Marks
Qu~stions &
Answers
',
~.
'''''* r
'
'
_'
.")1
.'
.... ~.\,.,\
4"
~..
. Cit
...,
1.
9 hrs.
Selection of V belts and pulleys  Selection of Flat belts and pulleys  Wire ropes and pulleys Selection of Transmission chains and Sprockets. Design of pulleys and sprockets.
2.
3.
9 hrs.
9 hrs.
BEVEL, WORM
bevel gear: Too
the d~ions
ermino
forces and stresses, equivalent number of teeth.
air of st lght bevel gears.
'ts and dem rits, terminology, thermal capacity, materials, forces and stresses,
the size of the worm gear pair.
~
lical: Terminology, helix angles, estimati~g the size of the pair of cross helical gears."
4.
.,
"
9 hrs,
Geometric progression  Standard step ratio  Ray diagram, kinematics layout  Design of sliding
mesh gear box  Constant mesh gear box  Design of multi speed gear box.
5.
9 hrs.
Cam design: Types, pressure angle and under cuning  Base circle determination,
surface stresses.
forces and
Design of plate clutches  Axial clutches  Cone clutches  Internal expanding rim c1l1tches
30 hrs.
TOTAL: 75 hrs.
CONTENTS
CHAPTER 1 : FLAT BELTS AND PULLEYS
1.1 1.43
drives using basic equations  Review and summary  Review questions  Problems for
practice.
CHAPTER 2: VBEL TS AND PULLEYS
Introduction
 Construction
2.1  2.24
and
disadvantages of Vbelt drive over flat belt drive  Types of V belts  Specification of
Vbelts  Ratio of driving tensions for Vbelt  Vflat drives  Design of sheaves
(or V grooved pulleys)  Design of V belt drive based on manufacturer's data  Design
of V belt drive using basic equations  Review and summary  Review questions Problems for practice.
CHAPTER 3: WIRE ROPES AND PULLEYS
3.1  3.20
4.1  4.31
Introduction  Advantages and disadvantages of chain drives  Types of chain drives Link chains  Dimensions of a link chain  Classification of link chains  Construction
of link chains  Selection of link chains  Advantages and disadvantages of link chains Transmission (or roller) chains  Construction of roller chains  Specification of a chain
 Geometric relationship of a roller chain and sprocket  Chordal (or polygonal) action 
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Design procedure of roller chain  Design of sprocket wheels  Types of sprockets Silent (or inverted tooth) chain  Construction  Types of silent chains  Advantages and
disadvantages of silent chains  Dimensions of the various parts of the chain  Review
and summary  Review questions  Problems for practice.
5.1  5.88
Introduction  Advantages and limitations of gear drive over chain and belt drives Definition of gear  Classification of gears  Spur gears  Gear nomenclature  Law of
gearing  Forms of gear tooth profile  Standard systems of gear tooth  Standard
proportions
manufacturing
(Lewis beam strength equation)  Gear blank design  Gear design using Lewis and
Buckingham's
load) 
Estimating gear size  Standard module  Fatigue strength of gear tooth (wear tooth
load)  Number of teeth  Face width  Factor of safety  Design procedure  Gear
design based on gear life  Dynamic load  Induced bending stress  Design bending
stress  Design contact stress  Surface compressive stress  Design procedure  Check.
for plastic deformation
reliability factor  Design of internal gears  Design of nonmetallic gears  Review and
summary  Review questions  Problems for practice.
6.1  6.65
helical gears  Tooth proportions for helical gears  Basic dimensions of helical and
herringbone gears  Force analysis on helical gears  Design of helical gears  Helical
gear design using Lewis and Buckingham's
for beam
strength of helical gears  Dynamic load on helical gear tooth  Wear strength of helical
gears  Design procedure  Helical gear design based on gear life  Design formulas for
helical gear design  Design procedure  Herringbone gears  Design of herringbone
gears  Crossed helical or spiral gears  Advantages and limitations of spiral gears Shaft angle  Centre distance  Velocity of sliding between gears  Efficiency  Force
analysis on crossedhelical gears  Review and summary  Review questions  Problems
for practice.
7.1 7.47
8.1 8.38
and
overrunning drives  Design of worm gear drive  Materials for worm and worm wheel
 Failure of worm gearing  Selection of number of starts in the worm  Length of worm
 Face width of the wheel  Thermal rating of worm gearing  Worm and worm gear
design using Lewisand Buckingham's
Dynamic load on wo\m gear tooth  Wear strength of worm gears  Design procedure
Worm gears design ~sing basic equations  Design formulas for worm gears design Design procedure  Review and summary  Review questions  Problems for practice.
CHAPTER 9: GEAR BOX
9.1  9.41
10.1 10.50
Internal expanding rim clutches  External contracting rim clutches  Energy dissipation
during clutching (Energy considerations)  Temperature rise  Review and summary Review questions  Problems for practice.
CHAPTER 11 : BRAKES
11.1 11.58
Introduction  Clutch Vs Brake  Classification of brakes  Brake lining materials Block or shoe brake  Single block or shoe brake  Selflocking and selfenergizing
brakes  Double block or double shoe brake  Design procedure for block brake  Band
brake  Simple band brake  Design procedure for band brakes  Differential band brake
 Band and block brake  Internal expanding shoe brake  External contracting shoe
brake  Energy considerations  Temperature rise  Review and summary  Review
questions  Problems for practice.
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Q&A.l  Q&A.21
Q.l  Q.55
(U
1.1. INTRODUCTION
Whenever power has to be transmitted from one shaft to another shaft, flexible machine
elements such as belts, ropes or chains are frequently used. Pulleys are mounted on the shaft
and a continuous belt or rope is passed over them. In belts and ropes, power is transmitted
due to friction between them and the pulleys. In case of chain
sprocket wheels are
used. When the distance between the shaft is large, then
upon several
smaller distances, gears are used. The amount of power
arc of contact
factors such as velocity of the belt, tensions i
belt,
between the belt and the smaller pUlle.1iilllllt":
1.2. CLASSIFICA
.,
Drives
~
Direct drives
Flexible drives
Rope
Belt
~
Chain
Gear drive
Cam drive
2. Vbelts,
3. Ribb
1
e d bel ts,
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an d
1.2
Flat belt
Multiple Vbelts
Vbelt
Ribbed belts
Flat belts
Characteristics
S.No.
Toothed or
Vbelts
timing belts
l.
16
12
11
2.
35 to 110
25
80
3.
Slip
1 to 5%
1 to 5%
Nil
4.
Tension
High
Less
Very less
5.
Shock resistance
Good
Good
Fair
6.
Resistance to wear
Good
Fair
Good
7.
Dressing
Required
Not required
Not required
8.
Initial cost
Less
Less
Moderate
Power to be transmitted
./
./
./
Centre distance
./
Shaft relationship
./
./
Service conditions
./
Space available
1.3
Depending on the requirement, flat belts can be arranged in different ways. The different
types of arrangement and their applications are tabulated, as shown in Table 1.2.
Types of drives
Used
with
shafts
arranged
parallel
and
Tight side
Fi 1.2.
Fig. 1.3.
motion
Fig. 1.4.
FE =7'
'nmt
5 27
WE; liEF?
au YIMiII' ....
..,
1,4
Types of drives
Applications
and
FI . 1.5.
s.
FI 1.6.
6.
Quart~r twist bett drive will, guide
pul/~y :
FI 1.7.
n t.s.
I.S
~I
Applications
Types of drives
Fi 1.9.
9. Compound drive:
Fi . 1.10.
The desirable properties of a belt material are high coefficient of friction, flexibility,
durability and strength. The main materials used for flat belts are:
1. Leather belts: Leather belts are made of animal hides. The best quality leather is
obtained from either sides of the backbone of a steer (bullock). Leathers for belting may be
tanned with oak, or chrome salts. Oaktanned leather is fairly stiff, whereas chrometanned
leather is soft and pliable.
Belts are specified according to the number of layers. e.g., singleply, doubleply or tripleply belts. Doubleply (or tripleply) belts are made by cementing two strips (or three strips) of
leather together with hair sides out.
2. Fabric and cotton bells:~ These belts are made by stitching together three or more plies
(or layers) of canvas or cotton duck. The fabric is treated with linseed oil to make it waterproof.These belts are cheap. They are most suitable for farm work, quarry and saw mills.
J. Rubber belts: These belts are made up of plies of fabric impregnated with vulcanised
rubber or synthetic rubber. The main advantage of these belts is that they can be easily made
endless. Saw mills, creameries, chemical plants and paper mills largely use the rubber belts.
J.6
4. Bnlaln ~/ts:
Balata is gum similar to rubber. Balata belts are made in the same manner
as the rubber belts except that balata is substituted for rubber. These belts are acid proof and
waterproof. The balata belts cannot be used at temperature above 40C because at this
temperature it begins to soften and becomes sticky.
5. Nylon core belts
6. Camel's hair belts.
The commonly used belt materials for various belt types are given in Table 1.3.
Tuble /.3. Commonly used bell materials
Belt types
Belt materials
Flat belts
Vbelts
Ropes
N) and N2
and
Let
(01
(02
N2
Velocity ratio, N
(02
=
)
(0)
and
D
... (1.1)
N2
N)
D+I
... (1.2)
d+1
h'
'
1.7
Let
S2
S
.
= Percentage slip between the belt and the driven pulley, and
= Total percentage slip = S, + S2
1'12
:. Velocity ratio,
D [
_ S, + S2 ]
1
.. , (1.3)
100
= ~:;
I 
J%o ]
... (1.4)
When the belt passes from the slack side to the tight side, a certain portion of the belt
extends. And it contracts again when the belt passes from the tight side to slack side. Due to
these changes of length, there is relative motion between the belt and the pulley surfaces. This
relative motion is termed as creep.
The net effect of creep is to reduce the speed of the driven pulley and consequently
power transmitted.
the
Let
crt and cr2 = Stresses in the belt on the tight side and slack side respectively,
E
and
N2,
o
d
E+YC;:
... (1.5)
E+~
I Note lin
practice the combined effect of slip and creep is called simply slip and the combined
effect should not exceed three percent.
1.6. LAW OF BELTING
Law of belting states that the centre line of the belt, as it approaches the pulley, must lie in
a plan~ perpendicular to the axis of that pulley or must lie in the plane of the pulley,
otherWise the belt will run off the pulley.
1.7. GEOMETRICAL RELATIONSHIPS
For open belt drive: An open belt drive is shown in Fig.I.1 I.
Let D and d = D'
in metres,
l
Design a/Transmission Systems
1.8
2a
as
aL
The angle subtended between the straight portions of the belt in degrees,
Wrap angle (or angle of contact / lap) for small pulley in degrees, and
. 1
Sin
0 d
I 2C
,~
I,
I
as
Od
= 
2C
(1802a)
and
aL
(180+2a)
... (1.6)
Od')
2C +
and
()
(0 + d) + (04C )2
... (1.7)
For crossed belt drive: A crossed belt drive is shown in Fig.l.12, with notations having
the usual meanings.
. 1
Sin
D+d

2C
,..,
I,
1
C 
.....
For derivations of the formulas used in this chapter, the readers are suggested to refer any 'KinematicS of
Machines' book.
1.9
and
Sill U
(02+cd)
Us
uL
(180 + 2 n)
... (1.8)
Therefore, wrap angles for smaller and larger pulleys are same and is given by
Us
uL
Let
( 21t)
(D + d) +
(0 + d)2
4C
... (1.9)
BY A BELT
TJ and T2
I Power
transmitted,
(TJ
T2) v
... (1.10)
centrifugal force which has a tendency to separate the belt from the pulley surface. To
maintain contact between pulley and belt, the centrifugal force produce additional tension in
the belt, which is known as the centrifugal tension,
Centrifugal tension is a waste load, because it increases tension without increasing pow.r
capacity.
Let
..
I Centrifugal
tension,
Tc
mv2
...
(1.1 I)
3. Initial tension in belt (To) : The tension of the belt when a belt is fitted to a pair of
stationary pulleys, is termed as the initial tension of tile belt (To).
:.
Initial tension, To
=
=
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TJ +T2
2
TJ+T2+2Tc
... (1.12)
T =
and
... (1.14(b))
= cr b t
o = Maximum safe stress in N/m2,
where
Power transmitted, P
(Ttl  T/2) V
=
110
4. For a belt speed of upto 10 mls the centrifugal tension is negligible. But for belt speed more than
10 mis, the centrifugal tension should be considered without fail.
1.10. RATIO OF DRIVING TENSIONS FOR FLAT BELT DRIVE
Let
= Angle of wrap
f.l
Coefficient
11
Tension ratio,
TImv2
and
INotes I I.
T2
T2
mv2
and
ell a
... [Neglecting
centrifugal
tension]
... (1.15)
ella
... [ Considering
centrifugal
tension]
... (1.16)
It should be borne in mind that 'a' in the tension ratio equations must be in radians.
2. Condition for the transmission of maximum power: The power transmitted shall be maximum
when the centrifugal tension (Tc) is one third of the maximum belt tension (T).
T ==
and
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maximum
velocity. v
3 Tc

(J
\j~
... (1.17(a
... (1.17(b))
1.11
is obtained f tl
or at belts at speeds of 17.5 to 22.5 m/s
Leather
= 1 x 105
Rubber
= 1.4 x 105
N/mm3
N/mm3
Canvas
The coefficient
of friction
between the belt material and tlie pv IIey sur face
.
.
the belt material,. material . of. the pulley.' surface the belt speed an d th e be It
values of coefficients of friction for design purposes are given in Table 1.4.
d epen d s upon
I' A verage
Sip.
Compressed
Wood
Steel
Cast iron
paper
Leather (oaktanned)
0.33
0.30
0.25
0.25
Leather (chrometanned)
0.45
0.40
0.35
0.35
Cotton or fabric
0.25
0.23
0.20
0.20
Rubber
0.35
0.30
0.30
0.30
The life of a belt is a function of the centre distance between the driver and driven shafts.
The shorter the belt, the more often it will be subjected to additional bending stresses while
running around the pulleys at a given speed. And also it will be destroyed quickly due 10
fatigue. Hence, a longer belt will last more than a shorter belt.
1.15. LOSSES IN TRANSMISSION
AND EFFICIENCY
(ii) Windage or air resistance to the movement of belt and pulleys (usually negligible),
(iii) Bending of the belt over the pulleys (about I%), and
(iv]
ueSIl;"
VJ
I.' 2
1. Stress due
where
10
at
2. Stress due
where
10
ab
=
=
3. Stress due
10
where
and
ac
E,
d
_ mv =
2
 b I
Pv
Centrifugal force
Crosssectional area of the belt
It. is noted that the stress will be maximum when the belt moves over the smaller pulley.
Therefore the maximum stress in the tight side of the smaller pulley is given by
amax
= at + ab + ac
pulley diameters, therefore the pulleys should be s~lected caref:I~~lty ratio depends upon the
1.17.1. Materials Used for Pulleys
The commonly used pulley materials are:
./
Cast iron
./. .
.
Fabricated steel
./
Wood or fibre
./
.
Compressed paper
Cast Iron pulleys are most widely used iIII actual practice.
.
1.13
pulleys.
Small pulleys can be made in single casting which is known as solid pulleys. But medium
and larger pulleys are cast in halves, which can be joined at the rim and the hub. This type of
pulleys are known as split pulleys, In the following article, the design of cast iron split pulley
will be discussed.
1.17.3. Design Procedure for Cast Iron Pulleys
The crosssection of a cast iron pulley is shown in Fig.1.13. (Refer PSG data book, page
no. 7.56).
Rim
where
dl
I
=
=
=
=
1. Dimensions of pulley:
. .
.'
lie (D): Obtain the diameter of the pulley either from velocity
.:v
id tion We know that the centrifugal stress
ratio consideration or centrifugal stress cons: era
.
induced in the rim of the pulley,
(i) DIameter of the pu
0c
where
P y2
1.14
Now, select the diameter of the pulley (D) referring to Table 1.5.
Table 1.5. Recommended pulley diameters ill mm (from data book, page
40,45,50,56,63,71.
710,860.900,
80, 90.100,112,125,140,160,180,200.224,250,280.315,
110.
7.54)
(ii) Width of tile pulley (a) : If the width of the belt is known, then select the width of the
Upto 125 mm
13 mm
125 to 250 mm
25mm
250 to 375 mm
38mm
375 to 500 mm
50mm
Table 1.6(b). Recommended series of width of flat pulleys, mm (from data book, page
110.
7.55)
20, 25, 32, 40, 50, 63, 71, 80, 90, 100, 112, 125, 140, 160, 180, 200, 224, 250,
280, 315, 355, 400, 450, 500, 560 and 630.
2. Dimensions of arms:
(i) Number of arms (n) :
Number of arms {
(ii) Crosssection of arms {b and bI2): The crosssection of the arms is elliptical, with
major axis (b) is equal to twice the minor axis (bt2).
Major.axis of elliPtical}
secnon near the boss
= 2.94
_3
fiQ4Dn
\j ~
~ 2.941"f
= ~
1.15
(iii) Arms taper: The arms are tapered from hub to rim.
Taper = 4 mm per 100 mm
4'3
3. Dimensions of hub:
(i) Diameter of the hub (d 1) :
Diameter of the hub (d1)
d,
or
=
=
=~a
Width of pulley.
4. Crowning of pulley rim: The face of the pulley rim is crowned, as shown in Fig.l.13,
to keep the belt on the pulley. Otherwise the inaccurate alignment of the pulleys causes the
belt to run off side ways. Thus the crown will force the belt to return to the centre of pulley.
Selection of crown height (II) : Knowing diameter (0) and width (a) of the pulley, select
the crown height (h) referring to Tables 1.7(a) and (b).
Table 1.7(a). Crow" of flat pulleys (40 to 355 mm diameter) (from data book, page no. 7.55)
(crow" is unrelated to the width ill this diameter range)
Diameter D, mm
Crown h, mm
40 to 112
125 and 140
160 and 180
200 and 224
250 and 280
315 and 355
0.3
0.4
0.5
0.6
0.8
1
Table 1.7(b). Crow" offlat pulleys (40 to 2000 mm diameter) (from data book, page no. 7.55)
(crown varies with tire width in this diameter range)
Crown"
Diameter
D,mm
400
450
500
630
800
1000
1250
2000
125 and
140 and
180 and
224 and
280 and
smaller
160
200
250
315
1.2
1.2
1.5
1.5
1.5
1.5
1.5
2.5
1.2
1.2
1.5
2
2
2
2
3
1.2
1.2
1.5
1.2
2.5
2.5
2.5
2.5
3.5
1
1
1
1.2
2
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1.2
1.5
3
3
355
400 and
larger
1.2
1.2
1.5
2
2.5
3
3.5
5
1.2
1.2
1.5
2
2.5
3
4
6
"'"
1.16
I Example
I Design
1.1
of the pulley is 500 mm and the angle of lap is 180 ~ The pulley has four arms of elliptical
crosssection with major axis twice the minor axis. The coefficient of friction between the
belt and the pulley surface is 0.3. The allowable belt tension is not to exceed 250 N in 10
mm width. The allowable shear stress for the shaft material may be taken as 50 Nlmml.
Given Data:
a = 1800 =
as
= 50
20 kW
rad;
P
1t
20 x 103 W;
4' ,
J.1
N = 300 r.p.m.;
0.3;
TI
v =
D = 500 mm = 0.5 m ;
N/mm2.
Solution:
Velocity
7tDN
60
7t x 0.5
60
300
7.854 m/s
1. Dimensions of pulley :
(i) Diameter
recommended
0/
(ii) Width of the pulley (a) : In order to find the width of the pulley
Table
1.5, the
Let TI and T2
Tensions
(TI  T2) v
or
T,  T_ = 2546.47
... (i)
TI
and ratio of tensions,
= e~Q
T2
T2
From equations
1t
or
T, = 2.566 T2
... (ii)
TI
INou I Since
eO.3)(
4171.68 N
and
T2
1625.75 N
the velocity of the belt (or pulley) is less .han )0 mIs, therefore the centrifugal
Let
Since the allowable
width, therefore
Width of belt
tension)
b = 
4171.68
25
= 166.86mm
1.17
Referring to Table t.t3, the standard width of 4 ply belt is 200 mm.
l1lerefore width of the pulley (a), referring the Table 1.6(a), is given by
= 200 + 3 mm
500
= 200 + 3
= 5.5 mm Ans."
2.Dimensions of arms:
(i) Number of arms, n
=4
... [Given]
(ii) Crosssection of arms: Major axis of elliptical section near the boss is given by
b ~ 2.94
where
Wn
250
500
4x4
60
= Major
 2 axis = 2
=
=
30
mm
ns. ~
3
.
(iii) Radius of the crosssections of arms = 4
x M'ajor axis
3
= 4 x 60
45 mm Ans. ~
(i) Diameter of the /tub : In order to find the diameter of the hub, let us find the diameter
of the shaft first.
Let
= ~
16
xo x
s
d3
,u
"
r,
Design of Transmission Systems
1.18
636620
Therefore,
r6 x 50 x d3 or d
= 40.17 mm say 45 mm
= 3"
(ii)
166.67 mm
x 250
ADs.'"
4. Crown height of tire pulley (lr) : For 500 mm pulley diameter and 250 mm pulley
width, from Table 1.7(b), the crown height is selected as h = 1.5 mm ADs.
I Example
=
1.2
18 kW; Speed
Power
= 0.25;
Overhanging length (i.e., the distance of the pulley centre line from tire nearest bearing) =
0.30 m; Belt thickness = 10 mm; Safe sirear stress for shafts = 40 MPa; Safe stress for belt
= 2.5 MPa; Safe stress for rim = 4 MPa; Density of the leather = 1000 kg/m'.
Given Data: P = 18 kW = 18
= 2.88 rad; ~
=
40 N/mm2;
Pleather
0.25;
0belt =
2.5 MPa
OJ
103 W;
N = 200 r.p.m.; a
10 rnrn;
111; 1 =
(0)
(Jllm
= 165 = 165
40 MPa
=
rt
x 180
40 x 106 N/m2
0c
4 x 106
Velocity of the pulley is also given by
= p
rim'
and
v2
= 7200 x v2 or
v =
23.57
v = 23.57 m/s
7tDN
60
= 7txDx200
60
or D = 2.25 m ADS. ~
(i;) Width of tirepulley (a): In order to find the width of the pulley, let us find the width
T, and T2 = Tensions on the tight and slack sides of the belt re pectively,
b ;; Width of the belt.
and
1.19
= (T,  T2) v
or T,  T2 = 763.68
... (i)
T,
= ella
... (ii)
T)
T2
1487.62 Nand
725.25 N
Since the velocity of the belt (or pulley) is more than 10 mis, therefore centrifugal tension
must be taken into consideration.
1000kg/m'.
We know that centrifugal tension,
Tc =
In'
v2
where
We know that
In
Density x Volume
of the belt
bxt
b x 10 = 10 b mm
10 b x 106 m2
abe)t
x Area of crosssection
of belt
abe)t
x (b x t)
T  Tc
or
19.45 b
Belt width + 13 mm
90 + 13
103 mm
Then, referring to Table 1.6(b), the standard pulley width is 112 mm.
ADS."
t = 2~0
+ 3 mm
2250
200 + 3
Design a/Transmission
Systems
1.20
2. Dimensions
0/ arms :
Number of arms, n =
IS
where
Wn
given by
2.94
Number of arms = 6
112 x 2250
4x6
..
and
Minor axis =
(iii)
Major axis
2
65
= 32.5 mm
2
ADS. ~
3
 x Major axis
4
= '4 x 65 = 48.75 mm
ADS. ~
3. Dimensions of tile II ub :
(i) Diameter of the hub : In order to find the diameter of the hub, let us find the diameter
of the shaft first.
Let
18 x 103 x 60
21t X 200
859.44 Nm
and bending moment on the shaft due to the tensions of the belt
T2 + M2
= ~
= ~
(859.44)2 + (960.56)2
1288.92 x 103 ==
or
7t
1 6 x as x d3  ~
16 x 40 x d3
d = 54 75
.
mm
'" (.,' Tc
960.56 Nm
We know that equivalent twisting moment (Te),
T,
+2
say 55 mm,
= 5.55 b N)
1.21
ADS ...,
= 3"
112
74.66 mm
ADS ...,
4. Crown height of tire pulley (II) : For 2250 mm pulley diameter and 112 mm pulley
width, from Table 1.7(b), the crown height is selected as h = 2 mm ADS ...,
(i)
DATA
In actual practice, the designer has to select a belt from the manufacturer's catalogue
(which were obtained by their long experience). The required information for the selection /
design of a flat belt are:
(i)
Power to be transmitted,
(ii)
(iii)
Select the pulley diameters and angle of contact (i.e., wrap angie). By using the given belt
speed and assuming number of plies, minimum pulley diameter is chosen. Use Table 1.8 to
choose the diameter of the smaller pulley
Table 1.8. Minimum pulley diameter for the given speed and the number of belting plies, mm
(from data book, page
No. of plies
3
4
5
6
8
==
Maximum
110.
7.52)
10
IS
20
90
140
200
250
450
100
160
224
315
500
112
180
250
355
560
25
30
140
200
315
400
630
180
250
355
450
710
~I.~n
.. , (1.18)
(i) Load correction/actor (KJ : This factor is used to account for the nature of application
and type ofload. The value of Kscan be selected from Table 1.9.
Table 1.9. Load correction/actor,
Load classification
1.0
1.2
Nonnalload
Stead loadscreens, centrifugal pumps, agitators, belt conveyors,
light machine tools, etc.
Intermittent loads  Reciprocating pumps and compressors, heavy
machine tools, heavy duty fans and blowers, etc.
Shock loads  Crushing machinery, hammers, presses, grinders,
rolling mills, etc.
1.3
1.5
(ii) Arc 0/ contact factor (KaJ': The load rating (i.e., rated power capacity) is given for
1800 of contact. So, it has to be corrected for actual arc of contact. A decrease
contact implies additional load.
..
d)
Arc of contact
1800
D and d
where
(D ~
x 600
in arc of
C = Centre distance.
For the calculated value of arc of contact, the arc of contact factor (K(l) is selected from
the Table 1.10.
Table 1.10. Arc
Arc of
contact
90
Correction
factor
1.68
120
130
140
1.33
1.26
1.19
0/
1.13
7.54)
110.
160
170
180
190
200
210
220
230
240
250
1.08
1.04
1.00
0.97
0.94
0.91
0.88
0.86
0.84
0.82
(iii) Small pulley factor (K~ : This factor is used to account for the amount of bending or
flexing of the belt and how this affects the life of the belt. Use Table 1.11 for small pulley
factor.
Table 1.11. Small pulley factor, Kd (from data hook, page no. 7.62)
Small pulley diameter
K"
Upto 100 mm
100200 mm
200300 mm
300400 mm
400750 mm
Over 750 mm
0.5
0.6
0.7
0.8
0.9
1.0
1.23
3. Selection of a belting :
Select a belt referring to Table 1.12.
Table 1.12. Load rating of fabric belts per mm width per ply at 1800 are of contact at
lQ m/s belt speed (from data book, page no. 7.54)
Load rating
Type
HISPEED duck belting (light duty)
0.023 kW/mmlply
0.0289 kW/llImlply
Correct the load rating to the actual speed of the belt by using the relation given below ..
Load rating at V m/s
V
TO
...
Width of belt =
". (1.19)
Knowing the smaller pulley diameter and velocity of the belt, and consulting Table 1.8,
the number of plies can be found.
The calculated belt width should be rounded off to the standard belt width by consulting
Table 1.13.
Table 1.13. Standard widths of transmisslon belting (from data book, page
4 ply
3 ply
mm
25
32
40
44
50
63
76
90
100
mm
25
32
40
44
50
63
76
90
100
112
125
140
152
200
5 ply
mm
76
90
100
112
125
152
180
200
22l
250
6 ply
R ply
mm
100
112
125
152
180
200
250
mm
200
250
305
355
400

IlO.
7.52)
\
.:/
:'
Design a/Transmission
Systems
1.24
Calculate the length of the belt by using the equation given below.
( 27t) (0 + d)
7t)
+ ( "2 (0 + d)
L = 2C +
2C
dY:
(0 4C
(0 + d)2
4C
C = 2m; D
P = 10 kW
10 x 103 W ;
= 1000 mm.
Solution:
velocity ratio =
360 r.p.m.
;....
1000 mm
D
Fan
1000
4
Fig. 1.14.
250mm
Ans. ~
Rated kW = 10 kW
... [Given]
)..a
1.25
= 180
0

1000  250 )
0
2000
x 60 = 157.50
Consulting Table 1.10, arc of contact factor for 157.50, Ka::::: 1.08.
(iv) Consulting Table 1.11, small pulley factor, Kd
Design kW
lOx 1.2
1.08 x 0.7
= 0.7
ADS.~
15.873 kW
3. Selection of belt:
Consulting Table 1.12, HISPEED duck belting is selected.
kW/mmJply.
Its capacity
is given as 0.023
7t
x 0.25 x 1440
= 18.85 mls
60
TO
x (18.85 ItO)
kW I mm I ply
Design power
Load rating x No. of plies
15.873
0.04335 x 5 = 73.23 mm
Consulting Table 1.13, the calculated belt width should be rounded off to the standard belt
width.
:. For 5 ply belt, standard belt width = 76 mm
ADS. ~
2 C + ~ (D + d) + {_D d)2
.
2
4C
= 6033.8 mm
ADS. ~
/i
1.26
( Example
rolling machine, the speed ratio being 3. The distance between the pul/eys is 3 m: Diamele,
of rolling machine pulley is 1.2 m.
P == 20 kW
Given Data:
== 20 x 103 W ,.
ROlling
N I == 720 r.p.m.;
machine
(driven)
Speed ratio == 3 ;
C == 3 m;
D == 1.2 m.
Solution:
Fig. 1.15.
is shown in Fig.l.I5.
== 1200 mm
D
Driver pulley speed
== d == Driven pulley speed
speed ratio
]200
3 ==
Consulting
... [Given].
or d==400mm
driver pulley diameter
== 400 mm
ADS."
Design
(i)
(ii)
Rate kW
From Table 1.9,
20kW
... [Given]
Arc of contact
(iii)
factor (Ks)
Design
(Dd)

x 60
180  (1200400)
3000
60
1640
x, ~ 1.06.
180
Kd == 0.8
kW ==
20 x 1.5
1.06 x 0.8
== 35.377 kW
3. Selection of belt:
Consulting
Table
1.12,
is given as 0.0289
kW/mmlply.
of the belt,
=
::;
1t
d NI
60
==
1t
x 0.4 x 720
60
==
V
10
15.08 m/s
1.27
w
= 0.0289 x
5. Determination of belt width:
For 400 mm smaller pulley diameter and velocity .of 15.08 mis, consulting Table 1.8, the
number of plies can be selected as 6.
Width of belt
Design power
35.377
0.04358 x 6
= 135.29 mm
From Table 1.13, for 6 ply belt, standard belt width = 152 mm Ans. ~
6. Determination of pulley width:
177 mm
7t
2'
2C +
(D + d) +
7t
(D  d)2
4C
(1200  400)2
_
4 x 3000
= 8~66.6 mm
Ans. ~
In a belt drive, when the drive is transmitting maximum power without slip (i.e., at the
point of slipping) the tensions in belt are governed by the following equation,
T my2
1
T2mY2
where
...!!!!...
= esin ~
(l
ella. cosec ~
'" (1.20)
ella cosec ~
The load carrying capacity of a pair of pulleys is determined by the pulley which has the
smaller value of eJ.IIZcosec
fJ. Therefore, while designing a belt drive using basic equations,
first one should find which of the pulley (smaller or larger) governs the design.
Tofind the governing pulley (i.e., pulley governs the design) :
1. If the coefficients of friction are same for both the pulleys (i.e., both the pulleys are of
same material), then the smaller pulley governs the design. Because for open belt drive, the
smaller pulley has the wrap angle smaller than that of the larger pulley and hence the smaller
pulley will have the smaller value of eJ.lQ cosec P than the larger pulley. Therefore smaller
pulley will slip first.
/,
.1
Design a/Transmission
Systems
1.28
2 If the coefficients of friction are different for both the pulleys (i.e., both th~tUlle;s ar~
of different material), then the pulley which has the smaller tension ratio (or sma er va ue 0
eJUlcosec j3 ) governs the design.
~
I Example
1.5
I A leather
0/ the
Electric motor
Air compressor
Power (in k W)
25
1440
360
250
1200
3.8
4.7
0.3
0.25
Angle
Coefficient
0/ friction
The density of the belt is 1000 kg/mJ. The permissible tension is not to exceed 145 N in
10 mm width. TI,e thickness of tbc belt may be taken as 8 mm. Determine which pulley is
governing the design 0/ the drive and find the necessary width to transmit
power taking into account the centrifugal tension also.
Given Data:
= 25
kW
= 25
x 103 W;
(i)
the required
NI ,= 1440 r.p.m.;
N2 = 360 r.p.m.;
(12 = 4.7 rad;
J..LI= 0.3; J.i2 = 0.25;
8 mm.
e~l at
= eOJ x 3.8
= 3.127
e~2 a2
= 3.238
Here
e~1 al
(ii) Width
<
0/ the
e~2 a2.
eO.25 x 4.7
belt (b) :
1tdNI
60
1t x 0.25 x 1440
60
= 18.85 m1s
Let II and T2 be the tensions on the tight and slack sides respectively.
We know that the power transmitted (P),
P = (TI  T2) v
25 x 103
1326.29
... (i)
= b x
= b x 8 = 8 b mrn? = 8 b x 1Q6 m2
1000 x 8 b x 1Q6 x 1
m v2 = 8 b x 103 (18.85)2
= 2.84 b N
We also know that the tension ratio considering the centrifugal tension,
TI  m v2
T2my2
TI2.84b
T2  2.84 b
or
T)2.84b
(T)1326.29)2.84b
or
'" [e~)
e~) a)
a) 
= 3.127
. . [ .:
eJi) a)
3.127 ]
= 3.127
It is given that permissible tension (T) is 145 N in 10 mm width or 14.5 N/mm width.
,
:. TI
',1
x widt~
= 14.5 b
... (iii)
. .
On simplification, we get
1l.b(, h
1l.bb b .
= 3.127
= 167.23 mm
7.5 kW to a pulley of
JOOmm diameter, if the pulley makes 1600 r.p.m; and the coefficient of friction between
the belt and the pulley is 0.22. Assume the angle of contact as 2100 and the maximum
0.22;
C1
= 210 = 210
0
1:00
7tdN
60
7t x 0.3 x 1600
60
25.133 rnIs
1.30
We know that,
7500 = (T1
TI
Also
T2
ella
T2) v
(TI 
T2) 25.133 or
eO.22
3.6652
= 539.15 Nand
TI
T2
TI 
2.2396 or
TI
... (i)
298.415
... (ii)
2.2396 T2
= 240.734 N
T2
..
T1
= 8b
539.15 = 8 b or b = 67.4 mm
Consulting Table 1.13, standard width of the belt = 76 mm Ans. ~
I Example 1. 71 A flat
effective diameter running at 300 r.p.m: The angle of lap is 1650 and JJ = 0.3. Determine,
taking centrifugal tension into account, width of the belt required. It is given that the belt
thickness is 9.5 mm, density of its material is 1.1 Mg/m3 and the related permissible
working stress is 2.5 MPa.
Given Data: P = 35 kW = 35 x 103 W;
1t
= 0.3;
= 9.5
Tofind:
1tdN
... Velocity of belt, v = ~
Solution:
 ~
1t
x 1.5 x 300
60
= 23.56 m/s.
.~ e ,
Let
We know that,
p = (T1
T2) v
or TI  T2 = 1485.45
... (i)
T)
T2
Solving
(0 and
= ella
(ii),
eO.3 x
T) = 2568N
bx
t =
and T2 = 1082.19N
9.5'b mrn
9.5 b x 1~
m2
Centrifugal tension, Tc
1100x9.5bx
m v2 = 0.01045 b (23.56)2
l~x
1=
p x (b x t) : I
0.01045b
kg/m
5.8 b N
... (ii)
and
1.31
bxt)
0" (
T=TI+Tc
23.75 b = 2568 + 5.8 b or b = 143 mm
I Example
1.8
720 r.p.m: The belt is 12 mm thick and has a mass density of 0.001 gm/mmt. Permissible
stress in the belt not to exceed 2.5 Nlmm2. Diameter of driving pulley is 250 mm whereas
the speed of the driven pulley is 240 r.p.m. The two shafts are 1.25 m apart. Coefficient of
friction is 0.25. Determine the width of the belt.
Given Data:
P = 12 kW
12 x 103 W;
NI = 720 r.p.m.;
= 12 mm;
106 N/m2;
Velocity of belt, v
N,
0.25
240
= d
720
2
9.425 m/s
or d2 = 0.75 m
d2d,
2C
0.75  0.25
= 0.2
2 x 1.25
or
INote I Since
a =
d2
SIl1
x 0.25 x 720
60
d,
N2
Speed ratio = 
We know that
1t
the material is same for both the pulleys, therefore the smaller pulley governs
the design.
TI = e)lUs
T2
Also
12xI03
(TI
eO.25 x 2.74
1.983 or TI=1.983T2
T2) v
= (TIT2)9.425
or TIT2=
... (i)
1273.2
T2 = 1272.2 N
... (ii)
1
Design a/Transmission Systems
1.32
= b x t = b x 12 = 12 b mm2 = 12 b x 10"6m2
= p x (b x t) x I
= 1000 x (12 b x 10~) x I = 0.012 b kg/m
Centrifugal tension, Tc = m y2 = 0.012 b (9.425)2 = 1.065 b N
o x (b
30b N
T} +Tc
=
30 b = 2545.42 + 1.065 b or b = 87.97 mm
Consulting Table l.13, standard belt width = 90 mm Ans."
We know that
1000 kg/mJ
1650
0.3
Given Data: P = 20 kW
TId
165
= 85%
1t
180
Tofind:
2.88 rad;
J.L
= 0.3.
Solution:
Velocity of belt,
1t
dN
= 60 =
1t
x 0.2 x 2250
60
= 23.6 mls
We know that
20 x 103
Also
T}
T2
... (i)
and T2
... (ii)
= 724 N.
Let band t be the width and thickness of the belt respectively in mm.
Assume thickness of the belt, t = 10 mm ADS. ~
Crosssectional area of the belt
= bxt
::: b x 10
= lOb mm
lOb x 106 m2
1.33
= Density
x Area x Length
= pxbxtxI
Centrifugal tension, Te
m v2
= 21 bN
We know that
T=T)+Te
21 b = 1719 + 5.5696 b or b = 111.4 mm
( Example 1.10 , A leather belt 125 mm wide and 6 mm thick, transmits power from a
pulley with the angle of lap 1500 and u = 0.3. If the mass of 1 m3 of leather is 1Mg and the
stress in the belt is not to exceed 2.75 MPa, find the maximum power that can be
transmitted and the corresponding speed of the belt.
GivenData:
b=125mm=0.125m;
e = 150
t=6mm=6x
1t
103m;
J.L = 0.3;
106 N/m2.
Solution:
Speed of the belt for maximum power:
T = o xbx
t =
v=~
2062.5
3 x 0.75
= 30.25mls
Ans."
T
2062.5
Centrifugal tension, Te = 3 =
3
= 687.5 N
and tension in the tight side of the belt,
Tl = T  Te
_~!tt~. _
= 2062.5  687.5
= 1375 N
1.34
We know that
TI
=
T2
or
TI
T2 = 2.195
Maximum
power transmitted,
1.11 lIn
2.62
1375
_=
2.195
2.195
626.53 N
= (TI _ T2) v
=
I Example
eOJ
ella
Ans. ~
a belt drive, the tension ratio is 2.6. The mass of the belt is J kg/m
length. It runs at a speed of 5 m/s and at this speed, power transmitted is 8 k W. What
should be tile initial tension in the belt and what should be the streng til of the belt?
Given Data:
TI
T =
2.6;
In
1 kg/rn ; v
= 5 m/s
; P = 8 kW
8 x 103 W.
Solution:
(TI  T2) v
8 x 103
(T,  T2) 5 or
2.6
TI
2600 N and T
111'
We know that
TI
Given that,
T2
tension,
or TI
\ 2
11
TI _ T_ = 1600
... (ii)
2.6 T2
=
=
... (i)
n idcrin
cntrifu
al ten i n,
TI
2600
=
1825 N Ans. ~
I Example
1.12
IA
TIT
2600 ' 25
(III
2625 N Ans. ~
velocity of the belt is 2.5 m/s. TI,e angle of lap on the smaller pulley is 165 ~ The coefficient
of friction is 0.3. Determine the effect on power transmission in the following cases:
(i)
1.35
Tofind:
2.5 kW
1t
1650
v = 2.5 mls ;
2500 W ;
= 2.88
1650 x 1800
radians;
~L
= 0.3.
Solution:
P = (T I
Power,
2500
T 2) v
!...
TI =
ellU
... (i)
or T,  T2 = 1000
eO.3x2.88
2.37
or T,
Tl
Solving(i)and(ii),weget
Initial tension,
To
1729.9N
T, +T2
and
729.9N
1729.9 + 729.9
2
T2
... (ii)
2.37T2
1229.9N
IO~
initial tension,
To'
T, +T2
or
108
100 x 1229.9
To'
1328.3 N
T, .
As ~ and a remain unchanged,
or
ella
is same. So, T,
r, .=
Increase in power
1868.3N
and
= 2.37
T2 = 78~.3 N
p.
2:7 ~.5
2.5 V
T2
Pv
2.7 k\y
0/
0.08 or 8/0
ADS. ~
initial tension,
92
To' = 100 x 1229.9
or
Power,
To'
=
=
2.37 T2
T2
1591.5 Nand
2.S 2.3
2.5
1131.5 N
113 1.5 N or T I + T 2
P = (1591.5 671.5)
Decrease in power
2.5
2263
671.5 N
2.3 kW
0.08 or 8/.,
.
ns. 
... (iv)
___
1.36
T1
108
100 x a.
= ella'
]08
100
eO.3 x 3.1104
2.54 or T I = 2.54 T 2
... (v)
i.e., TI
= ] 729.9
T2
680.5 N
Power,
T
New tension ratio, T I
108
= ] 00
x J.l
ell's
eO.27
108
100 x 0.25
x
2.88
0.27
2.54 or T I = 2.54 T 2
... (vi)
TI +T2
2
1229.9 N or TI + T2 = 2459.8
1764.9 Nand
'" (vii)
T2 = 694.9 N
Conclusion: Since the power transmitted by increasing the initial tension by 8% is more,
therefore in order to increase the power transmitted, we shall adopt the method of increasing
the initial tension. Ans."
I Example
1.13
I The
bell, 6 mm thick, transmits 7.5 kW and operates at a velocity of 13 mls approximately. The
coefficient of friction is 0.3 and the permissible tensile stress for the belt material is
1. 75 N/~.
The density of leather is 0.95 gm/cc. Calculate: (i) the diameter of pulleys;
(ii) the length and width of the belt; and (iii) belt tensions on the tight and loose sides. Take
length of the belt, 1% less to give initial tension.
6 mm = 6 x 103 m ;
P = 7.5 kW .= 7.5 x 103 W;
v = 13 mls ;
J.L = 0.3; o = 1.75 Nzrnm? = 1.75 x 106 N/m2;
p
=
0.95
grn/cc
=
950
kg/m '
N 1 = 1000 r.p.m.;
N2 = 500 r.p.m. ;
Given Data:
t =
1500 mm = 1.5 m.
1
1500 mm
1.1
Fig. 1.16.
,.j
1.37
@Solution :
(i) Diameter of pulleys:
Speed ratio,
or 0=2d
and
velocity, v
13
1t
d Nl
60
1t
... (i)
d x 1000
or d
60
L = 2C +
2 x 250
500 mm
0.248 m
=
250 mm
ADS."
ADS."
2 x 1500 +
(0 + d) +
(0 + d)2
4C
+ 250)2
( 27t) (500 + 250) + (500
(4 x 1500)
4271.84 mm
=
Power, P =
0.99 x 4271.84
4229 mm
ADS."
(Tl  T2) v
a = sirr!
Angle of contact, as
We know that
Solving (i) and (ii), we get
Let
TJ
(D+d)
2C
= sinJ (500+250)
2 x 1500
(180 + 2 a) 1;0
T2
= e~
TJ
eO3 x 3.646 =
867.56 Nand
... (ii)
14.470
3.646 radians
2.985 or T J
= 2.985
T 2'" (iii)
T2 = 290.64 N
= 6 b mm? = 6 b x 100 m2
pxb
txI
J
"
Design o/Transmission
Systems
1.38
= 950x6bx
kg/m
and
... (iv)
cs=b>!
T=TJ+Tc
We know that
10.5 b
100 mm
ADS. ~
and
tr:
,/L
0.963 x 100
96.3 N
T I + Tc
867.56 + 96.3
T2 + Tc
963.86 N.
ADS. "
ADS. ~
Based on the shape of crosssection of the belts, belts are classified as flat belts, Vbelts
and ropes (i.e.. circular belts).
Types offlat belt drives and their applications are tabulated in Table 1.2.
Belt materials: Leather,fabric and colton, rubber, balata and nylon core.
Velocity ratio of belt drive:
(i)
(ii)
(iii)
N2
N,
N2
N/
d, + t
d2 + t
dJ + I [
S ]
d2 + t 1 100
NJ
a, E+{a;
N2
(iv)
N2
N/
d,
d2
d2 x E + ~
where NJ and N2
d / and d 2
t
~
N,
./
./
where
= 2 C + !I
1.39
(D + d) + (D  d)2
'I
4C
2 C + !I (D + d) + (D + d)2
2
'I
4C
./
and
degrees
degrees
./
Power transmitted,
./
Tension ratio:
./
Centrifugal tension:
where m
./
P
TJ
T2
(IJ  T~ v
epa
degrees
Tc = mvl
Mass per unit length of bell.
./
Where
vmax
ff.,
and (ii) T= 3 Tc
TI + Tc
Design a/Transmission
1,40
In this chapter, the design of flat belt pulleys are presented with step by step proced
{./
./
Design of flat belt pulleys: To find (i) Dimensions of pulley (includes diameter,
and thickness of the pulley), (ii) Dimensions of arms (includes number of arms,
. section of arms and arms taper),' and (iii) Dimensions of hub (includes diameter
length of hub).
./
Two different design procedures used for belt drives are: (i) using the manufacture
data,' and (ii) using the basic equations.
,/
Step by step procedure for the design of 'flat belts using the manufacturer's
in this chapter with sufficient example problems.
,/
Flat bell design: To find: (i) Type of bell (i.e., Hispeed or Fort), (ii) Bell width
number of plies, and (iii) Belt length.
./
Design
WIll
ustn basi
.
'h
equations: Ti e pulley which has the smaller value of tension ra
govern the design of the drive.
G
OSIC
REVIEW QUESTIONS
1.
2.
data is g
Enumerate the various types of belts used for the transmission of pow
What are the materials used in flat belts.
er.
3.
4.
s.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
Wha
I'
Oo.
1.41
PROBLEMS FOR PRACTICE
2.
An overhung pulley transmits 3S kW at 240 r.p.m. The belt drive is vertical and the
angle of wrap may be taken as 1800 The distance of the pulley centre line from the
nearest bearing is 350 mm. Jl = 0.25. Determine:
I. Diameter of the pulley,
2. Width of the pulley assuming thickness of belt of 10 mm,
3. Diameter of the shaft, and
4. Size of the arms (six in number).
Take the section of the arm as elliptical. Safe stress for arms = 15 N/mm2; Safe shear
stress for shafts = 50 N/mm2; Safe stress for belt = 2.5 N/ll1m2; Safe stress for rim = 4.5
N/mm2; Density of leather = 1000 kg/rn'.
S.
6.
The specifications
ran
n111l
350
1100
2.75
4.25
Coefficient of friction
OJ
0.25
Speed.
l(lOO
~5n
20
Pulley diameter.
Lp Ill.
POWl:r. kW
AFrB:J.P~
~~n
__
:rss_
..
.X
Design a/Transmission
Systems
1.42
.
. ible tension of 16 N/mm width is used. The density of the
Leather belt Ilavmg perrrnsst
.
. h oultev i
belt is 1000 k~3. The belt is approximately 8 mm thick. Determme w.hlc pu e~ IS
governing the design of the drive and find the necessary width to transmit t~e required
power taking into account the centrifugal tension also. [Ans: Smaller p~lley 152 mm]
8.
Determine the width of a 97.5 mm thick leather belt required to transmit 15 ~W from a
motor running at 900 r.p.m. T Iie diiameter 0f tlie dri
nvm g pulley of the motor IS 300 mm.
The driven pulley runs at 300 r.p.m. and the distance between the centre of two pulle~s
is 3 metres. The density of the leather is 1000 kg/m''. The maximum allowable str.ess III
the leather is 2.S MPa. The coefficient of friction between the leather and pulley IS OJ.
[Ails:
Assume open belt drive and neglect the sag and slip of the belt.
9.
80 mm]
The following data relate to a flat belt drive: Power transmitted 18 kW; Pulley diameter
1.8 rn; Angle of contact 1750; Speed of pulley 300 r.p.m.; Coefficient of friction between
belt and pulley surface 0.30; Permissible stress for belt 300 N/cm2; Thickness of belt
8 mm; Density of the belt material 950 kg/rn'. Determine the width of belt required
taking centrifugal tension into account.
[Ails: 44 mm]
10. A pulley is driven by a flat belt, the angle oflap being 1200 The belt is 100 mm wide by
6 mm thick and density 1000 kg/m'. If the coefficient of friction is 0.3 and the maximum
stress in the belt is not to exceed 2 MPa, find the greatest power which the belt can
transmit and the corresponding speed of the belt.
[Ans: 9.67 kW; 25.82 m/s]
11. An open belt drive connects two parallel shafts 1.2 m apart. The driving and the driven
shafts rotate at 350 r.p.m. and 140 r.p.m. respectively and the driven pulley is 400 mm in
diameter. The belt is 5 mm thick and 80 mm wide. Coefficient of friction between belt
and pulley is 0.3 and maximum permissible tension in the belting is 140 N/cm2.
Determine (a) .diarneter of the driving pulley, (b) maximum power that can be
transmitted by the belting, and (c) required belt tension.
[Ans: 160 mm; 462 W; 395.89 N]
12. The power transmitted between two shafts 3.5 metres apart by a cross belt drive round
the two pulleys 600 mm and 300 mm in diameters, is 6 kW. The speed of the driver is
220 r.p.m. The permissible load on the belt is 25 N/mm width of the belt which is 5 mm
thick. ji = 0.35. Deterrnine : (1) necessary length of the belt; (2) width of the belt; and (3)
necessary initial tension in the belt.
[Ans: 8.472 m ~52 mm ; 888 N]
13. Power is transmitted by an open belt drive from a pulley 300 mm diameter running at
200 r.p.m. to a pulley 500 mm diameter. Angle of lap on the small pulley is 1650 The
belt is on the point of slipping when 2.5 kW is being transmitted.
The coefficient
of
is increased by 10%, and (b) Suitable dressing is given to the friction surface at the belt
to increase the coefficient of friction by 10%.
[Ans: First method is more effective]
\.
1.43
14. In an open belt drive, the linear velocity of the belt is 3 mls. The angle of lap on the
smaller pulley is 166, the coefficient of friction is 0.3 and the power transmitted is
3 kW. Determine the effect of power transmission in the following cases:
(i)
10%;
_.J
 Arthur C Garke
2.1. INTRODUCTION
V belts are
mixer, grinder,
machinery, and
that V belts run
Fabric and
rubber cover
gi~tiol1
ults in
er
groove an
of a sheave
is made
than the belt section
angle. This
ides the wedging action of the
belt in the groove. The exact value of this angle
depends upon the belt section, the sheave
diameter, and the angle of contact. If it is made
too much smaller than the belt, then the force
required to pull the belt out of the grooves will
be excessive. So usually groove angles of 32
and 38 are used.
Fabric
Cord
Rubber
Sufficient clearance must be provided at the bottom of the groove to prevent the belt from
bottoming as it becomes narrower from wear. Multiple Vbelts are used in order to increase
the power capacity. As many as 12 or mote belts are commonly used in heavyduty
applications.
2.2.1. Materials of Vbelts
V belts are made of cotton fabric and cords moulded in rubber and covered with fabric
2.2
2.3. ADVANTAGES AND DISADVANTAGES
OF VBElT
DRIVE OVER
Vbelt drive can operate in any position (i.e., horizontal, vertical or inclined).
Multiple V belts can be used, thus enabling transmission of more power.
Disadvantages :
_,
_,
It is not as durable as flat belt (because of high bending stress that is caused due to
higher ratio of belt depth to diameter of pulley than that in case of flat belt drive).
_,
Since the V belt is subjected to certain amount of creep, therefore it is not suitable
for constant speed application such as synchronous machines and timing devices .
./
./
The efficiency of the V belt is lower than that of the flat belt.
./
According to Bureau 'of Indian standards (IS :2494] 974), the V belts are classified as A.
B, C, D and E type (based on the crosssection of V belts).The various dimensions of on
standard Vbelt sections are shown in Table 2.2.
2.4.1. Specification of Vbelts
Vbelts are designated by its type and nominal inside length. For example, a C2845 belt
has a crosssection of type C and has a nominal inside length of2845 mm.
2.5. RATIO OF DRIVING TENSIONS FOR VBEL T
TI
eJ.Ul!sin
= ella'
cosec
... (2.1)
T2
where
TI and T2
2P =
fl
.,
,..
(2.2)
I,i~
,
r
2.3
In a Vbelt drive, if the large grooved pulley is replaced by a flatfaced pulley (and smaller
pulJey remains Vgrooved), then the drive is known as Vflat drive. The larger pulley has a
greater contact angle than the smaller pulley, that compensates for the loss of wedging action.
Vflat drives are used in domestic piston pumps, domestic clothes drier and large punch
presses.
I .
f
1. Materials of Vgrooved pulleys:
The commonly
Table 2.1.
are summarised
In
Table 2.1.
Material of sheaves
1.
Characteristics
Cast iron
2. Pressed steel
3.
Formed steel
4.
Diecast aluminium
2. Dimensions of sheaves:
The crosssection of a sheave (i.e., Vgrooved pulley) for Vbelt drives
Fig.2.2. (Refer data book, page no. 7.70).
~II
Ip
Pitch width,
Face width,
..
',Scanned
,~;;:' \
'.
_by CamScanner
':;;:
IS
shown
In
2.4
Design a/Transmission
Systems
b
h
The various dimensions of standard Vgrooved pulley are given in Table 2.2.
Table 2.2. Dimensions of standard Vgrooved pulley in mm (from data book, page no. 7.70)
No. of
Groove
Groove
Ip
cross
dp
angle (2P)
section
sheave
grooves
in degrees
(n)
11
3.3
7S
32,34,38
8.7
IS
10
14
4.2
125
32,34,38
10.8
19
12.5
19
5.7
200
34,36,38
14.3
25.5
17
14
27
8.1
355
34,36,38
19.9
37
24
14
32
9.6
SOO
23.4
44.5
29
20
INote I
Face width, I
= (n 
1) e + 2 f
Design Procedure: The two steps involved in designing a Vgrooved pulley are:
Select the crosssection of the belt (i.e., type of belt) depending on the power to be
transmitted, by consulting Table 2.3.
I.
Table 2.3. Data on standard Vbelt sections (from data book, page no. 7.58)
Recommended
Cross
section
Area, mm2
Usual load
minimum
of drive, kW
pulley pitch
symbol
dia, d, mm
Nominal top
Nominal
Mass per
width, W
thickness, T
metre, m
mm
mm
kg/m
80
0.7S  5
75
13
0.106
140
2 15
125
17
11
0.189
230
7.575
200
22
14
0.343
475
22 ISO
355
32
19
0.596
695
30190
500
38
23
2.
For the selected crosssection of the oelt, consulting Table 2.2, select the various
required dimensions of the Vgrooved pulley.
..,
...:,)
2.5
, Example 2.1
I Design
compressor.
Given Data : P = 14.7 kW
To flnd : Design a Vgrooved pulley (i.e., a sheave).
@Solution :
1. Selection of crosssection of belt:
For the given power transmitted (i.e., P
=
Minimum distance down to pitch line, b =
Pulley pitch diameter, dp =
Groove angle, 2J3 =
Minimum depth below pitch line, h =
Centre to centre distance of grooves, e =
Edge of pulley to first groove centre, / =
Member of sheave grooves, n =
We know that face width, I =
=
Pitch width, Ip
19mm
5.7mm
200mm
34
14.3 mm
25.5 m
17 mm
14
(n  I) e + 2 /
(141)25.5+2x
17
365.5mm
3. Material selection:
Since the cast iron is economical,
material for Vgrooved pulley.
data, and
2.6
Design procedure:
1. Sttection of belt section:
,
Consulting Table 2.3, select the crosssection
power to be transmitted.
2. Selection o/pulley diameters (d and D) :
Select small pulley diameter (d) from Table 2.3. Then using the speed ratio, calculate the
large pulley diameter (D). These pulley diameters should be rounded off to a standard
diameter by using Table 1.5.
;<Selection
CIO ratio
1.5
1.2
0.95
0.9
Cmin = 0.55 (0 + d) + T ~
_getermination
7.61)
110.
C max
to
0.85
2 (0 + d)
Determine the length of the belt L (which is also known as nominal inside length) by
using the formula,
L
2C +
(n)'2
(Dd)2
(0 + d) +  4 C
For the calculated nominal inside length and belt section, consulting Table 2.5, select the
next standard pitch length.
width (i. e., the width at the neutral axis of the belt). The value of the pitch width remains constant for
each type of belt irrespective of the groove angle .
./' For pitch length, add with inside length, 36 mm for A belt, 43 mm for B, 56 mm for C. 79 mm
for 0 and 92 mm for E belt.
correction factor (F J
modification
factors have to be
For a given sheave speed. longer belt has more life than a short one. because the shorter
bell is subjected to the action of the load a greater number of times. For this reason. belt
correction factor (Fc).is used.
2.7
standard
sizes 0/ JIbelts (from data book, page 110. 7.58, 7.59 and 7.60)
(The values for a few cases only given)
Nominll
Correction
factor,
Fe
inside
A
610
645
0.80
965
1001
1008
0.88
0.83
1905
1941
J948
J9~1
1.02
0.97
0.87
2438
2474
2494
1.08
0.92
2667
2703
2710
2723
1.10
1.04
0.94
3048
3084
3091
3104
3J27
1.13
1.07
0.97
0.86
3251
3287
3294
3307
3330
1.14
1.08
0.98
0.87
4013
4056
4069
4092
l.J3
1.02
0.92
4572
4615
4628
465J
l.J6
1.05
0.94
5334
5377
5390
5413
5426
1.19
1.08
0.96
0.94
l.ll
1.00
0.96
1.21
1.09
1.05
length,
mm
6045
6101
6124
6137
._
9093
9149
9172
9185
For the selected belt crosssection, choose length correction factor (Fe) from Table 2.5.
.
First determine the angle of contact (or arc of contact) of the smaller pulley.
Arc of contact = 1800
(Dd)
x 600
For the calculated arc of contact, select the correction factor from Table 2.6.
Arc of contact factor is taken into account because the power transmitted may be
limited by slipping of the belt on the smaller pulley.
Table 2.6. Arc
0/ contact/actor, Fd
180
171
160
151
139
130
120
Correction
factor (proportion
of 1800 ratine)
VV
Vbelt on Vpulley
VFlat
Vbelt on flat pulley
1.00
0.98
0.95
0.93
0.89
0.86
0.82
0.75
0.77
0.80
0.82
0.85
0.86
0.82
2.8
(iii) Service factor (F J
./
./
The service factor takes into account the severity of the load transmitted which
depends upon the characteristics of the driving and driven units.
Table 2.7. Service factor for Vbetts, Fa (from data book, page no. 7.69)
Driving units type  I
10 hrs.
Service
16 hrs.
Over 16 hrs.
10 hrs.
(per day)
Light duty
Medium duty
Heavy duty
1.0
1.1
I.l
1.2
1.2
1.3
1.4
1.3
16 hrs.
Over 16 hrs.
(per day)
1.2
1.1
1.2
1.3
1.2
1.3
1.3
1.4
1.4
1.4
1.5
1.6
1.5
1.5
1.6
1.8
INote I The details of driving units and driven machines under different duties are available
in the
Calculate the maximum power capacity (in kW) of a Vbelt using the formulas given in
Table 2.8.
Table 2.B. (from data book, page no. 7.62)
Belt crosssection
Maximum value of
'de' in the formula
Formula
symbol
where
mm
kW
kW
kW
kW
kW
x 104 S2) S
:0:
125
175
300 .
425
700
= dp x Fb'
_)
~V.~B~e~/u~~an~d~P~u~I~/~~~~
~~
1.0 to 1.019
1.00
1.02 to 1.032
1.01
1.033 to 1.055
1.02
1.056 to 1.081
1.03
1.082 to 1.109
1.04
1.11 to 1.142
1.143 to 1.178
1.179 to 1.222
1.223 to 1.274
1.215 to 1.340
1.08
1.341 to 1.429
1.43 to 1.562
1.10
1.09
1.11
1.12
l.OS
to 1.814
1.8tS to 2.948
1.13
1.06
1.14
I.S63
1.07
P
nb =
where
Fa
kWxFexFd
Fa
kW
Fe
Fd
V belt),
",j A2 
A=~n[D;dJ
B
:c:
ill~df,
and
L ::: Nominal pitch length of the belt from Table 2.5 (refer step 4).
7.5/rW
specifications :
:=
400 r.p.m.
= 16 hours / day
2.10
Given Data:
= 7.5
= 300 111m = OJ m;
kW ;
N,
N2 = 400 r.p.m. ;
1440 r.p.m. ;
C
1000 mm = 1 m.
Solution:
1. Selectioll of the belt section:
Consulting
Nt
1440
d = N2 = 400 = 3.6
300
... (Given)
mill
C~~~)
Speed ratio
= 315
mm.
D = 3.6 d = 3.6 x 3) 5 = I) 34 mm
D = 1250 mm.
(0/
C = 1000 mm
... (Given)
=... ..,C
+ (
2x
1000+()
4676.85
2'7t )
(D + d ) + (D4 Cd)2
(1250+3IS)+(I~5~~:d:)2
I11Ill
Fe = 1.18
Arc of contact
tr
Dd)
(C
I 80 
1800 _ ( ) 250  3 ) 5)
1000
60
x 600 =
_.It
2.11
For this arc of contact, consulting Table 2.6, correction factor for arc of contact is selected
as Fd=O.83.
(iii) Service factor (F J:
Consulting
where
7t
x 0.3 ~~ x 1440
Belt speed
de
=
=
=
=
F~
de
dp
..
7tdN)
60
23.75 mls
359.1 mm
But from Table 2.8, maximum value of de in the formula should be 175 mm.
Power, kW
(0.79 x 23.750.09
~~.:
23.75
We know that
7.5 x 1.3
5.445 x 1.18 x 0.83
where
and
A + \} A 2  B
L _ [D+dJ
A = 4
B
Cactual
7t
634.42
{Dd)1
8
+ \}
4996
4
{1250  315}2
8
= 634.42
(634.42)1= 1175.92 mm ADS. ~
109278
109278
5.445 kW
2.12
(i)
(ii)
@Solution :
1. Selection of tile belt section:
Consulting Table.2.3, for power 100 kW, D section is selected.
2. Selection of pulley diameters (d and D) :
Since diameters of both pulleys are not given, therefore first select the smaller pulley
diameter from Table 2.3.
.. Consulting Table 2.3', for power 100 kW, smaller pulley diameter, d
Speed ratio
.. Larger pulley diameter, D
N)
355 mm.
1440
4.235 x d
4.235 x 355
1503.53 mm
Consulting Table 1.5, the preferred larger pulley diameter, 0 = 1600 mm.
3. Selection of centre distance (C) :
Centre distance, C
1200 mm
... (Given)
7t
'2
(D + d) +
(0 
d)2
4C
7t
2x 1200 +
'2
(1600+355)
(1600  355)2
4x 1200
= 5793.83 mm
For this nominal inside length and 0 section, consulting Table 2.5, the next standard pitch
length is selected as 6124 mm.
5. Selection of various modification factors:
(i) Length correction factor:
Fe = 1.00.
I"
2. l.i
"8 !,~
I "lit ."
~ 
''~
Arc of contact
= 1800 _ (D ~ d )
=
x 60 = 180  (
J 600  355)
1200
600
117.75
For 117.75, consulting Table 2.6, correction factor for arc of contact
For light duty, for over 16 hours continuous
machines of type II, consulting Table 2.7, the service factor, Fa = 1.3.
(iii) Service factor (F,.):
Fd = 0.81.
where
de
5~.7
S"'()09 ~
1t
Belt speed =
= dp
~ 4.78
d NI
60
7. Determination
= 355
=
S2 )
x 0.355 x 1440
60
1t
Power, kW
104
26.76 mls
x Fb
dt!
355 mm
1.14
x 1.14 = 404.7
( 3.22 x 26.760.09
= 21.44 kW
0/ number 0/ belts
506.7
)
404.7  4.78x 104 x 26.762
26.76
(n,) :
P x Fa
We know that
nb
= kW
Fe
100
21.44
8. Calculation
0/ actual
B
Caclual
..
"'::.
Fd
1.3
1 X 0.81
centre distance:
Caclual
L
4 
1t
In_
d)2
= ~8=
A + \] A2  B
[O+d
8
] _ 6124
_ 4 
(1600355)2
= 
1t
[1600+355
8
= 763.27
193753.125
2.14
9. Calculation of belt tensions (TI and T~ :
We know that,
power transmitted per belt =
100 x 103
8
... "(i)
1t
x 1800
2.055 radians
We know that the tension ratio for V belts considering centrifugal tension,
Tl  mv'l
= ef.UX I sin
T2mv2
T,  0.596 (26.76)2
T2  0.596 (26.76)2
= ef.UX cosec ~
8.237
Tl  8.237 T2 =  3088.68
or
T1
... (ii)
958.45 Nand
T 2 = 491.33 N Ans. ~
475 mm2
Maximum tension
Crosssectional area
= 2.02 N/mm2
958.45
475
Ans. ~
As discussed in section 1.19, the load carrying capacity of a pair of pulleys is determined
by the pulley which has the smaller value of ef.UX cosec P . Thus the pulley' which has smaller
tension ratio governs the design.
( Example 2.4
IA
is 0.0015
area of 2.5
to 400 x 1(J4 Nlml. If J.l = 0.15, find the power that can be transmitted,
mean diameter of 300 mm and runs at 1000 r.p.m:
.....
stress
if
cml and
is limil~d
"
2.IS
Given Data: a
p
=
=
= 180 =
0
0.0015 kg I em!
300
Tofind:
mm
= 0.3
1800 x 1:00
1t
radians;
m;N
a = 2.5 em2
= 2.5
x 104 m2;
J.l = 0.15 ;
= 1000 r.p.m.
e SO/lIIion :
1tdN
60
1t
x 0.3 x 1000
60
= 15.71 m1s
3.426
TI
3.426 T2
We know that,
Tension ratio T:
or
7t x
cosec 22.SO
... (i)
...
and
Centrifugal tension, Tc
maximum tension in the belt, T
= 0.375 kg I m
= mv2 = 0.375(15.71)2 =
=
crxa
400 x IQ4x2.5x
92.65N
104
= 1000N
TI +Tc
P = (T t
907.5
 3.426
2.5
I Two shafts
264.9 N
T2) v
= (907.5 264.9)
I Examp/e
15.71 = 10.1 kW
Ans.1J
drive. The driving pulley is supplied with 100 k Wand has an effective diameter of 300 mfIL
It runs at 1000 r.p.m: while the driven pulley runs at 375 r.p.m: The angle of groove on the
pulleys is 40 ~ The permissible tension in 400 mm2 crosssectional area of belt is 2.1 MP".
The dellSity of the belt is 1100 kg/ml. Taking JJ = 0.28, estimate the number of belts
nqllued. Also calculate the lengll, required of each belt.
C = l m ; P = 100 k W = 100 x 103 W;
d = 300 mm = 0.3 m ;
N. = 1000 r.p.m.; N2 = 375 r.p.m.; 2P = 40 or p = 20; a = 400 mm2 = 400 x l~ m2:
Given Data:
(J
= 2.1
MPa
'.
= 2.1
Scanned by CamScanner
106 N/m2 ; p
1100 kg 1m3;
J.l = 0.28.
2.16
\1
1t
d NI
7t
60
x 0.3 x 1000
= 15.71m1s
60
. N2
d
Speed ratio, N I = 0
D
or
1000
NI
N2 x d
= 375 x OJ
0.8 m
TI
or
0.80.3
2x I
= (180  2 a)
=
T
Tension ratio, T~
Od
'""2C:
= 0.25 or a = 14.48
2.636 rad
2.636
cosec 20
= 2.158
... (i)
T2
Centrifugal tension, Te
and
1100
m y2
= 0.44 kglm
= (0.44)(15.71)2 = IO?'.'~9N
x
400
IQ6 x I
= a a
= 2.1 x 106 x 400
x IQ6 = 840 N
TI +Te
or
TI
T  Te
T2
.z;
= 2.158 = 2.158 = 338.93 N
731.41
..
(TI  T2) v
Number of belts
=
100 x 103
6165.86
16.22
=:
17 Ans. ~
2.17
I Example
3.852 mAns.
"
I Power
2.6
Given Data:
e = 170 = 170 x
To find:
7t
(i) Velocity of the belt ("), and (ii) Power transmitted (P).
Solution:
(i) Velocity of the belt:
Velocity of the belt for maximum power to be transmitted,
fl
. v  \j];

~
\j 3 x 0.9
or
Centrifugal tension for the maximum power,
Tc = m v2
0.9 (28.545)2
733.33 N
Maximum tension
3
T)
T  Tc
T)
T2 = 3.736
2200
3= 733.33 N
2200 733.33
1466.67
3.736
1466.67 N
392.58 N
30.66kW Ans."
2.18
[Example
2.71
of thickness 20 mm and width 250 mm. The motor pulley is 115 mm diameter and the
compressor pulley is 1250 mm. TIle stmft centre distance is 1200 mm anti an idler is used to
make the angle of lap on tile smaller pulley 2100 and Oil larger pulley 280". Coefficient of
friction is 0.25 on tire smaller pulley and 0.3 011 tile larger pulley. The maximum allowable
belt stress is 2.J Nlmml and the belt weighs 1 x I 5 Nrmm', Determine the power of tile
rr
drive.
To eliminate idler pulley, tire smaller pulley is changed with Vsgroove pulley with
groove angle of 14". J.J = 0.1. Larger pulley and other data remaining the same, what shall
be the power transmitted?
Given Data:
N)
d = 315 mm = 0.315
as = 210
1 x 104 N/m3
Thickness
D = 1250 mm
m;
7t'
= 210
III = OJ ; o
1400 r.p.rn.;
2.1 N/mm2
20 mill;
7t
= 280 = 280
C = 1200 mm
1.25 m
Width
x 1800
250
mm
1.2 m
= 0.25
4.886 rad ; ~s
Solution:
J. Power transmitted by the flat belt drive:
Since the friction coefficients for both pulleys are different, therefore first we have to find
the pulley which governs the design. So we have to evaluate ells as and ellL al for the
pulleys.
e!lS as
<
ellL aL.
ellS as
elllal
= e.3x4.886
Therefore
eO.25 x 3.665 =
Weight density
1x
104
N/m3
d N1
60
.
or Mass density
Centrifugal
= 4.33
Velocity of belt,
2.5
tension,
Maximum tension,
Tc
1t
x 0.315 x 1400
60
23.09 m/s
1 x 104
9.81
kg/m '
I x 104
9.81
=
=
(0.25
0.02)
5.096 kg/m
m v = 5.096(23.09)2
T = Stress x Area
2717.37N
c x (b x I)
= )0500
r;~~~~1
~
~Belts
and Pu eys
__
.:.2~19
...
:
...
T  Tc
= 105002717.37
= 7782.63 N
= 3 113 N
2.5
P = (T 1  T 2) v
Power transmitted,
107.82kW Ans. ~
Ang Ie 0 f contact,
<l
= SID
. I (Od)
2C
= SID
. _1(1250315)
2 x 1200
0
=2293
.
and
<lL
Again we have to calculate the tension ratios for both pulleys to find the governing pulley.
TI)
( T2
and
(T
Wefind
(~:)L
.)
T2
ell as . cosec
= el1QL
<
11 =
eO.) x 2.)4 x
= eO.3
x).94
cosec 17
= 11.03
= 3.26
(~:)s
Therefore, the larger pulley (i.e., flat faced pulley) governs the design.
Tight side tension, T 1 = 7782.63 N
TI
(Already calculated)
7782.63
3.26 = 2386.6 N
'"CI
2.20
The ribbed Vbelt is gaining wide acceptance in the automotive field due to the
advantages it exhibits over conventional Vbelts. These belts are particularly good for high
speed and I or high ratio applications which conventional belts are unable to handle. The
smooth, vibration free performance and excellent reverse bend characteristics of this belt
enable the design of single belt, compact drive systems.
2.10.2. Applications
Ribbed Vbelts have been selected for use on many applications. These applications range
from iil:: single multirib accessory drive concept (SMAC) for passenger cars to water pump,
alten\ator, and air conditioning drives on heavy trucks.
\.
Highly flexible and can be used with smaller pulley diameter resulting in lighter
and compact drive .
./
Higher power rating per unit width compared to conventional belt  40% higher.
./
Almost eliminates the slippage due to maximum wedge contact on the pulleys .
./
Being thinner, the rear side can be used to drive additional accessories I idlers
without affecting belt life.
./
./
./
./
Give lesser wear and longer life to the pulleys due to lesser static tension and belt
slippage.
'"
2.10.4. Construction
Ribbed Vbelt sections which are designated by the letter "K" and "J" are easily
identifiable, as shown in Fig.2.4, by measuring the distance between the adjacent ribs within
~V~B~p~/~~~a~"~~~P~u~/I~~~'~~
~
a belt. The "J" section belt has a smaller rib than the "K" belt and the overall thickness of the
"J" is less than the "K". Refer Table 2.10.
PK Type
PJ Type
PH Type
W3.56mm
W2.34mm
W1.60mm
(c)
(b)
(a)
(e)
(d)
The polyester tension cords are embedded into the belt to achieve longitudinal stability.
Then crosswise fibres are incorporated into the polychloroprene substructure for unsurpassed
transverse bending strength, finally the belts are ensured for maximum resistance to
temperature fluctuations and ozone.
Table 2. J O.Dimensions of various ribbed Vbelts
Pitch:
Height of Rib:
Profile
(mm)
ht
Height of belt:
(mill)
(mm)
1.6
1.1
3.00.15
2.34
1.8
3.9 0.25
3.56
2.4
5.5 0.30
4.7
4.6
9.0 0.40
9.4
9.4
16.0 + 0.60
Flat belt and Vbelt drives cannot provide a precise speed ratio. because slippage occurs at
the sheaves. But certain applications require an exact output to input speed ratio. In such
situations. timing belts are used. The timing belts have teeth that mesh with bzroovcs in the
sheaves, as shown in Fig.2.5. Most timing belts are reinforced with glass fiber. steel or
aramid.
2.22
.,f
Materials
ill rubber
as A, B, C, D and E
type .
.,f
Specification
of Vbelts : C2845 means C is the belt section and 2845 mm is the nominal
inside length.
Tensi
.
enston rano,
T2I
Number of Vsbelts
2;J
Vj1at drive.
Materials
of sheaves:
different
manufacturer's
design procedures
used
in this chapter.
for
Vbelt
drives
are:
(i)
Using
the
for
presented
example problems.
with sufficient
the design
of Vsbelts using
the manufacturer's
Vbelt design " To find (i) belt section (A, B, C, D or E), (ii) nominal
data
is
2.23
REVIEW QUESTIONS
1.
2.
Why slip is less in the case of Vbelts when compared with flat belts ?
3.
4.
S.
6.
What are the materials used for sheaves (or Vgrooved pulleys)?
7.
Write an engineering
belt
2.
100 kW power is transmitted using a Vbelt drive. Design a sheave for the given Vbelt
drive.
centre
4.
A 30 kW, 1440 r.p.m. motor is to drive a compressor by means of'Vbelts. The diameter
of pulleys are 220 mm and 750 mm. The centre distance between the compressor and
motor is 1400 mm. Design a suitable drive.
S.
Select a Vbelt drive for transmitting 1.5 kW from a motor running at 1450 r.p.m. to a
blower at 300 r.p.m. in an air conditioning plant. The centre distance should be atleast
1.5 times the diameter of the larger pulley. Diameter of motor pulley is 300 mm.
6.
Design a Vbelt drive to transmit 10 kW at 400 r.p.m. The speed ratio is 3. The distance
between the pulley centres is 600 mm. The drive is for a crusher.
7.
A 10 kW, 720 r.p.m. motor is to drive a mixer at 180 r.p.m. The starting load is heavy
and the service is intermittent. Select suitable drive and determine the main dimensions
of the drive.
8.
2.24
Two shafts whose centres are I m apart are connected by a Vbelt drive. The driving
pulley is supplied with 10 kW and has an effective diameter of 300 r.p.m. It runs at 1000
r.p.m. while the driven pulley runs at 375 r.p.m. The angle of groove on the pulley is
40. The permissible tension in 400 mm? crosssectional area of belt is 2.1 MPa. The
density of the belt is 1100 kglm3. J.l = 0.3. Estimate the number of belts required.
[Ans: I0 belts]
10. An engine of 25 kW, has a speed of 650 r.p.m. It has to drive an electric generator at
1500 r.p.m. by means of Vbelts. Diameter of pulley on the engine is 600 mm and the
centre to centre distance between the shafts is 3 metre. Groove angle of the pulley is 30
and the coefficient of friction is 0.25. If the maximum safe strength of the belt is 500 N,
determine the number of Vbelts required for the drive. Neglect the belt thickness, and
assume the open drive.
[Ans: 3 belts]
II. A belt drive consists of two V belts in parallel, on grooved pulleys of the same size. The
angle of groove is 30. The crosssectional area of each belt is 750 mm2 and J.l = 0.12.
The density of the belt material is 1.2 Mg/rn! and maximum safe stress in the material is
7 MPa. Calculate the power that can be transmitted between pulleys 300 mm diameter
rotating at 1500 r.p.m. Find also the shaft speed in r.p.m. at which the power transmitted
would be a maximum.
[Ans: 171.75 kW ; 2809 r.p.m.]
12. Power is transmitted using a Vbclt drive. 'J he ilfl.:!~:dcd~i1f,le vI" Vgroove is 30. The.
belt is 20 mill deep and maximum width is 20 mm. If the mass of the belt is 0.35 kg per
metre length and maximum allowable stress is 1.4 MPa, determine the maximum power
transmitted when the angle of lap is 140. J.l = 0.15.
[Ans: 6.53 kW]
Problems on Vflat belt drive:
13. A compressor is driven by a 1500 r.p.m. motor by means of a flat belt of thickness
20 mm and width 250 mm. The motor pulley is 300 mm in diameter and the compressor
pulley is 1440 mill. The shaft centre distance is 1200 mm and an idler is used to make
the angle of lap on the smaller pulley 215 and on larger pulley 275. Coefficient of
friction is 0.25 on the larger pulley and 0.3 on the smaller pulley. The maximum
allowable belt stress is 2.2 N/mm2 and the belt weighs I x IOs Nzmrn'. Determine the
power of the drive.
To eliminate idler pulley, the smaller pulley is changed with Vgrooved pulley with
e = 34. Il = 0.25. Larger pulley and other data remaining the same, what shall be the
power transmitted?
[Ans: 117.2 kW ; 136.78 kW]
 Francis Baro"
3.1. INTRODUCTION
Wire ropes are used whenever large power is to be transmitted over long distances (upto
150 m). The wire ropes are extensively used in elevators, oil
II drilling, mine hoists,
cranes, hauling devices, conveyors, tramways, suspension
s and other material
handling equipments. Wire ropes are preferred than
and manmade fibre
ropes because of its greater strength and reliabil
As compared
advantages:
to
,/
ighter;;'ittt
erIe
a
in 0
Wire
/
~._..
3.2
Steel wire ropes are manufactured by special machines. In the process of manufacture the
wire rope is subjected to special heat treatment, which combined with cold drawing, gives
high mechanical properties to the wire.
3.4. CLASSIFICATION
OF WIRE ROPES
~~
(a)
(b)
(c)
application.
2. Parallel or lang lay ropes: In these ropes, the direction of twist of the wires in the
strand is the same as that of the strands in the rope, as shown in Fig.3.2(b). These ropes are
more flexible and resist more wear effectively. Such ropes are employed in lifts and in other
hoists with guideways and also as haulage rope.
3. Composite or reverse laid ropes: In these ropes, the wires in two adjacent strands are
twisted in the opposite direction, as shown in FigJ .2(c).
INote I Besides
the above types, the direction of the lay of a rope can be either righthand or left
hand. But the righthand lay ropes are more frequently used.
3.5. SPECIFICATION
OF WIRE ROPES
The wire ropes are specified (or designated) by the number of strands and the number of
wires in each strand. For example, a 6 x 7 rope means a rope made from six strands with
seven wires in each strand. Refer Fig.3.t.
3.6. GUIDELINES FOR THE SELECTION OF WIRE ROPE
The wire rope is selected based on its application. The Table 3.1 shows the standard
designation of wire ropes and their applications.
Table 3.1. Selection of wire rope
Standard designation
Application
6 x 7 rope
Used as haulage and guy rope in mines, tramways and power transmission.
6" 19 rope
Used a
Used as an extra flexible hoisting rope in steel mill laddies, cranes. high
speed elevators.
8 x 19 rope
mtd
~~~~~~.
Pfllleys
Wire RnIW..'
l)
1. Dinel slnss dll~ 10 t"~ w~;g"t oft"~ load to M lift~d and w~/ght of the rop (er;":
Let
.
..
W,
=
=
W+W,
Direct dress,
CJd
... (ll)
2. Bending stress wilen the rope passes over the sheave or drum (ut) :
We know that when a wire rope is wound over the sheave, then the bending stresses are
induced. The bending stress induced is directly proportional to the wire diameter and
inversely proportional to the diameter of the sheave.
.
Bending stress,
where
CJb
E, x dw
D
... (3.2)
where
3.4
Design of Transmission Systems
..
= W+W,
1 + 2'a
1+
hE
]
... (3.5)
adjg
where
5. Effective stress:
(i) Effective stress in the rope during normal working,
aen = ad + 0b
... (3.6)
ast +
0b
... (3.7)
The greatest of the stresses mentioned above should be less than the ultimate strength of
the wire material divided by factor of safety.
3.8. RECOMMENDED
The recommended factor of safety for wire ropes based on .the ultimate strength are given
in Table 3.2.
Table 3.2. Recommended factor of safety for wire ropes, n' (from data book, page no. 9.1)
Class 1
Classes 2 & 3
Class 4
3.5
4.0
4.5
4.5
Application
We know that the rope life is directly proportional to the ratio Dmin / d (where Dmin is the
minimum diameter of the sheave or drum and d is the diameter of the wire rope). But
investigations have shown that at the same ratio Dmin / d rope life is approximately inversely
proportional to the number of bends. Therefore to obtain the same rope life, the effect of the
number of bends should be compensated by an appropriate changes in the ratio Dmin / d.
6
Scanned by CamScanner
_lS
Ttlb/~ 3.3. (D".;,/d) as a/unction o/tlle number of bends (from data book, page no. 9./)
No. of
10
16
20
23
25
26.5
28
30
31
32
33
bends
Dmi,/d
I1
12
13
14
IS
16
34
35
36
37
37.S
38
2. Calculation
0/ design load:
Calculate the design load by assuming a larger factor of safety, say 15 (or find the design
load by assuming a factor of safety 2 to 2.5 times the factor of safety given in Table 3.2).
..
mm
Approx. mass
kglm
au
= 1600 to
1750 N/mm2
0.54
0.94
1.25
86
94
134
193
147
211
22
1.84
259
25
2.41
340
284
376
32
38
3.76
533
584
5.43
767
f4
7.38
1047
843
1148
48
8.48
1199
1321
12
16
18
CJu
6
10
0.15
12
0.4
0.55
16
0.95
96
20
1.45
2.25
150
230
2S

55
CJu
I!
o~D~e~si~gn~oJ~T.~r~an~s~m~~~s~iO~n~S~ys~te~m~s~o
C:
d
eave or drum). Always larger sh~ave
diameter ISprelerre .
Table 3.5. (from data book
, page
110.
9.1)
* Dtnin
~
Rope
Purpose
Class 1
2&3
Mining installations
All ropes
100
100
100
Cranes &
6 x 37
15
17
22
Hoists
6 x 19
19
23
27
,.;Ratio for 50 m/min of rope speeds  to be increased by 8% for each 'additional speed of
50 m/min.
5. Selection of the area of useful crosssection of the rope (A):
Consulting Table 3.6, select the area of useful crosssection of the rope.
,
Table 3.6.
Type of construction
6x7
6 x 19
0.38 d2
0.4 d2
6 x 37
0.4 d2
... (3.9)
dw = 1.5fi
where
Bending load, W b
.2:xA
xA=E
0
1 e in the speed of hoisting,
(iii) Acceleration load due to chat g [W +
W a ::: g
a

(Jb
WrJ
where a
v2  vI
(when spee
t":
rrorn VI
to v in t seconds)
2
~H~~~n~R~~~.~~Qn~d~P~u/~/e~y~~
CJ"
xA
(W + W,) [ I +
1 + 2'a
.s . r ]
(Jdlg
... (3.10)
INote I Generally
effective load during starting (W cst) is not used for calculating the working factor
factor of
safety (n') given in Table 3.2. If the working factor of safety is greater than the recommended
factor of safety (i. e., FSlI'> n'), then the design is safe and satisfactory.
If FSw < n', then the design is not satisfactory. Now choose some other rope with greater
breaking strength or increase the number of ropes.
12. Calculation of number of ropes:
_ Recommended factor of safety
Number of ropes Working factor of safety
n'
... (3.11)
 FS
\tI
I Example 3.1 I Design a wire rope for an elevator in a building 60 metres high and/or
a total load of 20 kN. The speed of the elevator is 4 m/sec and the full speed is reached in
10 seconds.
Given Data:
Height
= 60
m;
= 20 kN = 20 x 103 N ; v = 4
t=lOsec.
e Solution:
1. Selection of suitable wire rope: Given that the wire rope is used for an elevator, i.e..
for hoisting purpose. So lets use 6 x 19 rope (refer Table 3.1).
3.8
Design load
20 x 15
300 kN
3. Selectiolt of wire rope diameter (d) : From Table 3.4, taking the design load as the
breaking strength, the wire rope diameter is selected as 2S mrn.
:. d
= 2S mm
= 340
kN.
4. Calculation of sheave diameter (D): From Table 3.5, for 6 x 19 rope and class 4,
Dmin
d =
Since the given lifting speed is 240 mlmin (= 4 m/s), therefore Dm;,/d ratio should be
modified. Thus for every additional speed of 50 mlmin, Dm;,/d ratio has to be increased by
8%.
Modified
Dmin
d =
27
 5
[ ... 240
50 ....
= 40 x d = 40 x 25 = 1000 mm
5. Selection of tire area of useful crosssection 0/ the rope (A): From Table 3.6, for
6 x 19 rope,
A
= 2S0 mm2
d
dw == 1.5 {i
where
== 6 x 19 == 114
dw =
25
= 1.56 mm
1.5Tt!4
mass
Weight of rope / m =
and
Weight of rope, Wr ==
2.41 kg 1m
2.41 x 9.81 = 23.6 N/m
23.6 x 60 = 1416 N
(ii)
3.9
Bending
E,dw
D
x A
1000
[Take
'jii)
(w:w,)
load, Wa
Acceleration
E,
a
v2  vI
where
a = Acceleration
of the load =
t
I
= 0.4
Wa =
(iv) Starting load (W Sf)
40
10
m/s2
(2000~.;/416)
0.4
873.23 N
WSf
2 Wd = 2 (W + Wr)
(ii)
(iii)
Wen
Wd + Wb
21416+32760
55049.23 N
West
,
:I
'('
'.
..
: ..
0.
".
..
."
the design is
32760 ~ 42832
75592 N
340000
55049.23
'"
.
6.176
.f".
: .
(,.
t . F(O,m1:ahle 3.2; for hoists and class ~, .the rt!commend.ed
.'.
...
de~ii:it
6.
the working
W d + W b + Wa
Wea
of the load,
54176N
.
factor
safe.
of safety
."
is greater
'.
'..
.
factor
of :iafety

~D~~~i~gn~o~if~n~ra~m~m~~~s~w~
~ele
3.~ 1 Fo~ t~~ data of Example 3.1, determine the stress induced in the rope
t Slarling with an initia! slack of rope of 0. 2 m.
due '0
@So!ulion:
rope,
1 +. 2a s hE
ad/g
W = 20000 N;
Wr
= 1416 N; E, = 0.84
as
32760 N;
ad
a = 0.4 m/s2;
h = 0.2 m; /
= 60 m.
= 24102
106 N/m2 ;
..
21416
Wd
Wb
..
Stress induced
Wst
West
Wb
56862 _
250  227.45 N/mm
Ans. ~
a wire rope for a vertical mine hoist to lift 1500 tons of ore in 8
hours shift from a depth of 900 m: Assume a twocompartment shaft with the hoisting skips
in balance. Use a maximum velocity of 12 m/sec with acceleration and deceleration period
'0/15 sec each and a rest period of 10 sec for discharging and loading the skips. A hoisting
skip weighs approximately 0.6 of the capacity. Take E, = 0.84 x lOS Nlmm2.
720 m/min.
Tofind:
@ Solution:
Acceleration,
as
12  0
15
21 as (2 = 21
Scanned by CamScanner
0.8 m/s2
x 0.8 x (15)2
90 m
= 90 m
________
.:..:3.11
III at
720 Ill/min
540
720
075 min
.
45 sec
15 sec
45 sec
=
=
8 x 60 x 60 ~ 339
85
14715
339
43.4 kN
43.4 + 26 = 69.4 kN ~ 70 kN
1. Selection of suitable wire rope: For hoisting purpose, from Table 3.1, 6 x 19 rope is
selected.
2. Design load: Assuming the factor of safety of 15, the design load is calculated.
Design load
70 x IS = 1050 kN
48 mm is chosen, for
Dm~
d = 27 for
0'" =
720
50 ~ 15 times 50 m/min).
has to be modified.
=
27x(1.08)IS1
79.3 say 80
= 0.4
(48)2
= 921.6
rnrn.
1600 to
of the rope,
Therefore

~D~~~~~n~o~if~n~ra~m~m~U~Si~o
dw
48
_r
I.S V ;
= ;:::.====
1.5 ~ 6 x 19
= 3mm
Direct load, Wd
+ Wr = 70 + 74.88 = 144.88 kN
(ii)
Bending load, W b
ab
xA
0.84 x lOS x 3
3840
x 921.6
(iii)
Acceleration load, Wa
= Er ~ d", x A
= (W+Wr)
g
a
,
= 60.48 kN
(70+74.88)
9.81
W ea
.
xO.8
= 11.81 kN
= Wd + Wb + Wa
= 217.17 = 5.52
10. Check for safe design:
From Table 3.2, the recommended factor of safety (n') = 6
Since FSw < n', the design is not safe. But FSw value is closer to n' value, so the design is
marginally satisfactory.
The safe design (i.e., greater working factor of safety) c~n be achieved either by selecting
the rope with greater breaking strength or by increasing the drum diameter.
11. Redesign of rope: Now select the rope with breaking strength of 1321 kN from Table
3.4. For breaking strength 1321 kN and au = 1750 to 1900 N/mm2, the diameter remains
same as 48 mm. Thus the load and other calculations remain same.
1321
.. Working factor of safety, FSw = 21'i .17 = 6.082
Since the value of working factor of safety. is greater than the recommended factor of
safety,therefore the design is safe.
...
~~213
_!ire
Ropes and Pulleys
W~~~~'~~
.
The failure of rope is mainly due to fatigue
an d wear while passing around
I . the
fl sheave
. .
.,
it
over
the
sheave
resu
ts
In
uctuabno
The bending and straightening of the rope as I passes
~
.
individ
I'
lide
on
each
other
and
over
the
sheave
stress leading to fatigue failure. The indivi ua wires s I
resulting in gradual wearing of both the rope and the drum.
The amount of wear that occurs depends upon the pressure between the rope and the
sheave and is given by
where
2T
'" (3.12)
dxD
Tension in rope,
Sheave diameter.
The fatigue diagrams for 6 x 19 and 6 x 37 ropes are shown in Fig.3.3 (refer data book,
page no. 9.2). The fatigue diagrams are constructed by using experimental data.
0.006
;
~
0.004
\
\
[\
~
.9:
0.002
I~ ~
5
2x10
6 x 37_
r6
~
s
4x10
x 19
6x105
8x10S
106
Fig. 3.3.
The fatigue diagram is plotted on cartesian coordinates, in which the number of bends is
taken as abscissa and a dimensionless quantity (pIau) as ordinate. The figure indicates that
the 6 x 19 rope has long (i.e., infinite) life if the value of ratio p/O'uis less than 0.0012.
I Example
I
3.4
to raise a load. TI,e nominal diameter of the wire rope and the sheave diameter are 10 and
4S0 mm respectively. Assuming long life on the basis. of fatigue consideration, determine
the maximum load that the wire rope can carry.
_
Given Data: 6 x 19 wire rope; au = 1420 N/mm2;
Tofind:
10 mm ; D = 450 mm.
Solution:
1420 N/mm2.
_'"
3.14
= 0.0012
1420
= 1.704 N/mm2
2T
where
p x;
dD
xD
N Ans. ~
I Example
(i.e.,
O'u
= 1750
0;
1750
diameter of the wire rope is 10 mm and the sheave "as 550 mm pitc" diameter. Determine
the expected life of rope assuming 500 bends per week.
Given Data:
6 x 19 rope;
au
1750 N/mm2;
Load
22 kN;
= 10 mm ;
Solution:
Let
T = II kN
piau
dD
2 x 11000
IOx550
4 N/mm2
=
=
4
1750
0.00228
Fig. 3.4.
or
= 500
105
x 52
,I
'1
I
3.15
Wire Ropes and Pulleys
= E,
crb
where
So it is clear that the bending stress induced in the rope is inversely proportional to the
diameter of the sheave. Therefore the sheave diameter should be fairly large in order to
reduce the bending stress in the rope when they bend around the sheaves. Also the larger
diameter sheaves provide better and more economical service.
SheQ11e materials: For light and medium service, the sheaves are made of cast iron, but
for heavy service they are often made of steel castings. They are usually made in the form of
casting or weldment.
a
,.
!
e
.1
'I
_j
..r:::
r2
'1
'2
'3
'4
4.8
22
15
0.5
12.5
2.5
8.7
28
20
1.0
15
2.5
13.0
40
30
1.0
25
10
8.5
12
19.5
55
40
10
1.5
30
15
12
17
10
24.0
65
50
10
1.5
37.5
18
14.5
20
15
34.S
90
70
IS
2.0
55
22
20
28
20
rope dia.
1,
3.16
Design o/Transmission Systems
wireTherefore,
rope first. in order to design a sheave for wire rope, one should find the diameter of the
3.13. DESIGN OF WIRE ROPE DRUMS
Whenever more than one wire rope is used, one has to use rope drums to enable the rope
to be wound in several layers. The drum diameter is selected in the same manner as the
selection of diameter of sheaves. Drums for steel wire ropes are made of cast iron, more
rarely of steel castings or weldments.
With a power drive, the drum should always be provided with helical grooves so that the
rope winds up uniformly and is less subject to wear. The radius of the helical grooves should
be selected so as to prevent jamming of the rope. The standard and deep grooved drums for
wire ropes are shown in Fig.3.6. Table 3.8 gives the dimensions of standard and deep grooves
for drums.
Fig. 3.6.
t.able 38
. . D'tmensto. ns of d.rum groovesfor wireropes, mm (from data book,page no. 9.9)
Ropedia, d
..._
'.
Standard
Groove
Deep Groove
S)
C)
'2
S2
C2
4.8
3.5
5.5
4.5
8.7
II
8.0
13
6.5
13
15
11.0
19
9.5
27
13.5
19.5
11.5
22
15.5
28
15.5
31
20.5
36
18.0
39
21
42
12
28.0
50
24.5
CExample
'mum
speed
0
t1J'Pe
Hlelghtis being lifted with a maxi
3.17
@Solution :
Calculation
Design load
=
=
20 kN x 10
20 kN
200 kN
Taking the design load as the breaking strength, consulting Table 3.4, the diameter of the
rope is selected as 25 mm.
:. d
= 25 mm
27
As the lifting speed is 200 mlmin, this ratio has to be modified. That is, for every
additional speed of 50 mlmin, Dmin I d ratio has to be increased by 8%.
Dmin
d =
Modified
Then
Diameter of sheave, D
Design
27 x (1.08)4 
34
= 850 mm
34 x 25
Ans. ~
65 rnrn ;
h = 37.5 mm;
r2
= 5 mm ;
I Example
3.7
b = 50 mm;
I = 18 mm ;
r3
20 mm ;
c = 10 mm ;
r = 14.5 mm ;
r4
1.5 mm ;
15 mm.
hoisting equipment. The maximum rope speed is 10 m/s. Calculate the drum diameter and
various dimensions 0/ drum grooves for wire ropes.
Given Data: 6 x 19 wire; n = 3 ; d
To find:
= 38 mm
; v = 10 mls
600 m/min.
Drum diameter and various dimensions of drum grooves for wire ropes.
@Solution :
Drum diameter:
Scanned by CamScanner
27
,,7
l.!!
Therefore.
= 27 x (1.08)12  I
62.95 say 65
D = 65 d = 65 x 38 = 2470 mm
Ans. ~
Various dimensions of drum grooves: The standard drum groove for the wire rope is
shown in Fig.3.6(a). (refer data book, page no. 9.9). Knowing the diameter of rope and
consulting Table 3.8, the various dimensions of drum grooves are given below.
rl = 21 mm; SI = 42 mm and C1 = 12 mm Ans."
REVIEW AND SUMMARY
.f
Wire ropes are extensively used in elevators, oil well drilling, mine hoists, cranes.
conveyors, hoisting devices, etc .
.f
Types of wire ropes are: Cross or regular lay ropes, parallel or lang lay ropes, and
composite or reverse laid ropes .
.;
Specification of wire ropes: Wire ropes are designated by the number of strands and
the number of wires in each strand. For example, a 6 x 17 rope means a rope made from
six strands with seventeen wires in each strand.
.f
Selection of wire rope: 6 x 17 rope is suitable as haulage and guy rope, 6 x 19 and 6 x
37 ropes for hoisting applications .
.f
2. Bending stress,
3. Stress due to
The life of the wire ropes are inversely proportional to the number of bends .
.f
In this chapter, the step by step design procedure for wire ropes is presented
with
Thefailure of rope is mainly due to fatigue and wear while passing around the sheave .
.f
The contact pressure between the rope and the sheave is given by
2T
p = dxD
T = Tension in rope,
d = Rope diameter, and D = Sheave diameter.
From the fatigue diagram, for 6 x 19 ropes, the rope has infinite life if the ratio pIau is
where
0/
0/

1
3.19
~w.~/~re~R~o~p~e~s~an~d~P~u~/~/e~ys~
~REVIEW QUESTIONS
1.
2.
3.
How can you specify a wire rope? What do you understand by 6 x 17 construction
in
wire ropes?
4.
(b) 6x 19 rope,
and
(c) 6x37rope.
5.
6.
7.
How can you select a wire rope sheave or drum for the given wire rope?
Select a wire rope necessary for a mine hoist carrying a load of 72.5 kN to be lifted from
a depth of 250 metres. A rope speed of 7 mls is to be attained in 10 seconds.
2.
In an office building the elevator rises 400 m with an operating speed of 275 mlmin and
reaches the full speed in 10m. The loaded elevator weighs 22 kN. Design a suitable wire
.
.
v2
(275 / 60)2
rope.
[Hint : Rate of acceleration, a = 2 s = 2 x 10
= 1.05 rn/s]
3.
Select a suitable wire rope to lift 1 tonne of debris from a well of 50 m deep. The weight
of the bucket is 3000 N. The weight is being lifted with a maximum speed of 3 mlsec
and the maximum speed is attained in 1 sec. Determine also the stress induced in the
rope due to starting with an initial slack of 0.2 m.
4.
Select a wire rope for a vertical mine l.oist to lift 12000 kN of ore in each 8hr shift from
a depth of 800 m. Assume a two compartment shaft with the hoisting skips in balance.
Use a minimum velocity of 12.5 mls with acceleration and deceleration of 15 sec each
and a rest period of 10 sec for discharging and loading the skips. A hoisting skip weighs
approximately
5.
Select a wire rope for the elevator in a building where the total lift is 180 m. The rope
velocity is 4.5 mls and the full speed is to be attained in 12 m. The lifting sheaves are of
the traction type. The weight of the elevator cage is 15 kN and the weight of passengers
is 10 kN.
6.
A workshop crane is lifting a load of 20 kN through a wire rope and a hook. The weight
2
of the hook etc., is 12 kN. The load is to be lifted with an acceleration of 1 m/sec .
Calculate the diameter of the wire rope. The rope diameter may be taken as 30 times the
diameter of the rope. Take a factor of safety of 6 and Young's modulus for the wire rope
0.8 x lOS N/mm2. The ultimate stress may be taken as 1800 Nzmm'. The crosssectional
area of the wire rope may be taken as 0.38 times the square of the wire rope diameter.
1~.20~
~D~e~~I~gn~of~~~a~m~m~U~Ji~On~Sy
7. A 6 x 19 wire rope with fibre Core and tensile designation of 1570 is used to raise the
load of20 kN as shown in Fig.3.5. The nominal diameter of the wire rope is 12 mm and
the sheave has 500 mm pitch diameter. Determine the expected life of the rope assuming
506 bends per week.
[Ans: 12.5 years]
8. A 6 x 19 wire rope with fibre core and tensile designation 1600 (i.e., au = 1600 N/mm2)
is used to raise the load. The nominal diameter of the wire rope and the sheave diameter
are 12 mm and 540 mm respectively. Assuming infinite life (i.e., pIau = 0.0012) on the
basis of fatigue consideration, determine the maximum load that the wire rope can carry.
[Ans :
6220.8 N]
J
Chain Drives
"My grandfather once told me that there were two kinds oJpeOple:
those who do the work and those who take the credit. He told me to try to be in the first grOUp;
there was much less competition. "
Indira
GtuuIIU
4.1. INTRODUCTION
The chain drive is intermediate between belt and gear drives. It has the major advantages
of both belt and gear drives. Chain drives are used for velocity ratios less than 10 with chain
velocities upto 25 mls and power ratings upto 125 kW. Chain drives are popularly used in the
transportation industry such as bicycles, motor cycles and automobile vehicles. They also
find wide applications in agricultural machinery, metal and wood working machines, textile
machinery, building construction and materials handling machinery.
4.2.
WITH
Advantages:
./
./
./
There is no slip between chain and sprocket. So they provide positive drive .
./
./
./
./
./
Disadvantages :
./
./
./
./
They require the takeup devices (to compensate the increase in chain pitch due to
wear of chain joints).
.
More complicated design.
I
__~~~D~~~~~n~Of[TI~r~a~m~m~~~s~;o~n~s~~s~
2.
3.
10 II'
owing
c.
LINK CHAINS
sections.
.
Link chains, also known as welded load chains, are widely used
./
In low capacity hoisting machines such as hoists, winches and hand operated
cranes as the main lifting appliances .
./
As slings for suspending the load from the hook or other device.
to the inside length of the link, outside width (B) and diameter (d)
1.Depending on the ratio between the pitch and tl,e diameter of the chain bar:
(a) Short link chains:
(b) Lollg link chalns : If I> 3 d, then the chains are known as long link chains.
".'thin i 0.03 d and from the outside width is within i 0.05 d, then the chain is called as
Pitchedchain .
. (6) Calibrated chalns : When the permissible deviations is within i 0.1 d of the nominal
Slze
in pitch and outside width, then the chain is known as calibrated chain.
r~~~

Q1ain Drives
4.3
..
./'
./'
.
Id d) hains are formed from oval steel hnks an the sequence shown in
Link (or we e c
Fig.4.2 .
Link chains are manufactured from steel 2 and 3.
o
o
(b)
(8)
(c)
(d)
of welded c/,ains
(a) Blanks of cut steel bar, (b) Prebent blanks, (c) Chain assembled prior to welding,
(d) Chain witl, welded links
./'
Links for welded chains are formed by a number of methods. Mostly forge
welding and electric resistance welding are used .
./' In forge welding, a single weld is made in the link. In the electric resistance
method, the link is made from two buttwelded halflinks. The welds are made on
the straight sides of the link. The resistance welding method produces more
accurate chains with increased strength .
./' When assembling separate lengths of forged links into chains, the welded ends of
each pair of adjoining links should form one joint to increase the life and strength
of the chain. Chains welded by the electric resistance method can be assembled in
any manner .
./' After manufacturing, the chains are annealed.
4.8. SELECTION
OF LINK CHAINS
In link chains, it is extremely difficult to determine the actual stresses. Because, with
respect to external forces the links of welded chains are statically determinate and with
respect to internal stresses threefold statically indeterminate. Therefore the stresses are
determined approximately.
The chains are checked for tension. To compensate the statically indeterminate feature of
the chain, somewhat reduced safe stress is taken.
The general formula for selecting link chains in tension is given by
Psafe
where
Pbr
n
Safe load carried by the chain,
Breaking load of the chain, and
=
=
n = Factor of safety from Table 4.1.
Psafe
Pbr
... (4.1)
Design a/Transmission
Systems
Chains
Drive
Factor ofsa(eb', n
Hand
Power
3
6
2.
Hand
Power
4.5
3.
I.
The intensity of wear depends on the following factors: the ratio between the pitch of the
chain and drum, the tension and speed of the chain, the angle of relative turn of the links as
they pass around the sheaves, the environment, etc.
4.9. ADVANTAGES OF LINK CHAINS
./
"
./
4.10. DISADVANTAGES
OF LINKS CHAINS
./
Heavy height.
"
./
./
Sudden failure .
Intensive wear of the links in the joints.
TRANSMISSION
Chain
Driven sprocket
Driving sprocket
"
SC~h~a~;n~D~r~N~~=
~
.
Th e 0th er parts of a roller chain are
the inner plates are called roller link.
fi pin,
d i bushing Irwj
roller. Pins are press fitted into the outer plates whereas bus/res ar~ pre.ss Itte into ~heinllt:
plates. The pin and the bush form a swivel joint and the outer !mk IS free to sWivel wi~
respect to the inner link. The chain rollers mounted on the bushings roll over the sprOcket
teeth.
Pitch.
./'
Link plates are made of coldrolled, mediumcarbon or alloy steels such asC4j.
C50 and 40 Crl .
./'
Pins, bushings and rollers are made of carburizing steels such as CIS, C20, ana
30 Ni4 Crl.
Fig. 4.5.
Let
= Pitch angle,
Variable
sprocket.
360
z
'" (4.2)
of the figure,
. a
n/2
sin  = ~
2
D/2
or
INote I
[ .,'a = 3~0 ]
. (180)
z
sin (~)
SIO
'" (4.3)
as it enters
articulation.
ratio, i
N
=; 1
and
... (4.4)
d1
d2 =
p
sin (1801
... (4.5)
z)
... (4.6)
Scanned by CamScanner
1tDN
60
= zpN
60
... (4.7)
~C~h~a'~'n~D~r~w~u~
~

In terms 0
(4.8)
Ip xp
where
(or pitches).
Ip
where
= 2 (~)
by using the
(!)
...(4.9)
It is known that the calculated number of links (/p) should be rounded to the next digit.
Since the chain consists of alternate pairs of inner and outer link plates, therefore it is always
preferred to have even number of links. When the chain has odd number of links, an
additional link called 'offset' link, is required. But the offset link is weaker than the main
links.
4.16. CENTRE DISTANCE
The centre to centre distance between the axes of the two sprockets corrected to an even
number of links can be determined by using the following relationship.
Centre distance, a
where
__ e+..Je2SM
 4
(Z2 2: 1
z
M =
r'
xp
a constant.
on ~:ctual Pkractiche~
a small amount of sag is essential for the links to take the best position
sproc et w eel. Therefore in 0 d t
should be decreased b th
r er 0 accommodate the initial sag, centre distance
y e amount fla.
Ila = ~
where
Scanned by CamScanner
[f  (Z;1I:;
r.
p ] '" 0.5
f ..
1tS
4.8
An
.
. important ..factor affecting the operating smoothness of a roller chain driIve, particularly
at. high speeds, IS chord~1 action. The chordal action is illustrated in Fig.4.7(a) and (b). In
Flg.4.7(a), ~oller A has Just seated on the sprocket, and the centreline of the chain is at the
chordal. rad.lUsr c: After the sproc~et rotates through angle (al2), the chain is in the position
shown ID Flg.4.7(b). Here, the cham centreline is at the sprocket pitch radius rc.
IpI
Chordal rise, r  rc
~~l, Pitch
circle
j_.
L
1
(b)
(a)
The amount of chain rise and fall (i.e., chordal rise) is given by
tor
= rcr=r(lCOS~)
=r[lCOSC!O)]
... (4.11)
where
z = Number of teeth in the sprocket.
Thus it is clear that the linear speed of the chain is not uniform but varies from V min to
vlfIIJ%
during every cycle of tooth engagement. This results in a pulsating and jerky motion.
7t
0 N cos (
i)
60
7t
and
Vmax
DN
60
... (4.12)
Because of chordal action, a chain drive is analogous to a belt drive running with a prism.
~
In order to reduce the variation in c/,ain speed, the number of teeth on the
r
4.9
Chain Drives
Table 4.2. Transmission rallo, I (from dala book, page no. 7.74)
12
30
INote I
27
23
34
45
57
27 25
2523
23  21
21  17
zimin
Recommended
value of l2:
z2max
100 to 120
max'
Because, when
Knowing (or assuming) the initial centre distance (a), detennine the range of chain pitch
a = (30  50) P
... (4.13)
From the pitch range obtained, consulting Table 4.4, select a suitable standard pitch.
Table 4.4. (from data book, page no. 7. 74)
No. or teeth on pinion
Pitch,p, mm
sprocket
z.
7
9
s.
15
21
27
35
45
Selection of the chain
..
9.525
2800
2800
2400
2400
2100
1800
1600
12.7
15.875
2600
2400
2400
2100
1800
1600
1400
2000
1800
1800
1500
1300
1200
1000
standard pitch,
from
~~'
__ 
~D~e~~,~g~n~oflTJ~r~a~m~m~~~~
Table 4.5. (from data book, page nos. 7.71, 7.72 and 7. 73.
This table gives some detailsfor afew c/.alns.)
~
Designation
Rolon
ISO No.
No.
Roller
Bearing
Breaking
Mass/metre
diameter,
area, A
load, Q
(average)
d"mm
mm2
newton
m,kg/m
Pitchp,
mm
Width
between
inner plates,
b,mm
0881
Rl278
12.7
8.51
50
18200
0.70
8.00
0882
DR1278
12.7
8.51
100
31800
1.32
8.00
0883
TR1278
12.7
8.51
150
45400
1.95
8.00
lOAI
R50
15.875
10.16
70
22200
1.01
9.55
IOA2
DR50
15.875
10.16
140
44400
1.78
9.55
IOA3
TR50
15.875
10.16
210
66600
3.02
9.55
12A1
R60
19.05
11.9
105
32000
1.47
11.90
12A2
DR60
19.05
11.9
210
63600
2.90
11.90
12A3
TR60
19.05
11.9
315
95400
4.28
11.90
INote I R 
6. Calculation oftotal/oad
Tangential fOrCe}
_
due to power
+
{
transmission (PI)
or
PT
Centrifugal
tension (P c)
due to speed
of the chain
Tension
}
+ due to chain
{
sagging (P,,)
... (4.14)
P, + Pc + P s
Where
1020N
v
... (4.15)
Z2 xp x
z]
= mil
m = Mass
60 x 1000
:
... (4.16)
P,
Where
or
N2
p.. = k
... (4.17)
Clio;" Driws
where
4.11
ffi'
nt of chain drive,
oe lClent of sag taking into account the arrangeme
from Table 4.6.
k == C
II:
m g, and
Upto400
Vertical
("J :
The service factor is used to account for variations in the driving and driven sources for
roller chains.
:.
*s == * r : *2 . *3 . *4 . *s . *6
... (4.) 8)
*1' *2' *J' *4' *s and *6 from Tables 4.7 to 4. )2 correspondingly.
Service factor,
Types of load
Constant load
1.0
1.25
1.5
Table 4.8. Factor lor distance regulation, k 1(from data book, page no. 7. 76)
kl
1.0
1.1
Adjustable supports
Drive using idler sprocket
Fixed centre distance
1.25
Ip
%. +Z2
Ie
> I or
Dp
< 2Sp
1.25
1.0
.. I.S or
Dp
(30 to 50)p
~ 2.0 or
Dp "'"
(60 to 80)p
zi +z2
7.76)
0.8
== 2 op
z +z
I
2 +
+
2
[(Z2ZI)/27t]2
op
be
Dum r
.....
.~!2
Qp
~D~u=.~~~n~o.f~Tr~a~m~m~U~!~ion~S~~~
where
Pitch, mm.
Table 4.10. Factor for the position of the sprockets, k4 (from data book, page
Position of the sprockets
Inclination
the centres
110.
7.77)
k..
of the
1.25
Types of lubrication
Continuous (oil bath or forced lubrication)
0.8
Drop lubrication
1.0
Periodic
1.5
k6
1.0
1.25
1.5
Continuous running
Design load 
Service factor
... (4.19)
PT x k,
10.Check/or/actor ofsafety:
Compare the working factor of safety with the recommended minimum value of factor of
safetygiven in Table 4.13.
s~
~C~M~i!n~Dr~~~
~~
Tab/~ 4.13. Factor of safety, n '(from data book, page no. 7. 77)
Pitch
p.lDm
upto 50
200
400
600
800
1000
1200
1600
2000
2400
2800
7.0
7.8
8.55
9.35
10.2
11.0
11.7
13.2
14.8
16.3
18.0
9.525
12.7
15.875
If the working factor of safety (FSw) is greater than the recommended minimum value of
factor of safety (n'), then the design is safe and satisfactory.
If the working factor of safety is not satisfactory, one more chain may be added (i.e.,
simplex to duplex or duplex to triplex) to the existing one or the chain pitch may be
increased.
11. Check/or the bearing stress in the roller:
./
Tangentialload
Bearing area
P, x ks
A
... (4.21)
Now compare the calculated bearing stress (or induced stress) value with the
allowable bearing stress value given in Table 4.14.
For safer design, the induced stress should be less than the allowable bearing stress.
Table 4.14. AUowable bearing stress,
Ia/,
Pitch
p, DIDI
<50
200
400
600
800
1000
1200
1600
2000
2400
2800
35
31.5
28.7
26.2
24.2
22.4
21.0
18.5
16.5
15
13.7
9.525
12.7
15.875
Ip
Qp
2Qp
"0
p
[ ZI +2 Z2 ]
(Z2 ;1 )2
+
Qp
4.14
./
Now calculate the actual length (L) of chain using the formula
L = / x p
p
[from data book, page no. 7.75]
an even number .
the re Ianon
xp
where
M
and
(Z22~ZI
constant
=
=
0.01 a
Q
0.01 a
0.99
p
sin (180 I z)
io
sin (I
I z2)
dOl
and
where
d,.
+ 0.8 d,
... (4.22)
= d2 + 0.8 d,
... (4.23)
dl
@Solution :
1.Determination of the transmission ratio (i) :
..
..
N)
900
Transmission ratio, , = N2 = 400
(Since the transmission
to COnsultTable 4.2)
'!Etc'
2.25
ratio can be calculated from the given data, therefore we need not

4.1S
C}taill /)riveS
%.
= 27 (for ; = 2 to 3) is selected.
1. J)ete,.",;nalioll o/llumber
z2 = i x z. = 2.25 x 27
Recommended value,
z2mca 
...
1.2
60.75 ~ 61
100 to 120
61 is satisfactory .
...
and
We know that
a
50
600
50
20mm
12mm
Any standard pitch between 12 mm and 20 mm can be chosen. But to get a quicker
solution, it is always preferred to take the standard pitch closer to Pmax' Refer Table 4.4.
...
S. Selection
Standard pitch, p
15.875 mm is chosen .
0/ the chain:
Assume the chain to be duplex. Consulting Table 4.5, the selected chain number is
10.402/ DRSO.
6. Calculation
P, where
t020N
v
N = Transmittedpower
v
60 x 1000
Pc
From Table 4.5,
...
m
Pc
9.5 kW
1020 N
v
_ 27 x 15.875 x 900
60 x 1000
1020 x 9.5
= 1507 N
6.43
_ z. xpxNI
PI =
in kW
mvl
1.78 kglm
1.78 (6.43)2 = 73.59 N
6.43 m/s
4.16
Design o/Transmission Systems
(iii) Tensio due to sagging (P J
P, = k w, a
From Table 4.6,
k = 6 (for horizontal)
P,
=
=
6 x 17.46 x 0.6
PI + P, + P,
J 507
Pr
0.6 m
62.82 N
+ 73.59 + 62.82
1643.4 N
k, k2 . k3 . k4 . k5 . k6
k, = 1.25
k2
k3 =
k4 =
= 1
k6 = 1.25
ks
(30 to 50) p)
ks = ] .25 x ] x ]
X ] X ]
x 1.25 = ] .5625
PI ~ ks ; where
Scanned by CamScanner
~~
. on f.bIe 4.14. for II1\.IIIer .pmc:kd speed of 900 r.p.m. and picdl 1 S.175 nun. lilt
belting .uesl is 22.4 Nlmml. Theftfore !he induced smss is less than lilt
al
...t* bearing.o
U..CIk_lIIllMf
+~) (
(L) :
%,
Number of links, Ip
2 Qp + (
p =
0/ aact
600
 15.875
pitch
2" J2
Qp
Centre distance
<
( 27 + 61)
. (61
37.795
 27) I 2Jt
37.795
J2
::I:
120.36
Ip x P
We know that
= e+
e =
and
y e4
2
8M
ZI+Z2)
2
Ip  (
P
(27+61)
2
= 122 
= (6127)2
(Z2ZI)2
27t
29.28
78
_
 29.28
2n
78 +y 782  8
15.875 = 613.11 mm
~rement
..
.2
.'
I J. ClllcIllIllWII
(%2  :,)
= 2 (37 <795)
1IJIis/adtH7.
14. CIIlcllllllioll
0/ sprocket
diam~ters :
SlIUIIlu sproclcet :
p
sin (180 1 zl)
t 5.875
where
dOl = d I + 0.8 d,
4.18
Larger sprocket:
Pcd of larger sprocket, d 2
P
sin (180 / z2)
= 308.38
and
15.875
=sin (180 / 61)
mm
d2 + 0.8 d,
= 316.51
mm
[Example 4.21 The transporter of a heat treatment furnace is driven by a 4.5 kW,
1440r.p.m. induction motor through a chain drive with a speed reduction ratio of 2.4. The
transmission is horizontal wlth bath type of lubrication. Rating is continuous with 3 sid/is
per day. Design the complete chain drive.
Given Data: N = 4.5 kW; Nt == 1440 r.p.m.; i = 2.4.
Tofind: Design the chain drive.
@Solution:
1. Transmission ratio,
2. Tojind
ZI:
i = 2.4 (Given)
3. Tojindz2:
z2 
Recommended z2 max
z,
ixzt
:. N2
N)
1440
2.4 =
600 r.p.m.
= 27 (for i = 2 to 3) is chosen.
= 64.8 ~ 65
= 2.4x27
= 100 to 120. .,
Z2
65 is satisfactory.
4.: Standard pitel, (p): Since the centre distance is not given, we have to assume the
initial centre distance, say a = 500 mm.
We know that
= (30  50) P
...
Pmax
a
30
and
Pmin
500
a
50
50
500
30
 16.6 mm
=lOmm
From Table 4.4, in between 10 and 16.6 mm, a standard pitch, p = 15.875 mm is chosen.
5. Selection
0/ cl,ain : Assume
PT
 PI + P,
+ P,
1020N
v
(i)
PI 
Where
(Given)
~C~ha~i~n~D~rr~v~~
~~
zi x P x Nl
= 60 x 1000 =
P
1020 x 4.5
10.287
=
I
27 x 15.875 x 1440
60 x 1000
10.287 mls
446.19 N
= mv2
(ii)
pc
= 1.01 kglm
Pc = 1.01 (10.287)2 = 106.88 N
(iii)
Ps
= k,w'a
(for horizontal)
(iv)
Total load, PT
582.79 N
7. Service/actor:
ks
kl
= 1.25
k3
k4
ks
0.8
k6
1.5
9. Working/actor of safety
FSw
= (30
to 50) p)
1.5
25.39
From Table 4.13, for smaller sprocket speed 1440 r.p.m. and pitch 15.875 mm, the
recommended minimum value of factor of safety (n') is 13.2. Since the working factor of
safety is greater than the recommended minimum value of factor of safety, therefore the
design is safe and satisfactory.
f/fI' ..
70
4.20
where
'
= ao
2Q +
p
Ip
(ZI ; Z2)
+ [(z2  z,) 1 2n ]2
ap
500
= 15.875 = 31.496
J2
= 110.153 ~ 112
(rounded off to an even number)
Actual length of chain, L = Ip xp = 112 x 15.875 = 1778 mm
12. Exact centre distance:
a
xp
(ZI ; Z2)
[(Z\~ZI)
Ip _
e =
where
and
66 +
C7;
112 _
(65;;.27
V 662 4 8 x 36.57
65)
66
36.57
15.875
514.92 mm
= 0.01 a = 5.149 mm
Pcd
136.74 mm
d,
do,
15.875
sin (180/27)
Pcd
15.875
sin (180 1 65) = 328.58 mm
328.58 + 0.8
10.16
~~~~
eMi" I!!:!"es
::::;;'Example 4.3
I A compressor is to be actuated/rom
skatis 970 r.p.m: and that o/the compressor is to be JJO r.p.m. The compress~r opertll'''1
in two shifts. The minimum centre distance should be 1000 mm: Design a suuable chili"
drive.
Given Data: N = 10 kW; N. = 970 r.p.m.; N2 = 330 r.p.m.;
Tofind:
ao = 1000 mm.
@Solution :
1. Transmission ratio : i
2. Tofind
1./:
J. Tofind
1.2 :
N.
N2
Recommended
z2max
=
=
i x z.
970
330
2.94
25 (for i = 2 to 3) is chosen.
2.94 x 2S
A:j
74
:. 1.2 = 74 is satisfactory.
100 to 120.
and
Pmax
30
P",in
50
1000
= 30 =
33.33 mm
1000
= So =
20 mm
It can be seen that, in Table 4.4, there is no standard pitch in between 20 mm and
33.33 mm. Therefore we cannot proceed further.
(refer Table 4.9)
a = (60 to 80)p
Now take
..
and
Pmar = 60
1000
60
= 16.66 mm
a
1000
80
= 12.5 mm
p"""
80
Any standard pitch between 12.5 mm and 16.66 mm can be chosen. Therefore, from Table
4.4, the standard pitch (closer to Pmar) is selected as 15.875 mm.
5. Other design par~ten:
calculation, service factor selection, design load calculation, check for factor of safety, check
for bearing stress in the roller, actual length and centre distance calculations, and sprocket
diameters calculations can be proceeded as discussed in the previous examples.
[ EXllmfJle 4.4
IA
drive. Gear motor power = 7.5 kW: Speed 0/ gear motor = 1400 r.p.m.; Transmission ratio
10: I; AssulM a minimum centre distance belween sprockets = 550 mill. Sekct a suiJoblt
cltaht.
N = 1400 r.p.n.. ; i = 10 .
.I.
= 550 !nfT'.
e StJIuJioll :
J frtUISmission ,lI1io, ; = 10
.
... (Given)
., Ttlfilld %1: From Table 4.3, for ; = 10 the recommended
be f
h
Ito
'num
r 0 teet on the
. 'on sprocket (zl) is not available. But from Table 43. , for; > 7,can
it
be seen t hat
pIn!
shouldbe lessthan 17.
z,
If we assume Z I as 15, then z2 = lOx 15 = 150 which is greater than the recommended
Z2 /IItl% (,'.,e , 100 to 120) value. Therefore it is not acceptable
. Nowassume
z,
zi as
Then z2 = ; x zi
= II is acceptable.
11.
= lOx II
Z2 max'
Hence
4.19. SPROCKETS
It is understood that the operation of a chain drive is largely dependent on the quality of
sprocket wheels. In general sprockets are made of low carbon or medium carbon steels. But
sometimesstainless steel is also used for sprockets.
4.20. TYPES OF SPROCKETS
(a)
(b)
(c)
(d)
Flg.4.8.
OUr
~C~'h~a/~'n~D!!_r~iv~!S:!_
./
4.23
:
as shoWn ill
Fig.4.8(b) .
./
Style C has hub extensions on both sides of the flange, as shown in.Fig.4.8(c) .
./
Style D has a detachable hub, as shown in Fig.4.8(d). The style D hub is normally
attached to the flange with bolts.
..
'.
Caliper
diameter
Max hub
diameter
I~
14
Outside diameter
....
i
Pitch diameter
(ii)
Outside diameter
(iii)
(iv)
(v)
p
sin (180/ z)
P [ 0.6 cot ( ~)
Bottom diameter
Caliper diameter
'!O) 
(:0) _
I ] _ 0.03
01
4.24
Fig. 4.10.
Table 4.15. Proportions of the sprocket wheel (refer Figs.4.10(a) and (b))
Dimension
SoNo.
Notation
Relation
1.
Chain pitch
2.
D =
sin (180/z)
3.
Roller diameter
dr
4.
bl
5.
Transverse pitch
PI
6.
Do
DO = D +0.8dr
7.
Root diameter
Df
Df = D2 r;
8.
r;
(r;}max
= (0.505 d; + 0.069 ~
(r;}m;n
= 0.505 dr
9.
re
= 0.12 d; (z + 2)
(re )m;n
10.
a.
(lmax
90
= [ 120 7
(lm;n
90
= [ 140 7
11.
12.
13.
Tooth width
.__ 14.
Scanned by CamScanner
ha
(ha )max
= 0.625 p  0.5 d; +
(ha )m;n
= 0.5 (Pdr)
rx
(rx)m;n
bj1
bj1
bj1
ba
ba
0.1 p to 0.15p
0.8p
z
Chain Drives
4.25
Therefore, knowing the chain pitch (P) and the chain type, we can determine the various
dimensions of the sprocket wheel using the relations given in Table 4.15.
INote I
Instead of using the relations, the various dimensions of the sprocket wheel can be straight
away selected from the data book. So refer data book, page no. 7.79 and 7.80.
I Example
IAssume
zi
of driving sprocket, 0 =
.
SID
(180)
zi
15.875
= 136.74 mm
. (180)
SID
27
Roller diameter, d,
Do
10.16mm
= 9.SS
mm
D + 0.8 d,
144.86 mm ADI.'"
(r,)max
and
(r,)",,"
(0.505 d, + 0.069
0.505 d,
0.505 (10.16)
5.28 + 5.13
::
~)
~10.16
5.28 mm
= 5.13 mm
= 5.205
mm AD!..a
02r
136.74  2 (5.205)
= 126.33
mm A ... ..,
4.26
(r~)max =
and
35.35 mm
= 54.6 mm
Ans. ~
(rX)min
p = 15.875 mm Ans. ~
0.95 b,
0.95
if p> 12.7 mm
9.55
9.0725 mm Ans. ~
ba = 0.1 p to 0.] 5 p
= (0.1
or
ba
15.875) to (0.15
1.587 + 2.38
x
x ] 5.875) =
1.687 to 2.38
1.98 mm Ans. ~
Invertedtooth chains are also called silent chains because of their relatively quiet
operation. Silent drives are often selected for highpower, highspeed and smooth operation.
Silent chains have inwardpointing teeth that engage the sprocket, as shown in Fig.4.ll.
4.24. CONSTRUCTION
Silent chains consist of toothed link plates that are pinconnected to permit articulation, as
shown in Fig.4. J 1. The link teeth and the corresponding sprocket teeth are usually straightsided.
Various provisions are made to prevent the chain from sliding off the sprockets. They are:
(i) Centerguide chain: It has central guide links that fit central grooves in the wheels,
as shown in Fig.4.] I(b).
(ii)
Sidej1ange silent chain: Fig.4.] I(c) shows a chain with side guide links that
straddle the sprocket face.
(lii,i1
'J
Duplex (or bend back) chain: It has teeth on both sides, as shown in Fig.4.II(d). It
can be used in 'serpentine drives whereby sprockets are driven from both sides of
the chain.
Chain Drives

'4.27
(d)
(ii) Morse chain: In Morse chain, the rocker pins are used.
4.26. ADVANTAGES AND DISADVANTAGES OF SILENT CHAINS OVER THE
ROLLER CHAINS
Advantages:
./ It can be used for highspeed and highpower applications .
./
./
___
4.28__..
!!:_~.~.r~~~~~
eSlgn OJ ransmission Systems
I
Disadvantages:
./'
More heavier .
./'
More complex .
./'
More expensive .
./'
./'
Due to the above reasons, the silent chains have limited app I'icanons.
.
4.27. DIMENSIONS OF THE VARIOUS PARTS OF THE CHAIN
The dimensions
of the various parts of the chain are usuall y given
"
'.
m terms
The approximate values are given below:
5
I.
Roller diameter,
d,
2.
Pin diameter,
dp
3.
Chain width (i.e., the distance between the roller link plates) :
b,
8'
16x
8'5
8'
pitch
x pitch
4.
tp =
5.
bo
6.
ho =
7.
pitch
b, + 2 tp
0.82
pitch
8.
f the
the pitch.
ni
x pitch
Length of roller,
l, =
0.95
pitch
0.9 b,  0.15
~oteJ As already mentioned, for low and medium speeds the roller chain is recommended. For
IA
Tofind:
e Solution:
The dimensions of various parts of the silent chains in terms of its pitch are
calculated as below.
~~~~~
_hain DriveS
dr
I. Roller diameter:
dp
2. Pin diameter:
5
= 8 x
pitch
5
= 8 x
12.7
7.9375 mm
5
. h
16 x prtc
5
= 16 x
12.7
3.9687 mm
3. Chain width (i.e., the distance between the roller link plates) :
tp
= i1
._
5. Width between outer plates:
hi
bo
ho
7.9375 mm
. h
x Pltc
.1
8 x . 12.7 = 1.5875 mm
= hi + 2 tp
= 7.9375
pitch
+ 2 (1.5875) = 11.1125 mm .
0.82 x pitch
0.82 x 12.7
hi = 0.95 x pitch
8. Length of roller:
=
l, =
=
= 10.414 mm
and
./
Types of chains: 1. Link (or welded) chains. 2. Transmission (or roller) chains.
3. Silent (or inverted tooth) chains.
./
Link chains are widely used in low capacity machines such as hoists. winches and hand
operated cranes, and as slingsfor suspending the loadfrom the hook or other device.
./
./
~~
"

~D~u~~~n~o~if~ff~a~m~m~u~~
Designprocedure fo~ roller c~ain : 1. Tofin~ number of teeth in the driving and driven
sprockets; 2. Selection of pitch; 3. Selection of chain type; 4. Calculation of PT;
5.Calculation of design load; 6. Check for factor of safety; 7. Checkfor bearing stress
on roller; and 8. Calculation of actual length of chain and exact centre distance.
"
A sprocket is a wheel with teeth of a special profile. The design of sprocket for the
selected chain is also presented
"
The inverted chains are also called silent chains because of their relatively quiet
operation. The construction, types, advantages, disadvantages and dimensions of the
silent chains are discussed at the end of the chapter.
REVIEW QUESTIONS
I.
2.
5.
6.
7.
In chain drives, the sprocket has odd number of teeth and the chain has even number of
8.
links. Why?
What are the materials used for making chains and sprockets?
~C~h~Q~m~D~r~w~e~s
3.
pump is located at 700 mm from the motor. Design a chain drive and
Select a suitable chain to transmit 50 kW at 900 r.p.m. of the sprocket pinion. A speed
reduction of 2.5 : I is desired. The driving motor is mounted on an adjustable base. The
load is steady, the drive is horizontal and the service is 16 hours a day.
6.
It is required to design a chain drive with a duplex chain to connect a 15 kW, 1440 r.p.m.
electric motor to a transmission
moderate shocks.
(i)
(ii)
involves
(iii) Calculate the pitch circle diameters of the driving and driven sprockets.
(iv) Determine the number of chain links.
(v)
During preliminary stages, assume the centre distance as 40 times the pitch of the chain.
Assume the data of problem I, and calculate the following dimensions of the driving
sprocket wheel: (i) outer diameter; (ii) roller seating radius; (iii) root diameter,
(iv) tooth flank radius; (v) tooth side radius; (vi) tooth width; and (vii) tooth side relief.
8.
Design the driving sprocket wheel, for the data of the problem 2.
10. A 19.05 mm pitch silent chain transmits 15 kW from a fourcylinder internal combustion
engine to a vibrating screen. Determine the various dimensions of the chain parts.
Spur Gears
"Opportunity is missed by most people because it comes
dressed in overalls and looks like 'Work."
 T"om"~ Edison
5.1. INTRODUCTION
Gears are toothed wheels used for transmitting motion
power from one shaft to
another when they are not too far apart and when
locity ratio is desired. In
comparison with belt, chain and friction drive
compact, can operate at
high speeds and can be used wher
e.
Iso gear drives are used when
large power is to be trans, ......
~
o the gears in position is much less
in lower bearing pressure, less wear 011 the
than in an equivalent frictio
bearing surfac
nd Limitations
Advantages
1. Since there is no slip, so exact velocity ratio is obtained.
2. It is capable of transmitting larger power than that of the belt and chain drives.
3. It is more efficient (upto99%) and effective means of power transmission.
4. It requires less space as compared to belt and rope drives.
5. It can transmit motion at very low velocity, which is not possible with the belt
drives.
limitations
_
Scanned by CamScanner
5.2
5.2. CLASSIFICATION
OF GEARS
11
./J;\.I(X....\
~''):~i'
~_
.......
, ' ..
~
_,,/
.,*
"IIDjITIIIlIIIIIhjU IIIII
worm gears.
0/ Spur gears (sometimes
called
gears
have
teeth
in Fig.5.I.(b).
The
as
double
gears.
are
k.iown
as
herringbone
Fig. 5.1. Typesof gears
Spur Gears
5.3
./ Bevel gt~rs have tee~h form~d on conical surfaces. They are mostly used for
transmitting monon between mtersectmg shafts. A straighttooth bevel gear is shown in
Fig.S.l(C).
./ Worm gears consist of a worm and a worm wheel, as shown in Fig.S.l(d). Worm and
worm wheel can be visualised as a screw and nut pair. They are used to transmit motion
between nonparallel nonintersecting shafts.
In this chapter, the design of spur gears will be discussed.
~oltJ
The smaller of two gears in mesh is called pinion and the bigger gear is called whee! or
Itllr.
5.3. SPURGEARS
In spur gears, the teeth are straight and parallel to the axis of the wheel. The gearing so
formed is called spur gearing. They are used to transmit rotary motion between parallel
shafts. This gearing may be internal or external. External gears rotate in opposite directions
while internal gears rotate in the same direction.
5.3.1. Tenninology
The terminology of gear teeth is illustrated in Fig.5.2. The various terms used in the study
of gears have been explained below.
'
~d8\~\)11'
_ .
,' .
oeO~\)11'
Clearance
Circle
Oedenaum
CIrcle
5.4
Pinion: A pinion is the smallest of two mating gears. The larger is often called the gear
1.
or the wheel.
2. Pitch circle:
It is an imaginary circle which by pure rolling action, would give the same
Pitch circle diameter: It is the diameter of the pitch circle. The size of the gear is
3.
usually specified by the pitch circle diameter. It is also called as pitch diameter.
4.
5.
Pitch sur/ace: It is the surface of the, rolling discs which the meshing gears have
replaced at the pitch circle.
6.
I. r, 
where
1t
D .
... (5.1)
IP
d ~
~ ~
... (5.2)
... (5.3)
7.
Addendum circle (or Tip circle) : It is the circle drawn through the top of the teeth and
is concentric with the pitch circle.
8.
Addendum:
tooth.
9.
Dedendum circle (or Root circle): It is the circle drawn through the bottom of the circle.
It is the radial distance of a tooth from the pitch circle to the top of the
10. Dedendum : It is the radial distance of a tooth from the pitch circle to the bottom of the
tooth.
11. Clearance: It is the radial distance from the top of the tooth to the bottom of the tooth,
in a meshing gear. A circle passing through the top of the meshing gear is known as
clearance circle:
Spur Gears
5.5
12. Total depth: It is the radial distance between th
dd d
e a en urn and the dedendum of a gear.
Total depth = Addendum + Dedendum '
dd d
.
en urn circle to the clearance
hi
e 0 mes 109 gears.
14. Tooth thickness: It is the width of the tooth measured al ong th e pitc
. h eire
. Ie.
. I I'
I
eire e. tIS equa to the sum of the addendum ofth
e a
tw
15. Tooth
space: It is the width of space between the two adiacenr t th
d I
. h . I
~
ee measure a ong the
pitc eire e.
16. Backlash: It is the difference between the tooth space and the tooth thickness along the
pitch circle.
Backlash = Tooth space  Tooth thickness
17. Face width: It is the width of the gear tooth measured parallel to its axis.
18. Top land: It is the surface of the top of the tooth.
19. Bottom land: The surface of the bottom of the tooth between the adjacent fillets.
20. Face: Tooth surface between the pitch circle and the top land.
21. Flank: Tooth surface between the pitch circle and the bottom land including fillet.
22. Fillet: It is the curved portion of the tooth flank at the root circle.
23. Pressure angle (or Angle of obliquity) (;) : It is the angle between the common normal
to two gear teeth at the point of contact and the common tangent at the pitch point. The
standard pressure angles are 14 Y:z0 and 200
24. Path of contact: It is the path traced by the point of contact of two teeth from the
beginning to the end of engagement.
25. Length of path of contact (or Contact length) : It is the length of the common normal
cutoff by the addendum circles of the wheel and pinion.
26. Arc of contact: It is the path traced by a point on the pitch circle from the beginning to
the end of engagement of a given pair of teeth. The arc of contact consists of two parts.
Theyare:
(a) Arc of approach: It is the portion of the path of contact from the beginning of the
engagement to the pitch point.
(b) Arc of recess: It is the portion of the path of contact from the pitch point to the end
of the engagement of a pair of teeth.
27. Velocity ratio: It is the ratio of speed of driving gear to the speed of the driven gear.
I
where
= ~
= ~
". (5.4)
t:
5.6
28. Contact ratio: The ratio of the length of arc of contact to the circular pitch is Im.own as
contact ratio. The value gives the number of pairs of teeth in contact.
5.4. LAW OF GEARING (OR CONDITIONS OF CORRECT GEARING)
The law of gearing states that for obtaining a constant velocity ratio, at any instant Of
teeth the common normal at each point of contact should always pass through a pitch point
(fixed point), situated on the line joining the centres of rotation of the pair of mating gears.
The law of gearing states the condition which must be fulfilled by the gear tooth profiles
to maintain a constant angular velocity ratio between two gears. This is the fundamental
condition which must be satisfied while designing the profiles of the teeth of the gear wheels.
5.5. FORMS OF GEAR TOOTH PROFILE
Two curves of any shape that fulfill the law of gearing can be used as the profiles of teeth.
If profile of the teeth of one of the mating gears is arbitrarily chosen and the profile of teeth
of the other gear is determined so as to satisfy the law of gearing, such teeth are known as
conjugate teeth. Gears having conjugate teeth can be successfully used for transmitting
motion but they are difficult to manufacture as special devices are used for this purpose
which are costly. So conjugate teeth are not much common in use.
Therefore the common forms of teeth profiles used in actual practice are:
(i) Involute tooth profile,
and
Table 5.1 shows the comparison between the involute and cycloidal tooth profiles.
Table 5.1. Involute Vs Cycloldat toot" profile
Involute Tooth Profile
S.No.
1.
the
2.
3.
Interference occurs.
No interference occurs.
4.
Easier to manufacture.
It is difficult to manufacture
and epicycloid are required.
5.
Weaker teeth
6.
Spur
Gears
5.7
2.
5.6.1. Advantages of 14 Va
Involute System
./'
./'
./'
./'
The Table 5.2 shows the standard proportions in module (rn) for the four gear systems.
Table 5.2. Standard proportions of gear systems
Particulars
S.No.
14 YJ composite or full
20 full depth
20 stub involute
involute system
system
I.
Addendum
1m
1m
0.8 m
2.
Dedendum
1.25 m
1.25 m
1m
3.
Working depth
2m
2m
1.6m
4.
2.25 m
2.25 m
1.8 m
s.
Tooth thickness
1.5708 m
1.5708 m
6.
0.25
0.25 m
0.2m
7.
0.4 m
0.4 m
0.4 m
I Examp/~
tin
5.1 lIn
1.5708
III
III
pair of spur gears, the number of teeth on the pinion and the gear
Ctdclllale:
the cemr distance,
(ii) the pilch circle diameters of the pinion and the gear,
(i)
(iii) adtkndulfl
and dedendum,
iv)
= 20 full depth.
Design o/Transmission
5.8
Systelns
@Solution :
(i) Centre distance (a): The centre to centre distance between two gears is given by
= (01 +02)
C
mZI +mz2
2
m(zi +z2)
2
where
6(20+100)
2
360

mm
ns. ~
=
02 =
=
m z2 =
01
and
and
=
=
6 (20)
zi
6 (100)
120 mm
600 mm
Ans. ~
Addendum
1m
1x 6
Dedendum
1.25 m
1.25 x 6 = 7.5 mm
= 6mm
Ans. ~
Ans. ~
bottom clearance
1.5708 m
= 0.25 m
1.5708 x 6
= 0.25
x6
9.4248 mm
1.5 mm
Ans. ~
Ans."
Z2
Gear ratio = 
zi
I Example
5.2
I A pinion
= 
rotates at 200 r.p.m: The module is 4 mm. Calculate the centre distance between the gears.
Given Data:
Tofind:
z)
= 25; N) =
1200 r.p.m.;
N2
= 200 r.p.m.;
e Solution:
Gear ratio, i
Z2
__ z2
z)
6xz)
N) _ 1200
N2
200
150
6x25
Ans. ~
= 4 mm.
Spllr Gears
5.9
I Example
and
C == 495 rnm : i == 45 .
.,
m  6 mm,
@ Solution:
Gear ratio, i ==
centre distance,
z2
zi
== 4 5
.
or z2 == 4.5
zi
and z2)'
zi
... (i)
or 495 = _6_{Z_;_I_+_Z:;:..2)
2
or
... (ii)
Solving equations (i) and (ii), we get
zi
. I Example
== 30 and
z2
== 135
Ans."
~.4 A ~oothed wheel lias 112 teeth. Its module is 1.75 mm: Find pitch
diameter, the circular pitch and the diameteral pitch.
~.JvtData:
,,!.f:'d:
z == 112;
= 1.75 mm.
(i) Pitch diameter (D), (ii) Circular pitch (Pc)' and (iii) Diameteral pitch (pd)'
Solution:
(i) Pitch diameter (D) :
Pc
nD
Z
==
7t
196
112
112
== 5.497 mm
0.57 tooth/mm
Ans.~
Ans."
5.10
../ The plain carbon steels used for medium duty applications are 50 C 8, 45 C 8, 50 C 4
and 55 C 8. For heavy duty applications, alloy steels 40 Cr I, 30 Ni 4 Cr I and 40 Ni 3 Cr 65
Mo 55 are used. For planetary gear trains, alloy steel 35 Ni I Cr 60 is recommended.
(b) Cast iron: ../ It is used extensively as a gear material because of its low cost, good
machinability, and moderate mechanical properties .
../ Generally, large size gears are made of grey cast iron of Grades FG 200, FG 260
FG 350 .
Or
../ Disadvantage:
../ The bronze alloys are either aluminium bronze, manganese bronze, silicon bronze, or
phosphorus bronze.
2.
Nonmetallic
materials:
../
../ Advantages:
like wood,
and
rawhide,
(iii) Damping of
../ Disadvantages:
INote'
(i) Low load carrying capacity; and (ii) Low heat conductivity.
The material for pinion should always be better than the material of the mating gear.
Because the teeth of pinion undergo more number of cycles than those of gear and hence quicker wear.
The properties of the various materials used for the gears are given in Table 5.3.
Table 5.3. Gear materials and their properties (from data book, page no. 1.40)
Tensile
Material
Condition
strength (au)'
Yield point
stress (0,),
N/mm2
N/mm2
BUN
As cast
200
179 min
(ii) Grade 25
As cast
250
197 min
(iii) Grade 35
As cast
350
207 min
(iv) Grade 35
Heat treated
350
300 min
2. Phosphor bronz.e
Sand cast
160
Chill cast
240
70 min
Centrifugal cast
260
90 min
(i)
60 min
5.11
rTensile
"bferia'
Condition
strength (au),
Yield point
stress (0,),
N/mm2
N/mm2
BUN
3 CdSlnls
(i) Grade 1 (i.e., CS 65)
650
400
190 min
710
570
207 min
850
710
248 min
1050
870
31 i min
1250
1020
363 min
Normalised
490
240
137
(ii) C 30
600
300
179
(iii) C 40
"
630
330
217
[iv) C 45
"
700
360
229
750
420
255
4. Fo,,~ SIMs
(.) CtUbtHI stub
(i) C 14, C 15
(v) C 60
Normalised
(i) 40 Cr I
800
540
229 min
(ii) 40 Ni 3
"
900
600
229 min
(iii)40 Ni 2 Cr I Mo 28
"
1175
880
255 min
(iv)40 Cr 2 AI I Mo 18
"
975
700
255 min
The
../
../
../
../
../
Gears can be manufactured by various processes that can be classified under the following
three topics.
1. Gear milling:'/
Almost any tooth can be milled. However only spur, helical and
5.12
2. Gear generating:
,( In the generating process, teeth are formed in a series of passes
by a generating tool shaped somewhat like a mating gear. Either hobs or shapers can be used.
Surface finishes as fine as about 1.6 urn can be obtained.
v" Robbing:
The hob is simply a cutting tool which is shaped like a worm. Hobbing can
produce almost any external tooth form except bevel gear teeth. Hobbing closely controls
tooth spacing, lead, and profile.
~ Shaping: Using a shaper, teeth may be generated with either a pinion cutter or a rack
cutter. They can produce external and internal spur, helical, herringbone, and face gears.
3. Gear molding:
material.
v" Die casting is a similar process using molten metal. Zinc, brass, aluminium,
magnesium gears are made by this process.
v" Sinter;ng is used in small, heavyduty
are mostly used for this process.
and
Thi
deposited
wear is known as
J!!!!_Gears
5. I 3
(6) PiJtillg and spalling : Pi~ing is the process during which small pits are formed on the
active surfaces of gear tooth. It IS a surface fatigue failure which occurs when the load on the
gear tooth exceeds the surface endurance strength of the material.
(c) Scorin.g.or seizure: .Sc~ring ~an OCcur under heavy loads and inadequate lubrication.
At this condition, the lubrication 011 film breaks down and metaltometal contact occurs.
Hence high temperatures result and the mating spots of the two surfaces weld together. This
phenomenon is known as scoring or seizure.
5.11. FORCE ANALYSIS OF SPUR GEARS
The gears in contact are used to transmit power. It is understood that a tooth of driving
gear pushes the tooth of the driven gear in contact. According to the law of gearing, the'
resultant force F should always act along the pressure line, as shown in Fig.S.3(a). We know
that the pressure line is the tangent line which is tangent to base circles of both pinion and
gear.
.'
The resultant force F between mating teeth can be resolved at the pitch point into two
,="
.~IllP
(.
F,
d,
\._
Pitch circle
) (pinion)
lZfFr
Fr~
~Ft
1>('
/' P
d2)
\\
Wheel (
Illg
~;:~rde
.~
_./
(b)
(a)
Fig. 5.3..
t F is a useful component.
The tangential componen
t
. ed
1. Tangential component (F,) :
f F the magnitudes of torque and transnutt
ing the value 0 t'
Because it transmits power. U s
Design o/Transmission
Systeltls
5.14
Let
M,
Pressure angle.
M,
60 x P
27tN
M,
F, =
or
From Fig.5.3(b),
d
F, x 2
2 M,
Radial component, , Fr
F,' tan ~
... (5.5)
... (5.6)
Pitch line velocity (v) is given by
7tdN
60
mls
" P=F,xv,
.. , (5.7)
./
./
./
./
./
As the point of contact moves, the magnitude of resultant force F changes. This
effect is neglected.
.
Spur Gears
5.15
[.rame/~ 5.5 A draft horse walks at a steady pace of 5 miles per hour (lit 2.23 m/s).
What st~ady force must it exert if the power output is exactly 1 horse power (lit 745 W).
Giv~n Data:
Tofmd:
o Solution:
P = F, x v
or
745 = F, x 2.23
Steady force exerted, F,
[xamele
5.6
I A pinion
= 333.37 N Ans. ~
5 kW of power to gear whose pitch diameter is 360 mm. For straight tooth, the angle of
pressure is 20 ~ Determine the tangential force, the transverse or bending force on shafts
d1
120 mm
0.12 m ; N,
900 r.p.rn.;
P = 5 kW
5 x 103 W;
@ Solution:
Gear ratio, i
N2
N, _ d2 _ 360
N2  d ,  120
N,
900
= 3 = 3 = 300 r.p.m.
1td,N,
=
=
60
1t
1td2N2
60
/:. F. and F) .
(i) Tangential and transverse/Drees u.e., t
f.
. d pFxv
We know that the power transmltte,
 ,
3
_ ~ = 5 x 10 = 884.19 N Ans.~
Tangential force, F,  V
5.655
or
.
onent) force is given by
The transverse (i.e., radial comp
_
19 tan 200 = 321.82 N Ans.~
F = F/ x tan ~  884. x
r
'u'r}
{I
'I
Torques on
..
. '
h ft = Torque transmitted by plDlon
Torque on dnvtng s a
:rr.
/
..
= 53.05 Nm
53.05 Nm
60 x 5 x 103
27t X 900
60 x P
= 2 7t N2
Ans. ~
60 x 5 x 103
27t x 300
159.15 Nm
159.15 Nm
Ans. ~
I Example 5.71 A
Also draw a free body diagram of gear 2 showing all the forces which act upon it and
determine the reaction on the idler gear shaft.
y
I,
I
~vt,2 '
b 
Fb2 ,
Fb2
I
I
(a)
(b)
Fig. 5.4.
200;
Scanned by CamScanner
= .~ z2 = 2.5 x SO
= m z3 = 2.5 x 30
75 mm.
= 2.5 mm ;
pur Gears
5.17
. . .
velocity IS given as
me velocity (v) Th
. erefore for pinion 1, th e pitc
. h I'me
_1tdINI
60
VI
= 1t(50 x
103) 1750
60
4.581 m/s
on gear 2
,x v
= f = 2.5 x
or
IS
103
4.581
545.67 N
ADs."
Fr12 = F ,12
tan ~
F'
= _!L
_ 545.67
cos ~ _ cos 200
12
580.69 N
ADs. ~
60 x P
21t NI
[ .: P = 2 1t6~ T ]
60 x 2.5 x 103
21t x 1750
= 13.64 Nm
ADS. ~
Considering gears 2 and 3: Since gear 2 is an idler, it transmits no torque (power) to its
shaft.
Torque transmitted by the gear 2, T 2
= 0
ADS. ~
Since gear 2 is an idler, whatever torque it receives from pinion 1 is transmitted to gear 3.
Therefore, the tangential component between gears 2 and 3 must be equal to the tangential
component between gears 1 and 2, as shown in Fig.5.4(b). Therefore
and
= 545.67 N
F~2
= F~2
F;2
= F~2 = 198.61 N
F32
= 580.69 N
FI2
ADs."
2 1tN3 T3
60
5.18
NIT, = N)T)
or
or
by
Torque transmitted
gear 3, T3 = TI (~:)
[ .: i = ~: = ~ ]
= TI (~~)
T3 = 13.64 (~~)
20.46 Nm
Ans. ~
Reaction on the idler gear shaft: The shaft reactions in the x and y directions are
R~2 = (F~2+F;2)and
R~2 =  (F~2 + F;2 ).
Here ()ve sign is for reaction. Because reaction is always opposite in direction to the
force applied.
R~2
(F'12
+F;2)
(545.67+
198.61) = 347.06N
i ;()~]
I Example
= ~
(R~2 )2 + (R~2 )2
= ...J
(347.06)2 + (347.06)2
= 490.82 N
An5."
and
Fig. 5.5.
w ~ N.
720 r.p.m.;
Zt =
20;
z2 =
q, = 20.
@ So 'ulion: The pitch circle diameters of the gears 1, 2, 3 and 4 are given by
...
SpurGears
5.19
mZI
4 x 20
80mm;
d2 =
mZ2
4 x 50
200 mm ;
d3 =
mZ3
4 x 30
=
=
d4 =
mZ4
4 x 60
240 mm,
dl
60
vI
~ x 80 x 103 x 720
dIN I
60
3.016 mls
(i) Considering gears 1 and 2: The tangential force of gear 1 on gear 2 is given by
I
F 12
vI
5xl03
3.016
1657.86 N Ans. ~
= F;2
F;2
x tan
q, =
603.41 N Ans. ~
F;2
= 
cos
12
1657.86
cos 200
q, =
1764.26 N Ans. ~
Speed of gear 2, N2
Gear ratio,
We know that,
N,
N2
NI
2.5
z2
z,
50
20
720
2.5
2.5
288 r.p.m.
Since gears 2 and 3 are coaxial, the speeds are same i.e., N2 = N3
The pitch line velocity of gear 3 is given by
d3 N3 =
1t
7t
60
v3 =
x 0.12 x 288
60
= N2 = 288 r.p.m.]
= f..
F'
34
v3
5 x 10
1.809
= 2763.10 N Ans. ~
34
F'
34
x tan
q,
1005.69 N Ans.
34 
F;4
= 2763.1
cos cj>
cos 200
2940.43 N Ans.1?
l'
5.20
I Example
5.9
I A train
of spur gears with 200 full depth involute teeth Is showII ill
Fig.5.6. Gear 1is the driving gear and transmits 50 kW power at 300 r.p.m: to the gear
train. The number of teeth on gears 1, 2,3 and., are 30, 60, 25 and 50 respectively, White
the module for all gears is 8 mm. Gears 2 and 3 are mounted on the same shaft. Gear 1 ;,
rotating in a clockwise direction when seen from the left side. Calculate: (i) the tangelltiat
. and radial components of tooth forces between gears 1 and 2, and gear 3 and 4; alld
(ii) draw afree body diagram of forces acting on each gear.
I
I
rI
Fig. 5.6.
Tofind : (i)
F, and F, of tooth forces between gears 1 and 2, and gears 3 and 4; and
=
d3 =
d4 =
d2
m z2
m Z3
m z4
= 8 x 60 = 480 mrn ,.
= 8 x 25 = 200 mm ; and
= 8 x 50 = 400 mm.
Spur Gears
5.21
,.
,
,
 F'

12
12
tan ....
't'
= F;2
cos 't'....
= 13262.9
.cos 200
14114.0SN
F34
NI
gear ratio, i
Speed of gear 2, N2
N2
NI
300
= 2 = T = 150 r.p.m.
Since gears 2 and 3 are coaxial, therefore speeds are same. i.e., N2
= N3.
v3
d3 N3
60
1t
x 0.2~g x 150
1.571 mls
[.,' N3 = N2
= 150 r.p.m.]
We know that the tangential component of tooth force between gears 3 and 4,
,
Design of Transmission Systems
5.22
50 x 103
1.571
31830.99 N Ans."
F34
11585.53 N
ADS. ~
__lL
FI
=
cos <p
31830.99
cos 200
33873.83 N
(ii) Free body diagrams: The free body diagram of forces acting on gears and the shaft
Be is shown in Fig.5.7.
I Example
5.10
(ii) tangential
and
radial
of tooth forces
components
between gearj' 1 and 2, and
gears 3 and 4,' and
200
100
Fig. 5.8.
z,
= 20;
z2 = 100; 13 = 25 ;
P = 12 k W
@ Solution:
12 x 103 W ; <p
= 150'
Z4
= 20
NI
::
1100 r.p.m. ;
2a
(zl+z2)
2
(20
ISO
100
2.5
mZI
2.5x20
SOmm'
Spur Gears
5.23
d2 =
mZ2
= 2.5 x 100
= 250 mm ;
mZ3
= 2.5 x 25
d4 =
mZ4
= 2.5 x 150
= 375 mm.
d3
We know that,
Speed of gear 2, N2 =
Torque on shaft B, (M')B
100
 20  5
Z2
zi
1100
5 = 5 = 220 r.p.m.
NI
60 x P
27t x N2
60 x 12 x J03
2n x 220
150
Z4
 z  25 = 6
60 x 12 x 103
2n x 1100
speed on gear 4, N4
220
NJ
= 6 = 6 = 36.66 r.p.m.
[.: N
2n
=
= N2 = 220 r.p.m.]
N4
3125.22 Nm
Ans.c
"I
_ n diN
60
F~2
= ~
F~2
= F~2 x
==
Scanned by CamScanner
!()3
12
2S
tan.
4166.% N
ADS."C>
4 J 66.96 x tan 20
1516.65 N ADS. ~
5.24
v3
F~2
cos ~
4166.96
cos 200
1t
= 0.72 m/s
Tangential force, F;4
Radial force, F;4
and
P
v3
12xl03
0.72
= F;4 x tan ~
= 16667.86 N
=
ADS.tJ
6066.6 N ADS."
F;4
cos ~
16667.86
= cos 20
17737.56 N ADS. ~
The free body diagram of forces acting on gears and the shaft EF is shown in Fig.5.9.
F'2
lCS$
F~
F'2
F34
F12
Shaft EF
Shaft EF
Spur Gears
5.25
Fig.5.10.
or
(RE)v + (RF)v
F~2 + F;4
(RE)v + (RF)"
1516.65 + 6066.6
7583.25 N
... (i)
or
or
(RF)v
4766.6 N
(RE)v
7583.25  4766.6
... (ii)
2816.63 N
... (iii)
or
(RE)H + (RF)H
F~2 + F~4
(RE)H + (RF)H
20834.82 N
... (iv)
Or
=
=
0
13096.2 N
.,. (v)
5.26
Resultant reaction at bearing E :
RE
= ~ [ (RE)H F + [ (RE)y]2
= ~
8235.3 N Ans. ~
RF
(7738.64)1 + (2816.63)1
= ~ [ (RF)H ]2 + [ (RF)y]2
= ~ (13096.2)1+ (4766.6)1
= 13936.67N Ans. ~
'Example
Fig. 5.11.
zA
Zs
72;
Zc
20;
32;
7.5 kW
7.5
103 W;
Solution:
t:
= m zA =
5 x 72
dB
= m zB =
5 x 20
= ) 00 mm;
de
= mzc
5 x 32
 160 mm.
360 mm ;
and
LEF =
dA +dB
2
360 + 100
2
230 mm
VA
1t
0.360 x 1400
60
26.38 mls
Spur Gears
5.27
vA
and radial force of gear A on gear B, F~
7.5 x 103
= 284.2 N Ans. ~
26.38
=
F~
103.44 N Ans."
x tan
ct>
i'
F AB
F~B
cos
ct>
284.2
cos 200 ::::302.44 N Ans."
"I
Considering gears Band C: Since the gear C (also known as ring gear) is fixed, therefore
forces acting on gear B is same as that of gear A, as shown in Fig.5.12.
(;;) Torque thai the arm EF can deliver to its output shaft: The free body diagram of
forces acting on each gear and arm EF are shown in Fig.5.12.
Arm EF
,
"
Fee = FAa
Gear A
GearC
Fig. 5./1.
568.4 N
0.230 x 568.4
130.73 Nm
ADS. ~
Design of Transmissmn
SYS
.
~
5.28
The frrs. anal sis of gear tooth stresses was done by Wilfred Lewis in J 892. The for
given by Lewis (also known as Lewis equation) still serves. as th~ basis for gearbending stress analysis. In the Lewis analysis, the gear tooth IS considered as a Canti
beam as shown in Fig.5. 13(a).
5.12.1. Assumptions
made
compressive
stresses
v: The tangential component F, is uniformly distributed across the full face Width.
./'
The tangential force F, is applied to the tip of a single tooth. In other Words .
, I
assumed that at any time only one pair of teeth is in, contact and takes the
load.
to
./'
./'
/!...............
/.....
, .'
b."
(F,/b)
,,
,
,:
.'
,:
oa
.:: .'..
r:"
.,., . ..'.: '
f
..
I
.'
.'
/(a)
Th
Fig. 5.13.
(b)
resolved into tw
0 component
.
e tangential component f
s I. e., FI and F
break the tooth
0 tooth force FI induces a b
. ,..
0/.
eanng st ress
The radial
component F indUces
,.
a compressive stress.
0/
Scanned by CamScanner
h.ich tends to
~~~~~
~5~.2~9~
Since the direct compressive stress is very small as compared to the induced bending
therefore the effect of compressive stress on the tooth may be neglected Hence the
streSS'.
'.
.
,
From Fig.5.13(b), it is known that the section XX is the section of maximum stress or the
criticalsection.
Let
= FI x h,
=
=
1 =
Pc
= ~~ ,
= Maximum distance between centre line and the extreme fibre = t 12, and
Circular pitch.
... (i)
Mb
... (ii)
= 112;
= b13/12;
and Mb
F, x h.
or
tangential load, F,
= b .
0b
6 Ft x h
... (iii)
btl
(;2h)
." (iv)
MultiplyiQgthe numerator and denominator on the right hand side by PC' we get
or
(6 ~lpJ
F,
F,
= Pc' b . 0b . Y
e; b "b
... (5.8)
5.30
y
where
(2
6 h p;
constant,
Equation
=
b
F,
Pc' b . y'
is the maximum
I Beam
strength,
F(
7t.
m b
0b' ~
[.:
Pc
= 7t.
m]
... (5.9)
The values of the Lewis form factor (y) are given in Table 5.5.
INote I I.
In order to avoid the breakage of gear tooth due to bending, the beam strength should be
for gear.
(a)
When the same material is used for pinion and gear the pinion is always weaker than the gear.
(b)
y) decide
and gear. The Lewis form factor y is always less for pinion corn pared with gear.
5.13. GEAR BLANK DESIGN
Gear design using Lewis and Buckingham equations (or gear design based on beam
strength), which is recommended
by AGMA (American
Gear Manufacturers
Association);
and
(ii)
Gear design using basic relations (or gear design based on gear life), which is the
conventional method.
EQUA'rIONS
F, = p . b . 0h . Y
. The beam .stren~th is the maximum value of the tangential force that the tooth can trl.lnsmil
WIthout bending failure. Replacing F by F o by [].
.
I
S'
b
cr b ' ' we get
,
.>I
Spur Gears
5.31
=
F, =
Fs =
crb =
[ crb ] =
Fs
where
[ crb ]
::::::
=
Pc =
y* =
b
P: b . [crb] . y
7t.
m b [crb]
.y
... [.: Pc
= 7t m]
3
Face width,
Circular pitch =
7t.
m, and
The value of Lewis form factor (y) in terms of number of teeth is expressed as follows
(fromdata book, page no.8.50) :
y = 0.124  (0.684Iz), for 14~0 full depth involute system
The following table shows the values of allowable static stresses for the different gear
materials.
Table 5.4. Values of allowable static stresses
Material
56
70
105
140
196
126
224
350
460
Bronze
84
56
Note that we have two types of form factors, viz., form factor based on circular pitch (y) and form factor
f
,
~5.~J2~
TlIb/~ 5.5. Fomt/tlclor
II:

10FD
20 stub
0.330
0.380
0.454
40
0.336
0.389
0.459
0.339
45
0.340
0.399
0.468
0.295
0.360
50
0.346
0.408
0.474
0.270
0.308
0.377
55
0.352
0.415
0.480
20
0.283
0.320
0.393
60
0.355
0.421
0.484
22
0.292
0.330
0.404
65
0.358
0.425
0.488
24
0.302
0.337
0.411
70
0.360
0.429
0.493
26
0.308
0.344
0.421
75
0.361
0.433
0.496
28
0.314
0.352
0.430
80
0.363
0.436
0.499
30
0.318
0.358
0.437
90
0.366
0.442
0.503
32
0.322
0.3M
0.443
100
0.368
0.446
0.506
33
0.324
0.367
0.445
200
0.378
0.463
0.524
35
0.327
0.373
0.449
Rack
0.390
0.484
0.550
14 ~ FD
100FD
10 Stub
14 Ya FD
10
0.176
0.201
0.261
37
12
0.192
0.226
0.289
14
0.236
0.276
16
0.255
18
For ordinary and commercially cut gears made with form cutters and with v < 10
m/s:
3
c =
3+v
(ii)
For accurately hob bed and generated gears with v < 20 mls :
6
c,
(iii)
6+v
For precision gears with shaving, grinding and lapping operations and with v> 20
mls:
Cv
0.75
1 + v + 0.25
F,
Cv
... (5.10)
Sp~0~e=a~N~
~~
5.33
Ko
v
where
... (5.]1)
v
Ko
= Service or shock factor, from Table 5.6, to account for shock loading.
Table 5.6. Service I Shock factor
Type of load
Ko
Steady
1.0
Light shock
Medium
Heavy
INote'
1.25
shock
1.5
shock
2.0
If the starting and rated torques. data are given in the problem, then service factor can be
calcuJated as below.
.
Starting torque
Service or shock factor, Ko = R ated torque
For example, the starting torque of motor is 140% of the rated torque, then service factor, Ko = 1.4.
5.17. DYNAMIC TOOTH LOAD (Buckingham's
In addition to the static load due to power transmission, there are dynamic loads between
the meshing teeth. The dynamic loads are due to the following reasons:
Let
./
./
./
Elasticity of parts,
./
./
./
FJ
Scanned by CamScanner
Design of Transmission
SysletnJ
5.34
Then,
Dynamic load
Fd
F, + FI
The incremental load (FI) depends upon the pitch line velocity, the face width, material of
the gears, the accuracy of cut and the tangential
Buckingham
load given by
is
21 v (be + F,)
FI =
2 I v + ...J be + F,
where
A deformation factor (e) depends upon the tooth form, the material of the gears, and the
expected error in tooth profile. Consulting Tables 5.7(a) and b) the def rmati n value c can
be found.
Table 5.. (b) Expected error (e) In
Maltrial
form
100111
of pinion
and gur
N/mm
14.5
profiles. ;11 mm
Firil clUJ
artfully
commer'cis]
cut gurl
57.0 c
00
114.tO c
oe
depth
MI5
gun
O.OI2~
78 0 c
~I iron
20 full
Prtcllion
o.
I
00
12~
Ol~
0.017
I iron
0.019
"
O.020~
4""
84 0
modul
In order
agar
l
111
III
on it
an
av id fai Iurc
f ear
of Module)
rh,
m d Ie alue. The
~~:.:a~n

~~
5.35
J
i.e.,
Module, m ~
F(
CV X 7t X
... (5.13)
b x [ ob ] x y
Choice
I, 1.25, 1.5,2,2.5,3,4,5,
Choice
3.5,4.5,5.5,
3.25,3.75,6.5
7, 9, II, 14, 18
The failure of the gear tooth is mostly because of wear between two meshing teeth. For
example, pitting is a surface fatigue failure. In order to avoid this type of failure, the
proportions of the gear tooth and surface properties, such as surface hardness, should be
selectedin such a way that the wear strength of the gear tooth is more than the effective load
betweenthe meshing teeth.
The maximum wear load (or wear strength of the gear tooth) mainly depends upon the
radii of curvature of the tooth profiles and surface fatigue limits of the materials. Therefore
themaximum or the limiting wear load of gear tooth is given by
I Fw =
where
d) b Q. Kw
... (5.14)
Fw
d)
Ratio factor
2x i
=
= i+1
=
2x i
iI
where
Z
p
2zg
, for external gears
Zg +zp
2Z
Zg
g .,
zp
... (5.15a)
.. , (5.15b)
z/zp, and
(J..+_l)
f;ssinq,
1.4
Ep
Eg
... 5.16)
where
Table 5.9,
q, =
Ep and Eg =
endurance limit (f es) for steel may also be obtained by using the relation
f es =
... (5.17)
and Kw
Kw for 14 Yz
f es
Material
Pinion
f es
N/mml
Gear
Kw for 200 FD
FD
N/mml
N/mm1
Steel
Steel
150 BHN
342
0.206
0.282
250BHN
618
0.673
0.919
400BHN
1030
1.869
2.553
342
0.303
0.414
618
1.0
1.31
445
0.503
0.689
549
1.05
1.42
Cast iron
Steel
150 BHN
Cast iron
Steel
250BHN
Bronze
Steel
200BHN
Cast iron
Cast iron
Nonmetal
Metal
1.4
2
zmi" = sin2 ~'
Y
where ~
Pressure angle.
~lY
./
ZI ~
./ z, ~ 32,
and
. .. (5.18)
~~
~S.~37~
Ii
WI
in terms 0 module In
ractice,the optImal range of face width is
.
p
8 m < b < 12 m
f "'1
11'
... (5.19)
However, or imtia ca cu ations of gear design, face width is assumed as ten times of
module (i.e., assume b = 10 m).
5.22. fACTOR OF SAFETY
(i) Factor of safety for bending:
_ Beam strength of gear tooth
Fs
(F . Sknding  Dynamic load on gear tooth  Fd
The recommended factor of safety for bending is between 1.5 to 2.
(;;)Factor of safety for pitting:
_ Wear strength of gear tooth
Fw
(F . S) pnnng
..
 0 ynarmc. Ioad on gear tooth  Fd
'" (5.20)
... (5.21)
The gear is designed on the basis of beam strength using Lewis equation and checked for
dynamicloading and limit wear loading using Buckingham's equation.
1. Selection of material:
If not given, select a suitable pinion and gear materials,
referringTable 5.3.
2. Calculation of z 1 and z 2 :
/ Ifnot given assume number of teeth on pinion zl ~ 7, say 18.
/
Z2
F,
where
= ;
Ko
Where
.I ..
FI
Fd
= 
. Cv
be
5.38
Calculate
where
F,
1t. m . b . [ crb ] . y
Module in mm,
[ crb]
b = lOx module,
6. Calculation of module (m) : Since the gear is designed on the basis of beam strength,
therefore
Then select the nearest higher standard module value from Table 5.8.
7. Calculation of b, d and v :
b
./
./
./
Find
m oi
pitc hi' me ve I'ocity ()v :
10m
d 1= Z . m
l I
1td60
N
Recalculate
of the gear
F,
9.
1t. m . b . [ crb] . Y
accurately
using Buckingham's
where
In calculating
F +F
Deformation
by neglecting
the dynamic
21 v (be + Ft)
F + ;::=====
tit
load more
the dynamic
21 v + '.} be + F,
P/v.
./
or both. Usually, to reduce the dynamic load (F d)' the gear should be carefully cut
(i.e., to reduce the deformation factor (cj), Even for precision gears, F d > Fs' then
increase the face width, till F d < F s:
~~a~n
~5'23~9
where
Q = Rauo eractor
2i
2 z2
= "+ I
 z +
I
K,
z2
,an d
Compare the calculated values of dynamic load (Fd) and wear strength (Fw)'
./
If Fd < Fw' then the gear tooth has adequate wear capacity and it will not wear out.
Thus the design is safe and satisfactory.
13. Calculation of basic dimensions of pinion and gear: Calculate all the basic
dimensions of pinion and gear using the relations listed in Table 5.10.
Table 5.10. Basic dimensions of spur gears (from data book, page no. 8.22)
Nomenclature
Notation
Formula
Module
2 a / (z, + z2)
Centre distance
m (z, + z2) / 2
fo
Height factor
fo = I, for
Bottom clearance
Tooth depth
In,
2.25
for stub
m,
dl
Tip diameter
da
dal
mz,;
(z,
d2
+ 2/0) m ;
do2 = (z2 +
df
Root diameter
dfl
d
f2
mZ2
(z,
= (z2 
2/0> m.
2/0)
In
2c;
2/0> m  2c.
. d
h weaker of the two gears.
is applie to t e
. .
Id b
.
te of tile same material, then tile puuon shou e
2. When both the pillion and II.e gear are mac, .,
mpared with gear therefore the pinion is
'.
.
.
I
less
for
pmlon
co
.'
designed. Since the Lewis factor y IS a ways
[Note
I I. The
Lewis equation
]
decid
the weaker between pinion
roduct [ob
x y eCI es
3. When different materials are use , t e p . .
d [
]
for the gear are calculated. Tile
0b2 Y2
and gear. That is, the product [obI ] YI fior the pinion. an
element which has lower I ub I y va lue s h uld be designed.
d
5.40
I Example
Given Data:
P = 4? kW;
5.12 Design a spur gear drive required to transmit 451flr at a pinion sPeed
of 800 r.p.m: TI,e velocity ratio is 3.5 : 1. The teeth are 200 f u/l depth involute with 18 teeth
on the pinion. Both the pinion and gear are made of steel with a maximum safe static stress
of 180 Nlmm2. Assume medium shock conditions.
[ 0b ] =
i = 3.5;
N, = 800 r.p.m.;
<I>
20;
Zt
=:
18 .,
180 Nzmm.'
Tofind:
Solution:
Since both the pinion and gear are made of the same material, the pinion is
weaker than the gear. So we have to design only pinion.
1. Selection of material: Given that the pinion and gear are made of steel. Assume steel
is hardened to 200 BHN.
2. Calculation of z, and
Z2:
... (Given)
= i x zl =
3.5 x 18
63
3. Calculation of F, :
Tangential load, F,
= v xK
1td1N1
where
1txmz1xNt
60
60 x 1000
1t X m x 18 x 800
60 x 1000
0.754 m
45 x 10 x 1.25
0.754 m
74603
F,
= C
v
where
Cv
6
6 + v' for accurately hob bed and generated gears with v < 20 m/s
=:
Fd
6
6 + 12
:: 0.333
74603
m
1
x 0.333
223809
In
~::e=~~s
_J~
5.41
5. Calculation of Fs :
Fs =
Beam strength,
where
7t
=
=
=
=
m . b . [ 0b ] . y
Face width = 10 x m
... (assume)
Form factor
0.154  (0.912 1 Z I), for 200 full depth system
0.154(0.912/18)
= 0.1033
7tXmxl0mxI80xO.l033
F, 
= 584.15m2
6it \mL:.
m2
~84.15
If\.
or
module, m ~ 7.26 mm
From Table 5.8, the nearest higher standard module value under choice 1 is 8 mm.
7. Calculation of b, d and v :
b
= 10 x 8 = 80 mm
d , = m zl = 8 x 18 =
10 x m
'"
.;
.;
1t
d1 Nl
60
Fs =
=
where
F,
P
v
45 x 103
6.03
Deformation
= 11860
6.03 mls
m . b . [ (J b ] Y
1t.
1t X
7t
144 mm
21 v (be + Ft)
F, + 21 v + '.} be + F,
7462.68 N,
e, for 200 FD, steel and steel, from Table 5.7(a), and
e = 0.038, for module upto 8 and carefully cut gears, from Table 5.7(b).
Then ,
50908.19 N
Scanned by CamScanner
5.42
11860 x e
v
= 32920.46 N
Now we find F d < Fs' It means, the &~~ft~olh
Fw =
Q
where
~y
= Ratio factor
2i
i + T
2 x 3.5
3.5 + 1
= 1.555, and
12. Check/or wear: Since Fd > Fw, the design is unsatisfactory. That is, dynamic load is
greater than the wear load.
In order to increase the wear load (Fw)' we have to increase the hardness (BHN). So now
for steel hardened to 400 BHN, K, = 2.553 N/mm2, from Table 5.9.
..
Fw
= 45733.42 N
Now we find Fw> F d" It means, the gear tooth has adequate wear capacity and it will not
wear out. Therefore the design is satisfactory.
13. Basic dimensions of pinion and gear: Refer Table 5.10 .
m = 8 mm .
../
Module:
./
Number of teeth :
= 18 and
./
d1
d2 =
./
Centre distance:
144 mm;
m z2
63
and
= 8 x 63 = 504 mm
m(zl+z2)
=
42 =
= 8 (18 + 63)
2
= 324 mm
,__ . t,t~
5.43
./
Face width:
./
Height factor :
./
Bottom clearance:
./
Tip diameter :
b = 80mm
10
d.01
=
=
~zl+2fo)m
d02
(~2 + :]. 0)
dfl
(zl2fo)m2c
(18  2 x l) 8  2 x 2
4/2
=
=
0.25 m
0.25 x
(l8+2x
(63 + 2 x 1) 8
! m
(z2  2
8 = 2 mm
f 0) m 
= 160mm;and
1)8
520 mm.
124 mm;
and
2c
= (63: 2 x 1) 8  2 x 2 = 484
mm
Given Data:
T(1find:
@ Solution:
evaluate [crbl
",,(i
Gear ratio, i
= Nt =
N2
1200
300
to
= 4
Assume zi = 18.
Z2
i x z,
4 x 18 = 72
z, = 18, and
Form factor, Y,
y,
0.270
112 x 7t
Forpinion:
[ crbl ]
For gear :
Form factor, Y 2
= 9.625
h = 56 N/mm2,
...
[ ... y 1]
YI
7t
= 72, and
Y2
= ]7t .
We find [ crb2 ] Y2 < [ crbl ] YI i.e., the gear is weaker than the pinion. Therefore, we have
.
eSIgnthe
gear only.
tod
'J
,n'
1. Material selection:
Pinion:
C 30 Forged steel;
Gear:
and
Cast iron.
... (given
a
375
or
= m (18 + 72)
2
or
Module, m
8.333
From Table 5.8, the nearest higher standard module under choice 1 is 10 mm.
10 x m
10 x 10
../
../
../
,.,
l'
= 'It
'It.
d2 
d2 N2
60
=
m .b.[
.z,  10 x 18 = 180 mm
m . Z2
'It
]
CJh 2'
x 103
, = fv _ IS11.31
) :
d
FI +
= 11.31 m/s
Y2
5. Cal.
'It
20160 N
21 v (be + FI)
21 v + \} be + F,
= 1326.26
N,
c ;::
Then ,
100 mrn
2'
where
../
Vi
Scanned by CamScanner
Spur Gears
5.45
dI x bx Q
Kill
K,,,
2x4  I6
4+1
 .,an
Fw
8. Check forwear:
28800 N
We find Fw > Fd" It means, the gear tooth has adequate wear
capacity and it will not wear out. Therefore the design is satisfactory.
9. Basic dimensions of pinion and gear: Refer Table 5.10 .
../ Module: m = 10 mm
../ Number of teeth: z. = 18, and Z2 = 72.
d1 = 180 mm, and d2
./
Centre distance:
../
Face width:
../
../
Bottom clearance:
../
Tip diameter:
= 375
c = 0.25 m
dOl
df
Root diameter:
mm .
100 mm .
d 02
../
= 720 mm
=
=
I =
0.25 x 9
2.25 mm
139.5 mm;
and
(z22fo)m2c
(72'2 x 1)92x2.2S
= ~~5mm.
(Example 5.14 , A bronze spur pinion rotating at 600 r.p.m: drives a cast iron gear at a
trow .....
rlllis of 4: 1. AIIoNIIIIW slatic stress for pinion and gear are 85 and 105
N~
r5/M!Ctively. TM pilliIJ. has 22 stQfHl4l~d20 0full dt!pJj~ ;IW~
uel& The power
Ir.... i*ed is 32 kW. The sill/ace elldluallCe linUJ for Ihe gear pair is 520 NI"".2, modulus
of el_icily of Ihe pillUM ",,*,iaJ is 1.2 x 11J5NI"",,1 aIIII that of gear is 1 x 1fJ,5 NI"""z. If
t~ Sllll'tu., I#WI is 25% ,..,e ,... tile IMIIII tlNt, desig", tile gear drive completely.
Given Dala: NI = 600 rp.m.;
i = 4; [O'bl]
= 85 Nzmm": [O'b2] = 105 N/mm2 ;
z,
==
E 2 J
....
22;
q, =
200,
x ]05 N/mm2;
Ko
.
Starting torque
Service factor = Rated torque
32 kW;
fes
520 N/mm2;
EI
=]
.25.
25~.4~8
~~.=~~~~~ __~~~
D_e_si~gn~of_Tl_t_an_s_m_~_s_io_n_S~~_~/~ern~s
Given that il
For pinion:
22; and
:1== , ':1 == 4 x 22
Forth factor,
..
88.
===
r 0bi])it
Yt = ~]
n
= OA40, for %2 = 88 (by interpolation), from Table ~.5.
Y2
[crlJ2]Y:Z
= 8.93 N/mm2
== 8S x 0.330
== lOS xQA4
[ .,'
== 14.7N/mm2
We find [obI] YI < [ 0621 'vi' i.e., the pinion is weaker than the gear. Therefore we have
to design the pinion only.
1. MateridJ
seuato
zi
= 22; and
z2
= 88.
3. Calculation of FI :
p
Tangential load, F/ = v
where
Ko
F/
Ko
1txmztxNt
60 x 1000
1t x m x 22 x 600
60 x 1000
Starting torque
Mean torque
0.691 m
_
 1.25
ClI
F/
clI
Fd =
6
6 + 12
57874.52
m
0.333
1
x 0.333
173797.37
m
~~Ge~a~~s ~~~~~5_.4_7
::r;
5. Calculation of
r,:
Beam strength, F,
1t.
Face width == 10 x m
where
m . b [ ObI]
YI .
;.. (assume)
Fs
0.154(0.912/22)
= 1tXmx
"'=
0;1125
IOmx85xO.1125
300.41",2
Fs ~ Fd
We know that,
300.41
or
m2
173797.37
Module, m ~ 8.33
From Table 5.8, the nearest higher standard module under choice 1 is 10 mm,
7. Calculation b, d and v :
./
b=10m
Facewidth(b):
./
lOx 10=100mm
Pitch circle diameter (d 1): d 1 = m . Z1 = lOx 22 = 220 mm
./
v =
1t dl
1t.
1tX
NI
60
1t
m . b . [ 0b]
.Y
lOx 100x85xO.1125
30041.48N
21 v (be + F,)
Dynamic load, Fd = F +
,
21 v + \} be + F,
where
F, =
e
32 x 103
v 6.91
4629.96 N,
~ 8150e,
Then,
Fd = 4629.96 +
= 27166.59 N
We find Fs> Fd" It means, the gear tooth has adequate beam strength and It WIll not fail
by breakage. Therefore the design is satisfactory.
11. Calculation of maximum wear load (Fw) :
where
K",
= dl x
bxQx
Kw
2i
2x4
+ 1 = 1.6, and
= Ratio factor = i + I = 4
[1Ep + Eg1 ]
/2 . sin,
's 1.4
[.:
1.211 N/mm2
/ ~S'
42627.2 N
12. Check for wear: We find F,.. > F d" It means, the gear t
capacity and it will not wear out. Therefore the design is satisfactory.
/3. BlISic
~lISiDlIS
./
Module: m
./
Number of teeth:
./
= 10 mm
'I = 22;
and
'2 = 88
d, = 220 mm'
and d2
= ", .;;
= 10
88
= 880
10 (22 + 88)
= 550 mm
dOl =
./
Root diameter :
dill
dfJ
(z I  2 /0) m  2 c
(22  2 x I) 10  2 x 2.5
195 mm'
d 12 = (z2  2 /0) m  2 c
= (88  2
I) 10  2
2.5
855
BUD.
and
mm
~S~.4~9
a cast iron gear. Tile pinion rotating at
700r.p.m. transmits 5 k ~ to a gear. Th~ velocity ratio is 3, the teeth are 200 full depth, and
d is smooth. Design tire gear drive. Take the allowable static stress for bakelite as
tht I.,..
40NI",nr2
Given J)ata: N.
= 700
P = 5 kW;
r.p.m.;
; = 3; ~ = 20;
[ob]
40 N/m~2.
18; and z2
= ;
F,
3. Calculation of F, :
where
xK
= v
1t
54.
d. N.
60
= 0.66
Ko
3 x 18
. .. (Given)
1txmxz.xNI
60 x 1000
1t
m x 18 x 700
60 x 1000
F,
4. Calculation initial F d:
Fd
where
clI
5 x 103
7578.81
0.66 m x 1 =
m
F,
clI
V e IOCIity f:actor  10.75
+ V + 0 .,25 for nonmetallic gears
1+5
_L_
7578.81
x 0.375
= 20210.16
where
F,
1t.
Face width
m .b .[
(Jb ] . y
.., (assume)
= 10m
=
Fs
0.154(0.912/18)
= 1t
=
= 0.1033
m x 10m x 40 x 0.1033
129.85 m2
(Given)
0/ module:
We know that, Fs
129.85 m2
or
Module,
Fd:
20210.16
m
m ~ 5.38
From Table 5.8, the nearest higher standard module under choice]
is 6 mm.
7. Calculation of b, d and v :
b = 10m
./
Face width:
./
./
= lOx 6
d1
m zl
1td1 Nl
v =
60
60 mm
6 x 18 = 108 mm
1t
 3.96 mls
F,
1tmb[crb]y
= 1t
6 x 60 x 40 x 0.1033
4673.18 N
equation
for dynamic
load is not applicable to nonmetallic gears. Therefore the dynamic load for nonmetallic
can be calculated as
Fd
F,
Cv
F, = v =
where
c,
5 x 10
= 1262.62 N, and
3.96
. c.
( 0.75 )
V e Iocrty
tactor = 1 + v + 0.25
0.75 )
( 1 + 3.96
+ 0.25 = 0.4012
Fd =
gear
1262.62
0.4012
3147.12 N
Kill
Fw =
Q x K,
R . f
2 i
atro actor = i + 1
Load stress factor
2x3

3+1
1.5, and
j'l
5.51
Spur Gears
, I
12. Checkfor
the
design
wear:
./
Number of teeth :
ZI
Centre distance:
./
Face width:
./
Height factor:
./
Bottom clearance:
./
Tip diameter:
d2 = m . z2
6 x 54
= 324 mm.
a =
216 mm
60 mm
f0= I
c = 0.25
III
= 0.25
x 6
1.5 mm
Root diameter:
df2
I Example
satisfactory.
m = 6 mm
./
./
IS
= (z2 + 2 f 0) m
= (z I  2 f 0) m
= (z22fo)m
II
and
(I 8  2 x I) 6
96 mm ; and
(542x
312mm.
1)6
with 200full depth involute teeth. The 'input shaft rotates at 1440 r.p.m. and receives 10 kW
power through a flexible coupdng .. TIre speed of output shaft should be approximately 180
r.p.m. All the gears are made of plain steel 45 C 8 (a"l = 700 Nlmm2). Tire service factor
can be taken as 1.5.
Given Data: $ = 200;
Tofind:
NI
,1440 r.p.m.;
P = 10 kW; N4
180 r.p.m,;
Ko = 1.5.
Solution:
The layout of
gears is shown in Fig.5.14. For"
ease of manufacturing,
the
pinions I arid 3 are made'
identical, while gears 2 and 4 are
also exactly 'identical.
Fig. 5.14.
~~
~D~e~sl~.gn~O~if~v~~_a_n_s_n_l~_s_i_o_n_S~~_st_~
~.52
Total transmission ratio, if
==
1440
180
==
i
Assume
zl
18...
z2
==
Zl
As stated earlier,
Z2
:::::5 J.
N2
and
= N,
N3 = N2
N.
xG:)
= 1440GD
= 508.23
r.p.m.
N3 (;~)
508.23 x
= 508.23
(!D
r.p.rn,
. .. (Given)
be designed.
1. Material: Given that the pinion and gear are made of alloy steel. Since both gears are
3. Calculation of F( :
where
FI = ~
v
Ko
1t X
m x z) x
N)
60 x 1000
x 18 x 508.23
60 x 1000
IT X Tn
0.479 m, and
Ko = 1.5.
F(
10 x 103
31315.24
0.479 m x 1.5 =
Fd
= .:
Cv
where
.)
= Velocity factor = _]___ =
= 0.375,
3+v
3+5
31315.2i
83507.3
Fd =
x
=
m
0.375
m
Cv
assuming
=5
.,
~~

~5~.5~3~
F,
7t.
m . b . [ 0b ] . Y
b = Face width
where
[ ab]
F,
Allowable
Form factor
0.154(0.912/18)
tt x m x
6. Calculation of module:
757.22
m2
10 rn,
... (assume)
ai'
static stress
7~0
233.33 N/mm2,
and
0.1033
IOmx233.33xO.1033
We know that, F s
757.22m2
F d:
83507.3
In
or
m ~ 4.79
Module,
From Table 5.8, the nearest higher standard module under choicel is 5 mm.
7. Calculation of b, d and v :
/'
./
10 x 5. = 50 mm.
d3
10 m
./
m z3
7t d3 N3
60
5 x 18
90 mm
7t x 90 x 103 x 508.23
60
Ii
2.395 mls
i' I
F s = 7t X m . b . [ a b
] .
7tx5x50x233.33xO.l033
18930.44 N
10 x 103
2.395
where
e
Fd
'j
21 v + \} be + F(
4175.36 N,
Deformation
0.025, for carefully cut gears and module upto 5 mm, from Table 5.7(b).
c = 11860
Then ,
= F, +
load, F d
Dynamic
4175.36
9254.76 N
5 4
:?..(0. Chec*/or ben'" strength (or tootl' breakage) :
fi d F ,. F
We nn
o :
i+1 ~ 0
Q ~ Ratio factor ~
where
~
2 . Z4
BJ:IN
1.478, and
18 + 51
J2. Check/or wear: We find F", > F d' therefore t/.e design is satisftlCtOry.
Module:
./
Face width:
../
Height factor:
,f
Bottom clearance:
b == 50 mm
f 0 ==
Number of teeth :
1
c ~ 0.25 rn ~ 0.25 x
z. :::Z3 ==
1.25 DIm
18.
al
a3 zl+2!0)'" = (18+2
Tip diameter'
d == d  (
.:
,f
./
Root ,diameter:
mm
1)5=100
d i 1 == d f 3 == (z 1  2 f 0) m  2 c
== (18  2 xl) 5  2 x 1.25 = 77.5 mm
Number of teeth : Zi == Z4 = 51
./
.,f
Pitch
circle
diameter:
./
TIp
dIameter:
Root diame.tcn:
d 2 == d 4  5 x 51
d
da 2 == dda4 f2
/4
255 mm
Z2
_. (51  2 xl) 5  2 x 1 25 .
 242.5 mm
II. GEA
R DES.IGN BASED
iscussed In
i S ection
.
5.17
. mg
. . teeth.
e are dynamic loads betw een ,m
addition
to the st aftc ,oad due t 0 power
themesh.
transmission,
~~S
~5~.5~5
~
M/
[M/]
K . Kd
M/
Pinion torque
(5.22)'
60 x P
2 1t N '
P = Power transmitted,
N
Speed of pinion,
Kd
Dynamic
IlIp= bid}
Asymmetrical
Over hung pinion
0.2
0.4
1.05
1.04
1.1
1.15
1.22
0.6
0.8
1.0
1.2
1.03
1.08
1.06
1.13
1.16
1.22
1.32
1.45
1.1
1.29
1.14
1.18 .
1.23
1.36
1.4
1.6
1.19
1.29
1.25
1.35
1.45
1.55
ds
Table 5.12. Dynamic load factor, Kit (from data book, page
IS Quality
.._
Cylindrical
gear
.._

r.
10
t
Conical
gear
Pinion
surface
hardness
HB
110.
Bevel
8.J 6)
1.0
3.0
8.0
12.0
3.0
8.0
12.0
18.0
< 350
1.2
1.4
1.1
1.2
> 350
1.2
1.3
1.0
1.1
< 350
1.25
1.45
1.2
1.3
> 350
1.2
1.3
1.1
1.2
< 350
1.35
1.55
1.1
1.3
1.4
> 350
1.3
1.4
1.1
1.2
1.3
< 350
1.1
1.45

1.2
1.4
> 350
1.4
1.2
1.3
s 350
1.2
8
10
I'
).

5.25. INDU
.
(.
modified LewIS equa
di stress equatIon i.e.,
Lnducedben mg
by
iI
==
a . m . b y
where
[M,l
fi
y (from data book, page no. 8.18)
Table 5.13. Form actor,
I Noiil
5.26.
... (5.23)
y
0.308
35
0.452
12
0.330
40
0.465
14
16
0.355
45
0.471
18
0.377
50
0.477
20
0.389
60
0.490
22
0.402
80
0.499
24
0.414
100
0.505
26
0.427
150
0.515
28
0.434
300
0.521
30
0.440
Rack
0.550
a" ]
As discussed in Section 5.10, the tooth breakage is caused by fatigue due to repeated
bending stresses. Therefore permissible bending stress should be determined on the basis of
endurance limit and is given by
where
1.4
Kb/
n
Ka x
x
_1 ,
0_1,
Kb/
Ka
and
... (5.24)
5.57
Table 5. U. Life factor for bemllng, Kb/ (from datu book, page no. 8.10)
Material
Surface hardness
Life in number of
HB
cycles, N
s 350
~ 10'
Steel"
~ 25 x
10'
< 25
10'
Cast Iron
10'
<
> 350
Kb/
~ 10' IN
0.7
~IO'/N
If the case hardness HB > 350 and the core hardness HB < 350, then the coefficient
~IO'/N
Kb/
Table 5.15. Stress concentration factor for fillet, Ka (from data book, page no. 8.19)
Material and Heat Treatment
Steel, normalised, surface hardened
1.5
1.2
Cast iron
1.2
Table 5.16. Endurance limit, u_I (from data book, page 110.8.19)
a_I' Endurance
Material
Forged steels
Cast steels
Alloy steels
0.35 au + 120
0.45 all
Cast iron
INote I
au 
N/mm2
Table 5.17. Factor of safety, n (from data book, page no. 8.19)
Material
Mode of
manufacture
Heat treatment
Factor ofsafety, n
Steel,
Cast
No heat treatment
2.5
Cast iron
Cast
Tempered or normalised
2.0
Steel
Cast or Forged
Case hardened
2.0
Forged
Surface hardened
2.5
Normalised
2.0
5.58_~~....:.:!~~
== CB x HB x KcI
... (5.25)
== CR x HRC x KcI
C and C
where
Coefficients
depending
on the material
Heat treatment
Material
Coefficient
Co or CR
HB S 350
Cs =2.5
any type
Normalised or
Hardened and
Tempered
Case Hardened
HRC == 55 to 63
CR == 31
Alloy steels
Case Hardened
HRC
55 to 63
CR 28
Case Hardened
HRC == 55 to 63
CR =22
Hardened and
Tempered
HRC  40 to 55
CR = 26.5
Surface Hardened
HRC  40 to 55
CR = 23
HB
170 to 200
Cs
2.0
HB
200 to 260
CB
2.3
Surface Hardness
Life factor
HB
KcI
~ 107
Steel
< 107
Steel
S 350
~ 25
If)7
<25
107
~ 107 IN
0.585
> 350
~
107 IN
107 IN
Cast iron
...
Spur Gears
5.59
o = 0.74 i I "'
where
= Gear ratio
Nl
= z2
N2
zl'
Eeq [M,}
... (5.26)
I i 1 x
\j i b
and
2 El . E2
EI + E2 '
... (5.26a)
Pinion
Tensile
Young's
Material
Equivalent
EI,
modulus
Material
au'
strength
N/mm2
N/mm2
Steel
2.15
lOS
N/mm2
105
2.15x
s 280
1.1 x
105
1.46
105
> 280
1.4 x
105
1.7
lOS
1.2
105
1.55
lOS
7 x 103
1.36
105
Nylon
of materials,
N/mm2
105
Bronze
modulus E.
2.15 x
Steel
CI
Young's
Young's
modulus E2,
i 1
074
.  a
i1
ib
Eeq
[M,]
[ crc ]
By rearranging, we get
Centre distance, a ~ (i + 1)
.. , (5.27)
5.60
...::.:::..:......
Design
S"SI'e'lis
_:;_:__~ of Transmisstnn
_::_:::..:..=.:::.:...:::!_J'
where
[ O'c]
= ~
\jI
Table 5.21. Width to centre distance ratio, f// (from data book, page
110.
8.14)
'" = b I (/
0.1 to 0.3
upto 0.3
upto 0.6
upto 1.0
I Note I
0.12toO.15
N,
z2
 N2  zl
1
If gear ratio is not specified, it may be assumed to be unity. In case of multistage speed
reducers, the sped ratio may be selected from R 20 series.
2. Selection of materials:
[ Mt]
where
= Mt
K . Kd
.
60 x p
Transmitted torque = 2 7t N '
,,L
Since datas are inadequate to select the values ofK and K,b initially assume K Kd::::
(The above details are taken from data book, page no.8.15.)
I.3.
5.61
IrS
I uel :
Tofilld
].
1 =
where CB or CR
CB HB . Kc/ or
[CJc]
= CR . HRC . Kc/
HB or HRC
KcI
The above relations are taken from data book, page no.8.16.
Calculate the centre distance between gears based
on surfacecompressive strength using the relation
a~
where
(i+I)
\V
Eeq [MIl
i\V
[CJc]
z2
i x zi
2a
(zi + z2)
Using the calculated module value, choose the nearest higher standard module from
TableS.S.
. 9. Revision of centre distance (a) : Using the chosen standard module, revise the centre
distance value (a).
m (zi
+ z2)
b = \V a.
=
.,
"
0.74)2
m z).
./
b
d
11. Selection of quality of gears: Knowing the pitch line velocity (v) and consulting
Table 5.22, select a suitable quality of gear.
Table 5.22. Penpheral speed of gear (from data book, page
110.
8.3)
Straight bevel
IS quality
Preferred quality
Cylindrical gears
High precision
3&4
Above 15
upto 9
Precision
5&6
8 15
upto6
18
upto 3
. 7,8,&9
Medium
Coarse
10 & 12
upto 1
10, 12
gears
upto 2
revise the value of dynamic load factor (Kd) from Table 5.12.
,/ Revise I Mil: Using the revised values of K and Kd, calculate the revised design
torque [Mt]
= M, . K . Kd.
./
a~~b?Y
[M/]
],
refer step 5. If
0b
0b
s [0b l. then
0b ].
For
c
./
il
0.74 ;;
\j ib
],
Eeq [Mt]
A/il
0c
0c
0c ],
0c ].
For the
5.63
pinion.
./'
If the materials for pinion and gear are different, design the pinion first and check both
pinion and gear.
/
O"b2
YI and'Y2
./
./
(ii)
= Induced
O"b2
],
(Jb2
[(Jb2],
and
Table 5.16.
consulting
(Jb2 ].
./
the induced contact stress will be same for pinion and wheel.
./
./
bending
stress
O"c2
i.e.,
O"c2
= (Jc'
in step 5.
stress [ (Jc2 ]. If
I)
,17.
of pinion
anti gear:
Calculate
dImensionsof pinion and gear using the relations listed in Table 5.10.
[xample 5.17] In a spur gear drive for a stone
el
;te . Tlte pinion is transmitting 30 kW {It 1200 r.p.m.
lOursper d.ay, SIX
',1
D'estgn
u(IYS a week and for 3years.
Given Data:
TOjilld
SOlul'
lher f
e Ore
,,
I(
III
C 40 steel; P
= 30
= 3.
0 .
!
I
1011:
We J
II
(i.e., C 40 steel),
fl
,~r
r
5.64
Design of Transmission
1. Gear ratio:
= 3.
SYSletns
... (Given)
2. Material selection:
'" (Given)
3. Gearlife: Given that the gear i.s to work 8 hours per day, six days a week; and for 3
years. Therefore gear life in terms of hours is given by
Gear life
8 x (52 x 6) x 3
449280 x
N I = 449280
x 1200
= 53.9 x
107 cycles.
K . Kd .
MI"
where M,
60 x P
, 60 x 30 x 103
= 238.73 Nm
21t NI = 21t x 1200
x,
1.3.
[ M,]
I ub I:
[ab
where
Kb/
1.4
Eeq
]
is given by
Kb/
n . Ka
0.7 for HB > 350 and N ;:::25 x 107, from Table 5.14,
2, for steel tempered, from Table 5.17,
au ==
Q'
I
630 N/mm
= 0.35 x 630
+ 120
== 340.5 N/mm2
Then,
==
1.4 x 0.7
2 x 1.5 x 340.5
==
111.23 N/mm2
__ (iii) Tofind
[(Jc]
CR
where
_25~.6~5
26.5, for C 40 steel hardened and tempered, from Table 5.18, and
:c
HRC
[ CJ,]
26.5 x 55 x 0.585
852.64 N/mm2
We know that, a ~ (i + 1)
'V
where
[c ]
Eeq [M/]
i'V
0.3
3
( 0.74 )
852.64
a ~ (3 + 1)
..
r
2
7. Selection of z, and
Z2:
z2
= i .ZI
3 x 17 = 51.
We know that,
.f
P'rtch diameter
.
2
V
b ==
\jJ'
== OJ
170mm
0/
0/
\V:.E_
P
d
06
 .,
x 170 = 51 rnm
d I  m . Z I
f pm
.. IOn (d)'I'
= ~85
and 'lip:
1t
S(l7+Sl}
2
dl NI
60
= 5 x 17
1t
= 85 mm
60
Design"
. ol"Transmission~
/ I S~/eclionof qualtty 0 g
locity 5 34 mis, IS quality g
ear:
. 8 ears are selected.
. Table 5.22, for pI'tchof.line
ve OCI 1M. I:
rom
= 0.6 an d ror
~
12.
F RI!.IS'
. Oil 0'~ design 10rguI! of gear
.;
./
Revise
. K'
Revise
Kd: From
From Table 5.11, for 'l'p
8, HB > 350
K,,= 1.4.
v"
,.
Re.lSe
I'
v::::
5.3
MI x K x K"
238.73 x 1.03 x 1.4 _
344.24 Nm
Db:
crh:::
Where Y = Fonn ,actor ',
c:
and
x [MIl
(i+l)
amb.y
0366
I'
forz
SlIIisfactory.
cr = 170)( 5)(
51I))( 0.366
(3 +
 )( 344.24 x 103 = 86.78 Nlmm2
ti.e.,
86. 78
Nlmm2 <: 111.23 Nlmm2). Therefore Ilze desigll i
i+l ~ !i+l
e
cr = 0.74 ;;"
V ib x Eeq
3+I
170
Qnd Satisfactory.
= 0.74 x
::: 765.9 N1mm2
[Mil
3+I
;
J
3x 51 )( 2.15)( 10 )( 344.24 x 10
.; We find cr <: ( cr J (i.e., 765.9 Nlmm2 <: 152.64 N1mm2). Therefore Ilze design is safe
J S. .;Ctl/culation
pinion mid gear:
MOdule: Of hasic dilllensions
III = Of
5 mm
V
Face Width:
Height factor:
wi'
Bottom clearance:
Tooth depth :
.;
Refer Table 5. I O.
h :::::51mb)
fo
d,
h
tl2
===
Spur Gears
~
5.67
Tip diameter:
Root diameter :
dfJ
= (z I  2 /0)
= 72.5 mm;
m ._ 2 c
265 mm.
(17  2 x I) 5  2 x 1.25
and
df2 .= (z22/0)m2c
= (512x
1)52x.1.25'
242.5 mm
(LYole In the above problem, both gears are made of same material. Hence design of pinion alone
is sufficient. So, we need not to check for gear.
IA
[Example 5.18
3 kW to a cast steel spur wheel. The gear ratio is 2.25. The tooth profile is 200 full depth
involute. Design the gears and check for stresses.
Given Data:
Tofind:
ZI
= 24;
NI
~ = 200
Since the pinion and gear are made of same material, (i.e., cast steel),
tfierefore we have to do the design of pinion alone. Assuming the gear life, say 20000 hrs, the
given gears are designed in the same manner as solved in Example 5.17.
@) Solution:
I Example
I Design
5.19
reduction is 2.5. Materials for pinion anti wheel are C 15 steel and cast iron grade 30
respectively. Take pressure angle of 200 and working life of the gears as 10000 hrs.
Given Data: P = 22.5 kW; N I = 900 r.p.m.; i = 2.5; ~ = 200; N = 10000' hrs.
To find:
@)Solution : Since the materials for pinion and wheel are different, therefo_re we have
to design the pinion first and check both pinion' and wheel.
... (Given)
i = 2.5
1. Gear ratio:
2. Material selection:
Pinion:
Wheel:
3. Gear life:
... (Given
10000 hrs
... (Given)
IS
10000 x 60 x 900
given by
54 x 107 cycles
I Mil:
[M,]
M,
K . Kd
__ _::D:...::e:::.s::.!::ig::....no~ifT.,.ans.mis.sio_n..:S~i)'sle",
..:!.
:
5.68

M,
where
= 238.73
Nm, and
= 1.3
K . Kd
... (assume)
..
60 x P = 60 x 22.5 x 10
21t x 900
21tNI
Eeq
= 1.7 x 10 N/mm .
1.4 x Kb/
n . Ka
x a_I'
..
assuming rotation
s 350)
111
one
di
rrectron only .
/
/
/
/
From Table 5.16, for forged steel, a_I = 0.25 (all + ay) + 50.
= 490 N/mm2
factor, Ka = 1.2.
au
:.
a_I
Then,
(iii) To jind
I D"cl:
1.4 x 1
2 x 1.2 x 232.5
135.625 N/mm2
[ac]
where
Kef
[ac J = 22 x 63 x 0.585
= 810.81 N/mm2
(i+l)
a;?:
\jJ
= a
== 0.3
a ~ (2.5 + I)
~
... (assumed
initially)
0.74 ) 2
1.7 x 105 x 310.35 x' 103
( 81 0.81
x 2.5......:x::....:0:...:.:..:.:3:...::._:...:_:..;:_
~~~
__ ________________________________~
7. Tofind
%/
lind
__
9
Z2 :
..
We know that,
II
I
11
V'P:
./
./
./
'Vp
47.25
= ~
d,
1tdl Nl
60
= 5x
Ill' zl
1t X
18 = 90 mm,
90 xlO3 x 900
60
= 4.24
m/s.
0.525.
..
I Mt I :
= 0.525,
./
./
Revise Kd: From Table 5.12, for IS quality 8 and v = 4.24 mIs, Kd = 1.4.
./
Revise
I Mtl:.
[M/]
K ~ 1.03.
= MI' K . Kd
=
O'b :.
(i + I)
(Jb
Where
'.
(Jb
'" We find
.....
CJb
= a. m . b . y
[Mt]
Form factor
0.377, for zi
(2.5 + 1) x 344.24 x 10
157.5 x 5 x 47.25 x 0.377
= 85:89 Nzrnm"
~~
_D~e~s./~g~n~O~if~TJ~r~a_n_s_m_i_ss_i_o_n_S~~~
~.'70
14. Check/or wearstrength:
./ Calculation0/ induced contact st_re_s_s,_O"c:
_i+1
0.74 ;
CJc =
../ We find
2.5 + I )
0.74 ( 157.5
684.76 N/mm2
< [oc]'
CJ
i+1
Tb_X_E_eq_[_M_,_]~
(2.5
+ 1 ) x 1.7 x 105 x 344.24 x 103
2.5 x 47.25
CI grade 30.
NI
I
Wheel speed :
Life of wheel =
To find

I ublwheeJ
900
2.5
360 r.p.m.
= 21.6'
x 107 cycles
[ CJb ]wheel
1.4 x KbI
n .K
x
CJ_I'
only.
\]"W ~
./
./
./
../
Kb/
107
2l.6 x 107
= 0.918 .
Then,
To find
I Uc lwheel
C
1.4 x 0.918
2 x 1.2
x 130.5 = 69.88 N/mm2
[ CJc ]wheel
where
23
.,
CB HB . Kc/
:.[cr]
c wheel
\fW =
2.3
107
21.6xl07
= 0.879, for cast iron, from Table 5.19.
260 x 0.879 = 525.64 N/mm2
6
~.
Spur Gears
5.71
where
O"hl x YI
= O"h2 X Y2
and O"h2
O"hl
YI and Y2
From Table 5.13,
Y2
O"hl
85.89 x 0.377
or
../
O"h2
=
=
=
=
0.471, for z2
= 45.
= 0.377
0.471
68.75 Nzmm?
(iii) Check for wear strength: Since contact areais same, therefore
= 684.76
CJ
wheel
= CJe pinion
Nzrnm, Here CJe wheel> [ CJe ]wheel' It means, wheel does not have the required
wear resistance. So, in order to decrease the induced contact stress, increase the face width
(b) value 'or in order to increase the design contact stress, increase the surface hardness, say to
340 HB. Increasing the surface hardness will give [ CJe ] = 2.3 x 340 x 0.879 = 687.34
N/mm2, Now we find CJc < [CJc J. SO the design is safe and satisfactory.
16. Calculation of basic dimensions of pin ion and wheel : Refer Table 5.10.
m = 5 mm
./
Module:
./
Face width:
./
Height factor:
./
Bottom clearance:
./
Tooth depth:
./
b = 47.25 mm
/0=
c = 0.25 m
h = 2.25 m
=
d,
d2
./
Tip diameter:
dal
Root diameter:
x 5 = 1.25 mm
2.25 x 5 = 11.25 mm .
= m z, = 5 x 18 = 90 mm; and
= m . z2 = 5 x 45 = 225 mm,
= (z I + 2 f 0) m = (18 + 2 x l) 5 = 100 mm
+ 2 f 0) m
= (45 + 2 xl)
(z2
dfl
=
=
(18  2 x l ) 5  2 x 1.25
df2
=
=
=
(45  2 x 1) 5  2 x 1.25
da2
./
= 0.25
______
5 = 235 mm
(zl2/0)m2c
(z2 
= 77.5
mm; and
2 /0) m  2 c
__
= 212.5
,~,.T~_~_.
mm
; and
5.72
5.31. CHECK FOR PLASTIC DEFORMATION
overloa ds
se
on
Let
o b max
torque,
di
(il)
Idnuce db en mgstress=ambY[Mt],
0b=
I . .
60 x P
M t = N omma pimon torque = 2 1t N '
[Mt ]max
=
=
bmax
Compare
b max
0b
2 Mt,
[Mt ]max
Mt
... (5.28)
s [ o b ]max
0b
Material
No heat treatment
Steel
0.8 cry
HB < 350
Heat treated
0.36
Steel
HB> 350
Cast Iron
cU I K (J
0.60u
Let
c max
= p
Scanned by CamScanner
I i ib1
\j
x Eeq [M t ]
..
ermissible contact stress, from Table 5.24.
torque
'
"
5.73
Spur Gea,.,5
Table 5.24. Permissible contact stress
Material
Steel
HB
Steel
HB > 350
42 HRC
Cast Iron
HB s 350
1.8 all
s 350
[ M,
8.21)
I 0e Imax N/mm2
Surface Hardness
3.1 0y
]ma.x
c max = c
110.
... (5.29)
If 0c max <
[Oc ]maJP
I Example
transmit 8 kW from a shaft rotating lit 1200 r.p.m. to a low speed shaft, with a reductionof
3: 1. Assume that the teeth are 200 full depth involute, with 24 teeth 011 tll.e pinion. The
pinion is to be of 4i}C 8 normalized steel and gear of 30 C 8 normalized steel. Assume that
the starting torque is 130% of the rated torque.
"Given Data:
P = 8 kW; N, = 1200 r.p.m. ; i = 3 ; ~ = 20 ; = 24 ;
z,
Starting torque
=3
... (Given)
2. Material selection:
3. Gear life:
Pinion
Gear
30 C 8 normalized steel.
... (Given)
:. N = 20000 x 60 x 1200
4. Design torque
I Md:
[ Mt]
where
K
x K x Kd
60 x 8 x 103
21t x 1200 = 63.66 Nm, and
M,
60 x P
21t N,
x,
1.3
63.66 x 1.3
[Mt]
5. Calculation of Eeq,
= M,
....
= 82.76
Nm
= 2.15
(Assume)
Design of Transmission
5.74
,/
Kbl
s 350
1, for steel HB
,/
,/
Ka
,/
a_I
[ab
372 N/mm2.
(iii) Tofllld
Where
".
l.4xl
stress, [a
J=C
['.'
au
720 N/rnrn2]
x HB x KcI
1<",
[ ac
(JUi_)
V [a
? (3 + I)
x E q [M
'JI
7. Given that z,
V(~;n
c
:. z2 = i z, = 3
= 24.
24 = 72.
_ ~ x 110
z, + zl  24 + 72
10. Calculatio"
0"
b d
..,
,/
",.
'"
,VQIf
f11::::
_.
mill.
'11.
P'p.
I 0 mrn
.t'
dule,
IjJP
..t.  60
~
= d
l
v=6lJ!
=~
60
::::0.6
3 77 m/s
22 t4
From Table 5
.
, Or
SY.S"
v ::::J. 77 mls
IS quality 8
Spur Gears
5.75
1M,I:
\jI
== 0.6, K == 1.03.
[M/]
== M I KK
S;
CJb
==
i+1
a m . b . y [M/]
0.414, for
CJb
(3 + 1)
.
120 x 2.5 x 36 x 0.4]4 x ]01.63 x ]03
where
..
We find
< [ CJb
CJb
].
Zt
90.9 N/mm2
We find
CJc
i+]
~i+]
0.74  a
1
0.74(31;0 )
701.71 N/mm2
:b
I
x Eeq [M]I
(::3]6)X2.15X]05XI01.63XI03
Rated torque
63.66 Nm
..
[M,]max
1.3 x 63.66
= 1.3 x M,
= 82.758 Nm
I given by
CJb
max =
CJb
[M/]max
M,
82.758
90.9 x 63.66
 11817NI
2
.
mm
[.:
CJb =
90.9 N/mm2]
From Table 5.23, for steel HB ~ 350, permissible bending stress is given by
[ CJb
Since
]max
< [IT)
Vb
mllx'
[.:
CJy
= 540 N/mm2]
5.76
(ii) Check for wear strength: Induced contact stress due to maximum instantaneou
torque is given by
[ M, ]max
O'c
max
O'c X
82.758
701.71 x 63.66
M,
912.22 N/mm
s 350, permissible
x540 = 1674N/mm2
[O'c]max
Since
O'c
max
3.10'y
<[
O'c
3.1
]max '
also.
16. Basic dimensions of pinion and gear: Refer Table 5.10 .
m = 2.5 mm
.,/
Module:
.,/
Face width:
.,/
Height factor:
.,/
.,/
.,/
.,/
.,/
b = 36 mm
/0
Bottom clearance:
=1
Tip diameter:
Root diameter:
(zi + 2 f 0) m
=
=
(24 + 2 xl)
2.5
= 65 mm
(72 + 2 xl)
2.5
= 185 mm.
do2
=
=
(z2 + 2
dfl
(zi  2 f 0) m  2 c
(24  2 xl)
df2
=
=
dOl
(z2  2
f 0) m
2.5  2 x 0.625
f 0) m 
and
2c
= (72
 2
= 53.75 mm
~ and
; and
1) 2.S  2 x 0.625
= 173.75 mm.
I Example
5.21
I Design
'peed ratio of 3. The starting torque is 50% more than the mean torque. Assume suitable
1If/IJerials.
Given Data:
Tofind:
12 kW;
NI
1440 r.p.m.;
i = 3;
[M, ]max
= 1.5 M,.
e Solution:
Material selection:
Take same materials for both pinion and gear. Assume case twdened
Spur Gears
5.77
Now the problem is very similar to the previous problem. So proceed this problem as
discussed in Example 5.20.
I
I,
Since the starting torque value is given, therefore the design should be checked for plastic
deformation without fail.
I!
I'
I
I'
I,
I
I,
ADDITIONAL
In gears, the load (torque, stress or power) generally varies over period of operation. A
gear is generally subjected to higher load in the beginning of a day and then it oper utes at
various levels of lower loads. The number of cycles spent during high loads may be small.
However for designing the gears, the highest load should be considered. Fig.S.IS depicts the
variation of load as function of time.
When the load comprises of a maximum sustained torque MIl acting for (I hours at a mean
speed of N I and small sustained torques Ma, Mt3,
acting for (2' 13, ... hours, at
mean speeds ofN2, N3, ..... , then the equivalent number of loading cycles is given as
60
where
Neq
= 3
Mtl
MIl
t1
3
M/i
Ii
Ni
... (5.30)
t2
r
Mt1
Mt3
_t
Mt2
t3
Mt4
Neq
while calculating
life
~
"
~~~~~~
( E.cample5.11
I If
service life is to be 95,750 hours. The mean utiliz~tion of the machine ti"'.e is 0.35. 'lire
driv trallSmits maximum sustained torque Mil durmg 0.15 top; 0.6 Mil dUring 0.5 topa"d
0.1 Mil during 0.35 top where topis the total operating time, constituting 0.25 of the cYcle
time. If the speed of drive is 700 r.p.m., find the equivalent number of cycles at lire
maximum sustained load
N = 95,750
0.25 x cycle time; N 1 = N2
Given Data:
top
Tofind:
hours;
= N3 =
Mean utilization
700 r.p.m.
of machine
time
0.35
Solution:
Neq
3
~
(i)
Nt It
Mli
MIl
Mil
Cycle time
95,750 x 0.35
where
33512.5 hours
... (Given)
60
Neq = M3
N I . II + Ma . N2 . 12 + M/3 . N3 . 13 ]
[Mil'
II
where
Ma
0.6 Mil;
II
0.15 lop
12
= 0.5
lop
13 = 0.35 lop
NI = N2
..
60
Neq = 3
MIl
... (Given)
0.15 x 8378.125
0.35 x 8378.125
= N3 =
=
=
1256.72 hours;
2932.34 hours;
and
700 r.p.m.
+ (0.6 M/I)3 x
700 x 4189.06 +
(0.2 Mil?
or
I Example
5.23
I In a nonreversible
x 700 x 2932.34 ]
Ans."
20 hours per day, transmitting power in the following manner: (i) 3.5 kW for 4 seconds,
550 times a day, (ii) 1.2 kW for remaining day and (iii) 5.25 kW maximum (i.e., momentary
peak load) all at a constant speed of 50 r.p.m. Take the life of the gears is to be 8 years.
LiJllr Gears
5.79
P2 = 1.2 kW.
P
'
_
,"cu 
5.25 kW ; NI =
N2
= Nmax = SO r.p.m.
eq
where
Mil
 M3
II
Mil'
60 x PI
2 7t NI
Ma =
60 x P2
2 7t NI
II .
N 1+ M3 . I
N ]
12
60 x 3.5 x I03
27t x 50
668.45 Nm
60 x 1.2 x 103
27t x 50
229.18 Nm
[Maximum torque]
4 seconds,
12
NI
N2
Neq
60
(668.45)3
II
50 r.p.m.
[(668.45)3 x 0.61 x 50 + (229.18)3 x 19.39 x 50]
INote I In order to design the gear drive for the above problems, one has to use the following tips:
./
Mil
From the given momentary peak load, P",ax = 5.25 kW, calculate the momentary peak
60 x 5.25 x 103 = 1002.68 Nm. Use this
. momentary peak torque
torque, M, max e =
27t x 50
M
to check for plastic deformation.
I
max
The reliability
5.80 .
KR
0.90
0.85
0.99
1.00
Fewerthan
0.999
1.25
0.9999
1.50
Requirements
of application
where
KR
b ]
I KR;
c]
I KR.
and
... (5.31)
... (5.32)
I Example
5.24
I Assume
the data of Example 5.17, for the 90% reliability, design the
gear drive.
Given Data:
To find:
Reliability
90%
0.90.
@) Solution:
./
The gear ratio, material selection, gear life, and design torque are same as in
Example 5.17 .
./
Calculation of
[ crb]
111.23 N/mm
and [ere]
=
Ie]
852.64 N/mm2
111.23
0.85
852.64 _
0.85  1003 N/mm
130.86 N/mm2,
and
Use this modified [ erb ] and [ ere ] values to calculate centre distance (a), and to
check for bending and wear strength .
./'
Then proceed the design in the same manner as discussed in Example 5.17.
~5.~8~1
:
i:
10
II .
I' ht
owing, rg
Use negative sign in the induced contact stress formula. Now equation (5.26)
becomes
c = 0 74
C
./
ith
WI
L=J.
.... Ii  1
a \j i b
x Eeq [M I ]
... (5.33)
Similarly use negative sign in the induced bending stress formula also. Now
equation (5.23) becomes
iI
crb
./
... (5.34)
a m . b . Y [Ml]
(z2Zt)m
... (5.35)
The design procedure for nonmetallic gears are as same as that for metallic gears .
./
Table 5.26. Design bending stress/or nonmetallic materials (from (lata book, page no. 8.20)
Material
( Gb
I, N/mm2
Textolite
50
36
Plastics
60
Bakelite
56
lli'ot~ ./ The design bending stress [ crb ] for nonmetallic materials can also be calculated by
using therelation [crb]
Where
= au / n.
Readerscan refer Example 5.15, to clearly understand the design steps of nonmetallic gear.
~
~5.82
D_e=sl~gn:=o:if=Tl=~=a=ns=m=,=s~si~o~nSYSt "!"_1tIs
......
====~~R~EV~I~EW~A;NnDisOiUMMiMM,AAlR~Y'./
./
In spur gears, the teeth are straight and parallel to the axis of the wheel .
./
./
Law of gearing states that for obtaining a constant velocity ratio, at any instant of teeth
the common normal at each point of contact should always pass through a pitch point .
./
./
Standard systems of gear tooth: (i) 14 VJ composite, OJ) 14 Y2full depth involute
,
(iii) 20 full depth involute, and (iv) 20 stub involute system .
./
Gear materials: 1. Metallic materials  steel, cast iron, bronze, etc; and 2. Nonmetallic
materials  wood, rawhide, compressed paper, bakelite, etc .
./
Gear manufacturing:
1. Gear milling; 2. Gear generation
shaping; and 3. Gear molding.
./
./
"
pttting
an d scoring.
of gears
Q10e
includes
hobbing and
F,
Ij
= F, x tan
equation:
F,
m = module,
Face width
= 10 x module
./
Fd
::
F +
I

where c  D.I'.
 eJormation factor.
21 v
(be
+ FJ
21 v + \} be + FI
Spur Gears
5.83
where
./
2i
i+1
Ratio factor
s;
Load stressfactor
 
j2
=
Lr Ep1
sin t/J
es 1.4
1 ]
+ Eg
Factor of safety:
(F . shendillg
8 m < b < 12 m.
./
zJ;?
.;
When both pinion and gear are made of the same material, then pinion should be
designed. When different materials are used, the product [ ab 1 .y decides the weaker
between pinion and gear. The element which has lower [ ab
designed .
.;
1x
y value should
be
2. Calculate
Fs"
Design procedure:
3. Calculate accurate Fd; 4. Check for beam strength (or tooth breakage) (F" 5 F..):
5. Calculate Fw;
6. Check for wear (Fd < F,j; and 7. Calculate basic dimensions
./
Design torque:
./
./
M, . K . Kd
i:t1 b .y [Ml ,
a . 111
ab =
[ ab 1
1.4 Kbl
n. K
x a_I'
(1
=
./
./
./
Centre distance:
ac = 0.74 ;;[(J'cl
~ /i+1
\j ib
= CB x HB x KcJ
a ~ (i + 1)
x Eeq
or [(J'cl
0.74)2
( [ (J'c1
[Mfl
CR x /IRe x KcJ
x Eeq.[ M,l
I
IJI
of
t::
D_e_'7s_ign=_;of:......_1J_ra_'_Js_m
SYstetn,s
5.S4~
Design procedure:
J. Select material,' 2. Calculate design torque; 3. Calculate desi
stress [ a" i and [ ac t. 4. Determine centre distance,' 5. Calculate module; 6. Checlc
bending (a"
r'
s [ a" l):
JO,.
deformation (if required); and 9, Calculate basic dimensions of pinion and gear .
./' If the material is same for both pinion and gear, only the pinion is designed If th
materials are different, pinion is designed and checks are carried out for both Pinio;
and gear .
./'
At the end cf this chapter, the special topics such as gear design for variable loadin
gear design with reliability factors, design of internal gears, and design of nonmelal/~
gears are 'also presented.
REVIEW QUESTIONS
I.
State the advantages and limitations of gear drive over belt and chain drives,
2.
3.
How can you classify gears? What different types of teeth are used in gears?
4.
Make a neat sketch of a gear and indicate the terminology used for it.
5.
Explain the following terms: (i) module, (ii) pressure angle, (iii) circular pitch, and
(iv) pitch point.
6.
7,
8.
9.
by AGMA.
cycles when gears are subjected
~~~~
~5~.8~5~
PROBLEMS FORPRACnCE
Problemon basic dimensions of spur gear:
I. In a pair of spur gears, the number of teeth on the pinion and the gear are 20 and ') 20
respectively ..The mod~le is 4 mm. If the pressure angle is 20 full depth, calculate : (i)
the centre distance, (II) the pitch circle diameters of the pinion and gear, (iii) the
addendum and dedendum, (iv) the tooth thickness, (v) the bottom clearance, and (vi) the
gear ratio.
[Ans: (i) 280 mm; (ii) 80 mm and 480 rnrn; (iii) 4 mm and 5 mm; (iv) 6.2832 mm;
(v) 1 mm; and (vi) 6]
A pinion of 100 mm pitch diameter, running at 1000 r.p.m. transmits 6.25 kW of power
to gear whose pitch diameter is 300 mm. For straight tooth the angle of pressure is 20.
Determine the tangential force, the transverse or bending force on shafts and torques on
driving and driven shafts.
[Ans: 1193.75 N; 434.43 N; 119.375 Nm; 358.125 Nm]
3. A pinion driving.a gear about 1110 of its speed transmits 20 kW of power at 2000 r.p.m.
The number of teeth for a full depth pinion of addendum equal to module should be such
that undercutting by a rack cutter is eliminated. The pressure angle is 20. The sum of
teeth on pinion and gear is required to be 200 while module is 5 mm. Calculate:
(i) number of teeth on pinion and gear; (ii) actual gear ratio; (iii) pitch circle diameters of
pinion and gear; (iv) tangential force; (v) radial force; and (vi) torque on driving shaft.
[Ans: (i) 18 and 182; (ii) 10.111; (iii) 90 mm and 910 mm; (iv) 2120 N; (v) 772 N;
(vi) 95.5 Nm]
4.
= 47746.48
Nmm; (M,>S
Fig. 5.16.
= 0; (M,)c = 63661.98
I
i.I
t,
.j
5.

__ ~~~~~~~~
'an
Pinion 1 rotates at 1440 r.p.m. 10
anticlockwise direction when. observed
from the left side and transmits 10 kW
power t 0 the gear train '. The pressure
angle is 20. Calculate:
(I) the
tangential and radial components of
tooth forces between gears 1 and 2, and
gears 3 and 4; and (ii) the resultant
reactions at bearing E and F. Also draw
a free body diagram of the gear tooth
175
200
100
Fig. 5.17.
.1._

forces.
6.
r'
= 603.41
= 482.73
N; (RF)H
N; F;4
= 2542.06
5 N]
N; (RF)y  1086.1
Design the 20 full depth teeth of a pair of gears to transmit a smooth continuous load of
30 kW at 1200 r.p.m. of the 20tooth pinion. The velocity ratio is 3 and the material is to
be steel. The surface of the teeth may be heat treated as needed for wear.
8.
mounted on the same bed. Speed of the motor is 1440 r.p.m. Speed reduction desi~;
10 : 1. Motor power 35 kW. The gears are to have 200 pressure angle. Both the pml
and gear are made of steel with a maximum safe static stress of 180 N/mm2.
Spur Gears
5.87
9.
~T'
L
300mm
'"'l.
~
'f_JL.<.:
tf.
.
~.'

"
5.88
.
. 28 kW at 900 r.p.rn. Speed reduction is 2.5. Material
.
.
'ear
drive
to
transmit
18. Design 8 SpUIg ,
I d
t .ron grade 30. Take pressure angle as 20
for pinion and wheel are CIS stee an cas I
and working life of gears as 10,000 hours.
.
A motor shaft at 1440 r.p.m. is required to transmit 8 kW to.another shaft with a speed
19. reduction of 3 : 1. The starting torque may be taken as 40% hlghe.r than the ~e~n torque.
The gears are made of heat treated steel and the shaft of mild steel. PInion has a
minimum of 20 teeth. Design the gear drive.
Problems 011 gear design for variable loading :
20. The gear drive in a hoisting machine transmits maximum sustained torque M I during 0.2
lop; 0.4 Mil during 0.4 lop and 0.2 MIl during 0.4 lop where lop is the total operating time,
constituting OJ of the cycle time. The mean utilization of the machine time is 0.35. The
required service life is to be 100,000 hours. Find the equivalent number of cycles at the
maximum sustained load, speed being 750 r.p.m.
[Ails: 10.81 x 107 cycles]
21. In a nonreversible type rolling mill drive, a gear is designed to run 20 hours per day,
transmitting power in the following manner: (i) 2000 W: normally (ii) 5420 W for 4
seconds, 550 times a day, (iii) 7900 W maximum (momentary peak load) all at a
constant speed of 45 r.p.m. The life of the gears is to be 7 years. Determine the
equivalent number of cycles at the maximum sustained load. [Ans: 12.5 x 106 cycles]
Problem on gear desigll considering reliability factor:
22. A 3.5 k~ gas turbine running at 1400 r.p.m. will be used to drive the generator at 500
r.p.m. A life of SO hours with 99% reliability is required. Design the spur gear pair.
Helical Gears
"Sixty years ago I knew everything; now I know nothing;
education is a progressive discovery of our own ignorance ."
 Durant, Will
wheel an~~~ed
6.1.~es
on the other.
of Helical
~1.
Ge,J
There are three mam reasons why helical gears are preferred than spur gears. They are :
1. JYgise : Helical gears produce less noise than spur gears of. equivalent quality because
the tota\ contact ratio is increased. That is, at any time more than one pair of teeth (upto 10
\
pairs ofteeth) are in engagement. Since more teeth are in contact simultaneously, the load is
transferred gradually and uniformly as successive teeth come into engagement. Thus helical
gears operate more smoothly.
I
a...
_b_I
'd_/
T
Single line of
contact
~~
(a)
I
__
Face width _
Multiple
contact lines
(b)
Fig. 6.2.
~~
~D~e~S~ign~o~if_TJ_~_unsm_I.~U~fu~n~Sy
~.2
J. Manufacturing:
of Helical Gears
.
the ~is of rotation, helical gears are subjected to a\'i.1
are me me 0
.'.
~
~~ ~t
load can be eliminated by usmg Herrmgbone (I.e., doub~
th are i I' d t
helical) gears. ~
1. P,
, ~"'Ii
./
./
The magnitude of the helix angle is the same for the pinion and the gear.
./
They have opposite hand of the helix. i.e., a right hand pinion meshes with a left
hand gear and vice versa.
./
./
OF HELICAL
:~ \_
GEARS
The geometry of a helical gear is shown in Fig.6.3: Thereare three waysto view the/teeth
on the rack. They are :
1. Transverse direction: If the teeth are viewed in the direction of motion of the rack (as
shown in Section AA of Fig.6.3), then the orientation is called as the transverse dirtdion.
When considered in the transverse plane (that is, a plane perpendicular to the axis of the
gear), all helical gear geometry is identical to that for spur gears.
2. Normal direction: If the teeth are viewed in a direction that is aligned with the slant of
the teeth (as shown in Section BB of Fig.6.3), then the orientation is called as the nornuU
direction.
3. Axial direction: If the teeth are viewed in the direction of the axis of the rack or gear,
then the orientation is called as the axial direction.
Let
p =
Helix angle,
Pn
Po
= Axial pitch,
Pd
Diametral pitch,
at and an
6.3
m,
and mn 
The various terms used in the study of helical gears have been explained below.
(PJ : The
Pt
1t d 1
1t.
ml
= . zl
....., .. :
., p~
=. ~.
cos ,...'
...(6.1). .
b
(a)
Basic rack
circular pitch.
Pn = P I
cos
5. Axial pitch
A
I'
n.. mn,
... (6.2)
(b)
=  PI
tan
J3
=  Pn
sin
J3
1t mn
. A
stu I'
3)
(6.
(e)
6. Normal diametral pitel. (p,J: The reciprocal. of the normal module is ,knoWnas
normal dlametral pilch.
'" (6.4)
(aJ : The
an'
by the equation
an
tanat
tan
cos J3
... (6.5)
./
d2
J3) Z I
cos J3) z2
(Inn / cos
= (mn
10. Centre distance (a) : The centre to centre distance between gears is given by the
relation
... (6.6)
... (6.7)
In the design of helical gears, an imaginary (virtual) spur gear is considered in normal
plane (i.e., plane AA). This spur gear is called a 'virtual' or 'formative' spur gear. The
number of teeth on the virtual spur gear in the normal plane is known as virtual or formative
or equivalent number of teeth. It is given by
\
... (6.8)
where
J3 
This virtual number of teeth value i~.useful during both designing and manufacturing (in
cutter selection) of helical teeth.
6.5. FACE WIDTH OF HELICAL GE~RS (b)
For smooth and continuous operation of the helical gears, it is recommended that the face
width is greater th~ the axial pitch.
Helical Gears
6.5
i.e.,
b ~
In practice,
b = 10 mn
::=
1t.
Pa or b ~
mn
sm
... (6.9)
15 to 250
./
 25 to 40 for herringbone
../
Addendum, maximum
../
Dedendum, minimum
 mn
../
Tooth depth
2.25 mn
../
Minimum clearance
0.2mn
../
Thickness of tooth
1.5708 mn
o.s ,
Nomenclature
Notation
Units
I.
Normal module
mn
mm
2.
Transverse module
ml
mm
3.
Centre distance
mm
4.
Height factor
10
5.
Bottom clearance
mm
Formula
ml
mn
cos P
(..)
x (Zl.+ z2)
cos p
2
7.
mm
Tooth depth
diameter
mm
10
1;
0.25 mn
2a
zl +z2
10
=
6.
2a ) x cos
zl + z2
J3 s:::dZ
mn
d1
d2
1.9 mn,
mn
cos
mn
x
cos
x zi ; and
p
.
zi.
Design
6.6
S.No.
8.
Notation
Nomenclature
(Addendum
9.
Units
mm
Tip diameter
mm
(~J} +2/0) m
(c::f3 + 2/0)
dal
d a2
dfl
dj2
(C::f32/o)mn2c
=
=
n;
degrees
Helix angle
(c::
II.
Number of teeth
12.
f3
2/0 ) mn2c;:
+ z2)
'7
v
PI
= 
mm
ZI
z2
=v2 cos3 ~
. and
'7
f3 '
dl
PI
'Itm
Pn
Plxcosf3='Itmn'
Pa
PI
Pn
'It. mn
= tan f3 = sin f3 = sin ~
=1tx
z]
=
I
14.
Pn
mm
15.
Axial pitch
Pa
mm
I Example
2a
cos3
13.
p
cos
IJId
mn
10.
SYlleltl,
Formula
circle diameter)
Root diameter
Transmission
0/
Pn Icosp
'
13 
(...!!!!L)
cos 13
(_i_)
cos 13
COSI
x (ZI + z2 )
2
13 =
0.909
, Examp/e 6.2 A pair of parallel helical gears consists of a 20 teeth pinion and the
velocity ratio is 3 : 1. The.helix angle is 150 and the normal module is 5 mm. Ca/culate:
(i) the pitch circle diameters of the pinion and the gear; and
{ii) the centre distance.
\
\
Helical Gears
6,7
Given Data:
Toflnd:
zl
= 20;
@So/Iltion:
 5 mm.
and (ii) centre distance , a.
We know that,
z2
= ;.
zJ
3 x 20
60.
tl~
and
d1
(mn / cos B) zJ
d2
310.58 mm Ans. ~
a =
(co~'13) x (Z
= 207.05 mm
I Example
6.3
z2 )
I;
= (COs5IS" ) x
eo;
60 )
Ans. ~
with a 63 teeth ,gear. The normal module is 3 mm: The helix angle is 230 whlle the normal
pressure angle is 20 ~ Calculate:
(I)
(ii)
(iii)
Tofind:
(i)
m.:
(ii)
z2 = 63 ;
0.1;
@Solutlon :
(I) Transverse module (mt)
mn = 3 mm;
Transverse module,
d,
d2
ml _==Z
zi
= 23', an = 20.
...
A
tJ
ml
Z2
zi
_ 5~.:6
= 3.26 mm Ans. ~
or
..
tan an
cos ~
= 0.395
cos 23
 tarr! (0.395)
= 21.57
Ans. ~
6,8
Design' ofTran~'mI8NI()h6'IIMI
~~~~==~~~.~
.....
(ill) 4U,,/ pitch (p.): We know that
Axial pitch, p a
or
Pa =
( E..\'tl"'pI~ 6."
IA
1tx3
. 230
Sin
consists of
(I
a"gle OJ
S14fHHA IMr. Tilt! pinion lias a lefthand helix angle of 20~ a normal pressure
11 ~ ,,,,,I II norma! diametral pitch of 0.4 teeth/mm: Find:
(a)
7"'~
=1 =
19;
f3 = 200;
57;
=2 =
an =
~.
v Solutiolf: \\ e knov that, normal module, mn
I
nln
0.4
= Normal
I
diametraJ
pitch (Pn)
2.5 mm.
Pn 
Pc
1t
x mn =
7t
x 2.5 = 7.85 mm
Pn
f3
cos
ADS. ~
1t x 2.5
cos 20
 8.36 mm Ans.""
",
Pn
Pa
sin
1t
f3
sin
f3
x 2.5
sin 200
22.96 mm
Ans . ...,
",
P, it
_
it
Pn
_.;.;,._
cos
... [ .: P, = 11 x m, =
f3
7.85

it
x cos 200
2.66 mm
Ans."
tan a
or
tan a."
COS
_ tan 14.5
f3 
cos 200
at  tanI (0.275)
= 0.275
= 15.3!JO ADS."
;';p 1
Helical Gears
..,
.........
6.9
"S' ..
t
;:a
d,
2.S
COs ~ x %, ~ cos 200 x ,19
=:
&II
~O.S5 mm ; and
2.5
IIlodllle;
(/I) 11111
transverse pres.\'IIre IlIIgle;
zl
= 23
z2
III"
== 4 111m,
Solution:
(i)
111"
cos
13
4:::::
4,38 mm Ans,,,
= cos 24
13,0."
and o.t'
tan o.n
cos 13
or
Transverse
pressure angle,
0.,
Ans. ~
n m;
7tx4
Axial pitch, Pa = sin 13 = sin 24
30.89mm Ans."
(iv) Pitch circle diameters OJI'tl,epin/on and the gear (i.e, d I anti d ~ "
d,
We know that
Inn
cos A.....x
Z,
4
cos 24
23 = 100.7 mm ; and
r. ,1
ta)
( cosm) 13
a b
__!L
We know that
(ZI +2 z2 )=
( cos424
) x
(23 +2 46)
= 151.06 mm
ADS."'CI
Design of TrQlUmi&sionsY"t"l1
6.10
'r
(111) Addndum iDUl dLdnuhon cirde diameJen of lhe pinion (i:e; did and d/ z) :
Addendum circle diameU:r (i.e., tip diameter) of the pinion,
do, 
(~IJ +219) m.
dOl 
(~~40
djl
f0
where
+2 A J ) x 4
f 0 = height factor::: 1]
108.7].mm Ans."
i.e., root diameter) of the pinion,
(c:; Il
210) m.2 c
c  Bottom clearance
d"
... [.:
(C05~402
0.25 x mn
x I ) 4 2 x I
0.25 x 4
I nun
= 90.71 mm Ans."
(ii)
(iii)
the axial
(FJ.
o
J
i"
.'
~PiIctr
*"+~ x
(b)
qtinda
\~.~./
la)
Fa
(c)
~Helical Gears
6.11
Let
F 
FI
Fa M d J3 Fr
tot~J'
Fr and
F sin an
... (i)
BC>  F cos an
... (ii)
Fa 
of~
BC
sin f3
F cos an . sin f3
'" (iii)
:earl
and
FI
~

... (iv)
f3
F cos an . cos f3 = tan f3
F . cos an . sin
Axial force, Fa 
FIx tan
f3
... (6.10)
FI I cos an . cos f3
F,
or
Radial force, F,
= cos
 an
=
F,
. cos
f3
[:5~]
Sin
an
... (6.11)
We know that the tangential component F, acts at the pitch circle radius. Therefore,
d
F t x2
'M I
6. \2
Il
Design ofTransmi.uiOl'l.S~
or
Tangential force,
F,
l:::
'" {6.i2j
60 x P
M I = 21t N
where
.: P = 2 it N~ .,
60
is
./ 1~Inlle"t/1I1force direction
tangent to the
pltch circle and lies in the plane' of rotation. It
Fig. 6.5.
./ Thrust force dlrectlon is given by treating the driving gear as a screw. The foHow~
guidelines can be used to determine the direction of the thrust component:
(i)
For the driving gear, use right hand for RHhelix and left hand for LHheJix.
(ii) Keep the fingers in the direction of rotation of the gear and the thumb will ind~
the direction of the thrust component for the driving gear.
(iii) The thrust component on the driven gear is equal and opposite to that for the dmrffig
gear.
The above said guidelines can be verified 'by using the illustration shown in Fig.6.5.
li!mnple
6.6
I A pair
with a 45 teeth gear. A 7.5 kW power at 2000 r.p.m: is supplied to the pinion through itJ
.,Iut/l. Tile normal module is 6 mm, w!Ii!e the normal pressure angle is 20'! The helix angle
Is 23 '! Determine the tangential, radial and axial components of the resultant toot/t f~
between the meshing teeth.
GlvenData:
z,=18;
z2=4S; P=7.SkW = 7.Sxl()3W;
N1=2000r.p.m.;
mn
6 mm ; a; = 20;
To find:
(i) F/;
(ii) Fr;
J3 = 23.
and (iii) Fa'
@Solution :
(J) Tllngenli(ll componelll of the resultant tootk force (F J
We know that,
F/
2 MI
d
Helical Gears
6.13
J~I
where
M, == Transmitted torque
60 x P
21tN
60 x 7.5 x 103
2 1tx 2000 == 35.81,Nm
...!!!!L
cos
F,
..
6 x 103
cos 23 x 18 == 0.1173 m
==
2 x 35.81
0.1173
f3
z,
We know that,
F =
[tan an ]
cos f3
F, x
610.43 [tan 20 ]
cos 23
11
We know that,
Fa 
I Example
6.7
I A torque
610.43
oJ :
f3
F, x tan
241.37 N Ans. ~
x tan
23
259.11N Ans."
of 250 Nm acts upon tile shaft of a helical gear whose pitch
circle diameter is 300 mm. The gear has 60 teeth and runs at 250 r.p.m: The pressure angle
of teeth in transverse plane is 180 and angle of helix is 28 ~ Calculate (i) Power
transmitted; (ii) Driving force;
(iii) Normal force on gear tooth , and (iii) Force
transmitted to shaft.
Given Data: M, = 250 Nm;
0./
d,
= 300 mm
= 0.3 m;
zl
= 60; N,
== 250 r.p.m.;
= 18 ;. 13 = 28.
Tofind:
(ii) Ft;
(iii) Fr;
and (iv) F
Q'
@ Solution :,
p
(ii) Driving force
21t N Mt
60
t.e, tangentialforce
2 M,
We know that,
F, 
2 1t x 2~0 x 250
60
6.544 kW Ans."
(Ft):
2 x 250
 0.3
1666.67N Ans. ~
6.14
(iii) Normal fora
We know that.
F,
F, [:~
The normal pressure angle (an) can be calculated using the relation
tan an 
tan at . cos
f3
= tan 18 x cos
or
an 
Therefore,
Fr
tan
160]
Fa 
I Example
6.8
tan
f3
1666.67
F/
= 0.287
= 541.27 N ADS."
We know that,
28
Am."
1.
Pinion A 
Gear 8
RH
Fig. 6.6
Given Data: P
an = 18;
7.5 kW
= 7.5
x loJ W; NA
= 900
r.p.m.;
mn = 4 mm;
J3 = 25.
So/ulion:
(i) Components of the resultant toothforce (i.e; F1' F, and FtJ:
We know that,
dA
F, =

60 x P
60 x 7.5 x IoJ
= 79.58 Nm
27t x 900
mn
cos t'f.t
x zA
2 (MJA
dA
4
cos 250
2 x 79.58
132.4 x 103
1202.11N Au. ~
30
132.4 mm
~
\
H~~a~I~G~e~~~
"
__ 
F _
r
Fa 
F,
~~
6.15
[ tan an ]
cos (3
1202.11 [tan 18 ]
cos 25
F t X tan (3
1202.11 x tan 25
430.97 N Ans. ~
= 506.55 N Ans. ~
(ii) Free body diagram of the pinion and the gear:The free body diagram showing the
forces acting on the pinion and the gear is drawn, as shown in Fig.6.7. The/directions of force
components are found as discussed in Section 6.8.2.
I
,,
'~...... _'
, B
__.L
~I
"", I
...._
,
,,

Fig. 6.7.
I Example
as VJewe
ro
clockwise direcuon,
is keyed to
positive xaxls: The motor shaft
I
h aving a norma
an I8teeth helical pinIon ,
l 01" 300
0
.1" 20
a /,elix ang e 'J
'
pressure angle oJ'
itch of 0.472
and a normal diametral p. is shown in
teethimm. The hand 0/ the helIX
thefigure.
_
A
_
_.250mm
17: ~
R.
6.16
Design o/TransmissionS)~
~,
and
(ii) Draw a three dimensional sketch of the motor shaft and pinion, shOwing th~I~
acting on the pinion and the bearing reactions at A and B. The thrust shouldIr
taken out at A.
Given Data: P = 0.745 kW 13 = 30 ; Pn = 0.472 teeth I mm.
Solution:
745 W;
N,
1800 r.p.m.;
zJ
18;
a.::: 2fF:
We know that,
Normal diametral pitch, P 
or
Normal pitch 
mn
= 0.472 teeth / mm
0.472
= 2.12 mm
2.12
Inn
cos
f3
zi 
cos 300
18
44.06 mm
Transmitted torque, M I
...
Tangential component, F, 
60 x P
60 x 745
21tNI = 21t x 1800 = 3.952 Nm
2M
d
 179.41 N
Radial component, Fr  F
ADS. "
[tan an]
f3
[tan J
cos
179.41
2 x 3.952
44.06 x 103
20
cos 30
f3
= 179.41 x tan 30
103.58 N Ans. ~
~ Fx
0, we get
F~
= Fa =
103.58 N
 F~ x250
= 0
~~h~ca~/~G~e_a_n~
~~
6.17
(14.~)
2
 F~ x 250
or
 0,
FYB = 8a.892 N
Fr
y
IFX :
F~_~l/F~
/'
1:
'/1
C /
/ 7~Arl:=:':_ _
Mt~z
F,
Fa
_j 
FY
BIB
Fig. 6.9.
For L Fy = 0, we get
F~ FY
or
F
= 0
88.892  F~  75.4 = 0
or
FY
 13.492 N
or
FZB = 233.23 N
or
For L F, = 0, we get
or
FZA _Fz B + FI
F~  233.23 + 179.41
FZA  53.82 N
or
Therefore, resultant reaction at bearing A,
RA 
~
RB 
= 117.5N Ans.1;I
 v 0+
(88.892)2 + (233.23)2
 249.6N Ans."
6.18
____________________
Design
of Transmission
(\"'1
..:::.....=:.:.:.:.:.:.:..:::u~}',elJlll
:
Given Data:
NA
= 1720 r.p.m.;
Tofind:
zA
= 16;
at
f3 =
= 20;
15;
mn
=3
mm ;
zB
= 36;
Zc = 28;
P = 5.5 k\V.
@) Solution:
The pitch circle diameters of the gears ~ Band C are given by,
dA 
mn
cos 13 x
dB 
13
cos
de
mn
cos 13 x ze
zA
mn
XZB
an 
or
13 =
= 19.37
FrAD
F'
1229[
F~
AD
and
2 x (M,)A
Ft
Fa
AD
dA
AD
2 x 30.54
 1229N
49.69 x 1<r3
[tIDcos a.13 ]
tID
1937 ]
. _cos 15
x tan
f3
447.32 N
= 1229 x tan 15
Ans."
329.31 N
Ans....,

Helical Gears
Forces between gears B and C . GA
ear B
IS
~6.:.!'!_9
~
(M/)a == 0
We know that,
betw
velocity ratio
N:>D
or
::::225 ::::764.44
2.25
28
== Zc
Nc
zB:::
36 ::::
__j
r.p.m,
o.ns
::::982.~5 r.p.m,
Therefore
F~c
::::
F~c
FI
CB
Fr
::: 2 x (M/)c
de:

CB 
F'
Be:
2 x 53.+1
::: 86.96 . 10:
F~B
=
:::
F~c
x tan
329.31 N
t!29 ~
[mna.]t3
cos
19.37 ] ~. _
= 1229 [ .tan
cos 150
44,.J2 N
F~c
16
764.44
Torque transmitted
36
::::
andC,
i ::::~
or
A
1720
NB == ~
8
::::_
p :::
.\m.. ~
12_9). tun 15
ADS.~
It can be seen that, since gear B is idler, whatever torque it receives fu."'IID
transmitted to gear C. Thus, the tangential component between gears B and C m~
to the tangential component between gears A and B. Since the tangential ~~:S
equal, the radial and axial components are also be equal.
A ~
be ~~
~.1r'
iL~
[Example 6.11
The Fig. 6.11 shows a double reduction hehca! gmrsd. PiD. .. l is tk
driver, and it receives torque of 135.58 Nsm from its shaft in the directio S*O __ PUt .. J
has a normal diametral pitch of 0.315 teeth/mm (i.e; normal modtde
= 4_:15 = _1..1:5
.).
14 teeth, and a normal pressure angle of 200 and is cut righlhandf!'d ~ir'II .dil ~
rI/
30,! The mating gear 2 on shoft 'b' has 36 teeth. Gear 3, ~'hieh is th~ dri..xr for tie SlAvaJ
pair of gears in the train, has a normal dlametral pitch of tu t~"_'" fi.~6' 
6.20
._.___
module
__,
,__
De.'18!!.!1..r"Qn6m~
0

76
37.6
Fig. 6./1.
(3J ==
(32 ==
30;
z2
135.58 Nm;
mnl = mn2 = 3.175 mm;
zJ = 14; ani = 20 ;
= 36; mn3 = mn4 = 5 mm ; z3 == J 5 ; an3 == 200;
133 = 134 = 15; z4 = 45.
3.175
mnJ
dJ
d2
d3 =
mn2
cos 132
mn3
cos 133
xz
xz
= cos] 50 x 15
3
mn4
d 4 = cos
(34
3.175
cos 300 x 36
Z4
]31.98 mm;
5
cos 15'0 x 45 == 232.94 mm
... (Given)
9~::../~G~e~
__~__ 
~~~
6.2'1
'd
2,(M)
U:::
2 x 13S.58
51.33 x 103 ::: 5282.68 N
o_
d1
F~2 and
F'
12
tan anI ]
In 
cos (31
 5282.68
F;2 (~2)
tan 200 ]
cos 300
= 2220.19 N
5282,68
3) =
3 J.9~ x 10
348.6 Nm
(M ,)2
d3
34  F~
F;4
348.6 Nm
2 (3~8.6)
2 (M 1)3 _
F,r
and
= F;4
77.65 x 103
[~Sa;:] =
x tan (33
8978.75 Nm
8978.75 [:~
8~78.75
~~: ]
tan ISo
3383.28 N
2405.85 N
The forces acting on the gears 2 and 3, and the components of the bearing reactions are
shown in Fig.6.12.
~I
;,
"
t:
Fig. 6.12.
.
.'
III vertical
(d
x 2 ) _1
F~2
(d )
pi
r
75
F 12 (
+ 87.5) .
F04
3
x 3
2
+ F'34 x 75
= 0
6.22
or 212.5 x
Fb  3050 x ( 1312'98)
( 77.65 )
2
+
3383.28)( 7S
Fb
or
For LV
= 0,
:::0
= 1890.41 N
Ph 
or
or
pYc 
F~  F;4 + F;2
3053.5 N
Considering the forces in horizontal plane and taking moments about bearing C, we get
or
FXD
or
7208.67 N
F~2+ ~
or
or
FXc
 0

7052.76 N
;:.
F~4F~2 F~
or
2405.85  3050  F~  0
F~   644.15 N
or
The negative sign indicates that F~ acts in the opposite direction to the direction shown in
Fig.6.12.
Therefore,
 ~ (7052.76)2 + (3053.5)2 + 0
and
7685.39 N AIJs. ~
v

 V,....(7208.67~)2+(1890.41
)2=+
(644~.15f

7~80.1 N ~.
Helical Gears
:;;
6.23
DESIGN OF HELICAL
I.
GEARS
~RS
. 1
,ormattve
gear is
.
.
peepend leu ar to the tooth element It .
d
an imagmary spur gear in a plane
IS un erstood that th b
virtual) gear IS nothing but the beam stre gth
.
e earn strength of formative (or
. .
n
of helical gear Th f
.
equation IS used to determine the beam str
h
.
. ere ore a modified Lewis
F _
engt of a hehcal gear. It is given by
s  1t. mn b [ CJb ] y'
F _ B
t
gth
... (6.13)
s
earn s ren
of helical gears,
where
mn  Normal module ,
b 
Face width
where Pn
[ CJb]
Permissible
As discussed in previous chapter, in addition to the static load due to power transmission,
there is dynamic load betWeen the meshing teeth. In order to account for dynamic loads, the
following two methods are used.
I. Approximate estimation of dynamic load using the velocity factor, which is used in
.2.
Accurate estimation of dynamic load using the Buckingham's equation, which is used
in the final stages of gear design.
,
I
f d amic load can be calculated by using the relation
e
pre
irrunary
va
ue
0
yn
Th
I
~
Fd :::
where
Cv
.. , (6.14)
~~~.2~4
D_e_s~ign~o~if_n_rmum~u~n=on~s~
where
Power
transmifted
Ko 
Service
I Shock
in watts,
=
idN
60
factor,
,in
mis, and
from Table
5.6.
e" ;;:: Velocity factor (c, values are the same as for spur gears)
::;:
for
3+\1'
v~
10
mis,
commercially
;;::
6
6+\1'
5,;'!
10,75
+ V + 0,25, for nonmeta II'IC gears,
cut gears
mIs,
precision gears
Dynamic load, Fd
where
F(
13
... (6.15)
b = Face width,
c
13 = Helix angle.
6.11. WEAR STRENGTH OF HELICAL GEARS (WEAR TOOTH LOAD)
The wear strength equation of the spur gear is modified to suit helical gears. Thus the
modified wear strength equation for helical gears is given' by
Wear load, Fw =
where
d1,b
'Q'~
... (6.16)
cos213
irrespective of
Face width,
Ratio factor,
2x
j
+1
2 z2
zl
+z2
I
I
__________
....
,,/
&~iJ.. $.;,P.~
r~
~::i~~I~G~e_~_~
~~
__ ~
~~
6.25
_ W __2z2
iI
z2 ;;
[f;s
x sin
1.4
an ]
_L ]
E +E
P
f es
where
[.l
== Sm'
U
an 
Ep and Eg
J3
INote I In the design of helical gears, the normal module mn should be selected from standards. For
the recommended series of modules, refer Table 5.8.
IS)
md
/
3. Calculation
Z2 = ;
zl'
ZI ~
r,  ; x Ko
.6)
of
where
P 
v 
Ko 
6.26
...::.
e"
where
= Velocity factor.
The value ofv used in velocity factor formula may be initially taken from 10 to 15 mls.
5. Calculation of beam strength (FJ: Calculate the beam strength (Fs) in terms of
normal module using the relation
F,
= 1tmnb[O'b]Y'
mn =
where
Design bending stress or allowable static stress, from Table 5.4, and
y' = Form factor based on virtual number of teeth, from Table 5.5.
6. Calculation of normal module (m,J : Since the gear is designed on the basis of beam
strength, therefore Fs ~ Fd' So equating Fs and Ftb find the normal module.
Then select the nearest higher standard module value from Table 5.8.
7. Calculation of b, d and" :
./
./
./
d,
=
=~
cos
x zl
p
7td1N1
60
: Recalculate
Ft +
21 v (cb . cos213
21 v +
+ F,) . cos 13
.J cb cos213
+ F,
. wh~re
c . = Deformation factor, from Tables 5.7(a) and (b).
Wh1le calculating the dynamic load (Fd), the value of tangential load (F) should be
calculated.by neglecting service factor 0<0).
'
i.e.,
F, = ;
Helical Gears
6,.27
10. Checkfor beam strength (or tooth breaka
f3
2;
I+ 1
Q  RatIO factor
where
~.,
= .
2z2
d
z I + z2' an
Compare the calculated values of dynamic load (Fd) and wear strength (Fw)'
./
If Fd < Fw' the gear tooth has adequate wear capacity and will not wear out. Then
the design is safe and satisfactory.
13. Calculation of basic dimensions ofpinion and gear: Finally, calculate the basic
dimensions of pinion and gear by consulting Table 6.1.
I Example
6.12
I Design
JoUowing specifications: Speed reduction is 3; Pressure angle is 20~ Helix angle is 15~
The material of both the gears is C45 steel: Allowable static stress 180 N/nun2; Sur/ace
endurance limit is 800 N/nutf1; Young's modulus of materia: = 2 x lOSN/nun2.
Given Data:
[ CJb] =
Nl
f es = 800 N/mm2;
180 N/nun2;
Tofind:
15 kW;
1400 r.p.m.;
El
=~
= 3;
20;
J3
15 ;
2 x lOS N/mm
@Solution:
1.Material selection:
2. Calculation of
Zl
and
Z2 :
z 1 = 20
./
Assume
./
z2 = i x zi = 3 x 20 = 60
We know that,
FI == V x
Ko
... (Given)
6.21
v ... [ .: d. =

Ko :
"X
:'13
z. and m_ i. in 'lnln'l
1400 x mn x 20
000
150 ;:: 1.518 mn mil
60x I
XCOI
15 x loJ.
5 _ 12353.45
P, ;:: 1.518 mn x 1.2 mn
...
Fd
where
"
P,
c"
6
6 + v' for v = 5 to 20 mls and carefully cut gears
= 6:
...
15
12353.45
43237.075
x 0.286 
5. Cakulation
of beam strength
We know that,
PI
1t.
(F,) :
mn . b . [
0b ]
JI
where
... (Given)
[ b ] = 180 N/mm2
where
Zeq
...
y'
Then,
FI 
zi
cos3 ~
= 0.154 1t
20
= cos3 15 = 22.192::t: 23
0.912
23
= 0.1143
646.62 m/
We know that,
.1
PI ~ Fd
646.62mi
or
43237.075
mn ~ 4.058 mm
From Table 5.8, the nearest higher standard normal module is S mm.
Helical G_ears
6,29
7. Calculation of b, d and v :
./
./
./
lOx S
d,
SO mm
m
cos f3 x
!L
N,
v == 7t d,
Z,
::0
== 7t x 103.53
60
8. Recalculation of the beam st l'ength (F,) :
We know that,
FS == 7t. mn ' b . [ <J ] y'
103 ~ I4(J(J
= 759 mls
60
== 7tx5x50x
180xO.1143
9. Calculation of accurate dunaml
'J
C .oad (F,J :
16]5878N
.
We know that,
15 x ]03
7.59
F == ~_
where
e, ~3 .
]976.28 N
11860 e, for steel and steel, 20 full depth, from Table 5.7(a).
e = 0.025, for mn upto 5 and carefully cut gears, from Table 5.7(b). ~ ~ :S~ '
...
Then,
c = 11860 x 0.025
Fd
1976.28 +
17772 N
= 296.5 N/mm
11860 x 0.0125
148.25
=.
10863.26 N
Now we find Fs > F d' It means the gear tooth has adequate beam strength and will not fail
by breakage. Thus the design Is satis/adory.,
:;
6.30
load (F,J :
Fw
s, x h x Q x x,
f3
COl2
21
Q  Ratio factor :: 1 + J
where
sin
 f ./ 1.4
Kw
::
(800)2
(1..
2~3
3+J
1,5
+ 1. ]
[_'
E.
:i+
sin 20" [
1.4
2 x JO~
h" 'IP
1.5635 N/mm2
We find
wt;lr
capacity and will not wear out. Thus the design is safe and 6atJsfactOry.
13. Calculation of basic dimensions of pinion and gear:
Refer Table 6, J,
Normal:
./
Normal Module:
mn = 5 mm
./
Number of teeth:
Zl
./
= 20; and
d1
Zz = 60.
::
103.53 mm;
::
310.58 mm
and
dz
m;z
= cos
f3 /
Z].
5
cm,l~
60
./
Centre distance :
a =
10 
cos J3
(ZI +Z2)
2
cos J 5
(20+60)
2
207.05 mm
./
Height factor:
./
Bottom clearance :
c  0.25 mn
0.25 x 5
= L25 mm
./
Tooth depth :
h  2.25 mn
2.25 x 5
./
Tip diameter:
do. 
(C:~p
11.25 mm
+ 2 f 0 ) m.
'I
6.31
" (~~
== (
/
Root diameter:
+2/0) m.
60
)
~s
1
S;
+
2
x
l
: 5 == 32058 mm.
.
 (c:~f3  /0) , 2
2c
(c:: /0)
f3  2
m.  2 c
20
cos! 150
22.192 ~ 23;
f3 
60
cos3 150
66 .57 ~ 67
ZI
cos! f3
z2
zv2 = cos!
I Example
6.13
Given Data:
Tofind:
and
I For the above example, calculate the end thrust on the gear.
'.
..
@ Solution : We know that the end thrust or axial load on the gear,
p
Fa = FI X tan
J3
=
X tan f3
.
v
[Example
6.14
IA
15 X 103
7.59
tan 15
529.54 N Ans."'tJ
I'.p.m. motor through a pair of 200 full depth helical gears having helix angle of 25 ~ The
centre distance is appl'oximately 400 mm: The motor pinion is to be forged steel and the
dl'iven gear is to be cast steel. Assume medium shock conditions. Design the gear pair.
Given Data: N2
360 r.p.rn;
= 40 kW;
Nt = 1440 r.p.m.;
= 20;
J3
= 25
a=400mm.
Tofind: 'Design the ~eJical gear pair,
@ Solution:
Since th~,materials for pinion and gear are different, first we have to
y;
6.32
Gear ratio, ;
Assume
...
1440
360
4 x 20
zi
Z2
; x ZI
zvl
cos3
20
zi
J3 
80
and
80
Zv2 = cos3 250 ~ 108
Given that the pinion is to be forged steel and the gear is to be cast steel. ~
consulting Table 5.3, the following steels are selected.
Pinion Gear 
For pinion:
y; 
Form factor,
Y; 
[obi]
[CJb2]
Y;
Form factor,
[CJb2
We find (crbl)
Y; < [
Cfb1
]y;
y;,
112 N/mm2,
0.154  (0;12)
vI
0.154  (
0.912)
27
112 x 0.1202
= 0.1202
]3.465 N/rrunl
0.154  (0.912)
0.912)
0.154  ( 108
105 x 0.1455
z,,2
0.1455
15.28 N/~
pinion only.
1. Material selection: Pinion  40 Ni 2 Crl Mo28; and Gear  Grade 1 cast steel
2.
ZI = 20
and
z2
= 80.
. .. (Already caJcutated)
3. Calculation of module: Since the centre distance is given, we need not to equate f,
and Fd to calculate the module. The module can be calculated using the relation
a =
(;'li) x(ZI;~)
6.33
mn_)
400 == (
cos 25
or
Nonna] module, m == 7 25
n
.
mm
From Table 5.8, the nearest high
er standard no
I
./
./
b == 10
mn  lOx 8 == 80 nun .
).
_ mn
)  
cos
NI
60
5. Calculation of beam strength (Fs) :
./
We know that,
FS
4. Calculation of b, d and v :
,/
(20 + 80)
'It.
'It X
'It d)
f3
xz
'It
8
=I
cos 250 x 20 =
176.54 mm
mn . b . [ CJb' ] y'
8 x 80 x 112 x 0.1202
= 27067.76 N
where
'd
= F
p _ 140 x IcP
v
13.31
= 10518.4N
11860 e, for steel and steel, 20 full depth, from Table 5.7(a).
e = 0.038 mm, for mn upto 8 and carefully cut gears, from Table 5.7(b).
...
c = 11860 x 0.038
10518.4
Then,
= 450.68 N/mm
+ 21 x 13.31 x
21 x 13.31 x )()3

+v
+ 10518.4) cos 25
450.68 x 80x cos2 25 + 10518.4
46865.44, N
I
I
10(Jlh
Face width, b
10 mn = 10 x 9 = 90 mm;
mn
9
x z) =
250 x 20
Pitch circle diameter, d 1 = 13
cos
cos
'It
d1 NJ
60
I
Generated by CamScanner from intsig.com
'It
= 198.61 mm ;
60
14.97 mls;
6.34
p
Tangential load, F/ =
140 x 103
14.97
= 9352 N ; and
d 
+v
34104.29 N
1t
= 34257.64 N
9 x 90 x 112 x 0.1202
Now we find F, > Fd" It means the gear tooth has adequate beam strength and it wiIJ not
fail by breakage. Thus the design is satisfactory.
8. Calculation of limiting wear load (F,.J :
dl xbxQxK"
We know that
FlII =
where
cos
2i
&:
2x4
Kw
Fw
2.55) N/mm2,
wear: We find F,., > Fr It means the gear tooth has adequate. wear capacity
and will not wear out. Thus the design is safe and satisfactory.
9. Checkfor
10. Calculation of basic dimensions of pinion and gear: Refer Table 6.1.
/
Normal'module : mn = 9 mm
./
Face width: b = 90 mm
./
/
Zl = 80
d I = 198.61 mm;
 d2
_ mn
:
;i x z2
cos
fJ
= 794.43 mm
and
9
= cos 250
.
x
80
,J
Helical Gears
'"
6.35
Centre distance :
a = (~)
cos f3
= _
Height factor:
./
Bottom clearance:
'"
==
 2
== 496.52
d02
+2 f0
mm
20
(3 + 2/0 ) mn
(CO:~50+ 2 I ) 9
(ZJ
) 2
cos f3  2 f
X
fJ =
mm
mIl
cos 25 + 2 x J
= (::
mIl 
20
= ( cos 250
d/2
(.:r_f3
_ (
2 x I
812.43 mm
92
C::
(3  2/0 ) mn  2 c
(CO:~50
0/
(20+80)
2.25 x 9 == 20.25 mm
cos
aJ
Root diameter:
0.25 x 9 == 225
n 
Tip diameter:
./
(ZJ+Z)
2
c == 0.25 m _
n 
'"
9_
cos 25
10= 1
'"
 2
27; and
XI)
Zvl
9  2 x 2.25
771.93 mm
== 108
6.15 , A pair of 20" full depth involute teeth 30 D helical gears having u
velocity ratio of 3. Tile pinion is made of steel with allowable static stress of 100 N/nuttl
[Example
and the gear is made of cast steel will, allowable static stress of 70 N/nuttl. The pinion
transmits 40 kWat 1500 r.p.m. Determine all the basic dimensions of the gear pair.
Assume
width of face
0.154  0.0912
z'V
To find:
Given Data:
P=40kW;
where
NJ
q, = 20 te_; f3 = 30
J500r.p.m.;
b=3p".
i = 3;
[CIhJ
= 100 N/mm ;
[CIh2 ]
== 70 N/mm ;
6.36
DesignofT~~
e Solution:
evaluate [ O'bl
] y'l
Since the materials for pinion and gear are diffemJt, f.. ~ ~ II
and [ 0b2 ]
to find out the weaker element. Assume z, = 20.
y;
Then,
i x z 1 = 3 x 20
Z2 
ZI
zYI
cos313
Z2
For pinion :
60
Form factor,
20
cos3300
f3 
zY2 _
cos3
y; 
0.154 _ (0.912),
[Obl]~
60
cos) 300
= 9238 ~ 93
for 2W
z,,1
 0.154_(;112)
...
fun depIh
0.1246
0.144
100 x 0.1246
= 12.46 N/mm2
For gear :
We find [(61)
Y; < [ 0'61 )
y;,
]y;
_
0.154 _ (0:;2)
only.
1. Material selection: Pinion  Steel, and Gear Cast steel
2. z 1 = 20; and
z2
= 60.
P
FI = v
v
Ie
&~
7t
d2 N2
60
N.
60
= 7t x
...
x 1500 x mn x 20
60 x 1000 x cos 300
'.'
(mIJ
cos
~)
x 1000
mil
d I = cos
Px
ZI
and mil
. .
IS ID
j; ...
I11'1
'uP"
7t
Ko 
...
FI
Shock factor
1.814 mn
40 x 1()l
21566.44
1.814 mn x 1.25 =
mil
==
6+;,
6
6
for
'V
== 5 t 20 mI
o
F d == 27566.44
1
96386.17
x 0.286 = 0..;..;;..;..
mIl
mil
F, 
where
7t.
mil b . [ Gb2 ]
3 PIt = 3 x
b 
7t
y;
x mII ~ 10m II
Fs  7txm"x IOmllx70xO.144
6. Clzkllllllioll of1f017IUJ/ modul~ (m,J:
Weknowth~
Fs
316.67 m2
"
or
~
~
... (Given)
= 316.67m2
II
Fd
96386.17
mil
6.726
b == 10 mil
/
/
lOx 7 = 70 mm
mil
cos p
A
=
_
21 v+~
7
300 x 20 = 161.66 mm
cos
dt Nt
60
'It
21 v (cb . cos2
We know that,
'It
XZt
f3 + F,) cos f3
cbcoslf3+F,
P _ 40 x 1()3 == 3149.61 N
F,  v 12.7
. factor , from Tables 5.7(a) and (b).
_ J)efonnaDon
c
c.. st I and steel 20 FD, from Table 5.7(8).
_
e 
11860 e, lor
ee
'
m
upto 7 from Table 5.7(b).
0.017.JDDl, for"
'
6.38
Then,
Fd = 3149.61 +

21 x 12.7 x 1()3 +
..I
~
v 201.62 x 70 x cos2 30 + 3149=:61'
15038.95 N
10. Check for beam strength (or tooth breakage) : We find F,. > F II It means the ge
tooth has adequate
satisfactory.
beam strength
dJxbxQx~
We know that,
Fw 
where
cos2
J3
2i
e.
2x3
K,..  0.919 N/mm2, for steel hardened to 250 BHN, from Table 5.9.
...
Fw
12. Check for wear: We find Fw> F II It means the gear tooth has adequate wear capacit
and will not wear out. Thus the design is safe and satisfactory.
13. Calculation of basic dimensions of 'pinion and gear: Refer Table 6.1 .
./
Normal module:
mn = 7 mm
./
Number of teeth:
ZI
./
= 20;
and
Z2
= 60
dl = 161.66mm;
and d2=
7
 cos 300 x 60
./
a =
Centre distance :
(_!!l!!_)
cos J3
X (ZJ
10 
cos
A XZ2
tJ
484.97 mm
+ Z2
2
7
20+60)
2
(
cos 30
./
mn
= 323.3 mm
./
Height factor:
./
Bottom clearance:
c  0.25 mn
0.25 x 7 = 1.75 mm
./
Tooth depth :
h = 2.25 mn
2.25 x 7
./
Tip diameter:
dOl
15.75 mm
(c:~IJ +210) m.
 (co;~Oo + 2
XI)
HelicalGears
6.39
(0::13 10) m.
(co:~oo + 2 x I) 7
(ZIcos f3 
Q2
Root diameter;
/1
df2
II.
2f0
498.97 mm
mn  2 c
(o~132/0)
=
~
+2
m.2 c
27; and
zv2
108
Almost all the design formulas for helical gear design are same as that for spur gears.
However, the modified design formulas are given here for ready reference.
~M/]
We know that,
M,
where
K x Kd
M,
Transmitted torque
... (6.17)
60 x P
2 1t N '
Kd
Vb
.
07
i 1
[Mt]
a b . mn y v
NI
where
= Gear ratio
= N;
z2
,
zi
Normal modute.
... (6.18)
6.40
Design of nansmi3slon
By"'t""
~
y"
[ M I]
Form factor based on virtual number of teeth, from Table S.13, 8JJd
= Design torque.
[ CJb]
where
Kb/
1.4
Kbl
nKa
Kbl
nK
x a_I'
... (6.I9(a))
... (6. J9(b))
0
;  0.7
where
Eeq
i1 ... /il
a
\j ib x Eeq [M/]
... (6.20)
or
EJ +E2
where El and ~ Young's moduli of pinion and gear respectively.
HB HBC Kel
where
'" 
3 (_0.7)2
[ael
Eeq
x [Mil
i",
... (6.22)
Helical Gears
6.41
.
1. Calculation
of gear ratio (i): Use 1. = Nt
N2
z2
= _
Zt
consulting
Use
Mt
i:
K x Kd
Since datas are inadequate to select the values of K and Kd, initially assume K Kd = 1.3.
5. Calculation of EelJ,
Ubi
and
I ucl :
./
./
To find [ob]:
./
To find [ 0c]:
Calculate the design contact stress [ ere] using the equation 6.21.
./
z2
(Zl
and zJ) :
Z I ~ 17.
= i x zl
==
2a
(z) +z2
) x cos
A
I'
f. r\
;Z2)
_6_.4_2
......,..............,..
............
.........,D_ 0......
\..;.1[(11 of 1'rat/,vml,Y6JCJll
...
b = \Jl x a. It
p,
l;;l
t
1t
(.\
an ~
',~
CUll
./'
i~llJ,tjfN
and VIp:
./
~""'__~fl"I';
Use
of\Vp:
\jlp
Usc v
>
el,
z I x IU n
tl
IJ
111"
cos ~ x z,
el, N,
60
b
ell
./'
Revise Kd: Using the selected quality of gear and calculated pitch line velocity,
revise the value of dynamic load factor (Kd), from Table 5.12 .
./'
Revise
I MIl:
[ M I].
Use [M I]
13. Check/or
Using the revised values of K and Kd, revise the design torque
MI
K x Kd
bending:
./'
./'
Compare the induced bending stress with the design bending stress .
./'
If
14. If
fJb
fJb
>[
fJb ],
then the design is not satisfactory. Then increase the module or face
width, or change the gear material. The procedure is repeated until the design is satisfactory.
i.e.,
Gb
s [fJb ].
./'
./'
If
fJ ~ [ fJe],
e
. dilinensiOflS
16. Calculation of basic dimensions of tile gear pair: Calculate all the baSIC
of the pinion and gear using the equations listed in Table 6.1.
~~/~G~e~ar._~_'_'
:
~~
6.43
0ot!l
./
./
./
Obi Yvl
where
CJ b I and
cb2
h2Yv2
... (6.23)
Since the contact area is same, the induced contact stress is same for both pinion and gear.
i.e., Oct = CJc2'
I Example
'6.16
I For
intermittent duty of
(lII
1'(IIIsI;112.5 kW lit II pinion speed of 1200 r.p.m: Design tile gear pair for tile following
specifications: Gear ratio 3.5, pressure angle 20 ~ involute fuJI dept", helix angle 15 ~
Gears are expected to work 6 "ours a dayfor 10 years.
Given Data : P = 12.5 kW;
N, = 1200 r.p.m.;
q, =20~
i = 3.5;
FO';
f3'=
15.
r
<,
Solution :
1. Gear ratio:
... (Given)
i = 3.5
2. Selection 01 material : For both pinion and gear, alloy steel 40 Ni 2 Cr 1 Mo 28 can
of same material, we design only tile
be se'I ecte d, consu I'ting T a hie 5.3. AoJ,Since tile gears are
,
pinion.
3. Gear life:
..
W e know that,
J:
[ M /] == M, x K x Kd
3
where
Assume
M/ K Ko
==
60 x p _ 60 x 12.5 x 10
2 1t N 21t x 1200
1.3
(_PS 6\
a , \~ )
99.47 Nm
/I .1 '
l~)
,'c~
Design of Transmission S
5. Calculation of
~
I O'cl:
Toflnd E eq .' From Table 5.20, for steel pinion and steel gear,
Eeq
~
and
Eeq, 100bl
Tofind
I O'bI:
r~.
14)
= n
[ CJb]
where
~ To find
where
~.
tV
0'_1
1.4 x 0.7
x 1.5
= 2.5
[ O'b ]
662.5
N/mm2
= 173.133
N/mm2
...
Ka
au
Then,
0'_1
...
Kb/
n
But
[ O'c ]
26.5
55
0.585
852.6 N/mm2
where
\V 
b
a =03.
3 ( 0.7)2
(3.5 + 1)
852.6
a ~ 117.6 mm say a
7. Assume
Then,
= 120 mm
zJ = 20.
Z2
= i X Zt =
3.5
20
= 70
...
It
Helical
G~ea:...,.,~'S=~=~~
~~
6.45
We know that,
a
(z 2+.,.)
m n 
2 120
x cos ~ = _x.:..==...
(20 + 70) x cos 15 = 2.576 mm
2
We know that,
(c::.~)
=
10. Calcukuion of b, d I'
'"
AXIal pitch, Pa
cos 150
(20 + 70)
~
mn
A
Sin tJ
1t
x3
'"
'"
'"
Tofind\jJp:
..
d L_.= cos
~
n d , N,
11. Selection
= 139.76 mm
and lJIp :
1t X
(ZI ;Z2 )
b
42
\jJp = d, = 62.12
of quality of gear:
60
v =
f3
7t
X ':"
I 
cos3150 x 20
= 3.903 mls
0.676
IS quality 8 is selected.
12. Revision of design torque
We know that,
where
[ M/]
K
Kd
...
13. Cileckfor
[M, ]
I Mt}:
MI x K x K"
::::
where
Yv
62 . 12 mm
l)[M,]
a' b . Inn . Yv
6.46'
We find
zvl
z.
cos f3
Yv
ab
ab < [a,,].
Thus
20
= cos! J 5
22
55.5 N/mm2
14. Check for wear strength: We know that the induced contact stress,
.... /;+1
.i+l
ae
\j ib
0.7 ;;
I) 3.5 + 1
.
42 2.15 UP
JOJ
3.5 +
 0.7 ( 139.76
We find ac < [ ac
J.
x Eeq [M/]
3.5 x
x 124,74
645.8 N/mm2
Normal module: mn = 3 mm
Number of teeth:
ZI = 20;
dI
and Z2 = 70
62.U mm;
mn
R X Z,
cos.....
and
3
cos 150. x 70
217..4 mm
Centre distance :
Height factor :
Bottom clearance :
c 
Tooth depth :
h 
2.25 mn
Tip diameter:
a = 139.76 mm
fo 
dOl
(C~I3+2fo)
225 x 3 = 6.75 mm
m.
 (a:~
da2
(c:13
+ 2 f 0 ) m.
 (CO:~50 + 2 XI)
3 = ..l23.41
Yo
6.47
./
d /1 
Root diameter:
cos '(3 
n1n  2 c
(co~~ S  2 x I ) 3  2 x 0.75
(0::
d f2 
13  2 f
zvl
22;
:\)
"1::"
2 x 0.75
and z
v2
[Example 6.17
IA
209.91 mm
0) , 2 c
( cos7015  2 x 1 )
./
2f
(~
z2
=
70
cos3 (3
cos! 150 :::::78
compressorrun/ling at 3000 r.p.m. Tile helical gear speed up unit is driven by an electric
motor running at 1000 r.p.m. Tire compressor requires a nominal input power of 12.5 kW.
TIle helix angle of 25 0 may be assumed for the gears. Standard involute profile 200 full
dept" system will he used for the gear teeth. The gear pair is required to last for atleast
10,000 hrs. Design tile gear drive for tilefolio wing gear materia/so
Pillion: Heat treated cast steel.
Gel": High grade cast iron.
Given Data: N I = 3000 r.p.m.;
N2
1000 r.p.m.;
P = 12.5 kW;
$ = 20
13 = 25;
N!
=N
2
3000
1000
2. Selection of material :
Pinion
N = 10000 x 3000 x 60
[ M I]
MI X K x
x,
J:
..
6.48
where
K Kd 
1.3.
= 39.788
[Mt]
Tofind Eeq : From Table 5.20, for steel pinion and C.l. gear (au> 280 N/mm2),
Eeq
../
= 51.725 Nm
x 1.3
I OCl :
60 x 12.5 x 1()3
27t x 3000
= 39.788 Nm, and
60 x P
27tN
Tofind
I O"b J:
11
Kb/
x a_I'
(J
where
Kb/
s 350, N ~
11
a_I
v" Tofind
].4 x ]
_
2 x 1.5 x 281  131.133 N/mm
I ocl : We know
[ae]
where
Then,
 CR x HRC x KcI
[ae]
r,
for steel, HB
 22 x 63 x 1
s 350, N ~
1386 N/mm2
where
\V 
b
a
0.3
(0.7
[ae]
2 x
~::~G~~ __6
~~
6.49
.
..
i:.
or
7. As~ume
i:.
z. 
54.23 say a
20.
Zl
ix
(3
I)
( J~'~6)
2 x
Then,
8. Calculation
We know that
~
%.I:
60 mm
= 3 x 20 :; 60
ZI
2a
+ zV
= {z,
x COS
2; 60
We know that,
(z,
+ ~)
'!!.!!_ ~
cos J3
2
(20 + 60)
cos 25CJ
2
./
P'itc h eire
. Ie diiameter 0f prnron
. . (d ):
1
./
./
b
To find 'p: 'p = d,
./
= 88.27 mm
'!P:
= 26.48 mm
0.3 x 88.27
1t
d,
d, N,
60
26.48
44.14
mn
=A
cos .....x
1t
= cos225
Z,
x 20 = 44 14 mm
= 0.6
11. Selection of qUlIlity of gear: From Table 5.22, for v upto 8 mis, the IS quality 8 gear
is selected.
12. Revision of design torque
We know that,
where
[ M I]
I MIl:
M I Y. K x Kd
...,=
OL
+ 1) [ M f ]
a' b mn' Yv
where'
Yv
zi
zvl
Yvl
 cos! J3
~
cos
0.43, for
zvl
250 = 26.86 ~ 27
...
= 74.21 N/mm2
= 0.7
e: vW
1
U8~2~)
0.7
677.39 N/mm2
x Eeq x[Mtl
]wheel
gear life 
and [a c ]wheel
10,000 hrs
Npinion
Nwheel
Tofind
I Oblwheel
180 x 107
3
= 60 x 107 cycles
where
Kb/
\.[W,
Ka
n
a_I
...
Then,
x a_I
107
60 x 107
= 0.8195
[ O'b ]wheel
1.4 x 0.8195
2 x 1.2
x 157.5
.=
75.29 N/mm2
~::../~O~ea_~_~
~~
6.51
./Tojlnd
I "clwhtel:
[ c ]whecl
r:
",
where
eg
ess,
==
en x HB x Kcl
=:
HB = 200 to 260, for CI. Grade 35, from Table 5.18, and
Kc{ =
'J
..
[ crc ]whec:1
107
60 x 107
0.742
=
443.62 N/mm2
bending: The induced bending stress for wheel can be calculated using the
reIanon
crbl
where
=
=
Yvl
Yvl
b2Yv2
0.43, for
zvl
= 27,
60
z2
= cos) (3 = cos) 25 ~ 81
Yv2 = 0.499, for zv2 = 8~, from Table 5.13.
crbl = Induced bending stress for the pinion = 74.21
zv2
74.21 x 0.43
or
0b2
We find
0b2
We find
0c wheel>
0b2
x 0.499
63.95 N/mm2
=
=
N/mm2
= o c pinion = 677.39
N/mm2.
In order to inc~
[ crc ]wheel
Now we find
CJ wheel
16. Calculation
v'
< [ 0c ]wheel'
Normal module:
mn = 2 mm
v'
Number of teeth :
v'
Zl
= 20;
and
d1
= 44.14
a = 88.27 mm
Zl
.>:
= 60.
mm;
and d2
2
cos 250 x 60
132.4 mm
the
6.52
/0
../
Height factor:
../
Bottom clearance:
../
Tooth depth:
../
Tip diameter :
=1
c = 0.25 mn
= 0.25
x2
= 0.5
c:~
f3+ 2 f 0 )
mn
= (CO~~50 + 2 Xl)
d 02
,/
Rootdiameter:
mm
dl1
C::
f3+ 2 f 0 )
2 = 48.13 mm;
(CO:~50 + 2 Xl)
(C:~f32fo)
136.4 mm
mn2c
../
C::
f3 2 f
= 27;
0) mn  2 c
and
and
zv2
127.4 mm
~1.
INote I Though
the terms herringbone and double helical are used interchangeably, when there ~s
no groove in between the gears, is specifically known as herringbone gears (Fig.6.13). When there
groove in between the gears, then it is known as double helical gears.
IS
Helical Gears
6.S3
:...
Gears
The design formulas, the design procedure and other parameters of Herringbone gears are
exactly the same as that for parallel helix gear. Thus in order to design a Herringbone gear,
one can follow the procedure presented in Sections 6.12 and 6.14, without any modifications.
6.16. CROSSEDHELICAL
A pair of crossedhelical
gears are used to connect and transmit motion between two nonparallel and nonintersecting
shafts. As the contact between the mating teeth is always a point, these gears are suitable only
for transmitting a small amount of power.
In order for two helical gears to operate as crossedhelical gears, they must have the same
normal diametral pitch and normal pressure ~n' But the gears need not to have the same helix
angle or be opposite of hand. In most crossed gear applications, the gears have the same hand.
v"
v"
They permit a wide range of speed ratios without change of centre distance or gear
size,
They transmit relatively small amounts of power because of point contact between
teeth .
../' They have lower efficiency than that of toothed gears because of sliding action.
e =
= [31  [32'
where
N I and N2
6.54
..:::..
Zl and z2
iGear
d 1 and d2
ratio
N)
z2
N2  z 1 '
PI)
gear respectively,
Pnl and Pn2 = Normal circular pitch of pinion and gear
respectively, and
shaft.
n d,
and P 12 
= 
ZJ
1td2
Z2
or
Since the normal pitch is same for both the spiral gears,
therefore
Pn
Pnl
Pn2 = PII
cos 131
or
PII
Pn
d
Pn
cos 131 an Pt2 = cos 132
... Oi)
zl
1t x cos 131
Pn x z2
= ___;;_.:.:...._.......::.
and d
2
1t x cos
.. , (iii)
132
=l[
dl+d2
2
pnxz1
1t x cos 131
... (6.21(a
e, zl
21t
[I
cos
]
...
... i = zl
z2
J ...
(6.24(b
~::ca~/_G_e_~_~
~~
6.55
d 1 + d2
2
0.5
_! [
 2
cos ~ I
=, [co:'I3,
cos ~2 x z2
... [.: d=
::13 xzJ
co: 13
]
2
... (6.25)
N I _ z2
N2  zl
d2 cos ~2
dl cos ~I
... (6.26)
Vs,.
[vi + v;  2
VI
V2
cos
e ]112
... (6.27(a
where
and
VI
v2
e =
Shaft angle.
When the shafts are at right angles (i.e., e = 90), then the sliding velocity will be
V
6.16.5. Efficiency
VI
of Spiral Gears
of spiral gears,
Work output
11 = Work input
and the maximum
efficiency
11max 
an
_ cos (9
cj)
cos (9 + CP) + 1
cos (9  cj) + 1
Shaft angle,
4> 
Angle of friction,
... (6.29)
and
A_
P2
).
. I
s in terms of coefficient of friction (J.l
[Note I The efficiency of spira gear
.
11
... (6.28)
J31 + cj)
of spiral gears,
9 
where
PI
... (6.27(b
cos (32
15 given
b
y
... (6.30)
6.56
Gears
All the expressions derived for parallel helical gears in Section 6.8, is also applicableto
crossedhelical gears. Thus the forces on the crossedhelical gears are
2M
./
Transmitted force:
./
Radial
./
01'
F,
F,
tan all
cos \lI
X [
= F, X tan f3
1/11
distance is 400 mill and the speed ratio = 3. Tile angle between the two shafts is 500andthe
normal pltcl: is 18 111m.Tile spiral angle for tile driving and driven wheels are equal: Find:
(1) Number of teeth
Oil
each wheel,
Solution :
= 6~
l3,
Oil
3;
each wheel:
wheel. Therefore,
or
l3, + l32
l31
f32 = 2"
25
27t
400
or
z,
and
z2
18 x
z)
I +
j
cos l31
cos
[
27t
1+3 ]
cos 25
J_
f32 
Pn
z)
I+i ]
27t
cos
l3)
A =A2]
[ . 1')
P
= 12.64 z)
400
"
al
)
[ cos
l3) +
cos
l32
]
't
~___
"

~6~.5!_
== 404.5 mm
:<'j} (~ ~) cos f3 t
11
CUs (~,
""
JlI Itll
~
C{)s
cos 132
ADS. ~
== COs (f3) + $)
cos (~_~)
[.:
PI == I3V
(25(' ~~
(25('  6(,) == 0.907
90.7%
ADS. '"t>
Given Data :
e = 8(10.
'
", ,=(iJ2
@ Solution:
(J) J
Shaft angle,
== 2;
= ZJ
= 25
zi
'0'
P n  12 mm;
A
....
,
30.
e f3, =
If zJ
25, then Zz = i
zJ =
2 /. 25
We know that ,
dJ
and
d2
= 50.
Pn
xZ1
Pn~
1t
f32
cos
d , + d2
= 203.5 mm
[Example
6.20
IA
12 x 25
= 110 mm
it cos 30
=
1t cos P,
12 x 50
= 297 mm
1t x cos 50
1] 0 + 297
ADS."
mac/line, with the angle between the shafts 80'! The approximate centre distance between
the shafts is 125 mm. The normal pilch of the teeth is 10 mm and wheel diameters are
equal. Find the number of teeth on each wheel, pitch circle diameter and spiral angles.
Find the efficiency of the drive
Given Data :
if the friction
Zz
3
i =  = 2';
z,
angle is 5 ~
Q
== 80
= )25
mm;
Pn
= ]0
mm ;
6.58
Design of TransmissionSY.fl
~~
Tofind:
__ .~
e~
d2
We know that,
dl
z2
Given that,
cos
zi
cos
WI
zi
z2
PI
P2
3
(l)2
2 '
cos
= PI + P2 =
80
and d , = d2
PI
tan PI = ~:~~~: or
132
and
80  53.4
ADS."
26.6
Centre distance,
125
r, zl
21t
5.34
z2
i z)
zi
cos
lOx zi
21t
125 and
[1
[1
cos 53.4
or
zi =
(~) ]
cos 26.6
23.4 say 24
= 2: x 24 =
ADS."
36 Ans. ~
Then,
PCl
dl
d2
11
Pnzi
7t
cos
131
Pn
cos PI
=
10 x 24
1t cos 53.4
d;
cos
(132 +~)
cos PI
cos
(13)  ~)
cos
128 mm
128mm
Ans.1:)'
ADS. "
132
= 0 855 =
.
e
101 (;eJlTS_
~le6.21"')A
6.59 .
fIdls are of equal diameters with a normal pitch of 10 mm and centre distance is
ttl~.;moJely 150 mm: If the speed ratio is 2.5 to 1, find (a) spiral angles of
~b)
",,
=:
0/
~cy
if the coefficient
~iven
Data:
e Solution:
d1
= 90;
001
= 2
=
(J)
d2;
Pn
2.S;
J.1
a = 150 mrn ;
= 10 rnm ;
0.10S.
We know that,
d1 
Z1 cos (32
(32 == 90  (31
(31 + (32 = 90 ; or
cos (31
1 == 2.5 cos (90  (31)
...
or
tan (31
2.5
and (32
21.8 Ans.1:I
or
== 2.5
(31
68.2
or
IJ.\
'7o.Tumber
of teet /;I on
tUI
J'Y
each wheel:
Pnzl
a = ~
We know that,
ISO
zl
or
z2
:::::
10 Z
__l
21t
E.n ~
>"
21t
154.2
:::::
45 Ans.
~~ [~+
1
[A
coS ......1
OUD
go]
1 _ + _ 2.~
 68 2
cos 2 .
cos
.
Ans.1:I
d'stance:
I
17.5 say 18
_25x18=
i x z1  .
and
(c) Exact centre
i
+ cos (32
1
~
coS
132
,ADS. 1:1
.'
.fjiciency:
. (d) TransnllsSIOn eJJ
~.::::
11 ::::: 1 + tall 131 X J.l
1 go x 0.10S
~
1 + tan 68.2 ~
e
~]
c082\.8
1
6.60
...
./'
A helical gear has teeth in the form of helix around the gear .
./'
Advalltage.f of hetica! gears: Less noisy, greater load carrying capacity, and
manufacturingfeasibiltty .
./'
./'
./'
The helical gear nomenclature and its kinematics are presented in the beginning ofthiJ
chapter .
./'
z,
Pn =
PI
.!!.E_
Pa = tan B = sin B
Pd 
xd,
PI = 7r' ml
tan an
PI
7
J.
n1
cos
Pn
cos
f3
= <,

7rmn
sin
f3
7r
Pn
tan a
.
l
cos
f3
An imaginary spur gear considered in the normal plane is called as the virtual or
formative spur gear. The number of teeth on the virtual spur gear in the normal plane is
known as virtual or formative or equivalent number of teeth. It is given by
eq
z
cost
Tooth proportions and basic dimensions of helical and herringbone gears are tabu/aled
in Table 6.1.
Force Qllalysis on helical gears:
Three components of resultant force on the gear tooth are :
(i)
2MI
d
Tangential component:
Fr
F [tan an ]
I
cos P
Fa = F, X tan
Two methods of deSigning a helical gear: 1. Helical gear design using Lewis
Buckingham
equations; and 2. Helical gear design based on gear life.
and
~~e~~=~================~
~~
sa
id
6.61
= tr x m
uhi xy
trr
v
h I 0ad,
__ d J
A
fJ
bx Qx~
cos2 P
.; .Herringbone or double helical gear consists of teeth having a right and left' handed
helix cut on the same blank. Herringbone gears are used to overcome the difficulty of
end thrust in the single helical gear.
Crossedhelical or Spiral gears:
.; For connecting nonparallel and nonintersecting shafts, crossed helical gears are used
.;
Crossed helical gears transmit relatively small amounts of power because of point
contact between teeth
.f
Shaft angle,
~;
NJ
N2
+ c~2P2 ] =0.5
[c~JpJ
zl
= zl
.
=
=
V.f
m.[
c~JpJ +
CO:
P2 ]
d2 cos P2
d, cos PJ
1_
and
17max =
xp
J + Ian PI x u
cos (0+ ;J + J
cos (0 ) + J
liP) MOM
.i"~
Design o/Transmission 8\1
6.62
~~teln3
REVIEW QUESTIONS
1.
2.
difficulty ?
3.
4.
s.
6.
What are the components of resultant forces acting on a gear tooth of a helical gear?
Deduce the expressions of it.
7.
Write the expressions for beam strength, dynamic load, and limiting wear load for
helical gears and explain the various terms used in it.
8.
9.
Why is the crossed helical gear drive not used for power transmission?
A pair of helical gear consists of a 20 teeth pinion meshing with a 70 teeth gear. The
normal module is 3 mm. Find the required value of the helix angle if the centre distance
is exactly 150 mm.
[Ans : 25.84]
2.
A pair of parallel helical gears consists of a 25 teeth pinion and the velocity ratio is
3.5 : I. The helix angle is 20 and the normal module is 5 mm. Calculate: (1) the pitch
circle diameters of the pinion and the gear; and (ii) the centre distance.
A pair of parallel helical gears consists of an 20 teeth pinion meshing with 60 teeth ge~.
The normal module is 4 mm. The helix angle is 21 while the normal pressure angle IS
18. Calculate : (i) the transverse module; (ii) the transverse pressure angle; and (iii) the
axial pitch.
[Ans: (i) 4.28 mm; (ii) '19.19; (iii) 35.06 mm]
4.
A pair of parallel helical . gears consists of a 20 teeth pinion meshing with a 40 teeth gear.
. 3
The helix angle is 25 and the normal pressure angle is 20. The normal module IS
mm. Calculate: (i) the transverse module; (ii) the transverse pressure angle; (iii) the
axial pitch; (iv) the pitch circle diameters of the pinion and the gear; (v) the centre
distance; and (vi) the addendum and dedendum circle' diameters of the pinion.
tl.
/icalG:,_e_ors
5.
__

6. A parallel.helical
d'
7.
9.
t
LH
Fig. 6./5.
6.64
"
. 5h own In
. Fig .6 16_ Pinion A 'ISni!!l.e WJl~
I I' I gear .box 15
1 The layout of a double ie rca
li d to it through ;1:5 shan D .J. ~ llllJnle
I .
d 10 kW power at 720 r.p.m. IS supp ie . ~ 50' z ~ 2{)' and _ ~ [,
""
gear
an
. I
are' Z = 20, B
~
C
O
f teeth on different helica gears
. A
.
f helical .o:e.arsA and IR :bf fut:h
. 200 For the pair I(} ...,11::=>
_
_
normal pressure angle for all gears IS "
F the pair C and I), the MIX an e''k> '!5 2::'"
angle is 30, and the normal module IS, :~~ ~~t handed helical teerh, ,,~ pirilD .
and the normal module is 5 mm. Pml~n and B are mounted on shaft no.] i:n ;;ocih > 't'
has a left handed helix. The beanngs
I
. 2
.
B an take hoJ;b "",,,,I... ,~ :a;
I
shpn.:J
RH
Fig. 6./6.
[Ails:
FBI
r
= 5044.58
FJ~2 = ) 559.9)
N ; FYBI
N; F~2
= 2'64
.) .); N
= 592.13
N;
, = 479456 N:
FJ:B_~
FBl
~x
equation:
12. A pair of helical gears are used to transmit 5 kW at 720 r. p. m. of the pinion. Gears are ""
C45 steel. The speed reduction ratio is 2. Number of teeth on piniOn is 10. ~,.
pressure angle is 20. Normal module is 5 rnrn. Helix angle is 300. Design the gear drive
13. Design a helical gear to transmit 7.5 kW at 1400 r.p.m, to the fullowing specificsnons:
Speed reduction 3. Pressure angle 20. Helix angle 10. Design surface compressive
stress x 900
2.05
105 N/mm'.
N/mm2. Design bending stress 210 N/mm'. Modulus of elasticity ofmaiem!;
14. A pair of helical gears is to transmit 40 kW at 1800 r.p.m. The speed reduction n:quin><i
is 4 and helix angle is 15'. Design the drive for COntinuous service with moderate sMct
loads. Pressure angle is 20. Assume the suitable materials for the drive.
IS. Design a helical gear drive to transmit 5 kW at 1440 r.p.m. Speed ratio is 2.5. SeI'
suitable material for the gears.
~~~~~~~~
.'
6.65
A helical cast steel with 30 helix an I .
}6.
th determi
gels to transm't 36 kW
bas 24 tee
etermme the necessary modul
.
I.
at 1500 r.p.m. If the gear
depth teeth. The static stress for cast st I~' pitch diameter and face width for 20 full
. h F' d al
ee IS 55 N/mm2 F
.
.
nonnal prtc . in
so the end thrust on the
..
ace Width IS three times the
. fh l'
gear.
17. Design a parr 0 e ical gears to transmit 5 kW
..
transmission ratio is 5. Take minimum
b at a PIllion speed of 1440 r.p.m. Required
gears is C 45 steel. Sketch the arrangem:~
er of teeth as 22. The material of both the
011
gear life:
4. 83.8%]
Bevel Gears
"A good scientist is a person with original ideas. A good engineer is a perUJriwh&
makes a design that works with as few original ideas as possible
There are no prima donnas in engineering. .
 Freeman DyJO"
7.1. INTRODUCTION
(Bevel
gears are used to transmit power
~o
intersecting shafts. Bevel gears are
commonly used in automotive differentials. The
gears are formed by cutting teeth along the
elements of frustum of a cone. That is, the pitch
surface in the bevel gears are truncated cone,
one of which rolls over the other, as shown in
Fig.7.!. When teeth formed on the. cones are
straight, the gears are known as slrlliglzt bev!!j
and when inclined, they are known as spiral or
helical beveL
Bevel gears are mounted on intersecting shafts at any desired angJe, although 90 shaft
angle is most common. Bevel gears are not interchangeable. Because they are designed and
manufactured in pairs.
The bevel gear teeth can be cast, miJIed, or generated. But the generated teeth is more
accurate than cast and milled teeth.
_.

'
e teet on the bevel gears are parallel to
the lines generating the pitch cones, then they are
called straight bevel gears. As shown in Fig.7 .2, the
teeth are straight, radial to the point of intersection
of the shaft axes and vary in crosssection
throughout their length. Usually, they are used to
connect shafts at right angles which run at low
speeds.
~~~~=~__
_JD~e~s~ign~O~if~Tl~ran~s~m~~~s~ro~n
2.SP~
gears :
Bevel Gears
2. Internal bevel gear: When the pitch angle of a bevel gear exceeds 90, it is called
internal bevel gear. Because of the manufacturing difficulties, the internal bevel gears ~
rarely used.
3. Mitre gears: When two meshing bevel gears have a shaft angle of 90 and bave the
same number of teeth, they are called mitre gears. In other words, mitre gears have a speed
ratio of 1. Each of the two gears has a 45 pitch angle.
~ .3. BEVEL GEAR NOMENCLATURE
The geometry of a be~1 gear set is shown in Fig. 7.6. The various terms used in the study
of b~~el gears have been.explained
below.
1. Pilcll cone: It is the cone containing the pitch elements of the teeth.
2. Con~e:
It is the point where the axes of two mating ~ars
other words, it is the apex of the pitch cone.
in~sect_eacl!_ other. In
3. Pitch angle (or semicone angle) (8) : It is the angle made by the pitch line of a gear
with the gear axis.
Cone centre
..
,
,/,
\,
Back
cone
""I'
'\JY
I
6\~~
! /
\ I
,.
,
.vO~0~
~~~
4. Cone distance (or pitcll cone radius) (R) : It is the length of the pitch cone
Mathematically,
QI~Dleot.
1
I
1
I
,,
Transmission Systems
~_Q~~~~~~~~
Design of
R
or
d, and d,
where
z 1 and
=1
>
.;
J.;
111,x zi == 111,x z2
2 sin 1
2 . sin 02
[ .: m, = dlz]
... (7.1)
Transverse module
_ [(dl)22
(d2)2]~
+"2
R 
~
where
111,~
=~ + =~
= 2" ~
=
... (7.2)
d~ + d;
0.5 m, x
z, ...J ;2 + I
... (7.3)
'i
I,
i
= Gear ratio = I
~ t:2'
angle (oa) : It is the angle subtended by the addendum of the tooth at the
5. Addendum
Addendum angle,
j
~
= tarr ' (
addendum)
cone
distance
tan 1
(ha)R
... (7.4)
6. Dedendum angle (Od) : It is the angle subtended by the dedendum of the tooth at the
cone centre. Mathematically,
Dedendum angle,
'',
ad =
tarr '
(hRf)
. .. (7 .)S"
7. Tip (orfa.cM.~~/e : It is the angle subtended bv the face of the tooth at the cone centre.
Mathematically,~
./
Tip angle
8. Root angle:
Mathematican@_)
= 0 + ea
...
(7.6)
It is the angle subtended by the root of the tooth at the cone centre.
.
Root angle
,I
11
= 8  e/
... (7.7)
9. Back (or normal) cone: It is an imaginary cone, perpendicular to the pitch cone at the
end of the tooth.
10. Back cone disttmce (or back cone radius) : It is the length ofthe back cone.
:!
!
1
11. Backing (B) : It is the distanc~ of the pitch point from the back of the boss, parallel to
the axis of the gear. "
12. MOUII/ing height : It is the distance of the back of the boss from the cone centre.
~B~ev~e=I~G~e~a~~~
ha 
where
+ 2 x ha x cos
Pitch diameter
Addendum, and
o 
Pitch angle.
,
I
hi
'" (7.8)
<)
Dedendum
... (7.9)
1. Acute angle bevel gears: If the shaft angle < 90, then the bevel gears are knownas
acute angle bevel gears. The pitch angles are given by
tan 01 and
where
tan
I and
02
sin
sin
(zI / z2)
e
+ cos
e
e
 Shaft angles =
=
... (7.10)
+
1
02' and
=, ~
zi
= i ; and
1=
90 
...
(7.11)
3. Obtuse (Ingle bevel gears: If shaft angle 8 > 90, then the bevel gears are known as
obtuse angle bevel gears. The pitch angles are given by
sin (1800
8)
and
7.4.
In order to simplify the design calculation and analysis, bevel gears are replaced by
equivalent spur gears. An imaginary spur gear considered in a plane perpendicular to the
toroth at the larger end, is known as vinuai orformative or equivalent spur:gear. The virtual
spur gear has pitch circle radius equal to the pitch cone radius 'R' of the bevel gear.
...
__
~Design 0/11
."
z
cos 0
where z = Actual number of teeth on th b
e evel gear.
~
The virtual number of teeth is Used f
I .
~
or se ectIngthe cun
v

bevelgears.
... (7.13)
ers and
In all
desJgn calculations of
2. Dedendum,
hf
].2111,
3.
Clearance,
4.
c  0.2112,
5. Thickness of tooth
where
 1.5708 m
l
111, =
Transverse module.
OF BEVEL GEARS
The basic dimensions of straight bevel gears are listed in Table 7.1.
Table 7.1. Basic dimensions of bevel gears (from data book, page no. 8.38)
S.No.
Nomenclature
Units
m(
mm
I.
Transverse
2.
Mean module
mm
mm
3.
Normal module
mn
mm
4.
Cone distance
mm
mm
' 5.
6.
module
Symbol
mm
Face width
Formula
b sin 8
m(=mm+zInm =
dol
do2
b
mm
:::s
mt
m,(zl
Number
wheel
of teeth on crown
zClV
+2cos81)
8.
b sin 0
z
BB~eevvEe~ll(GIEe~a~rs~
~
Nomenclature
S.No.
9.
Symbol
Units
Zu
Formula
2 X cos
Zu
. ?~
sm
; (X
I. for ~
l
gears)
undercutting
I
20 usually
degrees
Pm
degrees
P2
tan 02
10.
Pressure angle
11.
12.
degrees
13.
Addendum angle
degrees
14.
Dedendum angle
8f
degrees
15.
Height factor
fo
16.
Clearance
17.
Tip angle
degrees
oa 
18.
Root angle
Of
degrees
19.
Tooth height
Ii
mrn
20.
Working depth
hw
mm
hw
21.
Addendum
ha
mm
ha = mr
22.
Dedendum
hi
mm
hi = 1.1236m1
23.
v
I Example
7.1
I A pair
30 to 35;
t , 01
35 preferred
90
= tan 8a2 =
tan 0al
mt
=I
R
= tan /2 =
tan 8/1
/0
= 0.2
0 + Sa
/  0  S/
= Iza + hi
...
\"
2 mr
=. 
. =
= cos 0 . \' 1m tn
18 for 6. =20"
(ii) the pitch angles for tile pillion and gear; and
(iii) tile cone distance.
Give" Data:
To find:
Solution:
zl = 30;
z2
= ~
mtUO+c)
with a 48 teeth gear. Tile gears are mounted on shafts, which are inJersting
angle. Tile module at the large end of the tooth is 4 nun. Calculate:
(i)
e = 900
and (iii) R.
111
n:
. .IS
...
', .....
, . .. (her
,.j..
HI.
".bh'iQ'W'
;<.
1',."
;1
.' .. ,_j
,!
.
R = 0.5 m t
=
0.5 x 4
\}
oJ
z~ + ~
302 + 482
113.21 mm
Ans."
~~.'
J'l.JXU
cuing
c.
force
(F)s:
It
I'S
:
, .' 1
,,
:, ,,/ Fs
"
11
(b)
(a)
tf
j
v
,B~~~\~~/~.!~t~1~~~~
__
2 M,
M,
F~:.:,
dI
(1\1
'" (1.14)
"",
where
==
60 x P
21tN '
Power transmitted,
1'",
ZI'
(d21 _
ilia,
ZI
S~l
0, )
To find F!i: The analysis is similar to that of spur gears and the separating force can be
determined using the relation
Separating force, Fs = F, x tan
where
(l
Tofind F;
(lilt!
(l
... (i)
Pressure angle
Fa : The separating force is further resolved into radial and axial forces,as
shown in Fig.7.7(b).
From the geometry of the Fig. 7.7(b), we can write
Radial force, F,
= F, x cos
IS
.,. (iiJ)
and
.., (ii)
and
F,' tan
(l .
cos IS
(7.15)
(l
sin IS
(7.16)
The radial component on the gear is equal to the axial component on the pini()l1,
but in opposite dlrecuon.
:.
(Fr)gcar
=  ( Fa )plnlon
~
~D~~~ign~~of~TJ~~~a~ns~n~u~ss~io~n~~
./ Similarly, the
axial component
on the gear is equal to th e radilaI component on the
.
'"
pinion, but m opposite direction,
.
.. (F a )gear =  (F r )pinion
I A pair
[xample 7.2
80
A 5 kW power
is
suppliedto the pinion, which rotates at 800 r.p.m: TI,e face width is 40 mm and the
pressure angle is 20 ~ Calculate the tangential, radial and axial components of the
resultallt
toothforce acting on the pillion.
GivenDtua : i=2;
d1=80mm;
Fa on pinion.
@) Solution:
(1 and
2),
N1=800r.p.m.;
P=5kW;
b=40mm;a=200.
In order to calculate the force components, first let us find pitch angles
Weknow that,
tan 02 
e = 90.
or
02 
63.43
and
01 
90  02
90  63.43
= 26.57
. of the puuon
. , at rruidnoi
t long the face width is given by,
TIie mean radius
porn a
d1
b . sin 81
r; = "2"
2
80
 2
40 x sin 26.57
2
31.054 mrn
We know that,
r, =
2Mt
d
=:1
lav
III
Where
..
60 x p _ 60 x 5 x 10
M, = 27tN1' 27t x 800
F, =
59.68
31.054
= 59.68 Nm
= 1921.91 N ADS. ~
x 103
We know that,
= 625.64
ADS. ""SJ
v:
i
Bevel Gears
~~~~~
(iii) Axial component (FoJ :
Fa  F,
We know that,
tan a x sin 0,
I Example
I For the
7.3
= 312.89 N
Ans."
axial components of the resultant tooth force acting on the gear wheel
Given Data: Refer Example 7.2;
To find:
N2
Nl
800
i =2 =
400 r.p.m.
@)Solutio_,,: 0,
= 26.57
(i) Tangential component (FJ : We know that the tangential force on the pinion and gear
are equal in magnitude and opposite in direction. Therefore,
(Fr)gear
(F,)pinion
where (M r)gear =
rm2
60 x P
2n N2
1921.91
Ans."
as below.
60 x 5 x 103
2n x 400
119.366 Nm
d2
2
==
] 60
[':d2=ixdl=2x80=I60mm]
40 x sin 63.43
2
62.11 mm
) 19.366
.
(F)r gear = Fr
=
(F)
tan a. x cos O2
N Ans. ~
(F ) __
a ptruon
(F )
a gear = FI x tan a. x sin 0
a gear
(F) _ _
r Pinion .
ADS.
e
~20
r.p.m.. ttl a gear mo.u~ted .on a shaft which intersects the pinion shaft q.t an
tatill
rO
700. ,Assunuftg that th~ pinion IS to have an outside pitch diameter of 180 mm, a
!if
angle of 20 ~ a face width of 45 mm, and the gear shaft is to rotate at 140 r.p.m;
presslll'~ (i) the pitch angle for the gears; (ii) tile forces'on the pinion and gear; and
dtltrtnlne ue produced about the shaft axis.
"iI the torq
(iJll
Data. P == 10 kW; N} = 420 r.p.m; e = 70; d} = 180 mm; a. = 20; b = 45 mm;
Given
N2::: 140r.p.m.
d8
(ii) F; F, and Fa on pinion and gear; and (iii) (M,)gear .
Tofind: (i) 8} an 2;
.
N}
420 _ 3 _ z2
i
==
N2
==
140  zl
@ Soilltion :
IfIIIlt
sin B
We know that,
...
sin 70
:::' 0.281
3 + cos 70
Ans . ...,
tan~1(0.281) =..15.70
or
== &1 + &2
e  8\
&2 ==
rml
Let us first
d1
b . sin 01
 2 
180

2
. d
the pinion,
Torque transffiltte on
. lion .
(a) Forces on the p';.
(i)
Tangentilll force:
F rl
31
Ans ~
dius of the pinion at
f d the mean ra 1
10
22~7
~.36. ni __ 2709.62 N.
3
:::: _!l. ::::83.91 X 10
F ,.
I :::
We know that,
.
=
n..... '.,
midpoint.
Z2
..
e
==
70
;
Zl
(
J'
rna I
ns,
.'
x cos 8.
.N
.
 15 70 == 949.43
I
200 x cos .
::: 2709.62 x tan
.
:::: FIx
tan
0.
Bevel Gears
(iii) Axial force :
Fal
Ftl
x tan ex x sin
8,
~."
4 ....,
Tangential force :
Fa 
(ii)
Radial force:
Fr2
Fa2
Ftl = 2709.62 N
ADS. ~
Fa x tan ex x cos 82
 Fa x tan ex x sin
=
575.5 N Ani.."
{iii} Torque produced about the shaft axis (i.e., torque on the gear shaft}:
60 x p
Ma = ix Mtl
We know that,
, Exanlple 7.5
I A pair
3 x 227.36
NJ (60 x ')
21tN
=j.<M,!
=N
15 kWat
Fig.7.8(a). The pressure angle is 200. Determine the components of the resuitantgearJooIlJ
force and draw a free body diagram of forces acting on tire pinion and the gear.
2751.93 N
600 rpm
(a)
torces
Fig. 7.8.
Given Datil: P
IS kW;
N}
d2 = 320 mm;
To find:
I. Components
600 r.p.m. ;
a = 20' ,
d,
200 mrn ;
b = 50 mm.
@ Solution:
We know that,
tan
N2 
2 =
z2
 
ZI
d2
320
 d}  200  I .6
 
e = 90.
Design if n
o 'ansmission Systems
or
Then,
:::::90  580
II
ron,
_
:::::
ml
:::::32
60 x P
2;N :::::~
rl
21t X 600
d
h . sin 0 ]
2  ..1
2
_10
x Si03~]
./
Radial force :
FtJ _ _Mil::::
'mJ
Frl
./
..
./
Radial force :
Ans. "
I
Tangential force:
./
Axial force :
Fal
== 86.75 rnrn
238.73
Ft2::::
_
Fr2
F'l
F/2
Nm
l
~ [~
./
== 238.73
Ans, "
:::: 2751.93 N
Axial force :
s. "
p' The free body diagram of forces acting on the pinion and the gear are drawn, as shown in
Ig.7.8(b).
1. e average pitch
radii of the pinion and gear are shown in Fig.7.9. For simplicity, the
.teetIi /Iave been replaced by the pitcll cones. Bearings A and C shotdd take the radial and
thrllSt10(ltis, while bearings Band D can only take radial loads. Find the bearing forces (or
reacti
ns at the bearings) on the gears/loft.
~B~ev~e~IG~e~a~~~'~
y
160 _~
1
7S
,"0
65
+J0;::~~'"~
)(
92
J__
1_
225

Fig. 7.9.
Given Data : N, = 600 r.p.m;
P = 3.75 kW;
= 75 mm; b = 35 111m;
d,
011 gCI"
shoft
=, = 15; :1::
d2 =225 mm.
Solution
N,
z2
d,
z, 
= N2
  
d,
...
tan 82
or
82
Then,
81
90  82
90  71.56
We know that,
1'",
../
011
71.56
18.43
dl
b sin 81
')
7S
35 x sin 18.43
60 x P
= 2rrN,
60 x 3.75 x 103
2rr x 600
31.97 mm
59.68 Nm
tile pinion :
M'l
59.68
= IS66.75N
31.97 x 103
Tangential force:
F'I
Radial force :
Axial force:
Fal
rm,
=
=
644.59 N
218.8 N
45:
,.'hO ~
V
_JD~e~s~i~~o'[_~Til~a
. Systems
I1srmSSlOn

forces,
.'
I TangentIal force:
I
Fa  Fit:::: 1866.75 N
Radialforce:
I Axial force:
Pr2
Fat::::
F a2
218.8N
corees acting on the gearshnft : The forces acting on the gearsna1 ft :IS shown In
.. Flg.7.1Q.
I",
equilibrium
FXo + F r2
of forces, we get
pXC
.. ,
(i)
)pinion
[.,'
(I'm )gear = i
(rm )pinion = 3
31.97
==
95.91 mm]
F~
or
== 528.91 N Ans. ~
~
For ~y
0 FY
==
F '" == 644.59 N
'C
ADS.
e
az
... (ii)
F~ + F~ == Fa
Bevel Gears
Fo
 v (310.11)2 + 0 + (726.37)2
I Example 7. 71 For
789.8 N ADS. ~
pinion shaft ie., reactions at the bearing A and B. Assume that the bearing A
radial as well as thrust load, while the bearing B can only take radial load
011
dt
C'tUr ,.
@Solution:
Refer Fig.7.9.
~I
I \fP
<,~
. I.'".>
a
l.S,;.
./'.:,..."<,
0""""';:
.'"
."'.'"
FI1
",.
",.
>
'>t'"
.',
",.',
FX
F~
81
F~
t~"
'Fz
A
<,
I'
Fr1
Fig. 7.11.
Frl + FYa
... (.)I
or
x 31.97 
Frl
or
F~
1102.15 N
ADS. ~
pY
For LX = 0,
FXA
1102.15  644.59
= 457.56
ADS.CJ
Y1,18=~~iD~~~i~~O'[Tl~~~.~.~~
ransmiSSIon Systems
F~  F 11 + FZB
... (ii)
or
F~
or
NOW
x75 :::: 0
F~ x 7S
3461.95 N ADs. ~
pz
A 
r
F,t
3461.95 1866.75
1595.2 N Ans. ~
1,
= \} (218.8)2
+ (1102,15)2 + (3461.95}2
= 3639.74 N Ans."
and
= \)
=
I Example
7.8
I A differential
(457.56}2 + (1595.2}2
1659.52 N
ADs."
sllaft receives 7.5 kW power at 300 r.p.m. The pitch circle diameters of bevel gears A, B, C
Qlld D at the midpoint along the face width are 200, 100, 200 and 400 mm respectively. The
pitchcircle diameters of spur gears E and Fare 200 and 300 mm respectively. The gears
rotateat constant speed. Determine the various forces acting Oil various gears and the
torqueon each of the two output shafts.
Power at
N1 rpm
Output
shaft 1
IIt_.__
\
Output shaft2
(b)
Fig. 7.12.
Bevel Gears
P = 7.5 kW; N) = 300 r.p.m ; (dm)A = 200 mm', (dm)n;
200 mm ; (dm)D = 400 rnm ; dE = 200 mm ; dF = 300 mm. ;
Given Data:
(dm)c
Tofind :
100 rnrn.
(M),
60 x p
60 x 7.5 x 103
.
21t N 1 21t X 300
1 
Oil
238.73 Nm
various gears :
2 x 238.73
200 x 103 = 2387.32 N
ADS. ~
or
(F')AB x (r m)9
(F,)co x (r m )c
2387.82 x (0.1
2 00)
(F,)co
(F,)eo
1193.91 N
x (0.200)
2
.
ADS. ~
or
= (F')EF x (r m )E
(F,)cb x (rl1l)o
We know that,
1193.91x(02.4)
(F')EF
(0.2)
"2
(ii) Torque on each of the two output shafts: The torque on the output shaft 1, referring
Fig.7.12(b), is given by
(M,)
~ 2387.32 x
(Oi2)
tr; )D
+ 1193.91
2387.82 x
3
. ) = 358.17 Nm
Ans."
Ans.'"
I
I.
EQUATlON
.
Since the tooth thickness varies along its length, a modified Lew IS equation \,1' t"~m
strength is used for bevel g~ars. It is given by
Beam strength,
F,
where
~~
The factor
(R;b)
1tXIn,xbx[ab]xy'
= 10 In, or OJ R,
'" ~.n
Face ~"i~th
y'
Cone distance =
(Rb)
~
0.5' j
~t
z~ +
~ ....
z;
7.9. DYNAMIC LOAD ON BEVEL GEAR TOOTH (Effective Load on Gear Tooth)
As discussed in Section 6.10, in order to account for dynamic loads, Ole following
methods are used.
1. Calculation of initial dynamic load (FD):
tw,
the velocity factor, which is used in the initial stages of design, is given by the relation
F,
where
... ( .1 S)
Ko
3.5 +
5.{;,
5.6+
v
. I d
2. Buckingham's equation for dynamIC oa :
accurate estimation of dynamic load, is given by
_ ...
_
y
~B~ev~e~/~G~ea~r!s
~
21 v (be + F()
Dynamic load, Fd
= F( +
21 v+~
'" (7.19)
bc+F(
p
where
cos
ell
=
=
Face width,
Q'
=
=
... (7.20)
zv2
+ zv2
2x
zv2
zv2 zvl
= [
f es
X Sill
1.4
f es =
where
=
Eg =
ex.
Ep and
1 =
z2'
\,
1.22
___
3. Calculate
the pitch angles (i e ., 0 1 and ~) and th .
Pitch angles:
.f
.f
zl
z,,1 ==
cos 01
an d zv2 == cos2 O
2
= PV
X Tl _
""0
_j .
6. Calculate the beam strength Fs in te rms 0f transverse module using the relation
e"
"
==
1t X
b' x [ a
mt x
Initially assume b = 10 mt
b ]
x y' x (
R; b)
Face width:
.f
.f
= 10 ni,
r,
= 1t
x m, x
bx [
O"b ]
x y' x
(R ~ b)
10. Calculate the dynamic load more accurately using Buckingham's equation,
21 v (be + Ft)
Fd = Ft + 21 v +
..J be + F
11. Check for beam strength (or tooth breakage). If Fd ~ FoJ' the gear tooth has adequate
beam strength and will not fail by breakage. Thus the design is satisfactory.
.
.
0.75xd1xbxQ'xl<w
12. Calculate the maximum wear load using the relation Fw =
cos Ul
!:!
13. Check for wear strength. If Fd < Fw' the gear tooth has adequate wear capacity and
will not wear out. Thus the design is safe and satisfactory.
14. Calculate the basic dimensions of pinion and gear using the Table 7.1.
Bevel Gears
7.23
\ Example
7.9
I Design
Ir"II.\'",11
If)
J(J
kW
a pln;(.m SPetd ..
(1/
III J
mo
SIS Of
ltd.
(J
3. Calculation
15 N i 2 Cr I Mo 15
geurs:
2. Calculatlon of
und
ZI
ofpltch
Pitch angles:
Z2.'
(I
ASSlIme
To find
ZI
We know that,
and
21/'
(.0(/
=112 :
~
zvl
= COS 01
zI/2
::;
then
cos 02
~ x K
Ko
c:
Oil
60
..
F[
20
i= 6
1.508
alculation of lnltlal
5. C
"
20
14.040
20 61 :::::21, and
HO
c:
329.7() :::::330.
I(J(JIII (PI) :
_1tNI
(In/XZI]
60
1000"
[.. d
. .
x 1.25 
R2R9.32
.
111,
111[
P,
We knoW that,
Fd == Cv
where
cv ~
= 80
=
I
lln
x ZI andm , isin'n '!
m
I
:=
of teeth "
1t y,
==
;;
1td,N,
v ==
= i ,.< Z I
cos 75.96
4. Calculation (~ltll,.,gelltillllo{/d
F, == v
z2
 2
_._;;...__
L:OS
Z2
where
= 20,
tan 02
()I ~,)
Z,
We know that,
'" (Given)
T1Cn,
I
..!
../
= 20.
CJ.
5.6
S,6+{;
~~
__ ~D~e~SI~'gn~Of~T~~a~n~sm~l~ss~;~on~~~s~r
5.6
5.6 + ,\(5
 0.714, assuming
8289.32)
.'
1
xO.714
n1,
Fs b
where
1t X
11599.23
117,
mix bx lab]
x x(R;b)
j/
10 m,
= 450
[ CYb ]
mls
(F.J :
~ Calculation
of beam strength
We know that,
v == 5
0.154 
0.912
zvl
0.912
21
0.1106
R  Cone distance
0.5
 0.154
 0.5 x
Fs
202 + 802
117,~
1t X 111, X
nl,
10
n7,
0 z~ + z~
41.23
117,
41.23177,10117,)
41.23111,
x 450 x 0.1106 x (
 1184.38111;
!. Calculation
We know that,
oftransversemodule (mJ :
Fs
1184.38 m~ ~
In, ~
Or
Fd
11599.23
111,
2.14
From Table 5.8, the nearest higher standard transverse module is 3 rnm,
S.Calculation 0/ b, d, and v :
b
/
Face width:
/
dI
10m,
= m, x ZI
1t
/
v::::
10 x 3
::::
3 x 20
d) NI
60::::
1t
30 mrn
= 60 rnm
1184.38
m; ::::1184.38
32
10659 N
rn/3
"
2212.4 + 21 "4.52,,
1()3
8866.S8N
1/, Ch6ck for b6am IlnmBIII (or tooth breakage): We find Fa >
tooth hal adequate beam strength and wHJ not fail by breakage ... ~;u,LIil!
IlIIlIfllCllJry.
/1, Calculallon of mflX/mum wear load (F.,) :
We know that, Fw
where
0.75 x d I x b x Q' x Kw
cos 81
2 x zv2
2 x 330
21 + 330
Q'
Ratio factor
Kw
Zvt
+ zv2
Ia
Transmission Systems
F, Fd 
P
v
lOx 103
== 1326.26 N
7.54
r,
cos 14.040
= 18552.89
NoW we find Fw > F,t It means the gear tooth has adequate wear capacity and will
wear out. Thus the design is safe against wearfailure also.
not
Number of teeth :
Zl
./
{II
./
Cone distance:
=
=
and
20;
= 80
Z2
R == 0.5
In/ ~
z~ + z;
= 0.5 x 5
J 20
+ 802
= 206.15 mm
./
Face width:
./
Pitch angles:
./
Tip diameter:
do, 
da2
Height factor:
./
Clearance:
./
Addendum angle:
tn, (z,
Dedendum angle :
= 109.7 mm ; and
10
= 1
= 0.2
mt x fo
tan 9al
eal
tan 9a2 ==
0.02425
==
eal
== 1.4
m/Uo +c)
tan ell ==
taD
912 ==
R
0
or
= 75.96
.2 xL;:::
./
50 mm
+ 2 cos 0,)
;::: 206.15
or
lOx 5
01 = 14.04; and ~
=
./
10m /
fl
== 9/2 == .67
5 (1 + O.~ == 0.0291
206.15
Bevel Gears
7
~~~~~
,/
0a2
./
2+
8 Jl = 0, 
Root angle:
Sa2
Zl'l
= 21;
15.44; and
efl =
8/2 = 82  S/2
,/
Tip angle:
and
zv2 =
330
\ EXClmpie 7.10 , A pair of 200 full depth involute teeth bevel gears connect two s/uifts
ClI right angles havtng a velocity ratio 3.2:1. The gear is made of cast steel with IlJt
allowable static stress as 72 Nlmm2 and the pinion is made of steel having a static stress oj
100 N/IJIllr2. TILe pinion transmits 40 kW (It 840 r.p.m. Find the module, face width IIIId
pitch diameter from the statui point of beam strength and check the design from the sttmd
point of wear.
e = 90; i = 3.2;
40 kW;
Tofind:
NI
[ob2]
72 N/mm2;
= 840 r.p.m.
Solution
: Since the materials of pinion and gear are different, we have tc evaluate
= 20,
then
22
z,
3.2 x 20
64.
Then,
tan 82
= 3.2
81
90  82
or 82 = tanI (3.2)
72.64
90  72.64 = 17.36
and
2,,1
2v2
ZI
cos
z
cos
=
8,
20
~ 21
cos 17.36
=
82
64
cos 72.64
~ 215
0.154  0.912
0.154 _ 0~~2
zvl
and
y;
0.l54  0~:2
0.1497
8llltllllJruJn of tangential/oad
FI
Ko =
Ft =
p
V ~
1[
Ko
dl Nt
60
m, ~ 6.94 mm
b
./
=
= m, x Z 1 = 7 x 20
d1
v2 
r,
VI
237.62 x
1t d1 N1
60
m;
21 V (bc + F/)
F = F +~==d
I
2 I V + be + Ft
v
F/
= V
40 x 1()3
6.16
= 6493.5 N
= 140
De.\'
237.62 x m2 = 23762
pt.
F t _  __ 40 x
v
x 142
Transmission
r::
46573.52 N
103
12.315
3248N
r,
3248+
We know that,
FlI' 
where
COS
0,
2 x zv2
1<.,,,
 0.919
z,,1
zv2
2 x 215
21 + 215
1.822, and
N/mm2,
Table 5.9.
0.75 x 280
Fw =
= 51578.25N
cos 17.360
13.Check for wear: We find Fw> Ft/. It means the gear tooth has adequate wear capacity
andwill not wear out. Thus the design is safe against wear failure also.
14.Basic dimensions ofpillion and gear,' Refer Table 7.1 .
./
Module:
./
Face width:
./ 'Pitch diameter:
m, 
14 mm
lOx 14 == 140mm
b  lOxn7{ ::
14 x 20 == 280 mm; and
dl  m, x Zl ==
= 896 mm.
. d  m, x z2 == 14 x 64
2
... (7.21)
60 x P
21t N '
_ Transmitted tOFque ==
. f: t from Table 7.2, and
:: Load concentration ac or,
K
." 1 ad factor from Table 5.12.
Kd 
Dyna.n1JC
"'
"
RVfl+l
[MIl
(Ro.s b)2 b m, Yv
R
Cone distance,
N. =
i = Gear ratio = 
N2
z2
z. '
b  Face width,
ml
Design __
,~ Transmissi
oJ
.
:.==~I~on~Sys~te~1tI6~
(vJ Design cOlltact stress {
CdC
Vi
ere
h
[ <5c]
CB
Uc
J:
HB
c/ or [O"c]
= C
Coefficients
denendi
x HRC x Kcl
.
epending on the Rsurfa
(7.25)
_ Brinell hardness number
ce hardness. from Table 5.18.
B an HBR _
HBC
K
Rockwell
... (7.26)
'V
where
Take
.
'4')' _. 3 for initial
calculations.
. Ilowing
(vii) Transverse
module
I'
(m ".
1 Th e transverse mod I
to
cone distance
equation
ue
R
0.5 m (\j

(m.)
, ')..,)
, \ 1.
.. , t":.2S)
or
n1t
0.5
_2 r_2
1
2
J=~
l
=~
1.
2.
Select the
3.
.,.
'tab}
bi
fi
ann wheel,
consulrin" Table
4.
I M,l
s.
6.
b 
'i'y
b sin 51
maY
d laY = maY
'l'y = d
ml
zi
ZI
b
lav
1i.ftI1~'fI:K;
of Transmwion
"
16.
~ ar.
Th~ induced bending stress in the ::>zear t C; h'J.) can be determined by using (he relation
O"bl
where
)'\'1
ab2 . J\~
Since the contact area is same. the induced contact stress is some for both pinion and
.;
TO
}..2
= 400 r.p.m.:
u.
10
work/or.:flJ Iuutrs
= :u=_
to
pinion.
I
\. Gear ratio :
Pitch angles :
NI
N,
800
400
""I
==:=
"
== tarr ' (2) == 6 J.U
,'0
s::
or
U,
51 
and
2. Material for
3 . Gear life in
Gear life in
4. Calculation
We know that.
"00
6""
'"'\
~o
0
== _(J.:
90  5~ == '"I  .).t...
.
G d "'",near tn:~lte,l
Cast Iron.
J1l e .r ,
pillio/l ant! gear :
~
,.,bl.,>""
== 350N'JllJl12. trom .. ~'all
I _
\"lr:":';
\ cars) ==
(52 wecj> r:
.
= (lO hrs ! \\cek) x
hours
== 29.Q52' llf c~~ks
_ 6'1l0 x 800 " 60
cycles, N  I J .
. .' I I" ton torqllt! [ll I
of mu! {eS1z,
_ '[\'1 I x K x Kef (.M/1
_9 ~
~\J.'~'
107
29.952
107
0.45
CJu'
CJb]
1.4 x 0.8852
_
2
2 x 1.2
x 157.5  81.33 N/mm
of Transmission
'Vy
R/ b  3,Initially
. "
assumed.
..
x 1.4 x 10.1
X ~
7.905 x loJ
'
or
7. Assume
R ZI
50.2
51 mm
== 20;
Then
z2 :::;
x Z I :::;
20
ZI
Virtualnumber of teeth :
cos 01
Z2
O2 =
cos
20
cos 26.57
~ 23 " and
40
cos 63.430 ~ 90
51
We know that,
40
= 2.28 rnrn
From Table 5.8, the nearest higher standard transverse module is 2.5 mrn
9. Revision of cone distance (RJ :
We know that, .
R = 0
10. Calculation of b,
.;
Iflav'
r
.5 mt\J'l z

d lay'
R
=
Average module
Average
b sin 8
1
/1 I 
==
(l71av ) : may
== 2.083 x 20 == 41.66
may
x ZI
d lay
60
N 1 ==
1.745 m/s
b
./
lav
11 L'C'!.
.
IS
_ ~.61 == 0.447
 41.66
assume ,
We know that,
[Mt]
== Mt)( K)( Kd
zl
2.083 mm
dlay ==
v ==
55.9 mrn
== 18.63 mm
1(
./
\,/.
55.9
==
==
.;
and If'Y :
\lfy
.;
+ z2
1t
r1
...
x 33.24 x 103
18.63 x 2.5 x 0.408
=
e find
0'6> [ 66]'
TriIIl2:
again, we get
Imm2
100.75
R = 0.5
b
m
a.
m, x ~ z~ + z;
67.08
= 'l'y = = m 
1t X d11n'
d11n'
.;;..;_;,;;....;;....~=.;;;.;;;;.;.;;..;_
%1 =
2.5 x 20 = SO mm
x Nt
 7t X SOx 6010
60
= 
22.36 mm
= 3
%1
d1tw = min' x
\11
b sin 01
v =
= 0.5 x 3 x \} ~02 + 4~
22.36
=
SO
= 0447
.
x 800
Transmission
Now~. find
(16
.oJIi
< [ (1b]'
'Jactory.
::::
(R  0.5 b)
We know that th .
e Induced contact str
I
[
+ 15
V (;2
ess,
J1
ix b
x Eeq [M,']
[..J (2 + 1)3
2
.
0.72
(67.08  0.5 x 22.36)
2 x 22.36
Wefind
Transverse rnodu le :
Number of teeth :
Zl
nIt
20;
Cone distance :
.;
Face width :
.;
Pitch angtes :
.;
d1 
117t
mt x z2
.;
and Z2 = 40.
zl
3 x 20
67.08 mm
b 
22.36 mm
60 mm ; and
== 3 x 40 == 120 mm.
R 
and 82 == 63.43
26.57;
Tip .diameter :
_ 65.37 mm ; and

m, (Z2
+2cosb)
== 3 (40+2
cos 63.43
_ 122.68 mID
.;
Height factor:
.;
Clearance:
.;
10 
c  0.2
tan
eal
or
.;
Dedendum angle:
or
./
Tip angle :
eal
tan
ef 1
3 (1 +OY
==  67.08
./
Root angle:
o fl
 01 
efI
0/2
O2
e/2
./
and
tUld
= 90.
IIn""
IExample
7.12 , Design a straight bevel gear drive between two shafts at right
to each other. Speed of the pinion shaft is 360 r.p.m: and 'lie speed of the gear wl'te/ s/,
is 120 r.p.m: Pin;oll is of steel and wheel of cast iron. Eac" gear is expected to HlO'k~
hours I day for 10 years. The drive transmits 9.37 kW.
e = 90
Given Data:
Tofind:
= 360 r.p.m.; N2 =
Nl
0;
120 r.p.m.;
P = 9.37 kW.
Solution:
Since the materials of pinion and gear are different, we have to designIlle
= NI
Gear ratio:
N2
360
120
71.560
Then,
2.
Pinion  C45 Steel, crll = 700 Nzrnm? and cry = 360 N/m2
Material selection:
3.
..
7300 hours
We know that,
I Md :
Mj x Kx K;
60 x p
60 x 9.37 x 103
=
2 1t x 360
= 248.6 Nm, and
21tNJ
where
K . Kd
[ M/]
248.6 x 1.3
323.28 Nm
'"
Tofind E~q :
Eeq
1.7
Tofind I UbI J: We know that the design bending stress for pinion,
1.4
[ O'bl]
Kbl
n K
x 0'_1 ,
a
elmo
[ Gel] = CR lIRC x ~
CR
HRC 
Kcl [ ael]
_3 x 50 x I
l150Nfmml
\!1) ~
{l
3[0.n~]2~17'~~~~
R ~ 3 ~ 32 + I
> 99.36
R = lOOmm.
(3 _ 05) lISO
~WiJjFOJ~.tlRD
toTlple
IMtl :
[M/]
= M/xKx~
Kd
ov_,..a
R ,,;2+ I [Mil
(RO.S b)2 x b x m, xY;I
= 612.33 N/mm
O'cl < [ act ]. Thus the design Is sotl'sftlc~tomvJM'J1mJ
_6.~
107
5.256 x 107
\j. N:
CI
ta x ;)1,,2
Y"l 
Y,,2
0.520, for
CIb2
77.6 N/mm2
CIb2
Z,,2 =
22,
x 0.520
[ O"c2
J.
O"cl
612.33 N/mm2
X 0.758
= 627.62 N/mm2
WftlUWW
.1I.'.JlIH
M8 FOR PRACTIC
P'01J161111
on kln6mlllle, ol/JflVtl/lltl(lfN:
1.
A 20 .traighttooth
drive. a 32tooth gear, The two shafts are at right angle. and In the
the cone di.tance; (ii) the pitch allgle.; (iii) the pitch diameter; and (Iv)
(An,: (i) 69,8S mm; (ii) 23,63; 66.37; (iii)'6 mm; J28
2,
P,oblellll
3.
A pair of straight bevel gears h8M a speed ratio of 3, A 7,S kW oower .._
pinion, which rotate. at 1200 r.p.m. 1he pitch circle diameter oid
the large end of the tooth, The face width is 4S mm and the Dr...
Calculate the tangential, radial and axial components of the re.ultant
on the pinion,
[AnI: J391.86N;
5~V""",+I... data of previous problem, calculate the tangential, radial and
JIIiJ.II,nClU
tooth force actina on the gear wheel.
[A",:
13Y,J..JOU .......
~(11ImenS14C)DS of
a pair of bevel
are given in Fig.7.14. The
delivers 5 kW pcwer at 500
to the output shaft. The
A and B are mounted on
.n.. t.......
+ shaft in such a way that
B can take radial as
as thrust load, while the
A can only take the radial
Determine the reactions at
bearings.
5kW
8
500 r.p.m.
Fig. 7.14.
= 316N; F~ =
...,..,.,IoLI~
= 763.95 N; lIfu,
16. Design a bevel gear drive to transmit 7.5 kWat 1440 r.p.m. Gear ratio
gear are made of C45 steel; Life of gears 10000 hrs.
IV.. Design a bevel gear drive to transmit a power of 9 kW at 20 r
ratio is to be 3. Material to be used is C20.
expected gear life as 10000 hours.
CJ
= 500 N/mm2;
Worm Gears
"/"1m II"'y ignore you, then lhey laugh ot you,
IIIe" they fi,g h I you, then you win. "
 Mahatma Gandhi
8.1. GUCTION
(Rte. worm gears ~re used to
tri\l\SRllt
.
. . power between t wo nonmtersectmg, nonparallel shafts, The
Worm lhreAd.
can b
df
.
hi g h as
e use
300 :.'01.j.r hlgh speed ratios as
.
GIIU' WhGlll
The worm
.r drive consists of. worm nt d II worm wheel, as shown in Fig.S.I. If a tooth
of a helical gear makes complete revolUlio s on the pitch cylinder, the resulting gear is
known as a worm: The maling Sear is called w!!!!!!J!."'tr or """", Hlh"!!: The worm in worm
and worm ge;;;: drIve is same as screw In scr~Wand nut pair.
8.1.1.
Qatlons
Worm
gear drives arc wide
used as
1\
AND' ISADVANTAGESOFWORMGEARDRIVE
.
. 08.
. . r be
used for .peed ratios as high 8S 300: I.
8.~.eAdv~ntages
of Worm
Drives
l'he worm gear drIves can
./
The operation
th nnd silent .
IS slllOO
,,'"
Design of
~.l.
Transmission ~
~
are irreversible.
transmitted
advantageous in load hoisting applications like cranes and lifts.,)
~dvantages
~_
IS
_/
'"
'"
'"
'"
The power transmitting capacity of worm gear drive is low (upto 100 kW).
rreas
~types
where
Zl
z2 =
d }/mx'
mx
Axial module.
For example, a R5/2517/5 worm drive means, a right hand worm of starts 5, mesheswith a
worm wheel of 25 teeth and of diameter quotient 7, and with module 5 mm.
8.5. NOMENCLATURE OF WORM GEARS
The geometry of a worm gear set is shown in Fig.8.2. The various terms used in the stUdY
of worm gears have been explained below.
_,
.,
B.3
(P.J: It is the distance between two consecutive teeth,
~
~"l(U\
throtd and a. CQm!SpOnding point on the adjacent thread measured parallel to the
Px =
~tically~
It)( nix
axis,
..
(B.2)
worm.
l. L811 1.) : It is the distance travelled by a thread when one complete revolution is given
ro ~ worm, Mathematically,
Lead L
Px X!,
1t X nix
x Z,
'"
(B.3)
It is also clear that the axial pitch of the worm will be equal to the circular pitch of
the worm gear i.e., Px
= Pc =
1t
nix'
Pitch
ciImeter (d,)
Pitch cylinder
I
Fig. 8.2 Nommcla/UTe 0/ a worm gellr set .
.
,
. th e an gle between the tangent to the pitch helix and the plane of
J.. UtuI tIIIgl~ (r) : It IS
~on.
.
To find
When one thread of a wonn IS
developed, it becomes the hypotenuse of ,a
triangle, as shown in Fig.B.3. The base of this
triangle is equal to the circumference of the
Worm., While the altitude is equal to the lead of
r:
thewonn.

!8.~4
~~~
, ,
d J  q . mx 10
. the
111,\'
tan y =
Lead angle, y ;
1t
m.\. x
(q.
ZI
ZI

111,)
... (8.4(a))
... (8.4(b))
rarr ' ( ~ )
4. Tooth pressure angle: It is measured in a plane contain ing the axis of the worm and is
equal to onehalf the thread profile angle.
5. Helix angle (P) : It is the angle between the tangent to the thread' helix on the pitch
cylinder and the axis of the worm. The worm helix angle is the complement of wonn lead
angle, i.e.,
J3
90  'Y
6. Normal pitch: It is the distance measured along the normal to the threads between two
J.
cos y
." (8.5)
1t
d1 sin y
... (8.6)
Pn
..
2.
Px
"'"
Normal lead,
~ =
 Pcin
dl sin 'Y
zl
d2 . cOS'Y
= z2
= PII
." (8.7)
1t
L x cos 'Y
.. ' (8.8)
The various proportions of the worm and worrn gears are tabulated in Table 8~I.
.. , (8.9)
..
.:..,..
./
particulars
Symbol
Unit
ha
rnm
halm
mm
mm
da
mm
dal
~
~
Addendum
u Dcdendum
Clcnt1lI1Ce
.u outside diameter
~
8.5
.,
Worm
Worm gear
ha2
1) m x
mx(2 cosy
I)
hp  mx (I + 0.2 cos 1)
0.2 mx cos y
d I + 2 hal
mx(q + 2)
4
da2 d2+2ha2
mx (z2 + 4 cos y z)
df
5.
mm
"It
dl 2 hj1
d /2
nlx(q +2
4.4 cosy)
= d2 
2 hfl
2 0.4 cosy)
mx(z2
L
Nomenclature
S.No.
Unit
Worm
8 43~
Worm gear
I.
Centre distance
mm
2.
Axial module
mx
mm
mx = 2 a I (q + z2)
3.
Number of teeth on
z2
z2 = i xZI
wheel
4.
Diameter factor
= d1/mx
..'(Diameter quotient)
l
10= 1
10
Height factor
c = 0.2 mx to 0.3 mx
u, Bottom clearance
mm
u,
Pitch diameter
mm
dl =q x mx
d2 =z2 x mx
d
da
mm
8.
r~~ot
diameter
[Example' 8.1
I A pair
:,
dl
mm
d11 = d 1 2j 0 m:2 c
dj2=(Z22f
oJ
mx2.c
I
.:
~.tre ~ista"ce; (il) the speed reduction; (iii) the dimensions of the worm; and (Iv) the
IntenSion
.1'
(i)
Q,
@So
W IUllon:
e know that,
.'
zl
= 2;
il'".
"
z2 = 54 ~ q = 10 ; mx = 5 mm.
and
a2
(iv) d2, d , d/
= 160 mm
Ans.1;I
Design o/'Iransmiasloll
8.6
We know that,
(iii) Dimensions
0/ the
./
Pitch diameter:
./
Tip diameter:
dl  q x mx
dOl 
Root diameter:
27
ADS. '"CI
d I + 2 . to' mx
50 + 2 x 1 x 5
SO mm
where
d/I
50  2 x 1 x 5  2 x 1.25
7t mx
7t X
f 0:= l.
2 .c
mx 
Bottom clearance
Axial pitch :
height factor,
60 mm
..
10 x 5
= d I  2 to'
dfl
where
./
worm:
=
./
54
Z2
ZI =
i =
0.25 mx
0.25 x 5 = 1.25 mm
37.5 mm
mm
15.71
Pitch diameter:
./
Tip diameter:
d2
Z2
(54
+2
Root diameter:
d/2
where c = 0.25 mx
= 0.25 x 5 =
IA
xl)
where
f0= 1
5 = 280 mm
2 to) mx  2 c
= (z2 
df2
, Example 8.2
54 x 5 = 270 mm
./
x mx
1.25 mm
(54  2 x 1) 5  2 x 1.25
257.5 mm
having 42 teeth and a normal circular pitch of 22 mm. Find the centre distonCt bt/Wtt1f
the shafts if they are 900 apart
Given Data: zl = 3; L = 70 mm; Z2 = 42; Pn = 22 mm; 9 = 90.
To find:
Solution:
We know that,
Lead L
Axial pitch, Px
and
= Px x Z I =
=
Axial module, mx =
70
= '3
zl
L
1t
x zl
1t X
mx x Z J
= 23.33 mm
70
7t X
7.43 mm
cos y
r,
cosy
22
23.33
= 0.943
~~~=:.::~~~~~ars
'
T
d
1
Lea ang e, y
cos1 (0.943)
8.7
19;440
=:
.'
y .= tarr+ (~)
aut "
>;
or
tan 19.44
tan Y
=:
8.5
=
AlternateMethod:
a ::: d 1 + d 2
Centre distance,
Normal module,
mn
:::
Pn
7t
dl
and
centre distance,
7t
d1 x sin Y
:::
1t
Z2
7t
22 x 3
x sin 19.44
7t
22 x 42
= 311.9 mm
X cos 19.44
x sin Y
Pn
d2 cosy
zl
, x zl
:::
d2 =
Therefore,
Ans. "
We know that,
xZ2
x cos Y
= 63.12
mm
63.12 + 31.1.9
= 187.5 mm Ans. "
2
CEXmnDle8.3] A triplethread worm has a pitch diameter of 125 mm. The hob for
cutting the worm wheel has a normal dlametral pitch equal to O.OBlmm. Find the pitch
diameterof the worm wheel if the reduction is 12 : 1.
GivenData : zl = 3; dl = 125 mm ; Pdn = 0.08/ mm; i= 12.
TOflnd: Pitch diameter of the worm wheel (d2)
@SOlution: We know that, i =
"
z2
i X zl
z2 /
zl
12 x 3
36
is given by,
... (i)
P dn = d 1 sin y
From eq
sin y =
Or
t.
Lead angle, y 
p;'
Zl
X
dl = 0.08 x 125
0.3
8.8
Now again from equation (i), we have
36
Z,
d2
E.:r:ample 8.4
I A triple
Pdn
nun.
Alas. "'t
Tire 1106/"
Solution:
sin y
d2 . cos Y
'" (i)
ZI
x mn
3x 8
= 100 = 0.24
y = sirr ! (0.24)
13.88
d
2
d1
I1ln
Sill
= i x z, = 15x3=45
z2
8.5
Example
I A double
I1ln
45 x 8
__
COS Y
cos 13.88
370.84 mm Ans."
and is cut witll a hob of module 8 mm perpendicular to the teeth. Find the pitch dillltldtlS
of the worm and gear, and the centre distance of the shafts.
Given Data: zl = 2; L = 65 mm; z2 = 42; I1ln = 8 mm.
To find:
Solution:
We know that,
Lead L
Axial pitch, Pr
z,
= 
X Z
65
_?
32.5 mm
Pn
Pr
Normal pitch, Pn
normal pitch Pn
x mn = 1[ x 8
P:r X cos y
1[
Pn 25.13
cosy =  =
',
32.5
= 25.13 nun
= 0.773
.
Pitch angle, y = cos ! (0.773) = 39.350
(i) Pitch diameters of the worm and gear :
zJ x mn
2x8
We' know that,
d) smy
sin 39.35 = 25.24mm
z2 x mn.
42 x 8
d2 and
cosy = cos 39.35 = 434.51 mm
ADS.~
~1,f
\
I
11
&1.1.
GEARING
,
.' ;
'.
..
. u_..Aearlier, in the force analysis of worm gearing, it is assumed thai the wonn is
AS1SC~.
I
.
d
dri"ingmember, while the worm wheel is the driven member. Fig.8.4 illustrates the three
the nentsof the gear tooth force acting on a worm and worm wheel.
C(lIl1PO F F 1 and F,al = Tangential, radial and axial components of the worm
Let
t1' r
'.
respectively, and
Fa. F r2 and F a2 = Tangential. radial and axial components of the worm wheel
respectively .
._
,~
(b)
:It
F,
I
I
B .. ..
(e)
.. G
(d)
"
()
.'
Fig,
I
\
I
I
can be mad~:'
, .~ is'o,.
z
::,.~;:;;
...
(8)
f_..
.,
'_Ing
",0"'" g
ii Force analYS
f F'i .s.4(a), the fo
'" tnetrY 0 g
d frOOl the geo
an
'
"owing cooclUS
ionS
Design oI'Transrn,'ss'
",8 10
~.~~~~~~~~
,~~
~
<
.~
./
The forces on a worm wheel are equal in magnitude to that of worqt, but
in direction.
'
. , : ., o~Pas~
./
Therefore,
Fa 
Fa)
Fr2 
Frl
= 
Fa2
and
F'l
'" (8:91)
Derivations of F" F, and Fa: The resultant force F acting on the tooth of a Worm'
resolved into three components FI' F rand Fa' as shown in Fig.8.4(b).
IS
a  Normal pressure angle, and
. Let
y 
Lead angle.
Resolving the normal reaction F in the plane ABGH, by referring Fig.8.4(c), we get
FN
and
F cos a
'" (i)
Fr = F sin a
... (")
IJ
and
FI = FN sin 'Y
... (iii)
Fa
... (iv)
FN cos y
IF
F x cos a . sin y
... (8.l0)
Fa
or
From equation (ii),
I Fa
I Fr
F I / tan y
cos a . cos y
(8.11)
(8.12)
Thus the equations (S.10), (8.11) and (S.12) are used to determine the components oftbe
resultant tooth force, neglecting friction.
8.7.2. Components
WOIll).
Friction
,
FII
rI
FaJ
JIIIi
Fx
COs Q sin
F (COs
IX.
Y+ Ji F
.)(
SmY+1I
COsy
F COs Q
,. COs y)
COsYJiF
. Y
_ F
. SIQ
(cos a . COs~
 F sin IX
Y  " sin y)

F,I
t')
.JreJaIIOD
F'I
.. (8.13)
.. (8.14)
(8 )5)
...
itted torque using the
'" (8.16)
M,
Transmitted torque = 60 x P
2
Power transmitted,
NI
d)
;:= _
tl x
01
_:_(F..::.I)~'
1t N)
worm..
fro=m:..:equatJ~:ODS (8.13) and (8.14), is given as
(cosacosyJ.lsiny)
.
+".
3. Similarlv.jhe radi
(cos a sm r
cos 7)
given as
y, the radial force in terms of tan gen tiaI forte (F,).1iom equatioos
I'F 1
00 of
II
... (8.17)
(8.14) '"'" (&'15), is
sin a
... (&.18)
rotation of the worm wheel can be found by CQIISideriDg the wonn as saew """
lIS
1IS2I1fJ14.
t~O kif' power at 720 r.p.m. is supplied to the worm shtift. TIle coe.IfideJII D/.frit:tiot' is
of~ lind the pressure angle is 20 ~ Calculate the tllllgeJdial, tIJCiII/ IllUi mdittI ~
. resultant gear tooth fora oding on the worm and the worm whL
p~
(2152110/4): (z/z/qlm);
ZI = 2; ~ = 52; q = 10; m" = 4 mm ;
~::"~ata:
, Nt
= 720 r.p.m;
J..L
== 0.04; a == 20.
...
We know that,
.Lead angle,
I
Y == tan
I
Y = tan
(z)q
(1.)
10
_!
== 1131
8.12
d.  "'x x q = 4 x 10 = 40 mm
on the worm:
F/I
103
T. = 240x x132.63
= 6631.45 N
ADs. "
F r1
"
27105.74 N Ans. ~
F 11 x ( cos a . sin
.
'Y + Jl . cos 'Y) ... [From equation (8.18)]
sma
sin 20
6631.45 x (cos 20 x sin 11.31 +0.04 x cos 11.31)
10147.45 N Ans. ~
Ans . ...,
(ii)
Axial force:
Fa2
Ans. ~
(iii)
Radial force:
Fr2 
I Example
8.7
Fit = 6631.45 N
Fr}
I A double threaded
10147.45 N
Ans ...,
circle diameter of 70 mm. The torque on the worm gear shaft is 1400 Nm. Thepitch ~
diameter of the worm gear is 250 mm and the tooth pressure angle is. 25~ FiJfJ
flrcto~
1. Tangential force on the worm gear; 2. Torque on the worm shaft; 3. Separat/lfg 0 (tIi
the worm; and 4. Velocity ratio. Take the coefficient of friction benveen the worliith
and gear teeth as 0.04.
~ 1400 ~J1I;
Given Data: z} = 2;
Px = 25 mm;
d 1 = 70 nun; (M/)worm gear
d2 = 250 mm; mm; a = 25; J.1 = 0.04.
Tofind:
(iii) Frl
and (iv) i.
_ or 11ft]
Solution:
'
60 x p
60 x 10 x 103
. .t~df~
21t N. 21t x 720
 132.63 Nrn
2M,
(i)
Axial module,
mx
1t
Diametral quotient, q
dl
mx
25
7.96 mm
1t
70 = '8.8
7.96
[':Px"
Lead
'[bell,
1Ii1Torqueon t/le
I~
angle,
~l~;.
We mow that,
tanI (ZI)~
'Y :::;::
Wor", sh .,;
::=:
tanI
Fa:::;:: F
We alsoknow that,
LCUI
F11:::::
12.810
{I.
~eparatlng fo,ce
Weknow that,
2X
~I
orrn shaft, M
~ie'
(. ., 'ad,Q! fi
orce)
 89
II
2546.48N
.13Nrn A
the Hlor",(F,.
Oil
1'1 
FQI
'I)
x tan ex
normal module , mn
lIS
,J.
We know that,
12.810
16
254648
_ 2 xM
.
::;::1!_
70 x 103
Torque on the w
or
"":}
::=:
Fn  F
aJ :::;:: FIJ / tan
 a tan y '" 11200)( :.~ 11200 N
or
,Ulj
(.1.)
8.8
== P i n == P
x
_x
n
== 5222.65 N
ADS. "
cos_y
n
7r
d2 . cos y
normal module , m. n
z2
Or
z2
d2 x cos y
::::
mn
:::: 31.4 ~ 32
'.
'.
ear ratio,
z2
== ;
="232
= 16 Ans. ~
j~1e
/0
'Po,,..,, Hlo,,,, gea" as shown in Fig.8.5. The gear has an axial pitch of 13.5 mm: TIle
." as a'pUch diameter
.
lricHof 50 mm. The normal pressure angle is 14'h'! Coefficient0/
IfIII :::::0.03.
(i)
Fi.
/,.;~ IIId the lead anete the lead the normal pitch and the centre distance.
(~
~.
~'
d,
::=: SO
 nun
rt
= 14 ~o;
#l = 0.03.
x~~
_D_e_~=gn~of_n_rmu~m~u~~fun&
~
~.14
'"
Worm pitch
cylinder
),,/
I "
I'"
,/'"
x
Fig. 8.5.
(i) L, P and a,
Tofind :
@Solution:
Axial module, mx
Lead:
Nonnalpitch:
L = PxxzI
Pn = Pxx cosy
Centre distance:
9.750 ADS."'tJ
13.3 mm Ans....
a = 0.5 mx (q + z2,)

 89.52 mm ADS."'tJ

8.15
I Tangential component, F II
Mil
where
60 x P
60
21[ N ==  x 0.7~6 x 1()3
I
27t x 1200 _ 2 x 5.94
tl
F
.'
tl
50 x 103
== Ftl x
Fa I
Axial component,
= 5.94 Nm
== 237.46 N Ans.tJ
(cos
(COS'
. 9.75)
0.03 x Sin
(cos 14.5 . sin 9.75 + 0.03 x cos 9.75)
1164.57 N Ans.
Radial force, Fr 1 _ F II x
'"tI
sm IX
(
cos
= ,237.46
IX .
x .'
F/I
= 1164.57 N ADS.
= '237.46 N ADS.
= 307.~3N ,ADS.
~
~
~
The force~ acting on the worm ge~,and its shaft~are shown in Fig.8.6.
For L Fx::: 0, i.e., consideringthe. ~uilibrj1.!m offorces in x direction, we get
..
.,."
'
.
lakin
.'
g moments .about
. F~ x (37.5
= 0
== 263.62 N ADs.CJ
B .
De8ign ofT'OIII~
8.16
Fig. 8.6.
FYA + pYB  F
Jt
T,I.
or
= 0
F~ + 263.62  307.23 = 0
F~
= 43.61 N ADs. ~
...
0
0
F~ = 436.686 ~ Au. ~
Fa = 0
F~ + 436.686  I I 64.S7
:.
F~
Resultant bearing force at bearing A, FA
== 727.88N
v
(F~ )2 + (F~ )2
,
= " (43.61~
= 729.18
and resultant bearin, force at ~g
B, FB
v
= "
Au. ~
+ (727.~a)2
N ADI. ~ .
__
 562.65 N Au. ..
()e_ar~
.~
__

ofIIP
T
J8~.1~7
=::
..
'
EfFtC'~NCYOFWO~M GEAR~NG
....,.
fth
.',The efficiencr
. .
gear dri
.Jllv~ '~s
Ig1'V~nby
e worm
Power Qutput
POw~r input
f'I
x VI
anyx(
(cos
(cos
where
~l
and
V2
'(
f/2 x ~2
n
... (8.19(a
a  JJ. . tan y)
a + Ii' coty)
... (S.19(b
The coefficient of fr!cHop (J.1) in worm gear drives depends upon the sliding velocity, i.e.,
rubbing speed.
Sliding velocity,
Vs
The variation
of the coefficient
,
Fig.8.?
,
\
Q.
0.12
I 1 1
LL
.s
'L\
II
:::L
..:
c 0.09
.
... (8.20)
sin y
CD
15
"."
"
Steel worm
j
<,
...... ._
I~
............
~
o 0.06
16
r k::'
r..
L
r c
e:s
00."
1;5
1.0
'.'.
13
it O.O.~
.r
2.0
..
2.5
3.0 3.5
,.~.1.P,Q'WerLost
in Friction
It is give~ ~y~~Tebltio~
,
~er
,/
'1,10=.
;,
,
lost in friction 
(lJ]) x
pJ
... (8.21)
a.is
"'''''''otJ, IOI'l.t\.'
':I
~:
,
worm, It is possible only when friction force exceeds the driving force.
Ve the
Overrunning drive: If the worm gear can act as driver, then it is known as an
overrunning or backdriving gearset
The theoretical criterion for an overrunning wonn drive is
J.l < cos a . tan y
I Example
B.9
I A pair
as 1/52/10/8.
The worm transmits BOOW power at 1000 r.p.m: andthe normal pressure angle Is 20~
Determine the coefficient of friction and the efficiency of the worm gears. Also fllld IlIl
power lost in friction.
Z I = 1, z2 = 52;
Solution:
10; mx = 8 mm
Lead angle, y
We know that,
or
 tarr ! (~)
= tarr ! (
I~)
= 5.71
q  dl / mx
d1 = qxmx
10 x 8 = 80 mm
Vs
__ n d , Nl
= ~
cos y
1t X
60 x cos 'Y
80 x 103 x 1000
60xcos5.710
= 4.21 mls
. From Fig.8.7, for Vs = 4.21 mls and bronze worm wheel , the coefficient of friction is
Interpreted as 0.027. Ans."
.
(ii) Efficiency of tile Worm gears :
11 = (cos a  J.L tan y)
(cos a + I..L' coty)
"
11
8.19
~~ae4fS
tI;j.
":r'"
Data..
zl
= 2' '
GiVt"
Tofidill
'
n
eSDIuJio :
P,
and
4. 11.
30 x 2
Z[
Zl
tan Y =
mx
where
= (d['
xm
tan
centre distance, a
.T
m.
d[
1C
__
=
30 /K
2 x 9.55 = 45 mm
 tan23
9.~) mm
ADS. ~
45 +d2
200 =
2
2
d
(iii) Helix angle (/1) :
nI.>
Axial module  Px /
d,
= __
Zl
q
Z
or
60 mm ADs."
We know that,
,U,
Weknow that,
3.(3;
L = Px x z[
Lead (L):
:1
13 =
355 mm Ans. ~
0 _ 230
90  'Y = 90
cos a _ fl' tan 1)
.
~
6'" AIls.
=!
+ fl ' cot y)
(cos a 0 005 x tan 23) = 87.2.h Aas. ~
145  .
~O)
 {cos 14'50 + 0.05 x cot 23
rile ~
(cos .
. e w"dltu or
.
rr&anwte8:""":.l:::l"Fo,' the above pro b/~nr, dderllUn
n
'I
If'"
is
sdf
""'king.
10 J.1 = 0.05.
E ample 8. ,
Refer x
Iflocking,
di 'on for se
We kIlow that the con IU
a' tan Y
0411
._
0
> cos
23 = ,
. a o~,
J.l.
14,5 x tan
u: lockiJtg. It IS
In this case cos a . tan Y = COS the drive .s, not se1_,t1
We find ~ < cos a . tan 'Y. Thus
~
~ Solution:
backdriVinggearset.
nning or

..tiM',W&t1'J!'tj
dt N
eft"
Design
8.20
o/Trans",. .
lSSIO"~
DESIGN OF WORM ~R
L
DRlyE
~~
'~
The following guidelines may be used while selecting the materials for Worm and ""~
wheel. Refer Table 8.3.
Table 8.3. Selection of Mal~r411
Mat~rial
Condition
S.No.
Worm
WormWhed
1.
Steel
2.
Case
. haFdened
steel of
Cast iron
Phosphor bronze
~,
3.
High
speeds,
heavy
loads
shock
with
.Hardened
molybdenum
BHN250
Phosphorbronze(~
conditions
steel
1. Seizure:
./
Since significant sliding occurs between the teeth 'ofthe worm wheel and thread of
the worm, the possibility of seizure is very high in worm gear drive.
./
The seizure has greater probability to occur in the zone where oil has squeezed
out.
softer
The worm wheel wears off more than worm. Because the worm whee1 IS
than wonn .
./
Efficiency, 11
0.7 to 0.75
1.
3 and 4
0.8 to 0.92
Jfj.
8.21
f"
" v v70m
Number
or"rts <ZJ>
Jor2
dtzItl boo
t. Pllf~ 110. 8.41
L~(JJ
301"4
~of.ora
+O.06z )m
J
,13.
%1
0.75 dl
..
k pag~ no I.48)
2or3
0.75 dJ
O.67dJ
8.14.EFFICIENCY
In Section 8.8, we have discussed the efficiency of wonn gears without considering the
klsses in the worm gearing. In actual design practice, losses in the worm gear drive should be
considered.The main losses in the worm gear are
/ due to friction in sliding (i.e., gearing loss), and
/
The efficiency of the wonn gearing, considering only the gearing losses
11 where
is given by
tan a
tan (y + p)
.,. (822(a
T)
tan 'f
= (0.95  0.96) tan (y + p)
8.15 TH
GEARING
.
ERMAL RATING OF WORM
worm gear ~
.. , (822(b
'derable amount of
contInUOUS y, CODSa
The
pSi.
_gAP
.~. Li
'"
Design o/Transrnu .
~8.=22~
~~~~
where
Hg
Hd
K, x A x (to  t a)'
10 =
. a
eel, and
K, x A x (to  tal
... (813)
'K,xA(totJ
(ITIl"
...(114)
, Example 8.12 , A worm gear box ;"ith an effective surface area of 0.25 ",z.Afad
mounted on the worm shaft to circulate air over the surface of the fins. The coeffldtnJ~
heal transfer can be taken as 25 Wlm2 C The permissible tempera/we rise of 1M
lubricating oil above the atmospheric temperature is 45 cr:: The coefficient of jridio. i
0.035 and the normal pressure angle is 20'! The pair of worm gears is desig1ulItd IS:
1/40/ 10/4. Calculate the power transmitting capacity based on thermal considofdiDtU.
Given Data: A = 0.25 m2; K, = 25 W/m20C;
zl = 1 ; z2 = 40; q = 10; mx = 4 mm.
to  fa
is given by
K,A (tota)
(111)
Lead angle, y
tarr l (~)
tanI (
1~)
= 5.7'
Now,
Power P = 25 x 0.25 x 45
(I  O.n59)
= I026'Y
ADs. ~
c~
)~
8.2.3
I~
('P
,.~
mended by AGMA)
;,
:I ~ ~
1t X
m); 
Axial module ,
b 
ngham's Equation
H(ORlEWI
S EQUATION)
m); x b x [ CI ] x y'
b
... (8.25)
[ crb] 
..
TUk &. 7. Form factor for worm wheel (fj10m data b00k, page no 8.' 52)
~angle(a)
y'=

14~0
200
25
30
0.1
0.125
0.15
0.17
Y
1t
gear.
Thus the value of dynamic load, using the velocity factor, which can be used in the initial
Fd
FI
Ft
... (8.26)
= C
v
_ E x~
v
Ko Cv
_ Velocity factor.

6
6 +v
where
l1l
'EAR STRENGTH
lbe li_:..c
QIll{UDg
I'ty
_ p'tch hne ve oct
v 
O"!AGS
(WEAR TO
Of WORM GP"I'
. . en by
I ad for wear (F....
) IS gIV
or maximum
F.. = d2 x b x
. mI
of tl]e worm gear 10
s.
.. , (8.27)
l'
I<"
..}i( ..
IUf
8.24
where
d2
:=
Kw 
.
Worm wheel
Worm
Material
S.No.
J4~O
Hardened steel
ChiJIedbronze
0.63
0.88
2.
Hardened steel
Bronze
0.42
0.56
3.
Steel, 250 HB
Bronze
0252
0.35
4.
High te5t CJ
Bronze
0.56
0.805
S.
Steel, 250 HB
Laminated phenolic
038
0.448
Depending upon the efficiency requirement, select the number of starts (zl) in the
worm, referring Table 8.4 .
./
Then, z2 = i x zi
Diameter factor, q
./
Lead angle, y
(zi / q)
= tanI
Cv
Ko
P/v x
1t X
(mJ :
~uv
~~s __ 
~
Colculati(Jnof b, d 2 and v.
BtC
'S.2S
Us P' _
e
 'It X
. ,eetJku/lldon of dynamic load: Usin t~
III. x b x [ a b 1 x y'
IOul te the dynamic load, F d = F / c g_ e calculated pitch Ii
.
~(i
a
I
V'
ne velocity of the wh I
Checkfor beam strength: If Fd ~ F th
. . ee ,
11.
, . . 8' e gear tooth has ade '
'
'dDOlfai! by breakage. Thus the design IS satisfactory.
quate beam strength rnd
9
WI
12. Calcul'.1'
atlOn oJ maximum
Wear load (F.J :
Fw = d2 x b x ~
If 11actual >
tbanthe desired, increase lead angle (y).
l'Jdesircd ,
'
15. Calculate the powe~ loss and the area required to dissipate the heat.
16. Calculate the' basic dimensions of the worm and worm wheel using the Table 8.2.
[Example 8.13 I A hardened steel worm rotates at 1440 r.p.m: and transmits 12 kW to
.phosphorbronze gear. The speed of the worm wheel should be 60 :t 3% r.p.m.Designthe
wormgear drive if an efficiency of atleast 82% is desired.
GivenData: Nt = 1440 r.p.m.; P = 12 kW; N2 = 60 3% r.p.m.; 1ldcslred = 82%.
Tofind: Design the worm gear drive.
@ Solution:
_ 146400 30/0
Worm wheel 
For 11 = 85%,
zl ~
.f
Then , z2 = i x
Zt =
(assumed)
r!
~
.f
Diameter factor :
Lead angle :
... [Gi~~n]
Phosphor bronze
Z2:
.f
.f
24 ' 0.72
1. Material selection :
== 11
q ==
"'x
r~
~I(~)
::::tan
1
(1)
::::15.25
11
:i
Ii
I
'i
''''W:'
~
Design o/TrOllS/llissf
'
~:,~
oj'
/11I(!flll,f
"'x. /
p
'rl\"~~l\tlftll(l~1(I, II', 
\I
7e
II 
KO
60
cI N
1000
_ 1r X 72 x
x 60
226 m mls
60 x 1000
0, 
..
12 )(
1(J3
n1
)( 1,25,:;;
Dynomlc lend, Pd
66371.68
mx
F
..L
ell
where
6+v'
F
...
6
6+5
:;:=
66371.68
rd
;;:;1
mx
0.545
1
x 0.545
be
121681.4
mx
where
(ob]
r;;;
I:l
0.75xqmx
= 80 N/mm2,
0.75 x Ilmx
8.25m,l'
c
7, Ctl/CII/III/on
We know thnt,
or
01'
F" ;;:
0/ (Lt/t,1 module
1t
(mx) :
F,f ~ Fd
2
259.18 mx
12168 ],4
mx ~ 7.77 mm
From Tobie 5.8, the nearest higher 8tand~d axial pitch is 8 mm.
,1,#
db
i .
8.27
!f!r
...,.;#,~
Calc",a"
.~
~/ono/b, d2 and v:
d2 =
x mx = 72 x 8 = 576 mm
9, Rtca
10.
z2
m;
= .2~18.(8)2
= 16587.52 N
!/
I
c"
6
6+v
Ft
66371.68
mx
Fd
8296.46
0.768
= 6 + 1.808
=
= 0.768, and
66371.68
8
= 8296.46 N
= 10802.68 N
Checkfor beam
= 
cv =
where
..
Ft
Dynamic load, Fd
strength : We fmd
~ar
load, F11'
where
,
"
d2 x b x K,
~v
F 11'
Table 8.8.
13. Check/or wear: We find F d < FW"It means that the gear tooth has adequate wear
C4pacity and will not wear out. Thus the design is safe and satisfactory.
14.Check/or efficlency : We know that,
tany
TJactuaI
Where
= 0.95 tan (1 + p)
p = Friction angle =
..
",!;
TJ .
rtfletDry.
['.'
tan 15250
0 95 x
')
tan (15.250 +1.70
Is greater
tarr! J.1
,.
.'
'I
=
0.8498 or 84.98%
"
.~
D eSlgn of Trafl81f1Lt'K/on
8.28
15. Calculation of basic dimensions of worm and worm gears: Refer Table 8.2.
./
Axial module:
./
Number of starts:
./
./
b = 66 mm
./
Length of worm :
;?:
;?:
~''.
mx = 8 mm
./
Centre distance :
./
Height factor:
./
BottQID'clearance :
./
Pitch diameter:
/0
Zl
3
Zl = 72
a = 0.5 mx (q
=
= 332 nun
1
c = 0.25 mx =
s=,
d) =
0.25 x 8 = 2 mm
11 x 8 = 88 mm;
and
d2 = z2 x mx = 72 x 8 = 576 mm
./
./
Tip diameter:
Root diameter:
dOl = d 1+ 2 /0 . mx = 88 + 2 x 1 x 8
da2 = (z2+2/0)mx
dfl
(72+2x
1)8
104mm;aoi
592mm
d 1_ 2 /0 . mx _ 2 . c
88 _ 2 x 1 x 8 .2 x 2 = 68 mm ; and
df2 = (z2 _ 2 f 0) mx _ 2 . c
(72 _ 2 x I) 8"' 2 x 2 .= 556 mm.
Example 8.14 I For the data of above example, determine the required coolingattlf
the ovenall heat transfer coefficient for the housing can be assumed as 15 WI"r C(' tUJ4 tit
temperature rise of the lubricant is restricted to 50 't:
Tofind:
10 W 1m2 C;
At
to =! = 5OOC.
@ Solution:
Heat generated (i. e., power loss) = Heat emitted into the atmosphere
(J _ 11)x Input power 
(lO.8498)xI2xl03
...
K, A (to  to)
IOxAx50
l'
8~29
"IJ GEARS
~~~
,
,
I
~.
ONS
IJO..
[ M/]
= MI
eel (M,)
K x Kd
... (8.28)
M, 
where
wheel torque = 60 x p
2nN2
Transmitted
8.20.2.Induced Bending
V2
> 3 m1s
... (829)
mx3 x q x Z2 xYv
where
n1x
= Axial module,
=
z2 
.8.20.3.Design Bending
Designbending stresses [ab] for various wonn wheel materials are tabulated in Table 8.9.
Table 8.9. Design bending stress {uJ, N~
rWheel
lIlaterial
Bronze
Method of
au
casting of wheel
N/mml
Sand
>390
Chill
>390
Sand
<390
Chill
<390
Centrifugally cast
<390
60
GIldc25
~
30
250
350
40
20
27.5
~
~
~
Cast iron
,
.!
8.30
Design ofT'ans",;.~
~~~~
"
[ (~ I q) + IJ
540
efe
= (z2Iq)
[M,]
10
'/t..})
,
~
a = Centre distance
efe ]
are ~\.._,
of materials
~n
Table 8.10.
Tabl 8.10. D6ign contaa stress
I ur.J, NhttJn2
Slidiag velocity,
Material
v.., .Js
Worm
Wheel
0.25
0.5
Steel
Cast iron
170140
120
100
70
Bronze
190
18S
176
168
159
U;
a = [(z21 q) + 1 ]
540
(~I q) [ef
]
e
J[Mtl
.'!
10
 OJJ)
1.
Select the suitable combination of materials for worm and worm wbeel,
Tables 8.3 and 8.9.
2.
3.
Selection
0/Z1
1 = M, x K x Kd
coomDn!
InitiallyJ55II!It
and Z2:
'"
./
Then,
z2 = ;
x Zt.
initiallY ~
=~====~~~~
f~ ~~s
..,,,.tt the axial module (m.J using the rei ti
calc",'"
a 10n m
_!~
8.3]
=2a I( +
6. 'gb r standard axial module from Table 5 8
x
q zx) Then, choose the
bl e,
.
. .
e centre dIStance (a) using the relation a = 0 5
1. BtvlS
mx (q + z2)
a1ld vs :
1.1 ulate d, v,
~. CUle
I Pitch diameter (d) :
qx mx and d2 =z2 x
r' .
_ 7td2N2
and v2 
y = tani
Sliding velocity :
60
(~)
= ~
cos y
VS'
10. Revise1(, Kd and [M,l for the actual velocity of the worm wheel (v2)'
11. Checkfor bending:
,
./ Compare the induced bending stress with the design bending stress .
./ If
<Jb
s [O"b ],
12.If crb > [ O"b], then the design is not satisfactory. Then increase the axial module.
13. Check/or wear strength :
.; Calculate the induced contact stress using the equation 8.30 .
.; Compare .the induced contact stress with the design contact stress.
If <Jc s [O'c
"
],
"
If l'Jcalculated
~ TJdesired '
16.. Calculate all tile basic dimensions of the worm and worm wheel using the equations
lSted In Table 8.2.
l7r.~e
8.15 ] A steel worm running at 240 r.p.m: receives 1.5 kW from i~ shaft.
dttt speedredUction is 10 ' 1 Design the drive so as to have an efficiency 0/ 80%. Also
","lie the cool'
".
d. if tI,e temrperature rise is restricted to 4S DC. Take
area requtrea,
eat transfer coefficient as 10 Wlml DC
O)IeraJIh
tng
"
&1n
imt'nuz t
to',
! r :
1 '.
6'g .,
; d'
)npj'tts#sCad'
8.32
l$)v
Design of Trans",. .
~'.
i = 10 ; lldcsired = 80%;
P = 1.5 kW;
t _I
o
o::t 4sec
I
Tofmd:
N2 = Ntl i
@ Solution:
= 240/10
24 r.p.m.
 Steel
.. , (Give.j
We know that,
[ M,] = M, x K x Kd
60 x P
where
K Kd
596.83 Nm
1, assumed initially.
60 x 1.5 x I ()3
2x x 24
596.83 Nm
3. Selection of'l.1and'l.1 :
./'
Forn = 80%,
./'
Then
z2
zl
= 3 or 4, from
zl
= 3 is selected .
= i x zl = 10 x 3 = 30.
I CTcl:
= 159 N/mm2
is selected, assuming
Vs =
3 mls.
...
Q'
[(zfq) + 1 ]
[(30/11)
= 168.6 mm
+ 1]
540
(zfq) [ (Jc]
3 [
540,]
] 2 [M,]
(30/11) 159
10
596.83 x 1~
10
8.33
i
f~
6.
2 a _ 2 x .168.6
(q + z2)  (11 + 30) = 8.22 mm
m =
x
f(Olll 'fable5.8,
,I
:H
'I
::I
II
= 205 mm
,,
I
8. Calculation of d, v, rand
vs:
Pitch diameters:
= 11 x
= 30 x
dl
d2
q x mx
z2 x mx
1t dIN 1 _ 1t
VI
il
60
1t
v2
d2 ij2 _
60
'
1t
Y = tarr! (~)
.; Lead angle:
10 = 110 mm ; and
10
!I
;
300 mm.
= tarr" (
:1)
= 15.25'
",
II
)
1.382
cos'Y
cos
15.250 ==. 1 432 mIs
VI
Sliding velocity:
Vs
For
Vs =
1.432
mis,
10. RevisuJII of
"
For
v2
[CJ ]
c
I O'c J :
I u,J,:
<3
mis, Kd
== 1
x q x Z2 xYv
Form factor based on virtual number of teeth, from Table 5.13.
where
Yv
30
cos3 'Y == ;s3 15
Z
Zv
==
Y. '"
==
Then,
We find
CJb,
06 <
.250 ~
34
I Tip diameter:
dal
::::
dQ].
::::
I Root diameter:
::::
d'l
::::
::::
d'2
::::
1U.
I
I
I
worm
'h..
"
Types: I. SingleenveloPing;
and 2. DoUhleenVeloPingWortndrive.
SfwJ:lflcfllion: A pair of Worm gears can he spec!fied hy zJ / z} / q / tn.
I chapter.
The worm gear nomenclQture
8.1 and 8.2. and basic dimensions of Wortn and worm gears ore labulaled in
I Tables
Tooth proportions
,I
F; =
F x cos a x sin
Fr = F x sin a
Fa
cos a
=
X
Fax Ian a
r =
cos
F;I
F;IIan
. fiiction
2x~
d,
sin a
Frl
= ~I
Fal
WOr",
= ~I
(cosa . sin
. F
"'heel:
= Fal'
r+ p . cos r)
=_F
r2
rl
t2
12
cos Q_ p .tan
" I!JJklency: '1 = tan y x (cos
(cos aa..sin
cosyysm ~"' = cos a + II .col r
+ IIII .cos
Hl~
_~.36
_D_e_S~ign~o~if_TJ_ra_n~~m~u~~~
.  ~
./
Materitll: Usually, worm is of steel and worm wheel may be brass or cast iron.......____
./
Two method" of designing a worm and worm gear: 1. Worm gear de.fign UN/nK
l,f'ltll
and Buckingham's equations; and 2. Worm gear design based on basic equal/on.',
The step by step procedure for the above said two methods are presented wllh luflklttt
./
illustrative problems.
Lewis beam strength for worm gears:
F,
./
./
./
Thermal rating 0/ worm gearing: The condition to avoid overheating of the "'ire k
given by (l  7]) x Input power = K/ x A x (t 0  t oJ
= F/
FlY
= 1! X mx x b x [ O"bi x r'
Cv
= d2 x b x Kw
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
What are the various forces acting on a worm and worm gear? Deduce the expressions
of them.
8.
9.
Write the expressions for beam strength, dynamic load, and limiting wear load for worm
and worm gears and explain the various terms used in it.
and doubleenveloping
worm drives?
(b) Lead;
(c) Lead
10. Write an engineering brief about the thermal calculations in worm gearing.
11. Why is the efficiency of a worm gear drive comparatively
low?
1.
10/8.
Calculate:
worm;
= 96
mm : d
,
II
= 62 mm ':
(iv)tiz:::
~~s
~w.
~=~~~~~~~ ~~
831
fi
p:~
'.
:d
. tranSmitting5 kW power at 1440 r.p.m. to the worm wheel. The coefficient of friction is
O.land the normal pressure angJe is 20. Determine the components of the gt:ar tooth
force acting on the worm and the worm wheel.
[Ans: F/I = Fa2 = 1105.24 N; Frl = Fn = 1('33.35 N; FaJ = Fa = 2632.55 NJ
. Ans: F~ = 5548.5N ; F~
Flo. 8.8.
= 135.83N;
b'
. y =
Fa = 2653N , Fa
5548.5N;
42858N]
.
8.38
Design ofTraru~
~
8.
starts for
has 30 Ieetb~
Calculate the efficiency of the Worn. .~
[AIls : 90.12%; 98.1~
of worm are four with a 50 mm pitch circle diameter. The worm wheel
. a 5 mm module. The normal pressure is 200
drive and the power lost in friction.
Design a worm gear drive to transmit 8 kW at 720 r.p.m. The desired velocity rabo ~
36 : 1.
10. Design a worm drive for a speed reducer to transmit IS kW at 1440 r.p.m, of the "tllI!
shaft. The desired wheel speed is 60 r.p.m. Select suitable worm and wheel materials.
11. Design a worm gear drive to transmit 10 kW at 1440 r.p.m. with a gear ratio of 12 ~
steel worm and cast iron wheel.
12. A hardened steel worm rotates at 1440 r.p.m. and transmits 12 kW to a pbospborbrooze
gear with a gear ratio of 15. Calculate the centre distance and module required for ~
drive.
13. Design a worm gear drive to transmit 15 kW from a worm at 1440 r.p.m. to the worm
wheel. The speed of the worm wheel should be 40 2% r.p.m.
14. Design a worm and worm wheel drive to transmit 50 kW from an electric motor nmning
at 1440 r.p.m. to a rolling mill required to run at 100 r.p.m. Selecting case hardened
alloy steel for the worm and centrifugally cast phosphor bronze for the wheel, design all
the details of the geared set.
If the complete heat generated is dissipated by the housing, what should be the housing
area required? The overall heat transfer coefficient for the housing can be assumed as 15
W/m2 C and the temperature rise of the lubricant is restricted to 50C.
15. Design a worm gear drive to transmit a power of 22.5 kW. The worm speed is 1440
r.p.m. and the speed of the wheel is 60 r.p.m. The drive should have a minimUJP
efficiency of 80% and above. Select suitable materials for the worm and wheel and
decide upon the dimensions of the drive.
Gear Box
"There is sOmethin
If you try t
o escao diffi
",
,,1. INTR
UII
ODUCTION
.
.
 He,bllt UwOIl
,11 knOW that machme
tools like lathe, milling
hi
"e
.
mac mes, etc reoui
.
. die speeds. Because a machme tool is adoptabi c:
."
qUire a wide range of
spiO
..
e lor cuttmg diff
. g different properties usmg varying grades of cutti
I
erent types of metals
haV1D
109 too s on work .
.
J'ameters. Thus the provision of variable spindle speed .
~Ieces of different
ul
he vari
s IS necessary m order to
~jfferent reqUirements. T e varIOUS methods used for obtainin d'ffi
m~t
Co II
.
g I erent speeds of machme
1001 spmdleare as 10 OWS.
(i) By using a gear box mechanism,
(ii) By using a cone pulley arrangement,
(iii) By using a variable speed electric motor, and
(iv) By hydraulic operation.
Among these methods, the gear box method is very popularly used. In this chapter, we
shall discussthe design of gear boxes, in detail, in the following sections.
ES ARE IN GEOMETRIC
PROGRE
. (A P) geometric
'l'L
SSION. WHY?
.
. progresSiOn .' :
(L P.).
ne S
ed in artttuneUc
.
rogresSIOn .
PrOD.
J>eeds in gear boxes can be arrang
d logarithmic P
~essio
.'
. (H P), an
n (G.P.), harmonic
progressIOn
.
~
~9.2

~D~es_:;g~n~O_if_1i~r~Q~ns~m~is_s_iO_"!SY&lelft.&
.:..
other progressions.
1 The speed loss is minimum.
.
.
d Avai lable speed
.t.e., Speed loss = Desired optImum spee 2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
In unit
2.
It is the oldest and simplest form of gear box. Sliding type gear boxes are quite commonly
used in general purpose machine tools. In order to mesh gears on the main shaft with
appropriate gears on the spindle shaft for obtaining different speeds, they are moved to the
right or the left. It derives its name from the fact that the meshing of the gears take place by
sliding of gears on each other.
9.4.2. Constant
It derives its name from the fact that all the gears whether of the countershaft or the main
shaft are in constant mesh with each other. It is also known as a silent or quite gear box. It
gives a quieter operation and makes gear changing easier by employing helical gears for the
constant mesh. In order to connect the required gear wheel by means of teeth on the side of
the gear wheel, a separate sliding member is employed.
9.5. PREFERRED NUMBERS
Preferred numbers are the conventionally rounded off values derived from geometric
series. There are five basic series, denoted as R 5, RIO, R 20, R 40 and R 80 series. The
symbol 'R' is used as a tribute to French engineer Charles Renard, who introduced the
p~efer:red num~rs first. Preferred numbers assist the designer in avoiding the selection of
sizes m an arbitrary manner.
9.3
ae
'.
'vell 111
t.e.,
gl
.
senes factor Th'
.
e serres factor for various
series are
liable 9.1. Step ratio sertes tacto (from data book , p age no. 7.19
. '/11
Basic series
Vw
1.58
RIO
l~
1.26
R20
2~ 10
1.12
R40
4~
1.06
R80
8~
1.03
R5
The series of preferred numbers is obtained by multiplying a step ratio with the first
number to get the second number. The third number is obtained by multiplying a step ratio
wilh the second number. Similarly the procedure is continued until the series is completed.
Table 9.2 shows the basic series of preferred numbers.
Table 9.2. Basic series of preferred numbers (from data book, page no. 7.20)
Preferred numbers
Basic series
R 5 (~= 1.6)
R 10 (~= 1.25)
1.00,1.25,1.60,2.00,2.50,3.15,4.00,5.00,6.30,8.00,10.00
R 20 (~= 1.12)
1.00, 1.12, 1.25, 1.40, 1.60, 1.80, 2.00, 2.24, 2.50, 2.80, 3.15,
3.55,4.00,4.50,5.00,5.60,6.30,
R 40 (~ = 1.06)
1.00,1.06,1.12,1.18,1.25,1.32,1.40,1.50,1.60,1.70,1.80,
1.90, 2.00, 2.12, 2.24, 2.36, 2.50, 2.65, 2.80, 3.00, 3.15, 3.35,
3.55,3.75,4.00,4.25,4.50,4.75,5.00,5.30,5.60,
6.00, 6.30,
I EXample: Machine tool spindle speeds under R 20 series is given by 100, 112, 125, 140,
N2
~
If' , .
IS
the n
N3
N2
N4
N3
Nn
= ......... Nn  1
= constant = ~
Design O/T"QIU",isSiol1
9.4
= 4n1 or / Nmax =
_!!
NJ
I Nou I Permissible
,l.nI
'f'
L_N~m=m
deviation
/1
". (9.1)
10 (4)>  1)%.
I Example
9.1 } Find the progression ratio for a 12 speed gear box having 'Ptttls
between 100 and 355 r.p.m. Also find the spindle speeds.
Given Data: n = 12; Nmin = 100 r.p.m.; Nnrax = 355 r.p.m.
To flnd : I. Progression ratio (<1, and 2. Spindle speeds.
@ Solution:
<t>n
412 1 or
:
355
100
or
<t> =
(3.55)1111
1.122 Ans. ~
2. Spindle speeds: Since the calculated <t> (= 1.12) is a standard step ratio for R 20 series.
Therefore the spindle speeds from R 20 series are
100,112,125,140,160,180,200,224,250,280,3]5
and 355 r.p.m. Ans. ~
I Example
9.2 , Select the spindle speeds for the following data: 12 speeds, between50
Tofind:
= 50 r.p.m.;
Nmax
= 600 r.p.m.
Spindle speeds.
@ Solution:
or
Nmin
We know that
600
50
q,n1
q,12 1
or
q, =
1.253
We find the calculated <P is a standard step ratio for R 10 series. So from R 10 series, the
spindle speeds are 50, 63, 80, 100, 125, 160, 200, 250, 315, 400, 500 and 630 r.p.m. ADS. "CJ
It can be seen that the calculated Nmax
Then,
Actual deviation
10 (<I>  1) %
 10 (1.253  1) %
50
 (630 _..:600) x 600
= 2.53%
=
2.5
Since the actual deviation is less than the permissible deviation, therefore we can accept
the deviation. Ans ..,
I Note I If the actual deviation is more than the permissible deviation, then nonstandard speedsmay
be used.
9.S
It 9.3
9' N
pa/(I . n  , "lin
nn'l'._
G~I/"
= 80
N max
r.p.m.;
, e een
=)
80
285 r .p.m.
foft" .
~ So/pilon.
Nmax
. We know that,
1285
80
~nI
= ~9  I
or ~ = 1.415
or
fi d ~::: 1.4 I 5 is not a standard ratio. So let us find out whether multiples of standard
We n 1 06 come close to ).4) 5.
'0
or .
(3n 112
.
Wecanwrite,
1.405
Therefore,
80, 112, 160, 224, 315, 450, 630, 900 and 1250 r.p.m. Ans."
Alternate solution: For the above problem, we can also write
= 1.418
Ans."
IIcan be noted that both R 20 and R 40 series gives the same spindle speeds.
[Example 9.4
GivenData'
Tofind:
Nmm.
= 50
rpm'
. .
.,
Nmax
Spindle speeds.
110
o I
Nmox
tuion : We know that N.
= ~nI
m1l1
800
50
Or
We find
stand'
J. 'I' .
I 2866 IS
.
110t
A.12  I
'I'
or ~
1.2866
of
9.6
Design Of7"~
~iSlin
X2, X3,
......
~\,
n = PI (Xl)
P2 (X2)
2nd stage
1sl stage
x, =
where
1,
X2
= PI;
X3
= Pl'
rd
3 stage
P2;
X4
41h
= Pl'
stage
'"
(~.
,
P2' P3
sPteds of
S.No.
l.
2.
Preferred
Number of speeds
6 speeds
8 speeds
structural formula
(i)
3(1)
(ii)
2 (I) 3 (2)
(i)
2 (I) 2'(~
(ii)
4(1)
2(3)
2 (4)
2(4)
3,
9 speeds
(i)
3(1)3(3)
4,
12 speeds
(i)
3(1)2(3)2(6)
(ii)
(iii)
2(1)2(2)3(4)
(i)
3(1)3(3)2(5)
(ii)
5.
14 speeds
6.
15 speeds
(i)
3(1)3(3)2(6)
7.
16 speeds
(i)
(ii)
(iii)
2(1)2(2)4(4)
(i)
(ii)
3(1)2(3)3(6)
(iii)
8.
18 speeds

r
[ rfb
pulley
Shaft 2 (I I
'
n ermedaate shaft)
Pulley
From the Fig.9.1, it is clear that the kinematic layout shows the arrangement of gears in a
gear box.The kinematic layout provides the following informations required for gear box
design.
The number of speeds available at the spindle, i.e., at the driven shaft.
The number of simple gear trains required to obtain the required spindle speeds
and their arrangement.
I
box spee c angm
ugh a intermediate shaft. In this conventlOna gear,
d [J om driving shaft to
Ilid'
h the number of spee s r
Iflg gear mechanism. It can be seen t at
.
h ft is 3 Then the number
intermediate
shaft is 3 and that from intermediate shaft to dnven sa
ofspindlespeeds is equal to 3 x 3 == 9.
Th
PI 
gement of gear
3 eeds available)
1 there are sp
3 (i.e., in stage ,
eeds available)
.
2 there are 3 sp
3 (i.e"lOstage
,
1; and X2::::: PI :::::3
I
, Stru
P2
XI
etural formula
~re
== 3 (1) . 3 (3).
'
= Number ofspee
_ PI . P2 == 3 x 3
ds available at
:::::9
of
Ns
tt~~L__j
Ns
r_____:::~....::::!""4E~~.J.
N4
.....
./
Ns
 
consecutive shafts).
./
N1
~ 1
~+~
en
en
N,
the stages .
./
./
9.9.1. Procedure
./
In this diagram, shafts are shown by vertical equidistant and parallel lines .
./
./
Transmission
engaged at definite
$ as
a unit.
shown on the diagram by rays connecting the points on the shaft lines representing
these speeds .
./
Fig.9.2 shows the ray diagram for a 9 speed gear box, having the structural
formula, z = 3 (I) 3 (3).
4 s
In other words,
i".;n
ilNQX
2. Refer Fig.9.3.
.,
N;npul
Nmax
N;npul
Ninput
> 4 and
s2
... (9.3a)
Nmin
.
Fig. 9.3.
2. For stable operation, the speed ratio at any stage should not be greater than 8.
In other words,
Nmax

N":'1;"
~ 8
.. , (9.3b
9.9
t
,,90.
Ii
II StBg
es e]{C
N.
mput
>N
min'
'.
J.
J1l
~
I~a"d500 r.p.
~
f"
I1Il'
Construct tile kinematic arrangement and the ray diagram of the gear
enData.
n
Toftnd: CODS
@Solution :
Weknow that,
500 ==
160
= 1.256
",6  I
or
'I'
~ == 1.256
.
Wecan write,
So
dsrd
llIio
~n I
Nmin
or
Wefind ~
==
1.12 x 1. f2
= 1.254
. dl
Therefore the spm e sp
laUd'
'I lagram'
PfOced
. caI eqUI
IS
d ew 3 verU
{ S.
. .
atic layout, r
Inee there are 3 shafts In kinem
.
to represent
'd'stant
[ines
represent shafts.
6 horizontal equ1 I . Fig.9.4(a).
{ S'
d draW
shown lfi
d
lnee there are 6 spindle spee s,
.ZO ntallines, as
In the secon
he hort
0 stages.
d (3)
{ s))eeds.Then mark the speeds on t
that there are tw"1 ble in a stage an
F
it is clear
ds aval a
rom the structural formula, I
mber of spee d
sta
ts the nu
spee s.
ge, i.e., in 2 (3), 2 represen
those tWO
UTe :
represent"
thp ctpn,
or intervals
betWeen
o:.!~ __
_2. J 0

./
D_es.:...::jg~n.:...o'2._ifTrQ'" . ~
tnlssio
11 Sy!/
.
Locate the first point A on the lowest spee d I. e., at 160 rp.m
at
" on the I
These tw aSI8~afJ,
15 r.p.m,
()POintl A
nmax
ninput
t1t
nmax
~2
ninpllt
Nmin
At point C, we get
input
]160
1
250 ~ 4 and
Nmax
Ninpl!t
Thus the requirements are satisfied. Note that the above conditions are met for other inp.r
speeds.
'3 (1)
'2 (3)
250
.,...
.,...
.200
/
IV
==
s:
IV
==
s:
CJ)
CJ)
.".
160
IV
==
s:
CJ)
A
(a)
(b)
.~
d available III
ed is 81.(.
h
i
I
w hIC IS a ready located. Now locate points D and E on t he ZOd shaft, at sta~J ~
.
d . the ftfS
C'
stage and (I)
10
./ I
. . the ratiO
'
uirettlc#
reQ
t A~~~
peeds a . ~~
I~ t~e second stage, we find input speed at C gives twO output seds. 'fhal \~ ,
SimIlarly, input speeds at D and E should give two output sped aW lioeS
.
. t
'
9.11
P1
=3

.
__
...


.

. Input shaft  1
Shaft2
gtars.
GivenData:
= 9;
Nmin
Tofind: Construction
Nmax
180 r.p.m.;
of speed diagram
1800 r.p.m.
@Solution:
Selectionof ~pin{lle speeds:
We know that ,
Nmax
Nmin
1800
Or
cpnl
::::
cp9  1 or cp
18Q
.Wefind ~
== 1J33
ratiO
Ping 4 s
1&
d 1800 f.pm.
9.12
:3 (3)
3 (1)
....,...11,
,
,,
,,
.,_+~':._____,. 1320
Stage 2:
Nmin
Ninput
180
= 560
1
= 0.32> 4'
,
.t: I.t:
IV
s:
en
Nmax
N
ttl
236
+
Ninpul
and
1000
= 560
s:
en
= 1.78 < 2
.. Ratio requirements
are satisfied.
Kinematic arrangement:
shown in Fig.9.7.
= 29
.
Shaft1
Zg
= 53
Shaft  2
Ze
= 48
Z,0
= 30
Z,2
= 63

~~

~9~.13~
......
, , , ...... , 12 respectively.
NI2
Second stage:
z12
62.22 ~ 63
Second pair: Now co.nsider the ray that gives the minimum speed reduction from
560 r.p.m. to 425 r.p.m. This can be achieved by using the gears 7 and 8.
Ng
z7
Zg
N7
425
560
or
z7
= 0.76
... (i) .
Zg
We know that the centre distance between the shafts are fixed and same. Therefore, the
sum of number of teeth of mating gears should be equal. So we can write
z7
On solving equations
+ Zg
= zil
... (ii)
+ z12 = 20 + 63 = 83
z7
= 83 48
35
Thi dON
.
ider the ray that gives the speed increase from 560 r.p.m. to 1000
ow conSl
r.p.m. This can be achieved by using the gears 9 and 10.
lr
I. I
pazr:
N
_!Q
z9
~
Also,
z9
On solving equations
+ zlO
1000
= 
N9
Z 11
or
First stage:
+Z
12
.
axunum
h
t e m
can be achieved by gears 5 and 6.
Assume
..
Scanned by CamScanner
Zs
Zs
z6
= 1.786
spee
 Ns
'... (iv)
20 + 63 == 83
83 _ 30
53
z9
. f
1320 r.p.m. to 560 r.p.m. This
d reductIOn rom
20 (driver)
N6
... (iii)
zlO
560
z9
J.6Q_ == 0.4242
== 1320
Design a/Transmission
Syste1n3
9.14
Z5
or
0.4242
z6 =
_
20
 0.4242
47.14 ~ 48.
be
id the speed reduction from 1320 r.p.m. to 750 r.p.m. This can
onsi er
achieved by gears 1 and 2.
750
N2
ZI
... (v)
=or Zt = 0.57 z2
=
..
1320
Nt
z2
.
Second pair:
and
zl
+ z2 = z5 + z6 = 20 + 48 = 68
... (vi)
68  44 = 24
Third pair: Finally consider the speed reduction from 1320 r.p.m. to 1000 r.p.m. This can
be achieved by gears 3 and 4.
Z3
..
z4
and
z3
+ z4
N4
N3
z5
+ z6
1000
1320
or z3
20 + 48
'" (vii)
0.76 z4
... (viii)
68
I Example
9.7
38.64 ~ 39 and z3
68  39
29
@ SolllJion :
Calculatlon of output speeds: Let N, and No:: Input and output speeds of the gears.
From the ray diagram (Fig.9.6),
No, = Nxt
Z,
z2
z,
z7
x
Zg
z9
input speed N,
1320 r.p.m.
24
35
1320 x 44 x 48
525 r.p.m.
S3
1320 x 24
x
30
44
1272 r.p.m.
z,
zll
x= 1320
N03 = NxI z2
zl2
24
20
44 x
63
= 228.57 r.p.m.
9.15
==
Nos
Nos
N09
==
z3
zJJ
N,x  xz4
z,2
:::
N06
N07
Z3
z9
N,x  xZ4 zlO
==
1320 x ~
35
39 x 48
]320 x
]320
x~
30
Zs z7
NIx  xz6
Zs
Zs
z9
NIx xz6
zlO
 ]320
Zs zJJ
N1x xz6
zl2
1320
== 3]].6 r.p.m.
35
48
20
53
x 48 x
x 48 x 30
1320 x 20 20
48 x 63
Calculated
speed
== 401 r.p.m.
== 971.66 r.p.m.
==
speed
1734 r.p.m.
20
x 39 x 
Calculationof % deviation:
rs.NO. I
==
63
Obtainable
== 715.7 r.p.m.
174.6 r.p.m.
(Nobt' r.p.m.)
(Ncal' r.p.m.)
1.
174.6
180
2.
228.57
236
3.'S
3.
311.6
315
LOS
4,
401
425
5.65
5.
525
560
6.25
.:.
6,
715.7
750
4.57
_7.
971.66
1000
2.83
t!.
1272
1320
3.64
9,
1734
/~Ol1X1UnPle
9.81 A gear
cal
x 100
1800
cal
3.66
, COllstruCt the
r
.
speed
diagram and the kinematic arrangement.
vtve Data ; n == 12' N . = 160 rpm . N
= 2000 r.p.m, ; N;1rplll
/".
r.
@ofilld:
'mrn'
.,
1600 r.p.m.
max
ConstructlOn
. of the speed diagram and the kmematIc
.'
arrangement .
SOlutio"
Select
10" 01'
..,spindle
speeds:
\Vek
now that ,
Nmax
N
~nI
min
Scanned by CamScanner
Design a/Transmission
9.16
2000
160
or
= cpl2  1 or cp = 1.258
We can write,
1.12 x 1.12 = 1.254
.
'" (skip one speed)
So cp = 1.12 satisfies the requirement. Therefore the spindle speeds from R 20 series
skipping one speed, are given by
,
160, 200, 250, 315, 400, 500, 630, 800, 1000, 1250, 1600 and 2000 r.p.m.
Structural/ormula:
../
From the structural formula, it is clear that there are three stages. In the third stage,
i.e., in 2 (6), 2 represents the number of speeds available in that stage and (6)
represents the steps or intervals between these two speeds .
../
Locate the first point A on the lowest speed i.e., at 160 r.p.m., on the last shaft. After
6 steps above, locate the second point B at 630 r.p.m. These are the two output
speeds .
../
Locate the input speed at any point on the preceding shaft (i.e., shaft 2), meeting the
ratio requirements. We find, the input speed 400 r.p m. at point C satisfies the ratio
requirements .
./
In the second stage, there are two speeds. Lowest speed is at C, which is already
located. Now locate point D on the 3rd shaft, above point C, in a three step interval.
For these two output speeds in the second stage, the input should be from shaft 2. We
find, the input speed 630 r.p.m. at point E on shaft 2 satisfies the ratio requirements .
../
In the first stage, there are three speeds. Lowest speed is at E, which is already
located. Now locate points F and G on the shaft 2, above point E, in a single step
interval.
./
Input speed can be located anywhere on shaft 1 meeting the ratio requirements. But in
this problem, given that, input speed is at 1600 r.p.m.
,./' In stage 2, we find input speed at E gives two output speeds at C and D. Similarly,
input speeds at F and G, should give' two output speeds. This can be achieved by
drawing lines parallel to EC and ED, from points F and G, as shown in Fig.9.S.
,./' Now for stage 3, to get the output speeds to all the input speeds in shaft 3, draw lines
parallel to CA and CB. Thus we have located all the input and the output speeds. The
completed ray diagram is shown in Fig.9.8.

2.
Njnpu1
160
1
= 400 = 0.4 > 
N;nput
= 630
Nmin
Stagt 3 :
Nmax
Nm;n
Stogt 2:
N;npu'
9.17
and
630
400
3 (1)
= 0.63> 4"
Nmax
N;npu,
and
800
630
= 1.27 < 2.
Nmin
Siage 1:
Nin;UI
630
1600
400
. 315
and
1000
= 1600
250
;::
nI
;::
s:
.c
III
C')
III
Stage 1
IJ)
Stage 2
c
III
.c
IJ)
C
III
StagB 3
IJ)
160
= 0.625 < 2.
:. Ratio requirements
Kinematic arrangement:
shownin Fig.9.9.
200
.c
are satisfied.
_ .. ___ .. _ ..
Shaft1
p, = 3
Shaft2
Shaft  3
Shaft  4
o
 
xa", Ie 9.9
g'"g fj
'Gil'
j ~4
d diaoratnS for 2 x 2 x 3, 3 x
. t have 12 spee ,
IS 0
the spee"
2x2
ueslgn
~~
~.18
oj Transmission SYSI
~~~~~
12', N
= 63
'
e~v
r.p.m.;
ml n
Given Data: n
Tofind: Construction of speed diagrams for various schemes.
Solution:
Selection of spindle speeds:
Nmax
We know that,
= ~nI
2800
63 = ~ 12 
or
We can try,
or ~
1.4 12
... (skip 5 speeds).
Therefore
Stage 3 :
63
1
250 = 0.252> 4 ~ and
1000
= 4> 2
250
input
Nmax
N;npUI
Stage 2:
Nm;n
Nrnpul
Nmax
N;npul
250
500
1
0.5 >4
500
500
. So treat as an exceptional
2(2)
3(4)
.~
2800
:
I+~~~
2000
:
jt~~~:~1400
and
710
1 < 2.
500
Stage 1 :
Nmrn
N;npUf
500
1000
355
2.50
=
Nmax
NrnpUf
and
180
710
= 1000
125
..,
0.71<2.
Ratio requirements are satisfied.
'i
fA
r
c::t
~
s:
90
c::
::
"
~~~~~~~~
Stage ,
Stage 2
rJl
Stage J
s:
(fJ
'I
9.19
_.fBO~
Structural formula = 3 (I) 2 (3) 2 (6). Reter Fig.9.11.
~A'''l
2 x2...scheme:
(ii) 3 x 1'1 .
_.!!!!!!
3(1)
63
== 0.252 >
1'1",ax
2(6)
== 250
Stllg' 3 . 1'1input
.:1'1input
2(3)
4 ; and
500
== 250
== 2~2
N",in
Stage 2:
I).
Ninput
250

== 500
 . and
== O .5 > 4'
e\
N",ax
Ninput
710

== 500
1.42 < 2
500
1
'
== 1400 = 0.36> 4 ; and ~
rii
==
N",in
Stagel:
N
input
Nmax
....
1Stage 1
'+rii Stage
~
~
('I')
......
+'
2
'i
~
Stage 3
90
!
(/)
~_63
A
==
Ninput
4 (3)
Refer Fig.9.12.
Stage 2: 
63
==
4.
710 <
and
Ninput
Nmax
Ninput
1400
==
== 1.97 < 2.
710
Nmin
==
Ninput
So treat
71 0
2000
= 0.35>
Nmax
tnpu:
as an
and
1400
= 2000
=
0.7 < 2.
Scanned by CamScanner
L_ __ ~~63
9.20
Design o/Trans",.
ISS 1011
IS
:)ISte"",
(iv) 4 xJ Scheme:
Structural formula
4 (I) 3 (4).
Rt:fer Fig.9.13.
4 (1)
Nmin
Stage 2:
NinpU1
63
500
1
3 (4)
and
1000
 500
Ninpul
 2~2
In this stage, it is not possible to satisfy
the ratio requirements.
So treat as an
exceptional case.
Nmin
Stage 1:
Ninpul
500

1400
1
 0.36>4'
Nmax
Ninpul
:. Ratio requirements
1400
1400
and
1<2.
are satisfied.
Conclusion:
Ninput
in all stages.
Nmin
< 2;
input
compact units.
, Example 9.10
I Sketcb
1
Nmax
> 4 ; and N
min
8,
800 r.p.m. ;
2 x 3 x 3.
Nmax
Nmin
_ cpn 
800
16 
9.21
~181
Or
~::::
1.258
or
.
the e
'" (skip one speed)
e sPindle speeds
. from R 20 series,
.1\::;
b
SO
'l1gIf'one speed, are given y
~1Ppl
25 31.5,40, 50, 63, 80, 100, 125, 160,200,250, 315 400 500
'.
.'
,
, 630 and 800 r.p.m.
16, 20,urUl'fiormula:
Given that, 2 x 3 x 3 (l.e',Pr
P2 .P )
Ilct
where
Structural formula
X::: 1;
I
X2
= PI = 2;
PI (Xl) P2 (X ) P3 (X )
2
X3 = PI . P2
Structural formula
==
2 x 3 ::::6
..ttd diagram: The speed diagram is drawn, as shown in Fig.9.14, using the procedure
(1)
3 (2)
3 (6)
~Irr~800
,
,,'
,
,,'
630
500
R:l.;'!,,;:_ .... 80
Dr\.."
.......
". B 63
I" ..
'\.
,,"..
'.
". ".
..
..
'\. \
.,....
I
1..
~
~I
l.....2!
en
50
".
40
"
31.5
'\.
25
~20
_1
". ".
"\
16
~
t
Stage 3 :
_ . an
:::
0.2 < 4 '
Ninput
N

ma.!.
N input
~
:::
:::3.125
80
t satisfied.
., I .
.
ts are no
n this stage, ratio reqUlremen
Case,
:>
b treated
So it can e
as an
exceptional
1,
_9_.2_2
~D~~~~~n~o~if~mu~~
I,sS;o" 8
Nmin
Siage 2:
Nit;IPUI
Nmax
=
=
250
125
125
500
N;nput
Nm;n
Siage 1:
NinpU1
Nmax
:)I"tellt,
80 .
1
125 = 0.64 > 4" ; and
2
1
160
= 500 = 0.32 <2
N;npul
Kinematic layout: The kinematic layout for the 18 speed gear box is d
9 15
.
F Ig..
rawn, as shoUt.. .
"II
....f.I4...








1

III
Shaft  1
Speed of shaft 3
= 80 r.p.m.,
./
Speed of shaft 2
./
Speed of shaft 1
= 500 r.p.m.
9.11. OVERLAPPING
th ear bOX
If the engagement of two different sets of gears provide the same speed, then e g best
is known as overlapping speed gear box. The concept of overlapping of speeds can be
explained by Example 9.11.
9.23
11 A 14 speed gear box is reqUired to turn' "
./lrrfl'_lt__9,
Draw the speed diagram and the kine IS. Olltputspeeds in t"e rang.
$!;
"tOO
r.p.~
N _ == 250"'0aIle
pl#'> '/I: n  14'.' N min. = 125 r.p.m.,
r,P.m.arrange",ent
jl,,:.I111'_
trUctlon of the speed diagram and the kinernat'
11'''''",
Cons
Ii" ..,,:
f,r
IC
8lTangement.
N max
== ~nl
)f'~"
kOowthat
N min
We
2500
125
== ~141
Or ~ ==
1.259
ite
1.12 x 1.12 = 1.254
'" (skip one speed)
1
'"
_
1.
We caJl_ W0 satisfies the requirement.
Therefore the spindle speeds from R 20 series,
So If'
ed are given by
It
one~:
;50, 315, 400, 500, 630, 800, 1000, 1250, 1600, 2000 and 2500 r.p.m.
125,160, . 'mula: For 14 speeds, the preferred structural fonnula
StrJl(/urtdfo~
= 3 (I) 3 (3) 2 (5)
jiflIin8
S1Dgt3 : N;npul
Nmax
N;npul
125
315
3 (1)
' _ _':"_~'
1
04>
4' . and
.
I
400
 315
3 (3)
2 (5)
I __
_~::::::1 2500
L+~~~~~~2000
. ~'" , _. ..... .....
l_+~~~~~'~~~~11600
 1.27 < 2.
~t2:
Nmin
N;npul
N
~ mat
N;"PUI
'e]..
315
800
0.39>
1250
800
l.56 < 2
==
800
1600
N.
~
N;lIput
N~
~
'npUt
4' ,. and
05>
4' . and
.
1250
==
1600
0.78 < 2.
for 14 speeds
ddiagram
.
gspee
fa}6 Over/appm
Fig.
7.
. ents ar e satisfied.
.
requlrem
.. RatiO
Design o/Transmi .
'"
~~~==~~~
9~2~4~
~.
th ..... 9 16 we find that 400 r.p.m. is achieved through two different rout
From Ie rig. . th'at two different sets of gears are used to achieve the same Srll>"~s,1FCa
and IHJB. t means
r""'U.ln til
.
th
d
overlaps
at
speeds
500
630
and
800
r.p.m.
also.
e
same manner e spee
,
Kinematic arrangement: The kinematic arrangement for J 4 speed gear box is draWn
,as
shown in Fig.9.17.
Shaft  1
_.
r
.
l
Shaft  2
I 11
t rf
Shaft  3
~
''
Spindle (Shaft  4)
,/
Nmax
= 
Nmin
For the calculated <1>, select the standard spindle speeds using the seriesof
preferred numbers, from Table 9.2.
Calculate the torque for the gear which has the lowest speed using the relation,
T = P x 60
21t N
... (9.4)
rt
001
'4'm 
v F, / '4'm x M
Gear
... (9.6)
Fig. 9.18.
M 
'
C45
30
15 Ni 2 Cr I Mo 15
80
40 Ni 2 Cr I Mo 28
100
a 
zx and zy
where
(Zx2+Zy)
... (9.7)
lOx m
Ig.9.19) :
I
I
of gears as 20 mm.
.
~ th e pairs gear group
u as 4h and tor re
OU S
'. Djsta
L ::::25 + 10 + 4b (or 7 h) + 20
Scanned by CamScanner
+ 7h (or 4h)
10 + 25
+
." (9.8)
r
20 mm
.1.
Shalta
7b
Fig. 9.19.
Shaft  3
Gear
Fig. 9.20.
./
Calculate the maximum bending moment due to normal load (Fn) using
the
relation
... (9.9)
M=
"
where
./
Fn
F,
cos a.
where
v M.2 + T2
."
(9.10)
P x 60
1t
./
low
d,
where
[t
[16
x Teq
1t [
't]
13
[ ..
. ['t]
_ 16 Teq
I
I,
1t
d/
.. ' (9.11)
9.27
S.rIo.
~
\.
2.
3.
25
30
40
55
4.
L
(ii)
l 't 1. N/mml
Determine
. th relation
[ 1:
.
uSing e
~p'e9.1~"'l1Design
... (9.12)
. ..... and minimum speeds are 600 r.p.m: and 25 r.p.m: respectively. Tile drive isfrom
f,{axJnI..,'
= 1440 r.p.m.
Nmax
Weknow that
or
or
We can write,
<\>n
<\>121
 Nmin
=
c\> ~
600
2s
1.335
06)
06 x 1 06)( 1.
1.338
fr
indle speeds om
.
ent. Therefore the sp
So ~ = 1.06 satisfies the requlrem
~. Plngfour speeds, are given as
450 and 600 r.p ro .
250 335,
9 21
25, 33.5 45 60 80 106 140, 190,'
h .~t11 in Fig. . .
, ,
,
'
'
d as S OvY
2.
. constructe ,
lay diagram: The ray diagram IS
l
'
.es
R 40 sert ,
Design. (JITrammbsiol1
9.28
Strllctural/orlHula:
Stale J:
Nm1n
N;1ffJII1
2~
80
1
0.31 > 4 and
140
80
2 (3)
3 (1)
2 (8)
eoo
4SO
.......'.'
335
'
250
Nmax
N;1ffJII1
Stage 2:
Nmin
N;npul
140
1.75 < 2
80
140
=
Nmax
N;npul
190
0.57
106
80
60
>4 and
.....
190
140
1i
Stage 1
Nm;n
N1nput
Nmax
N;nput
=
=
1i
.c
IV
Stage 2
CIJ
.c
CIJ
Stage 3
25
A
= 1.36 < 2
Stage 1:
.c
CIJ
45
('oj
140
1
450 = 0,311 > 4' and
250 = 0.56 < 2
450
3. Kinematic arrangement: The kinematic arrangement for the given 12 speed gear box
is constructed, as shown in Fig.9.22.
10mm
7b
20mm
r ,,,_,,
Shaft  ..
Z10 ::
35
r:':
lation of number
9.29
of teeth on all gear. . Th
calCu
.
h
l'
e numb
f
below, followmg t e procedure used in E
er 0 teeth on all gears are
IlJ,ted as
xample 9.6.
J.
cJCJ
Slalt) :
NI4
zI4
20
25
z14:::
80 ;
or 
NI3
:.
z14:::
64
Second pair: Consider the other ray that gives speed increase from 80
1
nding gears are 11 and 12.
r.p.m. to 40 r.p.m,
The correspo
140
80
NI2
zll
==
zl2
Nil
orz
175.
II 
zl2
... (i)
We alsoknow that the sum of number of teeth of mating gears should be equal.
"
+ zl2
zJJ
z13
+ zl4
:::
= 84
20 + 64
... (ii)
II
zl2
Stage 2:
Fisf pair : Consider the ray that gives maximum reduction from 140 r.p.m. to 80 r.p.m.
11Jecorresponding
gears are 9 and 1'0. Assume z9 = 20 (driver).
NIO
z9
20
= N9
Z10
or
ZJO
80
140;
:.
zlO 
35
Second pair : Consider the other ray that gives speed increase from 140 r.p.m, to
190rp.m. The corresponding gears are 7 and 8.
'.
and
Ns
190
N7 = 140 or
z7
Zs
Z
+ Zs
7
 ""9 + Z 10

z7
20 + 35
=.
1357
... (iii)
Zs
... (iv)
55
Zs
23.3 ~ 24 .an
Sta,e 1 .
Fit.
 55 24
Z7 
== 31
l't
'St Pai,
'.
Zs
z6
N6
= 
Scanned by CamScanner
Ns
20
or 
z6
140
'
== 450'
..
z6
== ~4.28
= 65.
9.30
Design olTransm/ssl
~
S~colldpair: Consider the ray that gives speed reduction from 450 r.p.m. to 190
The corresponding gears are 3 and 4.
r,pllI.
z3
%4
..
190
450 or
N4
:a::
N3 =
13
= 0.422.%4
'" (\I)
and
'" (vi)
="
59.77
!ItS
60 and
.%3 ==
85  60 == 25
Thirdpair: Consider the ray that gives speed reduction from 450 r.p.m. to 250 r.p.m. The
corresponding gears are 1 and 2.
%1
N2
250
z2 = Nl = 450
:.
or
%1 == 0.555 Z2
'" (vii)
and
.. (viii)
5. Material selection:
C 45
6. Calculation of module:
./
To find torque: In this case, the lowest speed 25 r.p.m. is obtained by meshing
gears 13 and 14. Therefore torque at 25 r.p.m. is given by
T 14
./
'14
= r =
2x
T14
Z14
xm
2 x 859.44 x 103
64xm
We know that,
where
or
2.25 x 103 x 60
2 1t x 25
= 859.44 Nm
./
P x 60
= 2 1t N =
26857.5
m
module, m = ~ F, I \JIm
\JIm
module, m
(26857.5 1m)
10 x 30
= ~
89.525/ m
4.47 mm
or m2 == 89.525 I!"
9.3)
1.
cme
1II(11lo0/
n centre dIStance:
at
= (~
;Z2)
In
= (30+55)
2
x 5 = 212.5 mm
a2 = (Z7; Zs)
= (31 +
2
aJ
(Zll;
In
24) x
Z12)
5 = 137.5 mm
In
(53 + 31) 5
2
2
= 10mm
where
Fn
(26857.5/5)
cos 20
cos a.
(26857.5 / m)
cos a.
= 5716.23 N
M =
5716.23 x 860
4
= 12.29 x 105 Nmm
= VI M2 + r214 = ~
eq
=
0/
F,
D~~r
= [16
x req
7t(t]
J 3 where
t = 30
0/
IS b
= 110 +
_ [16
7t x 30
1.5 x 1()6J3
= 63.38 mm
R 40 series is 67 mm.
,
iO'
~i
9.32
47.746 Nm
We know that,
d;l
47.746 x 103
0.2
ds1
or
30
p x 60
2.25 x 103 x 60
= 153.47 Nm
= 27tN
=
27t x 140
T = 0.2
We know that,
d;
['t]
d;2
153.47 x 103
0.2 x
ds2
or
x 30
P x 60
2.25 x 103 x 60
=
= 268.57 Nm
27tN
27t x 80
..
ds3
or
I Example
9.13
I Design
= 35.5
d;3
x 30
mm
machine. The drive is from an electric motor of 3. 75 k W at 1440 r.p.m: Maximum and
minimum speeds of the spindle are to be around 650 and 35 r.p.m. respectively.
Given Data:
n = 18; P
Nmin =
Tofind:
1440 r.p.m.;
35 r.p.m.
@Solution:
1. Selection of spindle speeds :
We know that,
or
4>nl
4>181
=
=
Nmax
Nmin
650
3S
or 4> = 1.1875
Nmax
= 650 r.p.m.;
~:'O6X(l'06XI.06)910"
1.191
9.33
.
AI:::; 1.06satIsfiesthe requirem
SO
~PPI~g
.
35. , 42.5, 50, 60, 71, 85, 100, 118, 140 1
d 6705 r.p.m.
.0
, Bay diagram.
i'
Th
e ray
diagram is
35.5
Nm~
N;npul
Nmin
Stage 2:
Ninput
280
 140
3 (2)
3~
""~H
_ ""'
....
'.: __.
...
." ,
...
,.."
,....
''(.,'/
'f' ,.....
','
280
"
 236
236
 475
280
....
236
....
,: ........
,"
..
140
'II
" ',',",:,
100
" "
N;npul
'
...
. , ' , ..
Nm;n
.:
and
 1.186
Stage 1:
~475
,__
, ,. ....
e
_"_
' .'(.7
,."
..
D ~':
Nmax
NinpUI
'
400
_:"...' ........335
_.........
F '..f:,~...
.._
_
..,,:"
.' ,
.'
.' "
"
G ~.
0.59>4
......,560
670
,,1'
I"
236
, 475, 560
,:====t_::+=~="'
. . l'

2 (1)
140
'
, as shown in Fig.9.23.
, 335 400
constructed
= 140

s)
s from R 40 series,
'
Nm;n
SPIndle speed
~'
,' ,
71
, '. ' 60
'. '
.... 50
\
1
0.497> 4 and
\\
42.5
~ __S_ta_ge_1~IS_m~ge_2~~S=ta~ge~3~\~ 35.5
A
280
475
_ 0.59 < 2
'.
J.
Ratio re qUlrements
.
are satisfied.
.
,~draWn
. KlIIelllattc arrangement: The kinematic arrangement for the given 18 speed gear box
, as shown in Fig.9.24.
9.34
T
58
79
35.5
 140
Second pair: Consider the other ray that gives speed reduction from 140 r.p.m. to
100 r.p.m. The corresponding gears are 11 and 12.
and
ZlI
zll
zI2
NI2
Nll
+ zI2
zI5 +zI6
100
= 140 or
=
= 0.714 z12
zll
20 + 79
99
... (i)
... (ii)
57.75 ~ 58 and
Ztt
= 99
 58 = 41
Third pair: Consider the other ray that gives speed increase from 140 r.p.m. to 280r.p.ro.
The corresponding gears are 13 and 14.
NI4
280
 NI3 = 140 or
and
zl3
+ zI4
zI5
+ zI6
z13
20 + 79
=2
.. , (iii)
xZl4
= 99
33 and
zI3 =
99  33
= 66
. , (iv)
Bo1
zION
20
lQ
or 
_ 140
2'
.
, C id tl
h
10
36'"
Z
 33
lid paIr,' onsi er ue ot er ray tha .
10 .71 ~ 34
secO
di
at gives s
peed reduction from 236 r.p.rn. to 200
r.p.nt. The correspon 109 gears are 5 and 6
.'
Zs
_ N6
z6
Ns
z +z
d
.
an
200
== 236 or
Zs
== 0.847
6 
...
(v)
Z9+ZIO==20+34=54
... (v i)
z6 = 29.24 ~ 30 and
,
.
Zs  54  30 = 24
Third paIT: Consider the other ray that giv es th e speed mcreas
.
f
2
rIm.Thecorresponding gears are 7 and 8.
e rom 36 r.p.m. to 280
Ng
z7
Z7
and
Zg
N7
+ Zg
z9
280
=
236 or
+ zlO
z7 =
1.186
...
z8
( VlIii)
... (viii)
20 + 34 = 54
24.69 ~ 25 and
z7
== 54  25 == 29
Slage 1"
First pair,' Consider the ray that gives maximum speed reduction from 475 r.p.m. to
.J~r.p.m.The corresponding
Assume
St
N3
z4
N4
_ 
20 _ ~ . :.
or   475 '
z4
z2
and
Z1
vn sol'
Vlog
40.25 ~ 41
I'L
Z4 ==
+ z2
... (ix)
N2 _ ~
:::: 
NJ
:::: z3
 475
or
::::0.59z2
..' (x)
:::: 20 + 41 ::::61
+ Z4
ZI ~
61  39 ~ 22
Design o/Trans",is
~~
~~~~~1~
~.36
'.
6. Calculalion of module:
./
_
16 has the lowest speed of .;,5.5 r.p.m .
p x 60
=
T 16
./
21t N
3.75 x 10J x 60 _
2
35 5
 1008.7) Nm
1t x
F1
16
./
where
\11
Tm
= m
2 x 1008.73 x 103
79 x m
= ~
= 10 and
'
(25537.43 1m)
10 x 100
module, m
or
25537.43
m
FI I 'Vm x M
M = Material constant
m
= ~
25.5371m
or m2
= 25.537/ m
2.945 mm
./
./
./
./
a2 =
ZI
+Z2)
2
(Z5 +Z6)
2
(ZII
m =
(22+39)
2
(24 + 30)
= 81
91.5 mm
mm
= 'V x m = lOx 3 = 30 mm
25 + 10 + 4 b + 20 + 7 b + 20 + 7 b + 10 + 25
110 + 18 x 30 = 650 mm
110 + 18b
r
i
60.1
I~
II O/sha/lS :
where F.
lcos a
9058.79 x 650
4
...
,
1.472
106 Nmm
Equivalent torque,

ds
= [
161t x[ ~Teq
1 3 where [t
_16
x 55x 10 J3 = 54.87
x 1t
1.784
mm '" 56 mm (R 40 series)
[
(u) Design 0/ other shafts:
(a) DiamJ!terojshaft
1:
::=
0.2 x
d; x [
't ]
Weknow that ,
75.39 x 103 
ds1
or
0.2 x d~l x S5
19
:::: 18.99 mm ~
(b)Diameter 0/ shaft 2 :
Minimum speed
Torque
Or
da
:::::
Ill
IIl
(R 40 series)
Q~~
D_e_Sl=gn=of:..__Tr....::.:a..:..:ns~m;ss;O

~.38
or
0.2 x
d;3
= 28.54 rnm
x SS
30
mm
(R 40 series)
../
Gear boxes are used to obtain different spindle speeds in most of the machine tools.
../
../
The concept of preferred numbers and their significance are presented in the beginning
../
of this chapter .
Step ratio (or series ratio or progression ratio) () is given by
t/Jn 
max
N.
where n
= Number
mm
../
where XI
= J;
X2 = PI" X3 = PI 'P2
../
../
../
Ray diagram serves to determine the specific values of all the transmission ratios and
speeds of all the shafts in the drive .
../
The basic rules to befollowed while designing the gear boxes are also discussed.
../ If the engagement of two different sets of gears provide the same, then the gear box is
known as overlapping speed gear box.
../
The step by step procedure for gear box design is presented at the end of this chapter.
REVIEW QUESTIONS
I.
2.
3.
The speeds in machine tool gear boxes are in geometric progression. Why?
4.
5.
6.
:t
W Ite t
he significance
of structural formul
9.3
a.
r
tiate ray diagram and structural d'
1. Oitferen
lagram.
6.
t the basic rules to be followed for
.
9
~ist 011
Optrmum gear box d .
. the step by step procedure to design th
eSlgn.
W(Ite
e gear box.
/0.
layout:
f 1
".utlC
spec
_'
ox.
w the kinematic
4.. Dra
5. A machine tool gear box is to have 9 speeds. The gear box is driven by an electric motor
whoseshaft rotational speed is 1400 r.p.m. The gear box is connected to the motor by a
belt drive. The maximum and minimum speeds required at the gear box output are 1000
r.p.m.and 200 r.p.m. Suitable speed reduction can also be provided in the belt drive.
Whatis the step ratio and what are the values of 9 speeds? Sketch the arrangement.
Obtainthe number of teeth on each gear and also the actual output speeds.
6. A 12 speed gear box is to provide
7. Draw the speed diagram of a 12 speed gear box to give speeds in the ran~e of 63 to 2800
fp.m. Consider any 4 possible different alternates and indicate the best wIth reasons.
8. A mach'me tool gear box is to provide
. 14 spm. dl e speeds ranging from 20 to 400 r.p.m.
Draw the kinematic
'
arrangement and the ray d'lagram.
9. AI'
of 100 r.p.m. to 560 r.p.m. Sketch
6 speed gear box is to furnish speeds m the range
.
.
the k'
V
t dard progresSIOnrano.
lOematic layout and speed diagram. se san.
.
d
10. A
'.
.
of a milling mach me. Maxlm~m an
.~ear box IS to grve 18 speeds for a spmdle
800 rpm respectively. Fmd the
nlIn
d 16 to
. . .
Imum speeds of the spindle,. are to be aroun
d
the structural diagram and the
:~ ratios which will give the desired speeds and raw
Inemat'
ICarrangement of the drive.
_DeS_ig~n~Of~Tr_a~nr~rn=/~ss~ns
Q~~
!!.40
.
.
ed
box with a step ratio of 1.25. The Input IS from a motor ru .
11. D esign a SIX spe gear
f
. 3k
nnlo
.,
m speed is 112 r.p.m. power 0 motor IS
W.
g
at 1440 r.p.m. TIte mmimu
.
12. A six speed gear box is required to provide output spe;d s ~~the ~~~ge of 125 to 400
5
r.p.m., with a step ratio of 1.25 and transmit ~ power 0
at
r.p.m. Draw the
speed diagram and kinematic diagram. Determ.lne the number of teeth, ~odule and face
width of all gears, assuming the suitable materials for the gears. Determine the length of
the gear box along the axis of the gear shaft.
13. Design a headstock gear box of a lathe having nine spindle speeds ranging from 30 to
1000 r.p.m. The power of the machine is 4.5 kW and the speed of the motor is 1440
r.p.m. Minimum number of teeth on the gear is to be 25. Sketch the layout of the gear
box and calculate the number of teeth on the gears.
14. Design a 9 speed gear box to give output speeds between 280 and 1800 r.p.m. The input
power is 5.5 kW at 1400 r.p.m. Draw the kinematic layout diagram and the speed
diagram. Determine the number of teeth on all gears and the length of all the shafts.
15. Design a nine speed gear box with a minimum speed of 200 r.p.m. and speed ratio 1.5.
The input is from a motor of2 kW at 1400 r.p.m.
16. Design a 12 speed gear box for an all geared headstock of a lathe. Maximum and '
minimum speeds are 900 r.p.m. and 23 r.p.m. respectively. The drive is from an electric
motor giving 2.2 kW at 1440 r.p.m.
17. The spindle of a pillar drill is to run at 12 different speeds in the range of 70 r.p.m. and
325 r.p.m. Design a three stage gear box with a standard step ratio. The gear box
receives 4 kW from an electric motor running at 330 r.p.m. Sketch the layout of the gear
box, indicating the number of teeth on each gear. Also sketch the speed diagram.
18. A gear box is to be designed for the following specifications;
Power to be transmitted
Number of speeds
15 kW
18
Minimum speed
16 r.p.m.
Step ratio
1.25
Motor speed
1400 r.p.m .
Arrangement
scheme
2 x 3 x 3
I.
Clutches
"One Ues ore t ,L'
0'
a t,,/IIgsfro",
/L_
TIe
valley.
I~f.
INTRODUCTION
.
'he clutch
l
 G.K. Cllmenoll
.
_. When the clutch IS engaged to the engin
.
engme and the transmission
~).
.
e, power IS transm'tt d
JL~aged, the power IS not transmitted to the rest f hie
to the wheels. If it is
J1JIIIIing and hence the vehicle stops. Therefore for co 0 , t thesyste~ even though engine is
1
.
.
.
up mg
e engme smooth I t th
i Q1IISlI1isslon
during starnng from rest and gear shifting , c Iu tCh IS
. used.
y 0 e power
lD.2. FUNCTIONS OF THE CLUTCH
T~ start or stop a machine (or a rotating element) without starting and stoppin the
prime mover.
g
"
To maintain constant
.f
.f
For automatic
disconnect,
J1.Q~~
_D_~~ig.~n~of~T~~
.
""33iO
.;
drivi
member is kept rotating.
When the driven
member is brought.
member. Th e
vmg
.
.
th
.
ber it also starts rotating. When the driven member is se
I
to e dri vmg mem ,
. .
..
h'
parated
vmg member Iit does not revolve ThIS ISthe principle be ind the operation 0f the
dri .
Bee
A
Disc
Disc
Driving disc
Driven disc
Fig. 10.1.
10.4. CLASSIFICATION
OF CLUTCHES
./
Spiral jaw
./
Toothed
./
Roller
Sprag
./
Wrapspring
Dry fluid
Hydraulic
Axial
./
Radial
./
Cone
Magnetic particles
./
Hysteresis
./
Eddy current
r~
01 Mel/lods :
,co"tr
.
Mechanical control IS achiev db'
I
e y ltnka '
cams or we d ges. Th e actuatinb f
ges at by b
.
'.
e orce can 1.._
ails Or t II
electrtC motor, air cylmder, or hYd .
ue suppli.....
0 trs workinabv
rauhc ra
~ rnanuall
e
er
lectrical
control
of
friction
or
t
h
Ill.
"1
Or
by
solenoid
I E
oot cl h
I positivecontact
mechanical junction.
I
J.
g SUnates to
form a rigid
. wo opposingsurfacesate forced
Overrunning
are used when two members are t0 run freeIy relati
. clutches
..
anve to
do
each other
3.
4.
In
Cone clutches,
Centrifugal clutches,
Internal expanding rim clutches, and
5.
10.5.FRICTION MATERIALS
FOR CLUTCHES
d Friction Material
0.5.1. Required Qualities of a Goo
.
ualities :
wtng
the follo
q
A good friction material should have
.'
d tivity.
. t offnctlon.
. ood heat con uc
/ A high and uniform coefficlen
together Withg
. h temperatures,
0/ The ability to withstand hlg
10.4
u~/f""
.:::..
85
Wood,
2.
Cork,
J.
Leather;
4.
S.
'
Wood, cork and leather are used only for light loads and low speeds. But in
practice, for high speeds and heavy loads, asbestos based materials and powdered
metals are widely used.
(I) Wov~n type: Woven type friction material is obtained by spinning threads from
asbestos fibres, woven around brass, copper or zinc wires. Then it is impregnated with a
bonding material.
(1/) Moulded or composite type: In mould or composite type, the asbestos fibres in their
natural state are mixed with a bonding material and then moulded in dies under pressure at
high temperature.
10.5.3.1. The bonding materials used are
/'
/'
Vegetable gums,
/'
Rubber, and
/'
/'
Woven material has higher coefficient of friction than the moulded asbestos
material.
/'
Woven materials wear at a faster rate than the moulded asbestos materials.
/'
The main drawback of both the woven and moulded asbestos materials is their inability to
withstand high temperature.
,/~red
(or .Intered)
r Apo"tAI"IIddeer.
metal frlctl
.
on material.
6"
e materials are obtatned from rn
f~'. I fheSlIurgy in the form of 0.25 to 6 0 metallic POwder by th
metS
. rn thick
e proee
steel discs on one or both 8ides
straps. These
55 of POwder
onto
straps can be
twO types of sintered metal frictioh
.
pressed
h
. d
d' .
matenals u
If (i) eBronzebase
,an
(II) Ironbased.
sed are:
I
I They are lighter, cheaper and compact in construction.
I They are unaffected
by environmerttal conditions.
;
Table 10 . 1. shows the values of coefficient of friction for diffierentcom b'matlons.
Table /0.1. Coefficient ollrlction
Coefficient of fridlon
Contacting surfaces
Wet
Dry
0.10.2
OJ 0.6
0.080.12
0.20.5
0.05  0.1
0.10.4
0.05 0.1
O.IOJ
Clutch spring
Engine
shaft _
clUtCh shaft
_ Design olTI'QfJ31hL
'0.6
331
0"
S~,fle
r.his type of clutch is mosdy used In ~otor vehicles, It.co~sists of one clutch
~
shaft, dutch spring, pressure plate, friction lining and bearing. The flYWheel. Plate, CI~
the eHgine crankshaft and rotate! with it. The pressure plate is bolted to the fl~hrnounted
~
dutch springs ..The fHttiCU1 I infngs are on both sides of the clutch plate. Fig.I 0.2eelthrOU&h
artltHgement of single plate clutch.
shows the
OpetallOJl: When the clutch is engaged, the clutch plate is gripped between the
and the pressure plates. Due to friction, the clutch plate and shaft revolves. Whe thflY\vheel
pedal is pressed. the pressure plate moves back against the force of the springs, an~ theclutch
plate becomes free between the flywheel and the pressure plate.
e clutch
Thus the flywheel remains rotating as long as the engine is running and the clutch
speed reduces slowly and finaJJy it stops rotating.
shaft
10.8.1. DesIgn of a SIngle Plat. Clutch
(Torque transmitted by the Single Plate Clutch)
Consider two friction surfaces held together by an axial thrust W, as shown in Fig.IO.3(a).
Single disc
OIp1ale
Friction surface
<a)
(b)
Let
T
p
=
=
rl 
r2
Consider an elementary ring of radius r and thickness dr, as shown in Fig.l O.3(b).
Area of the elemental ring
Normal or axial force on the ring,
oW
= 21tr dr
=
Pressure x Area
p x 2nr' dr
and the frictional force on the ring acting tangentially at radius r is given by
"
,.)(r
T ::: ,.
,.
1.l
ConslU'e
surface, A == n (1'2J
_ 1'
2)
2
W
W
p
A n(r:r;)
... (10.1)
'2 to '"
27t Il P r2 dr
27t 11P [ ~ ] :
r2
or
where
... (10.2)
3 3]
rJ
... (10.3)
1'2
R = 2
2
3
r I  r2
"
"ty of pressure varies
"
r
uniform
wear,
the
rntens
. (Ii) Considering uniform wear: Fo
m~ersel '
&'.
Y WIththe distance. ThereJore,
= constant::=
P2' 1'2 =
C or p == I'
C]
108
Design a/Transmissions
flW
[ .p
C
~;l
f 21t C dr
= 21t C
[r
(I =
'2
'2
Ie
or
W
'" (l0.4)
T,
x ;: x
r2 . dr
[ ': p
21t fl . C . r . dr
T =
= r ]
2x,,
e .r . dr
= 2x"
e[ ~
'2
'2
T = 1t fl C [r~  r; ]
Substituting the value ofC from equation (l0.4),
7t
II
r:
(r2
_ r2 )
2
... (10.5)
where
or
... (10.6)
INote I
I. In general, totalfrictional torque acting on thefriction sur/ace or on the clutch is given by
T
where n
Number
nJ.lWR
0/pairs
C/~fC"es
10.9
fPted. I
l Intensll)!
S
uf pressure
rfi
'ctionsu ace.
thefr I
roue pressure
'{he {IV e
o:
r a
10,1
.'
IS
or contact suna
'J'
ce IS given by
frlr1 W
_ }
J
r1
...(10.7)
Driven aha1!
Engine shaft
10.7.1 D
.. Nurnbe
= "1+"21
'J
~
10.10
Desl=gn~of~Transm~~~s~;n~ns
~
IT
= n'
J.l W . R ]
'" (10.8)
where
~ [r1rn
3
rlr2J
rl
+r2
T x ks
... (10.9)
where
Table 10.2. Driver dynamic characteristic factor, k J (from data book, page no. 7.9IJ)
Factor
Type of drh'ing system
k)
0.5
0.33
0.33
kl
1.25
turbo
1.6
etc.
2.5
160
240
~#',
vro", dlltll b
DOt, page
110.
400
7.91)
0.43
Igements in En
~ofeng
~r sbift
~
.
IS
0.2
16
32
0.55
48
0.75
0.9
96
240
480
1.2
1.8
2.00
hi
~ions of the c u c .
r:
~le
10.1] An automoti~~ sing~e
cltach consistso/two pairso/contacting
If/acts.The inner and outer radii of 'friction plate are 120 mm and 250 mm respectively.
Ik cot/flCkntof friction is 0.25 and the total axial force is 15 kN. Calculatethepower
_mitting capacity of the clutch plate at 500 r.p.m: using
(i) Uniform wear theory, and
(ii) Uniform pressure theory.
GivenData:
n = 2;
'I = 250 mm
~=
0.25 ;
e Solution:
15 kN
0.25 m;
15 x 103 N ;
IL.
'2 =
120 mm
0.12 m;
N = 500 r.p.m.
. .
Torque transmitted on clutch IS given by
('I + '2)
T 
nJ.1W
{Q.25 + O.l~
_ 2 x 0.25 x 15 x 10
2
3
.
.
'. Power transmitted
~':I
:.p~
1387.5Nm
n f1 W
3 ]
,31 '2
'3 [ ;~
r~
x ~ x [ 025  (0.12i
_ 2 x 0.25 x 15 x 103 3
( .
4 k'W Ans. ~
" .... '>l 500~
:::::75.6
21tNT
== ~
10.12
olT,an.r
Daig,.
IExturtJ!!.r
/0.21
'"Utio"
I~
Given Data:
N = 1440 r.p.m.;
n = 2;
'2
60 mm
60 x
103 m
Pmax
'1 =
80 mm == 80
10 x 1()4N/m2...
)( 1()3
,. ==
0.)
Ill;
e Solution:
= C or C =
Pmax"2
103
lOx l()4x60x
6000N/m
754 N Ans. ~
Torque transmitted, T
('1 + '2)
= nJ.1W,
Power transmitted,
I Example
2lt NT
60
60 x 10
= 31.67 Nm
= 4.643 kW ADS.
~
e Solution:
W
2;
Pmax
85 kN/m2
21tNT
60
85 x 103 N/m2;
~ == 0.25.
"
of
e an
'~ce th
T = 265.26 Nrn
tensity of pressure is maximurn at th .
e anne
Pmax . 1'2 = C or C  85
51
"
d the aX
W == 21t C (I'.
,JJ
to the frictional
1'2)
r radius ( )
1()3
'2 ,
'2
N/rnrn
..c.
SUI
lace,
= 2n x 85 x 103
'2
(1.25 r
1be me
2'2
r. +
L25'2 + '2
2  == 1.1251'2
1'2
T  nIJ.WR
265.26  2 x 0.25
Torque transmitted,
x J .335 x
lOs (1'2)2
I.1251'2
= 75.104 x 100,~
or
1'2 
and
1'1
0.1523 m or 152.3 mm
 1.25
1'2 =
1.25 x ] 52.3
==
190.375 mm
ADS. ~
= 27tC
=
IExample10.4
(I'I  1'2)
3096.57N Ans."
fridion linings on both sides are 300 mm and 200 mm respectively. The coefficient of
frrtionbetween the contacting surfaces is 0.35. Assuming uniform rate of wear, determine
~ imum power tllat can be transmitted by the clutch at 1500 r.p.m: when the
trxUnum pressure is not to exceed 15 x 1fJ4 Nlm2. Also, determine the axial thrust to be
~U~~erinponpn~unpm~
3
Given Data:
d , = 300 mm = 300 x 103 m; d2 = 200 mm = 200 x 10 m;
.
= 15 X )04 N/m2,
IJ. = 0.35;
N = ] 500 r.p.m.: Pmax
@ Sol'
.
.
. m at the inner radius ('2)'
~
utlOn: Since the intensity of pressure (p) IS maxunu
fore for 'c
unhOrm wear
03 == 15000 N/m
Prnax.r2 = C or C = 15 x l()4x ]OOX ]
A>:iaJ thru
st exerted by the springs is given by
3 100 x 103)
150X
10(
W = 27t C (I'I  1'2) == 27t x 1500 O x
ro,
qUe
trans
= 4712.39 N Ans. 1)
.
llutted for uniform wear,
_1_O._14
D_a~ign~Ozif~TJ~rQ~~~.
.
.. ,ISS IOn
T = n J.I W (";
'2 )
I Example
10.5
60
I Determine
60
64.77 kW Ans. ~
a Pl(lIe
clutch when the axial force is 5000 N. The outer and inner. diameters of the fricr
sUrfaces are 200 mm and 100 mm respectively. Assume uniform wear.
rail
Given Data: W
5000 N ;
dl
200 mm or rl = 100 mm
100 x IO3m.
,
Since the intensity of pressure is maximum at the inner radius (r2)' therefore
Pmax x r2
C or C
50 x 103 Pmax.
(ii) Minimum
pressure:
(r1), therefore
Pmin
x rl
C or C
or
Pmin 
10350x
103)
0.0314Pmin
W
= 1t [r~  r~ ]
5000
= 1t [(100 x 103)2  (50 x 103)2]
Ans. ~
1#
/1
JO.6
u Oil/PilI
Of /2 Itw. "'L
, J
':I .Wngle 'l
.
'M1IS /Ire is nolto exceed 85 kN/nt2.~."
p a/~lyp~Itav;
11IaxJ"'11111
..J":~press.
e exte"
"1 G
.~
P:.
''O'r
,.1
"'.~.d,lte
{ilrr/')J r!J,ct ~e
""0 ~llv~Ilil/aen.,
diollle/~' ..,
,JA!J~
r' palo.
Pmax
6i"
d,
fJ So
I,,~
12 k W == 12
Of lite
'?t '''~
fo"
::: 0.1
fl'lcllon
I ()3
W.
r,
~  I2
or
d2 
or 
== 1 25 .
r2
"
n == 2.
Il == OJ
ssume uniformwear
T == 100 Nm
service factor, Ie == Ie + Ie + 1 + k:
where
From Table 10.2,
k, 
k2
k3 
0.32
k4 
0.9
(assuming 48 engagements/shift)
ks
100 x 2.8
0.33
'2
113
109 torquecharacteristics)
= 1.25 (assume)
2.8
280 Nm
Pmax. x r2
C or C = 85 x 103 x r2 N/m
and
.'
Or
In~/on
. plll/e is
n Jl . W
1.25
rz
1.335 x 105 r; N
(~+~)
1.25 r2 + r2) = 90124 x 104 (r2J3
2'
.
r,
= 1.25 x 0.1459
0.1823 m or 182.3 mm
ADS. l'
'L
Ine
IO'f/II~
'lCIIIJIIplllle and
0.15
Design o/Transmission S
10.16
= 1.335 x lOs
= 1.335 x
lOs ('2)2
(0.1459)2
= 2841.79 N Ans. ~
uniform speed of 250 r.p.m: The disc type clutch has botll of its sides effective, 'he
coeffICient of friction being 0.3. The outer and inner diameters of the friction plate are200
mm and 120 mm respectively. Assuming uniform wear of the clutch, the intensityOf
pressure is not to exceed 100 kN/mI. 1/ the moment of inertia of the rotating parts Of 'he
machine is 6.5 kgm1, determine the time to attain the full speed by the machine and'he
energy lost in slipping of the clutch.
What will be the intensity of pressure, if the condition of uniform pressure of the clutch
is considered? Also determine tke ratio of power transmitted with uniform wear to 'hill
with uniform pressure.
N = 250 r.p.m.;
Given Data:
Pmax
n = 2;
J.1 = 0.3 ;
@Solution:
(i) The time to attain thefull speed by the machine (witll uniform wear) :
Since the intensity of pressure (P) is maximum at the inner radius '2' therefore
Pmax
Axial thrust exerted,
"2
n J! . W (r. ; r
 2
0.3
1507.96
x (
100
10]2+ 60
10]) = 72.38 Nm
We know that the Power transmitted P = 2nNT = 27t x 250 x 72.38 = 1895W
'60
60
Also
T = I a, where a isangular acceleration.
72.38 = 6.5 x a or a = 11.135 rad/secWe also know that,
(J)
= I =
11.135
11.135
..
t
fltLlS
he full speed
oe energy lost
(P) I/J
A
IS
21t X 250
60xt
11.135
==
attained by the.
In slipping
r I::: 2JS
of the I
C utch:
.~
.35 seconds
.
== (1)1 ::: ~
60
== 61.52 rad
==
(1)0 1 + 2"
== 0
sec Ana
machine in 2
10.17
XI:::
60
2.35
a. 12
2W 2
=
1t
(r I  r2)
1507.96
1t [(100 x 103)2(60 x W3)2]
[r: r~]
J.L
2
W . 3' r:  r~
== 2 x OJ x 1507.96xj'
T
Pow
IS
. n by
give
2nNl
:::
:::
t9J4
::: 1934 W
_(0.06t]
(0.1)2(0.06)2
== 73.89 Nm
p ==  60
2n x 25~
~Wer tr~ .
po~ansmitted
with unifonn wear_
er transmitted with unifonn pressure
2 [{g.lf
10.18
Design o/Transmiss;
I Example
10.8
mass 500 kg and radius of gyration 200 mm to t~e fuJI speed of 250 r.p.1II./ro", r
through a sillgle dutch of internal and exlernal radII 125 mm and 200 mm, laking
'!It
and the sprillg force as 600 N. Assume Ihat only one side of clutch Is ejJectivt!.
/l a.r O.J
Given Data:
0.125 m;
m = 500 kg;
'2
125 mm
200 mm
0.2 m;
'1
J.l = 0.3 ;
W = 600 N ;
=
n
200 mm
=
=
250 r.p.rn. ;
0.2 m;
I.
T = I a
('. +'2)
= la
125
I x 0.3 x 600 (0.2 +2. )
or
Angular acceleration,
We know that,
aa
20 xa
= 1.4625 rad/sec
Angular speed
(J)
a t or t
(J)
= 
1.
t = (27tN)
60
= (27t x 250)
xa
1
x 1.4625
60
= 17.9seconds Ans."
I Example
10.9 , A multiplate clutch has three pairs of contact sutfaces. The older and
inner radii of the contact sutftices are 100 mm and 50 mm respectively. The axial spring
force is limited to 1kN. Assuming uniform wear, find the power transmitted al1500 r.p.IIL
Take II = 0.35.
Given Data:
n = 3;
W = I kN
e Solution:
'1
100 mm
1000 N;
=
N
0.1 m;
'2
= 50 mm =
1500 r.p.m.;
50 x 103 m ;
J.1= 0.35.
('1 + '2)
2
= 78.75 Nm
power transmitted,
1500 x 78.75
~7t X
't
60
:: 12.37 kW
Alii. ~
,L
en trans",.
,,1 o//riction f~r the friction sU1:facesis o. tis 55 Ie", of POHle, III 1&
c,e/ftcJe kN/"r. The Internal radius is 80
1. Axial /nleIUJ#o' III
00 '.p.1II.
...Jill 60
mIll and is 0. 7 .
"J
P'esslUe is t
f}P"~_ltLr 0/plates needed to transmit the refJu. d
tlllleslite exte,nal
no. to
,1J1P'., lre, torque.
raulllS.F",d
;t 'h't" Datil:
P = 55 k W = 55 x 1()3 W; NG
p
=) 60 kN/m2
_ 16
 1800 r.p.m.;
== O.J "
max
0 X J()3 N/m2 ,
,..
,,,I'
II
1'2
80 mm = 80 x 103 m .
1'2 == 0.71',
@Solulion:
1'2 = 0.71',
or
r,
"
"
1'2
or ; == 0.7
80 x 103
0.7
=0.JJ43m
1'2
= 0.7
'2
or  == 0 7
..
Then,
1'2)
Pmax . r2 = C or C
= 160 x
1()3 x 80 x 103
12800 N/m
2758.57 N
T=f.LW
_ 0.1 x 2758.57 x
{O.J J 43 + 0.081
2
.:
Torque required per surface, T = 26.8 Nm
The total
I d as given below.
torque required can be calcu ate
2nNl
power, P ==  60
2n x 1800 xl
55 x 103 == 
60
1~~
~~
_!.0.20
or
__
_D~~ig~n_O~if_n_r_a_m_m~U~~~funs
~
T 
291.78 Nm
2i~~;8
=
'" (10.10)
10.887 ~ 11
'" (10.11)
= 11 + I = 12 surfaces
Hence, there wiD be 12 total plates, in which driving and driven shafts having Jix
plates each. Ans. ~
I Example
10.11
I A multidisc
clutch has three discs on the driving shaft and two 0"
the driven shaft is to be designed for a machine tool, driven by an electric motor of 22 kW
running at 1440 r.p.m: The inside diameter of the contact surface is 130 nun. The
maximum pressure between the surfaces is limited to 0.1 Nlmm2. Design the dutch. Take
J.l = 0.3 ; n I = 3 ; n2 = 2.
r2
1440 r.p.m.;
d2 = 130 rnrn or
To find: Design the clutch (i.e., determine the outside diameter of disc, total number of
discs, and clamping force).
P x 60
21tN
T x ks
k, +~+~
0.5
k.
~
= 1.25
22 x 103 x 60
2 x 1t x 1440 = 145.89 Nm
+k4
k3 = 0.38
k4
Ks
= 21tx 6500 (,
65

x 10
.. , (i)
r~
~
2 J
"forque
transmitted, [TJ
n".
W (~
;3) ..
==
(I'
_!
+00
65)
2 .
T,
T, in equation
(0, we get
3315.45 N
ADS. ~
r, = 75 mm =
P = 7.5kW
@Solution:
75 x I cr3 m;
= 7.5
d2 = 100 mm or
JoJ W; N
'2
= 50 mm = 50 x 103m ;
0.1.
n = np  I = 6  J = 5
21tNT
P = 60
21t x 900 x T
7.5 x J03 =
60
Total 1hctlon
'.
. d, T = 79.57 Nrn
torque to be rransmitte
Smceno assumption is given, we assume UnJifCrrn wear.
+ '2)
T J!' W x
2
(75 x 103 + 50 x JO~
Or
(I',
79.57
O.J x W x
1273J N
10.22
0"
the driven shaft The outside diameter o/the contact sutfaces is 240 nun and ilUitk
diameter is 120 mm. Assume uniform wear coefficiem offriction as 0.3, find the I1IIVcintIUlr
axial intensity of pressure between the discs/or transmitting 25 kW at 1575 r.p.m.
Given Data:
n, = 3;
n2 = 2;
r,
d, = 240mmor
= J20mm=O.12m;
d2 = 120 mm or r2 = 60 mm = 60 x 103 m;
e Solution:
= 0.3;
P = 25 kW = 25 x ] ()3 W;
Number of pairs of contact surfaces,
n = n, + n2 ] = 3 + 2  1 = 4
J.L
Power transmitted, P
25
N = J775 r.p.m.
21tNT
60
60
T = 151.6 Nm
For unifonn wear, torque transmitted is given by
T =
151.6 =
or
11
f.I
r' ; J
'2
4xO.1 x Wx (0.12;0.06)
1404 N
W = 21t x Pmax X r (r
2 l
]404
Pmax =
r2)
62 kN/m2
Ans. "
~~::::~~
JI~O~.2~3
Clutch pedal
Driven shaft
SprIngs
'
Driven
consider a pair of friction surface as shown in Fig.l O.S(b). Fig.l O.S(c) shows a small
elementalring of radius r and thickness dr.
Cone surface
dr
(d)
(c)
(b)
Fig. 10.5.
Let
r)
r2
...:.1~O~.2~4
D__u~~~n_o~if~Tro~mus
~S}'.Jt
rl
+ r2
2
'
sin
or x = dr cosec a
Ct.
The design of conical clutch is done based on anyone of the following a.ssumptions.
(i) When there is a uniform pressure, and
(ii) When there is a uniform wear.
27tr dr  cosec a
Pn
27tPn . r . dr
f'. 27trdrP
W=
'2
W =
or
Pn
[ r2 ] r.
27tPn 2" r2
, [2r.
[y2 _y2 ]
= 27tPn
r2 2 ]
W
2
7t[r 1
... (10.12)
r2 ]
27tr cosec a dr
102S
'1
..
'
27tJ.l . P
"2
to
~ 2ltll' p.'
" . COsec
a.
coseca[ t
_ 2 7t1l.p.
,.. "COsec a
[,11'21]2
~~w
r . dr
3
t~~
[r~~ ri
1 x cosec a
T  ~ J.1 w . cosec a
[r~  r} ]
T = 2ltll x
It
[ r! ~ ri ]
... (10.13)
rl'2
or
[
or
where
J..l W . R cosec a
TR
3'
[rI3r23]rl
rl2 _
I
Mean radius of the friction plate
at
radius r.
== p, 21U . dr
== C x 2rcr . dr == 21t C . dr
r
[.,' p,
= ;]
f 2ltC . dr
'1
W =
= 2lt C [ r 1'2
w _
or
C ==
The fro .
iven by
Ictaonaiforce acting on the f1ng IS gr'
dr . cosec a
F = 11. IiW. = 11' p.: 2lt
r
.. , (10.14)
.1~O=.2~6
D_u~~~n~o~if~Tr~a~~~m
.
la!la"
21tJ.1 . C cosec a x r . dr
C
r
T =
f 21tJ.1 C .
cosec a .r . dr
r2
= 21tJ.1 C . cosec
[ r~2 r; ]
T = 1"
INote)
x cosec a
R =
rl + r2
[r12 rl]
2
'1;'2 ]
cosec a [
J.1. W . R . cosec a
or
where
_ r2)
'" (10.15)
or
WI!
We
... (10.16)
Wd
=0
WIt (I  II cot a)
... (10.17)
is inversely proportional
should be as small as possible. But when a is less than the angle of static friction (+), the
To avoid selfengagement
a >
tarr '
(J.1)
J{!
. .
J/'
the cO
, e get
tan1 (0.2)
a >
f~iflg
~hesemicone angle
IS
Or a::> I I 30
as 12
taken
fore, .'
.5 .
1f!ete
/0.14 Determine the axial fi
Ie
orce re .
t.t:d, 25 k1J' ofpower at 750 rp.m: Average n ~'lIred to ellgage a
:Jf,IIg Ie 100 and coefficient of friction 025.fi ctloll diameter of th
COileclutch
('(Jllt an,
. .
e COileis 400
Data:
P == 25 k W = 25 x 103 W .
mm,
t6iVtll
d == 400 mrn
or
.
power transmitted,
@ solullon :
200
r:::
p:::
N::: 750
'
mm ::: 02
_2nNT'
rPm.;
.
m ; a:::: 100;
J.L ::::
60
0.25.
25 x 103 == 2n x 750 x T
60
T = 3 18.3 I Nm
or
Nonnal load acting on friction surface can be obtained by
T
or
==
J.!' Wn
==
==
11r
318.31
We == W n (sin a
==
IExample10.15
J.!
Pn = 14 x 104 N/m2;
0.25;
==
= 700 r.p.m,
To
rrPn(rl
2)
x 14x 104[(0.150)2(0.125)2]
==
r2
3023.78 N Ans.
1t
"'61
wer transmitted:
rque, T == 2
3
II
r
3
3 ]
'1 '2
W
[
,2 _,2
1
cosec a.
304.73 Nm
::::
D~u~~~n~O~if~ff~Q~~~m~;.
'
1_O_.2_8
...$,o" S
Power transmitted,
=
=
27t NT
60
27t x 700
304.73
60
22.34 kW Ans. ~
the mean radius is 150 kNI",z. The coefficient of friction is 0.3. Calculate the width lit lit
oJ 'ltf
contact surface. Also find the axial force to engage the clutch.
Given Data:
= 350 Nm;
Pn = ISO kN/m2
a = 15;
@ Solution:
= ISO x
t()3 N/m2;
m .,
f.1 = OJ.
Torque transmitted,
or
J.l' W n . R
350
Wn
0.3xWnxO.15
7778 N
or
7778
Face width, b
=
=
I Example
10.17
I A leather faced
= 4.267 kN
Ans."
intensity of pressure between the contact surface is not to exceed 6 x 1(J4Nlm2 and the
breadth of the conical surface is not to be greater than 113 of the mean radius if p = 0.20
and the clutch transmits 37 kW at 2000 r.p.m: Find the dimensions of contact surface.
Given Data:
Pn = 6 x 104 N/m2
= 30;
b = 3
J.l = 0.2 ;
 37 kW = 37 x 103 W;
= 2000
r.p.m.
R
21tN T
60
37 x 103
21t x 2000 x T
60
Fig. 10.6.
T == 176.66 Nm
Assuming servIce factor, ks == 2.5,
of
441.65
. x6x l04xR2(E)_
Fsccw
3  25132.74 R3
R
m or 259.98 mm
h ==  _ ~25998
3 3 
== 0.25998
== 0.08666 m or 86.66 mm
==
or
'2
'2
== 0.02242
Mean radius, R ==
and
sin a
m
... (i)
r +'2
2
= 0.25998 m
r +'2 == 0.5199m
or
... (ii)
01
~1Ja1 to th
'
(i) Outer and inner diameters of the plate (d, and d2), and
lO/l"d.,
b   2
= 600 r.p.m. ;
= R' Jl = 0.25.
":
.'
h t face width b is
late' It IS gIVen t a
.
..
~ekn
Ow that ,
h 
sin a
. s problem]
[Refer prevlOU
.~~
_!OJO
_;:::.=::.....::...:...::.:..:::
'1 '2
So,
sin
'1 + '2
'1 '2
'1 =
or
to
sin a
Mean radius, R =
and
"Slon
'1  '2
b =
or
~;
1.296 '2
21tNT
60
P 
21t x 600 x T
60
10 x 103 =
T = 159Nm
or
T x ks
159 x 2.5
397.5 Nm
Pmax
'2 =
Torque transmitted, T
= ~W
. cosec
(l
[71 ; 72 ]
Then,
or
or
1 cosec
(l
[71 ; 72 ]
J..L
397.5
397.5
2.062 x 105
=
=
0.1244 m or 124.4 mm
=
=
1.296'2
Inner diameter
and
72 (71  72)
[T]
'2
or
= ~ [2n Pm ax X
Outer diameter
,~
322.6 mm
1.296 x 0.1244
0.1613 m or 161.3 mm
Ans."
=
=
= 1561 N
ADS.
e
10.19
,
The semicone
angle of
Ie'.
a Cone clutch .
~
",ean diameter of 80 1111n. CO'I"I:
IS 12.$0 Il d
/laJ'ea
J
e.,JIClento/fi .
II the COlltllCt
jpS
'I! required to proauce slipping of th ,I
I'lction is 0.32, DJ
/orqll<
e c,ulch /01' an'
. "'/rat is tile
.~i1IJJIII .1. is used to connect an electric 1110101' 'h
OXlal/ol'ce0/200 N ?
r e clutell
I
WII. a stalio
tth u..1 to attain the fU,'/ speed and the enel'gy losl '" . naryflY",heel, ",IIat' ,L
etle
.1'
uUl'lngsli" .
IS tne
:.til. !Ie
dthe
moment
oJ
Inertia
of
the
flywheel
is
0.
~
k
.,JPIIIK
r
Motol'SfJeet'.
,. ",. all
., g_"';'
r
IS
,r
,lAf,p'
12 50.
a 
D  80
mm or R::::40
mm :::: 40 x 103 .
Jl  0.32;
W = 200 N; N:::: 900
m,
. .
.
r.p.m.; I:::: 0.4 kgm2
(i)
MInimum
torque
reqUired
to
produce
slippin
fth
10flIId
g 0 e clutch
(ii) Time needed to attain the full speed, and
'
(iii) Energy lost during slipping.
T or
T 
11.828Nm Ans."
We know that,
or
I a
11.828
0.4 x ex
29.57 rad/s2
a 
co
= a
I 
or
co _
=~ 
(27rN)
60
21t x 900).
_j_ = 31.187
60
x 29.57
ADS.
e
== 300.4 rad
Angle t
coo' I
I
7 x (3. I 871
1 2 _ 0 +  x 29.5
 al 2
+2
150.2 rad
e ) ::::'11.828
T (e,  2
_ 1777 NIP
AdS. ~
(300.4 _ 150.2)
Design of r,.al7SlI1'
10.32
,
13Sl0'J
10.10. CENTRIFUGAL
CLUTCH
Pulley
Brake lining
oriven
'\
Spring
J

VI/~
J
,
\_
Driven shaft
Cover
,\\,I:~'1
The shoes are mounted radially and springs keep them away from inner rim of the pulley,
Shoes have some mass. As the speed of the driving shaft rises, the centrifugal forceonthe
shoes increases causing them to move radially outward within the guides provided.
When the centrifugal force is less than the spring force, brake lining cannot makeany
contact with the pulley rim. But when the centrifugal force is equal to the spring force,the
shoe is just floating. When the centrifugal force just exceeds the spring force, the shoemoves
outward and comes into contact with the driven member and presses against it to transmitthe
torque.
10.10.1. Design of a Centrifugal
Clutch
n = Number of shoes,
=
R =
r =
N =
m
(0
(01
Jl
2:ON,
'1
I
Fig. 10.8.
I  R
From Fig.l 0.8 ,
rea of contact of the shoe. A '"
Net force acting on the shoe '"
/. b
Fe  Fs '" A xp lne'" /. b' P
r:=IS
From tho expression, the width of the shoes (b) can be oblll. h d . 11l ricJiDn.1S kg tJIId
~/e
1
I
h eOC hlJ1l g a tJIIISS OJ
"'u,U. 0.20 A centrifugal clldch hUSfour s oes
of thef
.urflJt 411
is
:~...... ;,ntre of gravity at a radiUS of 60"''''' The dwn;tt;:OO r.PO""/)eIe,.",;nethl
10
"" _.. e cllllch is to trans",it 6 kif' pOHIer ttl II speed of",. 11 Is gf{1llUJlity ;ncrt/lS
fro
leh lit
eed of rot...
J~
_'<II
ust be exerted bv each spring. I/ the sp
, rake p'" 0. ,
/11 w6
J
",it torque
at speed will the clutch begins to trll'~
_~~
_!_O.34
~=~~J~~i~~
~
'}}':Ie
Give" Data:'
Toji"d:
_ 5kg
m 
= 4
r = 60mm
60x IO3m
R = 75 rnm = 75 x 103 m;
D = ISO mrn or
p = 6 kW = 6 x 103 W ; N = 1000 r.p.m.;
.) Force exerted by each spring, Fs,
J.l == 0.35
and
(I
We know that,
6 x 103
T =
or
2ltN T
60
2lt
1000 x T
60
57.29Nm
57.29
Centrifugal force, Fe =
545.67 N
m (1)2 r
5x (
2lt x 1000)2
60
x 60 x 103
3289.9 N
Fs
or
545.67
Fe545.67
= 3289.9545.67
= 2744.1N Aas.~
When m (2:~
i.e.,
r = Fs = 2744.2
5 x 4 x lt2 x N2 x 60 x 103
3600
or
I Example
= 2744.2
N 
10.21
I A centrifugal
913.31 r.p.m,
Ans. ~
four in number. The speed at which the engagement begins is .yJh of the rU/lnings~
lie
The inside radius of the pulley rim is 150 mm and the centre of gravity of the shoe.
120 mm from the centre 0/ the spider. The shoes are lined with Ferrodo f01
wit,,"
0"
e
roJi"d:
r :::: 12
= 60;
Angular speed,
(0
= 27tN
==
27t x 900
60
60
== 94.26
rad/s
power transmitted,
15 x 103
T =
or
27tNT
60
2x 900 x T
60
159Nm
(02
Springforce on each shoe, i.e., the centrifugal force at the engagementspeed (I)"
Fs
m (O1}2 r
m (70.7)2 0.12
600 m N
Jl(FeF )
s
= 0.25 (1066m600m)
= 116.5mN
T 159 _
Or
m 
nFB
4 x 116.5 m x 0.15 = 70 m
2.27 kg Ans. ~
1! rad
600 :::: 60 x 180  3
. f hoe
ContactradiUS 0 S
db the shoe x
Angle subtende Y
'It
15 :::::0.1571 m
'It
e
I 
e. R ::::3' x o.
D_u_,~gn~Of~TJ~ra~~..~
II'O~.~36~

I.f& 10"
We
Fe  Fs =
know that,
I Example
"""
~Ie~
l b P
6
1066 m  600 m = {).1571 x b x 0.1 x 10
466m = 466 }(2.27 = 0.1571 x b
or
0.1
106
onsUUn
spider carrying four shoes which are kept from contact wIth the clutch case by , 0/ Q
flat springs until increase of centrifugal force overcomes the resistance of the! ~Q1tt Of
the power is transmitted byfriction between the shoes and the case.
rp"ng, lIIfd
Determine the necessary mass of each shoe if 22.5 kW is to be transmitted
with engagement beginning at 75% of the running speed The inside d!n_* III 750,.p.""
.
,ac,e, Of th
IS 300 mm and the radial resistance of the centre of gravity of each shoe from th
e tit".,
is 125 mm. Assume IJ = 0.25.
e ShaftIltir
Given Data:
n = 4;
N
= 750 r.p.m. ;
= 300 mm or
Tofind:
22.5 kW
22.5 x 103 W ,.
N I = 75% N or COl
= 75% co;
R = 150 mm = 0.15 m ,
.
@Solution :
Given that,
(1)
(1)1
Power transmitted , P
22.5 x 103
= 27tN
60
27t x 750
60
= 78.54 rad/s
= 58.91 rad/s
= 27tN T
60
= 27t x 750 x T
60
or
286.48 Nm
Centrifugal force acting on each shoe ,
T
Fe =
m co2r
m (78.54)2
0.125
771.06 m N
Spring force on each shoe i e th
.
given by
, . ., e centnfugal force at the engagement speed
=
433.79 m N
.
(I), 15
r
'lfl":,
~I
tsl torq
.
by
ue transm itte d' IS given
8~II~eto
10.37
n F . R
5.66 kg Ans. ~
or
INff~
.
.
implies, the Internal expanding rim clutch tra
.
'(5 name
hown i F'
nsmus
torque due to the
AS I
. t rnal rim, as sown
m Ig.I0.9.
'00 of 10 e
!~f1.
~Sl
Three ele'" .
. .
I theroating friction surface,
I_
the means of transmitting the torque to and from the surfaces, and
I the actuating mechanism.
Design o/Transm;
_~~
~.:!.....:...:...::.:.:
_!O.38
.
$$10"
,
S
. ..
.
mechanism,
Depending upon the operatmg
.
I
the mterna expanding
rim clutche
S
are
classified as
(i) Expandingring clutch,
(ii) Centrifugal clutch,
(iii) Magnetic clutch, and
(iv) Hydraulic and pneumatic clutches.
(i) Expandingring clutclles :
./ They are mostly used in textile machi~~ry, excavators,
the clutch may be located within the driving pulley .
./
./'
./
./
systems .
./
./'
members
or to providethe
./'
In these clutches, the fluid flow can be controlled remotely using solenoid valves.
INo'~lln the arrangement shown in Fig.lO.9, if the external rim is fixed then the devicefunctions
as a internal expanding rim brake. For force analysis and other details, refer Chapter II.
~I'!
CJ~/&
1Z
~~R
~w
10.12.1.
(i) solenoids,
(ii) Levers, linkages, or toggle devices,
10.12.2. Working
From Fig.10.10, it is understood that the
externalrim is rigidly bolted with the outer
casing. Whenever the compressed air is fed into
theflexibletube, the external rim contracts (i.e.,
theflexible tube expands internally because it
cannot expand externally). This contraction of
external rim provides the required clamping
force. Thus the driving and driven members are
engaged. In order to disengage these members,
~e pressureof the compressed air is regulated by
asuitable control mechanism.
~
asan ext
In the arrangement shown in Fig.1 0.1 0, if the internal rim is fixed,thenthe devicefunctions
. d h d tails referChapter 11.
emal contracting rim brake. For force analYSISan ot er e ,
\Vh
n
OpPo .e one solid body slides over another, most of the wor C nsequently the temperature
SlOg th
.
t the interface. 0
h
oftl._
II~O~.4~O
_;:
~D~e~s~~nofn
rans ..., ~;
""SS'
/'
/o"S
./
./
:Yll~
err~
./
In nonmetallic or semimetallic
excessive wear.
'
can ~St
./
./
./
twOfOe'
nij
Shaft 2
6_f_:ngin~iLH~F~~~+6
.
W1
11
12
(1)2
Clutch
Let
IJ and
wJ
12 and
and
respectively.
We know that when the clutch plates are brought in contact some slippage occursbetw~
them before the speeds of driving and driven shafts become equal. The kinetic energywill~
absorbed in work by friction during the clutching operation. The design of the clutchsyst~m
.
t muchn~
should be such that the energy thus absorbed must dissipate fast so that there IS no .' "
.
fri ti n IImng, tti
m temperature. The uncontrolled rise in temperature may cause damage to nc 10
desired to calculate the total energy which will cause the temperature rise.
oue 10
It is assumed that the two shafts are rigid and that the clutch torque is constant.
clutching operation, the shaft I is decelerated
d28
II . dt2 =  T
[~l
,J)
T'
,
~.
011 the
as
d2
isgi~.o
10.41
.
equatIon of motion
9
12 . dt2
or
dt2
de,
dl
1
T
I,
'"
(ii)
de,
But at
C =
I:::: 0,
del
dt
dl = co,
T

+ co I
.I
II
... (iii)
... (iv)
dt
de
dt
dl  dl
= (~~
=
de2
x 1+
01,  002
001)  (~
('III ~ :: )
x I+ ~ )
I
..,(10.20)
. Tillierequired for complete operation {tJ: The clutching operation is completed at the
Instant in w hiich the two angular velocities
~t
Then
COl
and
become equal.
. operation
.
I, = Time required for the entire
0)
= 0 when
(1),
(1)2
... (10.21)
T (I, + 12)
The abo
. ed . th gagement operation is directly
PrOpo.
ve equation shows that the time reqUlr tor e eo
rtlonal to the velocity difference and inversely proportional to the torque.
,
IIO~.~42~~D~~~~n~~Q
~
11.tltli!!iO
,')
de
T (I + I'
(00)002)dl~
~
JI
1)'12
"d,
or
Substituting the value of
I) .
=
we get
I),
12 (00)  (02)2
T(I)+12)
or
'" (10.22)
E
or
IS glven~
.
Te
I) .12
1
2 x
(00)  (02)2
(I) + '2)
'" (\0,23)
The above equation indicates that energy dissipated is independent of clutch torquebm
directly proportional to square of the difference of the angular velocities of drivinganddriven
shafts at the start of clutching.
10.14. TEMPERATURE
RISE
The temperature rise of the clutch can be calculated by using the relation
I aT
where
= {;
.1T = Temperature
.. , (\0.24)
rise in "C,
and
h
hen a clute
The above temperaturerise equation can be used to explain what happens W
vera!
.
'
.
ffi
t due to se
b
k
or ra e rs operated. Yet the actual situation may be very much d) eren
variables being involved.
'~l~,
entl
The clutch heated to a temperature T I cools to an ambient temperature T a expOn
as shown in Fig.l 0.12.
l~'~t
..
T,
. ....
'
AT
1
.
2Te",peraturetlmerelationshipfor
a

l.
c utch aJi~r ill h
second clutchmg operation after time I wh
C tc Ing 0P~'1lI1011.I
.
B en I~"'p~ralur~ rtJ
rott1t [11I~ S"OtffJ
(""I 0.1.
f,&'
TIme (I)
.
f I
'
IUIC~d 10 T"
T
this figure, time 0 c utchmg (I) is ve
'
J
'
t
Hrf
A
In
.'
ry small so the tem
.
. ntaneous I.e., at time lA' temperature rises f
T
perature nse is shoUhO>.
instB
rom D. to T .
..."
rature
drops
along
the
curve
ABC
unless
interne
t
d
b
,Instantaneously.
Then
the
pe
tern
"
P e y another clut h'
.
second operation occurs at time I B' then the temperat
'1"
c tng operation. If
a
ure WI nse to T2 as shown in dotted
line.
1D,15.ENERGY DISSIPATION
ONLY IS CONSIDERED
In the preceding section, the energy dissipated from the clutch is calculated by considering
ilie moment of inertias of both driving and driven machines (i.e., I, and '2)' The problem
recomesrelatively simpler if moment of inertia of driving side is not considered. For this
condition,
the following relations can be used.
12 . (1),
Time required
Energy dissipated
for completing
clutching operation,
I, =
. cute
I hi109, E
in the form of heat during
= 2I I2
I
.,
haft during
by the d nvmg s
2
(1)
.. , (1016)
I
2
(I) I
e = 2 12 . T
." (10.27)
d ;ves a ",achin~IhrouK", a
r;;. at 350 r.p."" r
tis
L!:a"'ple 10.23 An electric motor rotatmg
h is engaged illakes J stcO_n
p/tue l
. Wilen the clute
If 'nerlia 0/ drIven
(. C UlchWhose both sides are effectIve.
The ",olllenl OJ I
Also
,0, th
d of ",olor.
d its power.
e driven mae/line to attain the spee
" d bv Ihe ",olor an
"och'
prouuee ;,
COIc lilt is 4.5 kgm2. Calculate the torque
llIQ1e
the energy dissipated by the clutell.
21t 1350) _ 36 65 radls; II ::::J sec ;
_~
==~60
 .
Gille" D
ata , N I  350 r.p.m.; WI  60
Where
tati
II'
... (10.25)
12 
4.5 kgm2.
~~~~
De.rigno/r,UIU'
~44
Tojind:
...,
'"
@Solulion:
(i) Torque produced by II,e molor ('T) :.
.
.
uired for completmg the clutching Operation (
We know that the time req
COns~.
only 12),
... [using eqUation(I
12 0>1
or
Torque, T
II
0.2~)1,
4.5 x 36.65
3
Tx
(iJ)
0>
E.
= '2
=
'21
120>.
I Example
Ilf
10.24
in example 10.23, the moment ~/ inertia of electric motor is U
kgm2, calculate the same quantities, assuming that driving tr'flChine startsfrom mt II'm
clutch is engaged and takes 1.B sec to anain motor speed. Also compare Ihe t~
dissipated in two cases.
Given Data:
II =
@Solution :
(i) Torque produced by the motor (7) : We know that the time required for completi",
the clutching operation (considering both J I and 12),
I = I . 12 (co I  CO2)
.I
T (II + 12)
0>2 =
O.
[from equation(IO.211]
1.8
Torque,
T 
rI
r developed (P) :
~) for;t h t
power,
Wekf1
Q1
owt a
= T x (co.  co2)
ADs.~
E2 ~
_! x
2
I. 12 (co.  co2)2
(I. + 12)
..
(M Comparison:
E.
~
3022.25
= 717.14
It shoWSthat the moment of inertia of the driving machine heJps to reduce the energy
dissipation
and hence rise in temperature.
REVIEW AND SUMMARY
I
, Atthe beginning of this chapter, functions and principle of operation of the clutch are
presented
, The threeimportant types offriction clutches i.e., disc or plate clutches, cone clutches
and centrifugal clutches are discussed, in detail.
Single PlateClutch :
T
f.i
f.i.WR
= Coefficient offriction,
_! [ r/r/]
 3 r/rl
r, + r2
[Considering uniformpressure)
[Considering uniform wear}
2
I ...J,'uso'jriction surface, and
r,  Externa raa. 'J
r 2 = Internal radius offriction sur/ace.
Design o/r,aru",#&
~1~O_'4_6
~
Multiplat~ Clutch:
, ,
./
itted on the multiple plate clutch IS given by
Toi'qtletransmt
T = n J.l . W ,R
where n = Number of pair of contact surfaces == n +
n I = Number of discs on the driving shaft. ~
"2  J
n1 = Number of discs on the driven shaft,
./
./
,
Number offriction surfaces required
./
[rlrl]
r/ri
('J; '1)
Centrifugal Clutch:
Tofind mass of the shoe:
(i)
where F
Number of shoes.
Centrifugal force on each shoe.
Spring force exerted by each spring on theshoe,
I
I
I
I
1 ~:.~~__
II
fO
ft
10,41

Fe  Fs  I b .p
where
"
operation,
'I
1(1/+1,)
E =
1x
2
1x
I
I
,I
fIJi
11 .12((8/ 
((J)/  (l)J)2
T (II + I:;)
T(II + I:;)
. t/
, , limerequiredfior comp I'eting cIutc hitng operouon,
'I
~'
'
I] . (1)/
T
1
:/
1/ . I]
'2 I] . T
LJT =
em
Mass
0/ the clutch.
.iIIi
Design a/T"ans",. .
10.48
!Ie~
REVIEW QUESTIONS
I.
2.
3.
4.
5.
Explain with a neat sketch the working of a single plate clutch. Derive an eq
6.
uatlon fI
~
Describe with a neat sketch a multiplate clutch and explain how the number of J
P ales art
8.
Show that the torque transmitted in case of a cone clutch is given by,
T
9.
2
3 Il W . cosec a
[rI3r23J
2
2
rl
=r:
Explain with a neat sketch the working of a centrifugal clutch. Deduce an expressi~n f~
the total torque transmitted.
rim clutches.
rim clutches.
14. While designing a clutch, energy dissipation during clutching should be considered.
Why?
15. What are the effects of temperature rise in clutches?
16. Deduce an expression for energy dissipated during clutching operation.
17. Write short notes on 'temperature
rise'.
300:
the:~ ;
to.,
".
lOt
~. A multiplate clutch has six plates each of outer and inner diameters of 150 mm and 100
I
mmrespectively. Assuming Jl = 0.3 and uniform intensity of pressure of30 x J()4 N/m2,
determinethe power transmitted at 1200 r.p.m.
fAns: 46.88 kW]
11. A mUltipledisc clutch has 5 plates having four active frictional surfaces. Determine the
axialintensity of pressure between the discs transmitting 37.3 kW at 500 r.p.m. The
I .
...
.
75
d 125 mm respectively. Assu.ne
lOnerand outer radii of friction surface are
mm an
2
unl'~onn
d
rAns: 25.3 x J ()4 N/m ]
,
It
wear an 1.1 = 0.3.
t
r.
.
.
2 kW at 3000 r.p.m. The plates
A multJplate friction clutch is required to transmit 89.5
."
The coefficient of
,I are I
d they run In or .
a temately of steel and phosphor bronze an
. 0 8 times the radius of the
I &icti .
fro ti surface IS
on IS 0.08. The internal radius of the IC on
JI\.f N/m2. If the maximum
e~ I
. I' 't d to 20 x U"
be f
d:'''''na surface. The axial pressure IS nm e
250 mm d.:termine the num r 0
laJneterof the frictional surfaces is not to exceed'
fAns: JOJ
! Plates reqUired.
I'
0" COile
dutch:
.01. The
seOlicone angle !s
e bearing surface rs
~COni '.
. 90 kW at J500 r.p
200 cal fr,ction clutch is used to transmit th mean diameter of thti d the dimensions
2
3iS and the COefficient of frictic!~ is 0.2. If e eed 0.25 N/mm , '"
QlIn
not to exc
Ofthe
~d the intensity of pressure IS. load required.
785 mm ; 5045 NJ
COnIcal bearing surface and the ax.al
fAns: J 96.5 mm; J
10.50
Design o/TI'QlUI1J'
"'8;011 S
~I~
)O. A leather faced conical clutch has a cone angle of 30. If the intensity f
between the contact surfaces is limited to 0.35 N/mm2 and the breadth 0 Ptes
surface is not to exceed onethird of the mean radius, find the dimensio of the Coo~t
.
ns Ofth ~
surfaces to transmit 22.5 kW at 2000 r.p.m. Assume Uniform rate of w e ~
coefficient of friction as 0.15.
[Ans: 103.27 Inrn~9 8fId take
.
di
, 4.73
II. Power is transmitted by a cone clutch of mean rameter 200 mrn, face width
111m]
clutch angle of 15 (semicone angie). The coefficient of friction == 0.25
Illlll, 8IId
2
pressure on the cone is not to exceed 20 x ) ()4 N/m Calculate the In!!!':' e n0llna!
.
h
. I Co
OCJ\lmulll
transmitted at 750 r.p.m. Also determme t e axia rorce required to hold
~er
Assume uniform pressure.
[Ans: 17.15 kW~e CIIitch.
12. A cone clutch with cone angle 20 is to transmit 7.5 kW at 750 r.p.m. Th .78 kN]
intensity of pressure between the contact faces is not to exceed 0.12 Nt e ~onnal
th
coefficient of friction is 0.2. If face width is 1/5 of mean diameter, find (i)~~ . ~
dimensions of the clutch, and (ii) Axial force required while running.
e main
[Ans: b = 46.8 mm ; r, = 125 mm ; r2 = 109 rnm . 139
ri
S N]
14. A centrifugal clutch has four shoes which slide radially in a spider keyed to thedriving
shaft and make contact with the internal cylindrical surface of a rim keyed to thedriven
shaft. When the clutch is at rest, each shoe is pulled against a stop by a springso as to
leave a radial clearance of 5 mm between the shoe and the rim. The pull exertedby the
spring is then 500 N. The mass centre of the shoe is 160 mm from the axis of theclutch.
If the internal diameter of the rim is 400 mm, the mass of each shoe is 8 kg, the stiffness
of each spring is 50 N/mm and the J.L is 0.3; then find the power transmitted by theclutch
at 500 r.p.m.
[Ans: 36.1 kW]
Problems on energy dissipation in clutches :
15. An electric motor rotating at 300 r.p.m. drives a machine through a plate whoseboth
sides are effective. When the clutch is engaged it takes 2.6 sec for the driven machi~eto
attain the speed of motor. The moment of inertia of driven machine reduced to dn7n
shaft is 4.78 kgm, Calculate the torque produced by the motor and its power.~;
calculate the energy dissipated from the clutch. [Ans: 57.2 Nm; 1797.22 W ; 2334. late
16. If in the previous problem, the moment of inertia of electric motor is 1.2 kgro2, calc~ine
the same quantities with same properties of clutch lining, assumin~ that drive~~c.AlS(1
starts from rest when clutch is engaged and takes 1.5 sec to attain motor s~
compare the energy dissipated in two cases.
.
4951
. E /~:: .
fAns: 20.05 Nm; 0.63 kW ; 427 J, ,
nJ
o yends up malring
Brakes
the whole ""'~Id blind. .,
INTRODUCTION
 Mullbltil Ga1UIJU
.
~lte is a mechamcal device by means of which mot'
f
.
Br~
Ion 0 a body IS retarded f I.'
Of to bring it to rest, by applying artificial frictional'
. or S owing
down
.
h b ak
reststance. In this process f
lating the motIOn, t ere
absorbs either kinetic
.
0
regu
.'
f'
energy or potential energy In
omobiles, the kinetic energy 0 the moving vehicle is absorbed by th brak I hoi .
aUt
I
I
.
e
e. n oists and
1 ators the potentia
energy re eased by the obiects
during th e brakimg period
" IS absorbed
elev
,
'J
11.1.
The capacity of any brake depends upon the unit pressure between the braking surface, the
coefficientof friction between them, velocity of brake drum, heat dissipation capacity of the
brake, etc.
A dynamometer is a brake incorporating a device to measure the frictional resistance
applied. This is used for measuring
11.1.1.Clutch Vs Brake
The functional difference between a clutch and a brake is that a clutch connects two .
movingmembers of a machine whereas a brake connects a moving member to a stationary
member.That is, if any one of the moving member of a clutch is fixed, then the device
becomesa brake.
11.2.CLASSIFICATION OF BRAKES
2. . Band brake
,
. I b d brake
an
_j
,!~
_!1.2

D_e_S....;::ign=O=if_1i~,.,=ans=m.;.:_l.S:::.::.
sian
8)1
$;L_
Simple
Band
Differential
~
External
Actuation
L'
Short shoe
Mechanical
L.._In_temal
__
Pneumatic &
Hydraulic
....
Leading &
Trailing shoe
Electrical
Two leading
shoes
Drum
0~
~
~
~
Automatic
DuoseNO
Full disk
Caliper disk
Electrically on
Magnetic
Electrically off
3.
4.
S.
.t
(a) RadiIII b,akes : In radial brakes, the force acts radially on the drum.
prpkes ~.
11.3
ffi .
(ii)
Friction modifier:
(v)
(vi) Binders: For holding the ingredients together. Example: Phenolic resins.
2. Semimetallic linings: These linings substitute iron, steel, and graphite for part of the
asbestos and organic components of an organic lining.
J. Metalliclinings: For further details, refer Chapter 10, Section 10.5.
The Table 11.1 shows the materials commonly used for brake lining and their properties,
Table 11.1. Properties of brake lining materillis
,..._
t._
Material
WOOdon metal
Metal on metal
leather on metal
Asbe
J!
Allowable
Max. Temp, c
0.25
0.48
6S
0.25
1.4
315
0.17
65
0.35
0.40
0.34
0.15
2.8
260
260
114
'. BLOC
I . K ~R SHOE BRAKE
d
inst the rim surface of a
h s are presse agal
Otake d ')'pe of brake, one or more blocks Of s oe . bbe compound, cast iron or of any
rum. Th e blocks are made of wo od,as bestos In ru r
Il thiS
h,
Design
11!1~'4~
O/Tri11ls",..
~~~~~~jIOn~~
Tol'e""
j
. .
,
h brake is shown in Fig. 11.2, The friction between the bl
A single block or s oe
.
.
Ock :I" ....
he' tarding of the drum, This type of brake IS cOmmonlyu~
..."'the
brake drum causes t ere,"""
on rail
trains and tram cars.
~
b
Drum
The block is pressed against the drum by a force (F) applied on one end of a lever. The
other end of the lever is pivoted on a fixed fulcrum 0,
Let
RN
F
=
=
=
Radius of drum,
Normal reaction of the block,
Force applied at lever end,
Braking torque.
.. , (i)
= J.1 RN r
RN a
= 0

.. , (ii)
F~~
RN :: F
or
L:
Q
J.lC
... (iii)
'" (iv)
F./.,.
QIlc
'" (JJ.I)
1.51
IflOCking Brake
10app
stI/.JocAbrg bf'{lkL
2. Selfenergizlng Brake
From equation (ii), it is observed that the moment of applied force (F .1) and the moment
of the frictional force (Jl RN . c) about 0 are in the same direction. Thus frictional force
~~) helps in applying brake. This type of brake is known as a seJ/ellergised 1J1'tIke.
'1.5.2.When the Rotation of the Drum Is Antlclockwfse
Consider the anticlock wise rotat ion of brake drum as shown in Fig.llJ.
Normal reacti
and
n f the block, RN
Ta
F ,
a+J.&c
a, F' r
a+J.&c
... (11.2)
Design ofTran
11.6
.
.
Sy!/
INote I
PIIq
fl
29
=
=
4(J<
~
1 Dimensions ol"the block: The dimensions of the block are determined by the rei .
~
RN = p x b x w
where
RN
Normal reaction
0f
"01.4)
t h e bl oc,k
3. Rate of heat generated during the brakin~ a~tion : The rate of heat generated duringthebra!;"
period is equal to the rate of work done by the frictional force.
Illg
:. Rate of heat generated = Frictional force x Average velocity = fl' RN x \I
I Example
J 1.1
'"
(11
.S)
is J 80 mm and the angle of contact is 60 ~ If the operating force of 400 N is applitdat IItt
end of a lever and the coefficient of friction between the drum and the lining is 0.30,
determine
(i)
the torque that may be transmitted by the block brake,
(ii)
the rate of heat generated during the braking action,' when the initialbrake spttd
is 300 r.p.m, and
(iii)
the dimensions of the block if the intensity of pressure between the block
brake drum is 1 Nlmm2. Tile breadth of the block is twice its width.
200mm
250mm
,
I
,
I
'160
400N
mm
Fig. 11.4.
QIId
RAIIJ :
~~'
600 == 60
a ~
Z"
" [IJI :
"
J 80 mm or ,. ::: 90
L
JI.7
~e~
)( 10,1 rn
7t
x J 800
= 3 rad;
N::: 300

J! ::: 0.30;
by th bl
; P ~ 400
r.p,If)' h
=:
2 It'.
e ock shoe
(ii) Rate of heat generated dun b .'
rmg raJung,
(iii) Dimensions of the block.
and
o solution:
a:
~IIIC
4J.! s~n 9
ftJn'
29 + SID 29
7t
0.313
::
3" + sin 60
(0 Torquetransmitted hy the hlock shoe (1) :
Let
= 200
RN x 200
RN
RN = 993.3 N
or
... (i)
0.3 J3 x 993.3
Ta = 27.98 Nm
(ii) Rate of
and
VI
V2
7t toN
vj +
2
V2
= 310.9 N
Il'RN r = 310.9
0.09
ADS. ~
o.!~
7t
2.827 + 0
2
1.414 mls
OJ x 993.3 x 1.414
= 421.36 Nm/s or W Aas."'SJ
(iii) Dilllensions
Let
\II
hand
b
Wet
e know that'
1_
~urVI~nt
respectively.
h b d h d width of the brake shoe
[From equation (I 1.4)J
e rea t an
bxw
., .
RN == P x
_ 2 w2
xw993.3 == 1 x 2 w
Design ofTrans_"
)) 8
~~,~
~~~~~"'~slon
~.
or
I Example
11.2
I The diameter
Ails
....,
rICIIO,,
Determine the required force 10 be applied when the rotation of the drum is ,.
1$
(b) counter clockwise, and the angle of contact (i). 35 ~ and (ii) 100 ~ Gi~e aJ CloCkIV
n Ihal
mm, b = 150 nun and c = 25 mm. Also find the new values of 'c' for self loc . a::::
brake.
Ie'"g Of
a
b
= 800 mm
b= 150mm
c= 25mm
r= 0.5 m
Given Data:
or r
= 0.5 m;
TB ==
!o.o!
TB ==
11 RN r
F . a == 11 RN . C + RN . b
F x 0.8 == 0.32 x 1500 x 0.025 + 1500 x 0.15
F == 296.25 N 'Ans ~
(b) Rotation of drum counter clock . .
:.
Taki
or
Wise.
RN x b == F a + 11" RN . C
1500 x 0 15 == F
.F _
x 0.80 + 0.32 x 1500 x 0.025
 266.25 N Ans. ~
.. , (i)
IIIe 01'
'c' for selflocking of the b k
'J.
ra e :
Ie)fre~
king the externally appl ied force F
I'
If~IOC
'
d
Th
must be
~(l
forse
tion of the
~ise rota
c'f
rum.
us equation (i) c be
zero. This is
.
RN . b == 0 + R an Written as
POssIble for COUnter
. I! N' c
Or bc == b == QJ1
 I!c
I!
"
angle of contact, 2 (}
';1 fhi"
0.32 == 0.469 m
== 469 mm
= 1000.
Ans. "
28 + sin 28
4 x 0.32 x sin 500
1t
Il' RN r
x RN x 0.50
= 1337 N
RN
or
0.359
= 0.359
.., (ii)
F = 235.7 N
ADS. ~
o =
Or
C
''icrio" 0
It
RN' b  Il' RN C
.j
_...QJl
= J.1'
 
0359
.1'
......._
.'
ADS. l'
!IQ___Des~ig.~nO~if~TJ~ra~nsrn
01H ..
ISS1.
_!1I.10
a
d
a = 1.0 m
r = 0.375m
d = 0.375 m
c = 0.05 m
Fig. 11.6.
GivenData:
r
Il
rn ; a
0.375
Toflnd:
0.3;
14.924
].0 m ;
14.924
m;
kW
0.05
x 10
0.375
W ; N = 650 r.p.m;
m.
@) Solution:
Let
RN
Jl RN
= F a + Il RN . c
= F a
RN . d
or
RN (d  Jl c)
or
RN
F'a
dIlc
TB
Il RN r
TB
TB
0.3125 F
14.924 x 103
or
..
TB
Jl'
F'a
dIlc
." (iJ
.. ' (iiJ
27t N TB
60
27t x 650 x TB
60
219.25 Nm
.. (iii)
'
~!
te~
~
(f
frOtfl
11.11
we get
2 I 9 . 25 
eqtJ8Uo
OJ125 F
701.6 N Ans."
ase
'
~rO' .
IS C
I~th
J..l
OJ 75 m
c = OJO x 0.05
s f.l . c' th en
=
force F will be
negative or
0.0015 m
Ans. "tI
pOlJS
ofspring
LeI force.
r ::: Radiu
RNI and
RNl
fl
RNI
and fl RN I
f drum,
N rmal reaction and the braking f ret on the left hand side shoe, and
N ron a I react i
I'
and the brak ing f ret on the right hand side shoe.
RNI'
i)
[)o
ta
Fig. II.
M
I runl
\"e get
"I'
ill
1'1
I
ment
::::: R 2' a
", (ii)
Design ojTransmisSio
11.12
I
.
.....
.. (11.6)
be
IA
2rb sin
'" (11.7)
Ip
". (11.8)
where
INote I
= ~
= 2"
2
(VI 
v2)
4
2" I w2
'" (11.9)
NI
60 x
Er
7txNlxt
". (11.10)
I Example
11.4 J TI.e
block
brake
it"" p
= 3500 N;
d = 350 mm
11.13
Or
.1L 
== 17 S
mm ::::0.175 m .
G 200:::: 120 x 180  2.094 rad , J.l:::: 0.35 ;
p:::: OJ N/mm2.
'
8~ 1
1
(i) Torque absorbed by the brake
"d:
' and
fD ftI
(ii) Width of the brake shoe .
"olu/IO'
@oJ'
~cient 0
f friction
.'
IS
given
(28) is
,~
,therefore th
'
II'
4g sin 0
20 + sin 20
(0 forq
e equivalent
Consider
the left hand side brake shoe:
raking moments about 02' we get
S (25 + 20)  RN2 x 20  F2 (17.5  4)
45 S 
 [0.!~9 13.5 ] Fl
[.:
F2
== Jl' RN2;
F2
RN2
== Jl' ==
F2
0.409 ]
45 x 3500 = 35.4 F2
F2
or
= 4449.2 N
Consider
right hand side brake shoe :
Takingmoments about fulcrum
we get
1,
S (20 + 25) 
45 S
FI 
+ Fl (17.5 4)
= FJ [ 0.!~9 + 13.5]
45 x 3500 Or
RNI x 20
62.39 F)
2524.1 N
(F) + F2) r
I.e
Wekn
R .
[ .. F 1 = II'
r Nl >
Design ojTransmissi
I]~I.II~4
~~~~~
A == 2 r b sin 9
303.11 b mm2
.7
RNI
FI
Il'
2524.1
0.409
=617J.39N
F2
RN2
Il'
4449.2 ._
== 0.409

10878.24 N
Since the maximum normal force is on the left hand side of the shoe, therefore
.
.
i:
design the shoe for RN2 i.e., the maximum normal rorce.
We
aVe to
0.3 =
or
A
10878.24
303.116
119.63 mm Ans."
.I
Spring force
Fig. 11.9.
Given Data: TB = 250 Nrn; N = 650 r.p.m; d = 250 rnm or r = 125 rnm ;
1.1 = 0.3 ; pv
1000; 20
= 110
= 110 x ~
180
1 92
.
@ ~olution : Since angle of contact (20) is greater than 400 therefore the equivaJenl
coefficient of friction is given by
,
1.1' =
4 fJ. sin 0
29 + sin 20
= 0.344
lit
,=
S (160 + 160)
f~jP8
160 + 65 ]
. 320 S = F, [ 0.344
'" [..
F, = 0.604 S
RNI 
II,silfer
= F2
320 S
F2
or
160
]
[ 0.344
 65
0.8 S
Brakingtorque is given by
TB = (F) + F2) r
or
llt
2 r h sin
2 x 125 x h x sin 55
==
204.79 b mm2
F)
0.604 S _ 0.604 x 1424.5 == 2501.16N
= Jl' =
Il'
0.344
F2
R
S~ce
~ess
We J,_
N2
lire.
P\QOW
= ,
N2
th
>
RNJ,
.
therefore
Jl
0.8 S
== ;
==
Il
0.8 x 1424.5
0.344
'JJ bused
RN2 WI
'I
JO
==
3312.79N
,
I"
materia ,
at the bearing pressure on the JfiJfig
.
_ 1..6.~ x 106 N/m2
RN2
1312.?2..:= .!..E Nlmml  .b
P  A = 204.79 b
b
"itF ]
I
_!_~ __

D_eS_;;gn~~Of~Tr_a_n_.Jm..:..:..:=u,::.J;01J
S
_I1.16