now our main focus today is on the


Flint Water Crisis. Which has devastated a
community and left people even more hopeless. Poor
political decisions have made the water unusable.
Different issues like restaurants closing down due to
the lack of clean water to cook. Plants cant be
watered because the water is to corrosive, which
opens the door for GMOs. Also, the projected price to
change all the lead pipes in Flint is $60 million
dollars and the project will take 15 years. We at
Dest2Win have worked together to come up with a
solution to fix the pipes, and get people clean water,
for a cheaper price and a shorter installation time.

Explaining Lead Lead is a natural element that can be highly toxic to the human
body. Most exposure to lead occurs from inhalation or direct
contact with substances containing high levels of lead;
however, lead can also enter the body through drinking water.
Treated water contains minerals that can act as corrosive
agents on the pipes that deliver water to the different rooms in
a home or building; this can cause a harmful release of lead
from any parts of the water delivery system that contain lead
products.

The most common source of lead in the water delivery system


of old homes is the piping, but even in newer homes, piping is
not the only area from which lead can enter a plumbing
system. Common sources of lead in the water include:

Lead Piping
Made entirely of lead, highly corrodible and
susceptible to the chemicals found in tap
water

Copper or brass pipes

Wells

Brass or bronze pumps that can leach lead


Well screens with a "lead packing collar"
Wells that were packed with lead shot or
lead wool to keep out sand

Service Connections
Some public service connections installed
before 1930 used lead piping

If your home was built before 1930, it is likely to contain lead


piping. If it was built before 1988, it is likely to contain copper
piping joined by lead-based solder.
In homes with pipes that are joined using lead solder, it is
likely that water run through the pipes after a long period of
non-use (such as first thing in the morning) will pose the
greatest threat of lead contamination.
Health Effects
Lead in the human body can be toxic and cause serious
damage to many areas of the body including:

The brain: lead can damage the brain with


consequences like lower IQ and reduced potential for
learning.

Kidneys: lead can damage kidney by a various form


of toxicity called nephrotoxicity.

The nervous system: The damage caused by lead


ranges from learning disabilities to high blood
pressure and to death. Lead poisoning can also have
hematologic and endocrine effects in the human body

Red blood cells: The damage can limit their ability to


carry oxygen to the organs and tissues that need it,
thus causing anemia.

Copper fixtures
Contain small amounts of lead used in their
casting, can be corroded by water. Both
"hard" and "soft" water can contain
chemicals that can be slightly corrosive after
long exposure, have an excessively low or
high pH, or contain corrosive minerals

Often joined with lead-based solder

Children are more susceptible to damage caused from a


buildup of lead in the body. They can suffer such serious
health effects as:

Damage to the nervous system

Behavior and learning problems

Slowed growth

Hearing problems

Problems can also occur in adults:

Ill effects during pregnancy

Reproductive problems

High blood pressure

Digestive difficulties

Nerve disorders

Memory and concentration problems

Muscle and joint pain

Testing
Lead cannot be seen, tasted, or smelled if it is dissolved in
water, but if you suspect that your water supply may be
contaminated by lead, or if you are not sure about the
condition of your water, it should be tested to make sure that
lead levels are within a safe range. Home test kits are available
but may not provide accurate results regarding lead levels in
your water. For a completely accurate evaluation of your water
supply, a certified laboratory should perform the testing. This
usually costs between $20 and $100. Some laboratories will
send a trained and certified technician to make sure that water
samples are correctly collected, but most will not. In this case
you will be asked to collect tap-water samples yourself. It is
important that you follow the procedures specified by the
laboratory so that your water quality can be accurately
determined. The most common procedure for taking water
samples is to obtain a "first draw" sample and a "fully flushed"
sample:
First draw - A sample collected after the water has sat
motionless in your system for six or more hours. No water
must be allowed to run before the sample is collected or the
sample will not be accurate.

Fully flushed (purged-line) A sample collected after the


water has run through the tap for at least five minutes.
The laboratory will compare these two samples. If the lead
content of the first draw sample is higher than that of the fully
flushed sample, then the water is leaching from the in-house
plumbing system. If both water samples contain the same
amount of lead, then the contaminated water most likely
originates from a source outside the household plumbing
system.

With water, people have to understand that


if they live in a home built before the mid-1950, they
may have lead pipes. First it would be beneficial for
everybody to get their water tested but especially, the
people with houses built before the 1950s.
We propose using a different type of piping system to
replace already leaden pipes, in the whole city, not
just in each house. If we change all the pipes, starting
with the main pipes we will avoid faulty situations.
For example, the government wants to change the
pipes in Flint from lead to copper, however a home
on the north side of Flint had one of the highest lead
levels in the city and their pipes were copper.
-How can a copper pipe produce lead? It cant, the
lead is coming from another pipe that is connected.
Copper is a suitable option but because this an urgent
problem, but we need the fastest most efficient
solution, which is using PEX (Cross-linked
polyethylene) pipes.
Advantages of using PEX
PEX (cross-linked polyethylene) is part of a water
supply piping system that has several advantages
over metal pipes like copper, iron, and lead. PEX
metal is flexible, resistant to scale and chlorine,
doesnt corrode or develop pinholes.
Advantages of PEX
- PEX resists the scale build up common with copper
pipe, and does not pit or corrode when exposed to
acidic water.
- PEX is much more resistant to freeze-breakage than
copper or ridged plastic pipe
-PEX tubing does not transfer heat as readily as
copper, and so it conserves energy.

- PEX plumbing installations require fewer fittings


than rigid piping. The flexible tubing can turn 90degree corners without the need for elbow fittings,
and PEX tubing unrolled from spools can be installed
in long runs without the need for coupling fittings.
- Flexible PEX tube is manufactured by extrusion,
and shipped and stored on spools, where rigid plastic
or metal piping must be cut to some practical length
for shipping and storage. This leads to several
advantages, including lower shipping and handling
costs due to decreased weight and improved storage
options.

Attaching PEX tube to fittings does not require


soldering, and so eliminates the health hazards
involved with lead-based solder and acid fluxes; PEX
is also safer to install since a torch is not needed to
make connections.

Copper is a low-maintenance option for water pipes


because it never requires painting to protect it from
corrosion, and it looks good.

Copper water pipes are durable. Copper pipes are


good at handling heat without losing strength or
shape and are resist corrosion and high waterpressure.

Copper is also biostatic, which means it doesn't allow


bacteria to grow.

Water flows more quietly through PEX tube, and the


characteristic "water hammer" noise of copper pipe
systems is virtually eliminated.

PEX plumbing installations cost less because:

PEX is less expensive than copper pipe.

o
Less time is spent running pipe and installing fittings
than with rigid pipe systems.
o
Installing fewer fittings reduces the chances for
expensive callbacks.
Disadvantages of using PEX pipes.
-

It doesnt have any proven disadvantages because its


was approved to be used by CALIF only 7 years ago,
but so far its been efficient.
If the pipes are not underground, there is a possibility
that animals can get to it and because it is plastic, it
makes it easier for the animals to chew through.
Advantages of using Copper Pipes

Installation of copper tube does not require solvents


that contain volatile organic compounds, so its use
does not harm the environment. Solvent-based

adhesives used to join other types of tube may


contribute to air pollution, breakdown of atmospheric
ozone and global warming.
Copper tube is the only material approved for watersupply piping that carries a 50-year warranty backed
by the manufacturer. The manufacturer warrants that,
when properly installed, its product will be free of
failure as a result of defects in material or
workmanship in manufacturing the product.

Disadvantages of using copper pipes.


Copper pipe can also freeze and break in extremely
cold temperatures. That is unfortunate because the
coldest has ever gotten is -39 degrees, which is
extremely cold.
Copper pipes can also be subjected to major
corrosion if the water it contains becomes too acidic.
In addition to this, copper pipes can leave water with
a slightly metallic taste.
The U.S Environmental Protection Agency has
estimated it would cost $50 million to $80 million to
replace all the lead service lines in Flint. Thats only
in Flint there are approximately 6 million lead service
line across the country and it will cost $275 billion to
replace the nations lead water service lines.
Pricing.
PEX Prices: 3/8 - $0.38
1/2 - $0.40
5/8 - $0.62
3/4 - $0.76
1 - $1.26

Copper Prices: 3/8 - $4.87


1/2 - $5.67
5/8 - $7.31
3/4 - $10.21
1 - $13.38
PEX pipes

We did the calculation and if it cost $50 million


dollars to put in copper pipes with those prices it
would cost $4,708,520.18 (just under 5 million) to
install PEX instead.
It will cost 10% of 50 million to replace the pipes
with PEX instead of copper and in a shorter time.

Copper Pipes

Differentiation between PEX and Copper prices

because, the U.S Dollar holds a lot of weight in Africa, so


buying land is significantly cheaper.
Next, we will find you trustworthy farmers to invest in that
will cultivate and take care of the land.

III. CONCLUSION
-

Our objective of this white paper was to propose a


plan to Hank and Doug Meijer on how to help
provide clean water and fresh food for Flint,
Michigan. We have done different jobs in the past in
Cameroon, that make us qualified but right now we
are focused on the Flint Michigan Water Crisis. The
problem is Flint, Michigan changed its water source
from Lake Huron in Detroit to the Flint River,
knowing the Flint River was highly corrosive. Also
there was no problems with getting water from Lake
Huron, it is considered one of the biggest bodies of
water. Flint Michigan government has decided to
begin replacing the old lead pipes with copper pipes
and the estimate to replace the pipes is $50 million to
$80 million. However, we propose using PEX,
mainly because its much cheaper than copper and it
takes a shorter amount of time to install. This an
emergency situation and the people of Flint are
already in a battle with crime and poverty, so we are
trying to give people something to hope for, letting
them know there are people who care like you, Hank
and Doug Meijer.
IV. ADDITIONAL RESOURCES

These are additional ways we can benefit people in Flint,


Michigan, that are tied in to the water crisis. As the title states
Food and water in our lives.
Even though we are trying to fix the foundation of the
problem, there are different problems and action that have
been caused because of poisoned water. For example, the
amount of different diseases it causes, the inability to provide
food and avoiding for the use of GMOs for the food available.
GMOs might not feel or seem harmful but the damage will be
more prominent soon.
For the food we are selling land in Africa because it is and will
always be the worlds breadbasket, with its fertility and size.
Its not as expensive as getting land in the United States,

Finally, export the crops to the United States, and use them as
you please. If you want to avoid GMOs, you cant look to
those who have vested interest in selling them to protect you.
You have to constantly educate yourself to beat them at their
own game, which is monopoly. Congress approved President
International trade agreement late last year, so the possibilities
are endless. Countries make free trade agreements in order to
open up new markets for their goods, while avoiding the
tariffs and import quotes on many goods that usually govern
global economics. Therefore, it will not cost nearly as much as
it did to import and export goods before congress approved the
trade agreement. Basically, trading goods is now free.
We also offer health services, through our health insurance
navigator for victims affected by the poisoned water.
Health Insurance Navigator five duties-

Conduct Public education about the availability of


qualified health plans
- Distribute fairly
- Impartial Information about enrollment in qualified
plans and about the availability of premium tax
credits a cost sharing assistance in the exchange.
- Facilitate enrollment in qualified plans.
- Refer people who need help resolving a problem with
their health plan
- Provide information in a culturally and linguistically
appropriate manner to the population being served by
an exchanged.
The city of Flint is already in a terrible financial situation as a
whole, so the Health Insurance Navigator, will find suitable
plants for interested citizens.

Acknowledgements
We would like to acknowledge Hank and Doug Meijer,
Michigan natives who we are hoping will be donate and be
part of this process
A.

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