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ANNA UNIVERSITY SYLLABUS

Semester - VI Mechanical

.1' .. ~

1.

9 hrs.

DESIGN OF TRANSMISSION SYSTEMS FOR FLEXIBLE ELEMENTS

Selection of V belts and pulleys - Selection of Flat belts and pulleys - Wire ropes and pulleys Selection of Transmission chains and Sprockets. Design of pulleys and sprockets.

2.

Gear Terminology - Speed ratios and number of

Dynamic effects ..:..Fatigue strength - Factor of safety - Power rating calculations based on strength
gears - Pressure angle in the normal
and stresses - Estimating the si

3.

9 hrs.

is - Tooth stresses and Face width

axis Helical

9 hrs.

BEVEL, WORM
bevel gear: Too
the d~ions

ermino
forces and stresses, equivalent number of teeth.
air of st lght bevel gears.

'ts and dem rits, terminology, thermal capacity, materials, forces and stresses,
the size of the worm gear pair.
~

lical: Terminology, helix angles, estimati~g the size of the pair of cross helical gears."

4.

DES'IGN OF GEAR BOXES .

.,

"

9 hrs,

Geometric progression - Standard step ratio - Ray diagram, kinematics layout - Design of sliding
mesh gear box - Constant mesh gear box - Design of multi speed gear box.
5.

DESIGN OF CAM, CLUTCHES AND BRAKES

9 hrs.

Cam design: Types, pressure angle and under cuning - Base circle determination,
surface stresses.

forces and

Design of plate clutches - Axial clutches - Cone clutches - Internal expanding rim c1l1tches-

.Internal and external shoe brakes.

TUTORIALS

30 hrs.
TOTAL: 75 hrs.

CONTENTS
CHAPTER 1 : FLAT BELTS AND PULLEYS

1.1 -1.43

Introduction - Classification of drives - Types' of belts - Characteristics of belt drives _

Selection of a belt drive - Typ~s of flat belt drives - Belt materials - Velocity ratio of
belt drive - Effect of belt thickness on velocity ratio - Effect of slip on velocity ratio _
Phenomenon of creep - Effect of creep - Law of belting - Geometrical relationships _
Power transmitted by a belt - Tensions in a belt drive - Ratio of tensions for flat belt
drive - Losses in transmission and efficiency - Stresses in the belt - Design of flat belt
pulleys - Design of flat belt drive based on manufacturer's

data - Design of flat belt

drives using basic equations - Review and summary - Review questions - Problems for
practice.
CHAPTER 2: V-BEL TS AND PULLEYS
Introduction

- Construction

2.1 - 2.24

of V-belts - Materials of V-belts - Advantages

and

disadvantages of V-belt drive over flat belt drive - Types of V -belts - Specification of
V-belts - Ratio of driving tensions for V-belt - V-flat drives - Design of sheaves
(or V -grooved pulleys) - Design of V -belt drive based on manufacturer's data - Design
of V -belt drive using basic equations - Review and summary - Review questions Problems for practice.
CHAPTER 3: WIRE ROPES AND PULLEYS

3.1 - 3.20

Introduction - Advantages of wire ropes - Construction of wire ropes - Classification of

wire ropes - Specification of wire ropes - Guidelines for the selection of wire rope Stresses in wire ropes - Design of wire ropes - Failure of ropes - Design of wire rope
sheaves and drums - Review and summary - Review questions - Problems for practice.
CHAPTER 4: CHAIN DRIVES

4.1 - 4.31

Introduction - Advantages and disadvantages of chain drives - Types of chain drives Link chains - Dimensions of a link chain - Classification of link chains - Construction
of link chains - Selection of link chains - Advantages and disadvantages of link chains Transmission (or roller) chains - Construction of roller chains - Specification of a chain
- Geometric relationship of a roller chain and sprocket - Chordal (or polygonal) action -

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Design procedure of roller chain - Design of sprocket wheels - Types of sprockets Silent (or inverted tooth) chain - Construction - Types of silent chains - Advantages and
disadvantages of silent chains - Dimensions of the various parts of the chain - Review
and summary - Review questions - Problems for practice.

5.1 - 5.88

CHAPTER 5: SPUR GEARS

Introduction - Advantages and limitations of gear drive over chain and belt drives Definition of gear - Classification of gears - Spur gears - Gear nomenclature - Law of
gearing - Forms of gear tooth profile - Standard systems of gear tooth - Standard
proportions

manufacturing

- Gear tooth failure - Force analysis on spur gears - Tooth stresses

(Lewis beam strength equation) - Gear blank design - Gear design using Lewis and
Buckingham's

equation for dynamic

Estimating gear size - Standard module - Fatigue strength of gear tooth (wear tooth
load) - Number of teeth - Face width - Factor of safety - Design procedure - Gear
design based on gear life - Dynamic load - Induced bending stress - Design bending
stress - Design contact stress - Surface compressive stress - Design procedure - Check.
for plastic deformation

reliability factor - Design of internal gears - Design of non-metallic gears - Review and
summary - Review questions - Problems for practice.

6.1 - 6.65

nomenclature

of helical gears - Virtual or formative number of teeth - Face width of

helical gears - Tooth proportions for helical gears - Basic dimensions of helical and
herringbone gears - Force analysis on helical gears - Design of helical gears - Helical
gear design using Lewis and Buckingham's

equations - Lewis equation

for beam

strength of helical gears - Dynamic load on helical gear tooth - Wear strength of helical
gears - Design procedure - Helical gear design based on gear life - Design formulas for
helical gear design - Design procedure - Herringbone gears - Design of herringbone
gears - Crossed helical or spiral gears - Advantages and limitations of spiral gears Shaft angle - Centre distance - Velocity of sliding between gears - Efficiency - Force
analysis on crossed-helical gears - Review and summary - Review questions - Problems
for practice.

7.1 -7.47

Introduction - Types of bevel gears - Bevel gear nomenclature - Virtual or formative

number of teeth - Proportions for bevel gears - Basic dimensions of bevel gears - Force
analysis on bevel gears - Design of bevel gears - Bevel gear design using Lewis and
Buckingham's equations - Beam strength of bevel gears - Dynamic load on bevel gear
tooth - Wear strength of bevel gears - Design procedure - Bevel gear design based on
gear life - Design formulas for bevel gear design - Design procedure - Review and
summary - Review questions - Problems for practice.
CHAPTER 8: WORM GEARS

8.1- 8.38

Introduction - Applications - Advantages and disadvantages - Types of worm gear

drives - Specification of a pair of worm gears - Nomenclature of worm gears - Tooth
proportions of worm gears - Basic dimensions of worm gears - Force analysis on worm
gearing - Efficiency' of worm gearing - Power lost in friction - Self-locking

and

overrunning drives - Design of worm gear drive - Materials for worm and worm wheel
- Failure of worm gearing - Selection of number of starts in the worm - Length of worm
- Face width of the wheel - Thermal rating of worm gearing - Worm and worm gear
design using Lewis-and Buckingham's

equation - Beam strength of worm gear tooth -

Dynamic load on wo\m gear tooth - Wear strength of worm gears - Design procedure-

Worm gears design ~sing basic equations - Design formulas for worm gears design Design procedure - Review and summary - Review questions - Problems for practice.
CHAPTER 9: GEAR BOX

9.1 - 9.41

Introduction - Requirements of a speed gear boxes - Methods of changing speed in gear

boxes - Preferred numbers - Step ratio - \$tru9tural formula - Kinematic layout - Ray
diagram - Basic rules for optimum gear box -design - Overlapping speed gear box Design of gear box - Design procedure for gear box - Review and summary - Review
questions - Problems for practice.
CHAPTER 10: CLUTCHES

10.1 -10.50

Introduction - Functions of the clutch - Principle of operation of clutch - Classification

of clutches - Friction materials for clutches - Single plate clutch - Design of a single
plate clutch - Multiplate clutch - Design of a multiplate clutch - Service factors - Cone
clutch - Design of a cone clutch - Centrifugal clutch - Design of a centrifugal clutch -

Internal expanding rim clutches - External contracting rim clutches - Energy dissipation
during clutching (Energy considerations) - Temperature rise - Review and summary Review questions - Problems for practice.
CHAPTER 11 : BRAKES

11.1 -11.58

Introduction - Clutch Vs Brake - Classification of brakes - Brake lining materials Block or shoe brake - Single block or shoe brake - Self-locking and self-energizing
brakes - Double block or double shoe brake - Design procedure for block brake - Band
brake - Simple band brake - Design procedure for band brakes - Differential band brake
- Band and block brake - Internal expanding shoe brake - External contracting shoe
brake - Energy considerations - Temperature rise - Review and summary - Review
questions - Problems for practice.

TWO MARKS Q&A

SOLVED ANNA UNIVERSITY QUESTION PAPERS
INDEX

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Q&A.l - Q&A.21

Q.l - Q.55

Flat Belts and Pulleys

"Live as if you were to die tomorrow;
Learn

(U

if you were to live forever ."

- Mahatma Gandhi

1.1. INTRODUCTION

Whenever power has to be transmitted from one shaft to another shaft, flexible machine
elements such as belts, ropes or chains are frequently used. Pulleys are mounted on the shaft
and a continuous belt or rope is passed over them. In belts and ropes, power is transmitted
due to friction between them and the pulleys. In case of chain
sprocket wheels are
used. When the distance between the shaft is large, then
upon several
smaller distances, gears are used. The amount of power
arc of contact
factors such as velocity of the belt, tensions i
belt,
between the belt and the smaller pUlle.1iilllllt":
1.2. CLASSIFICA

.,

Drives

~
Direct drives

Flexible drives

Rope

Belt

~
Chain

Gear drive

Cam drive

I. Flat belts.

2. V-belts,

3. Ribb
1
e d bel ts,

These four types of belts are shown in Fig.l.l.

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an d

1.2

Flat belt

Multiple V-belts

V-belt

Ribbed belts

1.2.2. Characteristics of Belt Drives

The characteristics of different belts are tabulated, as shown in Table 1.1.
Table 1.1. Characteristics 0/ belt drives
,

Flat belts

Characteristics

S.No.

Toothed or

V-belts

timing belts

l.

16

12

11

2.

Maximum belt speed (m/s)

35 to 110

25

80

3.

Slip

1 to 5%

1 to 5%

Nil

4.

Tension

High

Less

Very less

5.

Shock resistance

Good

Good

Fair

6.

Resistance to wear

Good

Fair

Good

7.

Dressing

Required

Not required

Not required

8.

Initial cost

Less

Less

Moderate

1.2.3. Selection of a Belt Drive

Selection of a belt drive depends upon :
./

Power to be transmitted

./

./

Speed of driver and driven shafts

./

Centre distance

./

Shaft relationship

./

Positive drive requirement

./

Service conditions

./

Space available

1.3

Flat Belts and Pulleys

1.2.4. Types of Flat Belt Drives

Depending on the requirement, flat belts can be arranged in different ways. The different
types of arrangement and their applications are tabulated, as shown in Table 1.2.

Applications

Types of drives

Used

with

shafts

arranged

parallel

and

-Tight side

Fi 1.2.

Used with shafts arranged parallel and when

an open belt drive cannot be used due to
small angle of contact on the smaller pulley.
Idler pulleys (also known as Jockey pulleys)
are provided to obtain high velocity ratio and
when the required belt tension cannot be
obtained by other means.

Fig. 1.3.

motion

Fig. 1.4.

FE =7'

'nmt

5 27

WE; liEF?

au YIMiII' ....

..,

1,4

Types of drives

Applications

Used with shafts arranged parallel

rotating in the opposit~ direction.

and

FI . 1.5.

s.

Used with shafts arranged at right angles and

rotating in one definite direction.

FI 1.6.

6.
Quart~r twist bett drive will, guide
pul/~y :

Used with shafts arranged at right angles

when the reversible motion is desired.

FI 1.7.

n t.s.

Used for changing the speed of the driven

shaft while the main or driving shaft runs at
constant speed.

I.S

[Iat Belts and Pulleys

----------~--------------I
Applications

Types of drives

Used when the driven shaft is to be started or

stopped whenever desired without interfering
with the driving shaft.

Fi 1.9.

9. Compound drive:

Used when several units are to be driven

from one central shaft.

Fi . 1.10.

1.3. BELT MATERIALS

The desirable properties of a belt material are high coefficient of friction, flexibility,
durability and strength. The main materials used for flat belts are:
1. Leather belts: Leather belts are made of animal hides. The best quality leather is
obtained from either sides of the backbone of a steer (bullock). Leathers for belting may be
tanned with oak, or chrome salts. Oak-tanned leather is fairly stiff, whereas chrome-tanned
leather is soft and pliable.
Belts are specified according to the number of layers. e.g., single-ply, double-ply or tripleply belts. Double-ply (or triple-ply) belts are made by cementing two strips (or three strips) of
leather together with hair sides out.

2. Fabric and cotton bells:~ These belts are made by stitching together three or more plies
(or layers) of canvas or cotton duck. The fabric is treated with linseed oil to make it waterproof.These belts are cheap. They are most suitable for farm work, quarry and saw mills.

J. Rubber belts: These belts are made up of plies of fabric impregnated with vulcanised
rubber or synthetic rubber. The main advantage of these belts is that they can be easily made
endless. Saw mills, creameries, chemical plants and paper mills largely use the rubber belts.

Design of Transmission Systems

J.6

4. Bnlaln ~/ts:

Balata is gum similar to rubber. Balata belts are made in the same manner

as the rubber belts except that balata is substituted for rubber. These belts are acid proof and
water-proof. The balata belts cannot be used at temperature above 40C because at this
temperature it begins to soften and becomes sticky.
5. Nylon core belts
6. Camel's hair belts.

The commonly used belt materials for various belt types are given in Table 1.3.
Tuble /.3. Commonly used bell materials
Belt types

Belt materials

Flat belts

V-belts

Ropes

1.4. VELOCITY RATIO OF BELT DRIVE

The ratio between the speeds of the driver and the follower or driven is known as velocity
/
ratio.
D and d

N) and N2

and

Angular velocities of the driver and driven respectively.

Let

(01

(02

N2

Velocity ratio, -N

(02

=
)

(0)

and

D
... (1.1)

1.4.1. Effect of Belt Thickness on Velocity Ratio

When the thickness of belt (I) is considered, then velocity ratio is given by

N2
N)

D+I
... (1.2)

d+1

1.4.2. Effect of Slip on Velocity Ratio

S~ip is defined as the relative motion between the belt and pulley. The difference between
~he linear sp~ds of the pulley rim and belt is the measure of slip. The reason for slip to occur
that the.re IS a ten~e~cy for ~he belt to carry with it on the underside, between the pulley and
the belt. I.e., the frictional gnp between belt 'and pulley is, insufficient. The presence of slip
red~ces the velocity ratio of the drive.
IS

h'

avoided.

'

1.7

S, = Percentage slip between the driver and the belt,

Let

S2
S
.

= Percentage slip between the belt and the driven pulley, and
= Total percentage slip = S, + S2

1'12

:. Velocity ratio,

D [

_ S, + S2 ]
1

.. , (1.3)

100

If thickness of the belt (I) is considered, then

Velocity ratio, ~

= ~:;

I -

J%o ]

... (1.4)

1.5. PHENOMENON OF CREEP IN BELTS

When the belt passes from the slack side to the tight side, a certain portion of the belt
extends. And it contracts again when the belt passes from the tight side to slack side. Due to
these changes of length, there is relative motion between the belt and the pulley surfaces. This
relative motion is termed as creep.
The net effect of creep is to reduce the speed of the driven pulley and consequently
power transmitted.

the

1.5.1. Effect of Creep of Belt

Let

crt and cr2 = Stresses in the belt on the tight side and slack side respectively,
E

and

VI'e ocity ratio,

.

N2,

o
d

E+Y-C;:

... (1.5)

E+~

I Note lin

practice the combined effect of slip and creep is called simply slip and the combined
effect should not exceed three percent.
1.6. LAW OF BELTING

Law of belting states that the centre line of the belt, as it approaches the pulley, must lie in
a plan~ perpendicular to the axis of that pulley or must lie in the plane of the pulley,
otherWise the belt will run off the pulley.
1.7. GEOMETRICAL RELATIONSHIPS
For open belt drive: An open belt drive is shown in Fig.I.1 I.
Let D and d = D'

L

Total length of the belt in metres ,

in metres,

l
Design a/Transmission Systems

1.8

2a
as
aL

The angle subtended between the straight portions of the belt in degrees,
Wrap angle (or angle of contact / lap) for small pulley in degrees, and

. -1

Sin

0- d

I 2C
,~

I,
I

sma
also

as

O-d

= --

2C

(180-2a)

and

aL

(180+2a)

... (1.6)

O-d')

2C

Length of the belt, * L

2C +

and

()

(0 + d) + (04-C )2

... (1.7)

For crossed belt drive: A crossed belt drive is shown in Fig.l.12, with notations having
the usual meanings.
. -1

Sin

D+d

--

2C

,..--,

I,

1------

C ----

.....

Fig. 1.12. Crossed hell drive

For derivations of the formulas used in this chapter, the readers are suggested to refer any 'KinematicS of
Machines' book.

1.9

As seen from the Fig.I.12,

and

Sill U

(02+cd)

Us

uL

(180 + 2 n)

... (1.8)

Therefore, wrap angles for smaller and larger pulleys are same and is given by
Us

uL

Length of the belt, L = 2 C +

1.S. POWER TRANSMITTED

Let

( 21t)

(D + d) +

(0 + d)2

4C

... (1.9)

BY A BELT

TJ and T2

I Power

transmitted,

(TJ

T2) v

... (1.10)

1.9. TENSIONS IN A BELT DRIVE

1. Tight and slack side tensions (T] and T~ : When a belt is moving round a pulley and
transmitting power, the tension in belt on two sides of pulley will be different. The side of
belt in which tension is higher is the tight side and the other is called slack side.
2. Centrifugal tension (T c) : As the belt moves round the pulley it would experience

centrifugal force which has a tendency to separate the belt from the pulley surface. To
maintain contact between pulley and belt, the centrifugal force produce additional tension in
the belt, which is known as the centrifugal tension,
Centrifugal tension is a waste load, because it increases tension without increasing pow.r
capacity.
Let

v

Linear velocity of the belt in m/s.

..

I Centrifugal

tension,

Tc

mv2

...

(1.1 I)

3. Initial tension in belt (To) : The tension of the belt when a belt is fitted to a pair of
stationary pulleys, is termed as the initial tension of tile belt (To).
:.

Initial tension, To

=
=

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TJ +T2
2

TJ+T2+2Tc

... (1.12)

1.10

T = T 1+ T C

T =

and

due to centrifugal tension,

... (1.14(a))

... (1.14(b))

= cr b- t
o = Maximum safe stress in N/m2,

where

Width of belt in metres, and

Thickness of belt in metres.

2. When the centrifugal tension is taken into account, then

Total tension in the tight side, Til = T I + T c
and total tension in the slack side, Ta = T 2 + Tc
3. Effect of centrifugal tension
We know that

0" power transmitted

Power transmitted, P

(Ttl - T/2) V
=

110

effect on the power transmitted.

4. For a belt speed of upto 10 mls the centrifugal tension is negligible. But for belt speed more than
10 mis, the centrifugal tension should be considered without fail.
1.10. RATIO OF DRIVING TENSIONS FOR FLAT BELT DRIVE
Let

= Angle of wrap

f.l

Coefficient

11

Tension ratio,

TI-mv2

and

INotes I I.

T2

T2

-mv2

and

of friction between the belt and pulley.

ell a

... [Neglecting

centrifugal

tension]

... (1.15)

ella

... [ Considering

centrifugal

tension]

... (1.16)

It should be borne in mind that 'a' in the tension ratio equations must be in radians.

2. Condition for the transmission of maximum power: The power transmitted shall be maximum
when the centrifugal tension (Tc) is one third of the maximum belt tension (T).
T ==
and

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maximum

velocity. v

3 Tc
-

(J
\j~

... (1.17(a
... (1.17(b))

1.11

Most efficient power transmission

(Refer PSG data book, page no.7.53).

is obtained f tl
or at belts at speeds of 17.5 to 22.5 m/s

Leather

= 1 x 10-5

Rubber

= 1.4 x 10-5

N/mm3

N/mm3

Canvas

1.13. COEFFICIENT OF FRICTION

The coefficient
of friction
between the belt material and tlie pv IIey sur face
.
.
the belt material,. material . of. the pulley.' surface the belt speed an d th e be It
values of coefficients of friction for design purposes are given in Table 1.4.

d epen d s upon
I' A verage
Sip.

Table 1.4. Mean coefficient of frlctlon, J.I

Pulley material
Belt material

Compressed
Wood

Steel

Cast iron

paper

Leather (oak-tanned)

0.33

0.30

0.25

0.25

Leather (chrome-tanned)

0.45

0.40

0.35

0.35

Cotton or fabric

0.25

0.23

0.20

0.20

Rubber

0.35

0.30

0.30

0.30

(A longer belt will last more tlutn a shorter belt. Why?)

The life of a belt is a function of the centre distance between the driver and driven shafts.
The shorter the belt, the more often it will be subjected to additional bending stresses while
running around the pulleys at a given speed. And also it will be destroyed quickly due 10
fatigue. Hence, a longer belt will last more than a shorter belt.
1.15. LOSSES IN TRANSMISSION

AND EFFICIENCY

(i)

Slip and creep of the belt on the pulleys (about 3%),

(ii) Windage or air resistance to the movement of belt and pulleys (usually negligible),
(iii) Bending of the belt over the pulleys (about I%), and
(iv]

ueSIl;"

VJ

I.' 2

1.16. STRESSES IN THE BELT

.
The various stresses acting at various portions of the belt are.

1. Stress due

where

10

at

Tight side tension

Cross-sectional area of the belt

2. Stress due

where

10

ab

=
=

3. Stress due

10

where

and

the effect of centrifugal force (uj :

_

ac

E,
d

_ mv =
2
- b I
Pv

Centrifugal force
Cross-sectional area of the belt

Density of the belt material in kg/m '.

It. is noted that the stress will be maximum when the belt moves over the smaller pulley.
Therefore the maximum stress in the tight side of the smaller pulley is given by
amax

= at + ab + ac

1.16.1. Permissible Stresses

Leather belts = 2 to 3.45 MPa
Rubber belts = I to ].7 MPa
Fabric belts = Less than ].5 MPa

DESIGN OF FLAT BELT PULLEYS

1.17. INTRODUCTION
In order t~ design a flat belt. drive, we need the diameters of driving and driven
u lie s.
Thus the design of belt pulleys IS to be done first Since the velocitv rati
p
Y

pulley diameters, therefore the pulleys should be s~lected caref:I~~lty ratio depends upon the
1.17.1. Materials Used for Pulleys
The commonly used pulley materials are:
./
Cast iron
./. .
.
Fabricated steel
./
Wood or fibre
./
.
Compressed paper
Cast Iron pulleys are most widely used iIII actual practice.
.

1.13

1.17.2. Types of Pulleys for Flat Belts

Based on the construction

methods, the pulleys are classified as solid pulleys and split

pulleys.
Small pulleys can be made in single casting which is known as solid pulleys. But medium
and larger pulleys are cast in halves, which can be joined at the rim and the hub. This type of
pulleys are known as split pulleys, In the following article, the design of cast iron split pulley
will be discussed.
1.17.3. Design Procedure for Cast Iron Pulleys
The cross-section of a cast iron pulley is shown in Fig.1.13. (Refer PSG data book, page
no. 7.56).
Rim

where

dl
I

=
=
=
=

Diameter of the pulley,

Thickness of the arm,
Diameter of the hub,

a = Width of the pulley,

t = Thickness of the rim,
d2 = Diameter of the shaft, and

Length of the hub.

1. Dimensions of pulley:
. .

.'

lie (D): Obtain the diameter of the pulley either from velocity
.:v
id tion We know that the centrifugal stress
ratio consideration or centrifugal stress cons: era
.
induced in the rim of the pulley,
(i) DIameter of the pu

0c

where

P y2

p = Density of the rim material,

= 7200 k m3 for cast iron, and
7t D N
D being the diameter of pulley and N the
v = Velocity of he rim = 60 '
speed of the pulley.

Design of Transmission Systems

1.14

Now, select the diameter of the pulley (D) referring to Table 1.5.
Table 1.5. Recommended pulley diameters ill mm (from data book, page
40,45,50,56,63,71.
710,860.900,

80, 90.100,112,125,140,160,180,200.224,250,280.315,

110.

7.54)

1000, 1120, 1250, 1400, 1600, 1800 and 2000.

(ii) Width of tile pulley (a) : If the width of the belt is known, then select the width of the

pulley referring to Tables 1.6(a) and (b).

Table 1.6(0). Pulley width (from data book, page no. 7.54)
Belt width

Pulleys to be wider than the belt width by

Upto 125 mm

13 mm

125 to 250 mm

25mm

250 to 375 mm

38mm

375 to 500 mm

50mm

Table 1.6(b). Recommended series of width of flat pulleys, mm (from data book, page

110.

7.55)

20, 25, 32, 40, 50, 63, 71, 80, 90, 100, 112, 125, 140, 160, 180, 200, 224, 250,
280, 315, 355, 400, 450, 500, 560 and 630.

t

D

where

= Diameter of the pulley in 'mm'.

2. Dimensions of arms:
(i) Number of arms (n) :

Number of arms {

4 for diameters upto 450 mm

6 for diameters over 450 mm

... [From data book, page no.7.56]

(ii) Cross-section of arms {b and bI2): The cross-section of the arms is elliptical, with
major axis (b) is equal to twice the minor axis (bt2).
Major.axis of elliPtical}
secnon near the boss

= 2.94

_3

fiQ4Dn

-\j ~

~ 2.941"f

for double belt .

... [From data book, page no. 7.56]

= ~

Flat Belts and Pulleys

1.15

(iii) Arms taper: The arms are tapered from hub to rim.
Taper = 4 mm per 100 mm

... [From data book, page no.7.56]

=

4'3

3. Dimensions of hub:
(i) Diameter of the hub (d 1) :
Diameter of the hub (d1)
d,

or

=
=

(1.7 to 2.0) d2

=~a

where

Width of pulley.

... [From data book, page no. 7.56]

4. Crowning of pulley rim: The face of the pulley rim is crowned, as shown in Fig.l.13,
to keep the belt on the pulley. Otherwise the inaccurate alignment of the pulleys causes the
belt to run off side ways. Thus the crown will force the belt to return to the centre of pulley.

Selection of crown height (II) : Knowing diameter (0) and width (a) of the pulley, select
the crown height (h) referring to Tables 1.7(a) and (b).
Table 1.7(a). Crow" of flat pulleys (40 to 355 mm diameter) (from data book, page no. 7.55)
(crow" is unrelated to the width ill this diameter range)
Diameter D, mm

Crown h, mm

40 to 112
125 and 140
160 and 180
200 and 224
250 and 280
315 and 355

0.3
0.4
0.5
0.6
0.8
1

Table 1.7(b). Crow" offlat pulleys (40 to 2000 mm diameter) (from data book, page no. 7.55)
(crown varies with tire width in this diameter range)
Crown"

Diameter
D,mm

400
450
500
630
800
1000
1250
2000

(in mm) of pulleys of width (in mm)

125 and

140 and

180 and

224 and

280 and

smaller

160

200

250

315

1.2
1.2
1.5
1.5
1.5
1.5
1.5
2.5

1.2
1.2
1.5
2
2
2
2
3

1.2
1.2
1.5

1.2

2.5
2.5
2.5

2.5

3.5

1
1
1
1.2
2

Scanned by CamScanner

1.2

1.5

3
3

355

400 and
larger

1.2
1.2
1.5
2
2.5
3
3.5
5

1.2
1.2

1.5
2
2.5
3
4
6

"'"

1.16

I Example

I Design

1.1

a cast iron pulley to transmit 20 kW at 300 r.p.m: The diameter

of the pulley is 500 mm and the angle of lap is 180 ~ The pulley has four arms of elliptical
cross-section with major axis twice the minor axis. The coefficient of friction between the
belt and the pulley surface is 0.3. The allowable belt tension is not to exceed 250 N in 10
mm width. The allowable shear stress for the shaft material may be taken as 50 Nlmml.
Given Data:
a = 1800 =

as

= 50

20 kW

P
1t

20 x 103 W;

4' ,

J.1

N = 300 r.p.m.;

0.3;

TI

of the pulley or belt,

v =

D = 500 mm = 0.5 m ;

N/mm2.

To flnd : Design a cast iron pulley.

Solution:

Velocity

7tDN

60

7t x 0.5

60

300

7.854 m/s

1. Dimensions of pulley :
(i) Diameter
recommended

0/

the pulley (D) is given as 500 mm. Now referring

diameter of the pulley is also 500 mm. Ans. "

(ii) Width of the pulley (a) : In order to find the width of the pulley

Table

1.5, the

Let TI and T2

Tensions

(TI - T2) v

20 x 103 = (T, - T2) 7.854

or

T, - T_ = 2546.47

... (i)

TI
and ratio of tensions,

= e~Q

T2

T2
From equations

1t

or

T, = 2.566 T2

... (ii)

(i) and (ii), we get

TI

INou I Since

eO.3)(

4171.68 N

and

T2

1625.75 N

the velocity of the belt (or pulley) is less .han )0 mIs, therefore the centrifugal

tension need not to be considered.

Let
Since the allowable
width, therefore

Width of belt

tension)

T,
25

b = -

4171.68
25

= 166.86mm

1.17

flot Belts and Pulleys

Referring to Table t.t3, the standard width of 4 ply belt is 200 mm.
l1lerefore width of the pulley (a), referring the Table 1.6(a), is given by

= Belt width + 25 mm = 200 + 25 = 225 mm

Then, referring to Table 1.6(b), the standard pulley width is 250 mm. Ans."
(iii) Thickness of the pulley rim (t) :
D

= 200 + 3 mm
500

= 200 + 3

[From data book, page no. 7.57]

= 5.5 mm Ans."

2.Dimensions of arms:
(i) Number of arms, n

=4

... [Given]

(ii) Cross-section of arms: Major axis of elliptical section near the boss is given by
b ~ 2.94

where

Wn

= Width of the pulley = 250 mm,

D = Diameter of the pulley = 500 mm, and
n = Numberofarms = 4
a

250

500

4x4

60
= Major
- 2 axis = 2
=

=
30

58.34 mm say 60 mm Ans."

mm

ns. ~

3
.
(iii) Radius of the cross-sections of arms = 4
x M'ajor axis
3

= 4 x 60

45 mm Ans. ~

3. Dimensions of the hub:

(i) Diameter of the /tub : In order to find the diameter of the hub, let us find the diameter
of the shaft first.

Let

We know that the torque transmitted by the shaft,

p x 60
20 x 103 x 60
T = 2 1t N = 2 1t x 300
= 636.62 N-m = 636620 N-mm
We also know that the torque transmitted by the shaft (T),
T

= ~

16

xo x
s

d3

,u
"

r,
Design of Transmission Systems
1.18

636620
Therefore,

r6 x 50 x d3 or d

Diameter of the hub

= 40.17 mm say 45 mm

= 2 x Diameter of the shaft

= 2 x 45 = 90 mm ADs.'"

= 3"

Length of the hub = 3" x Width of the pulley (a)

(ii)

166.67 mm

x 250

4. Crown height of tire pulley (lr) : For 500 mm pulley diameter and 250 mm pulley
width, from Table 1.7(b), the crown height is selected as h = 1.5 mm ADs.

I Example
=

1.2

18 kW; Speed

Power

= 0.25;

= 165"; Coefficient of friction

Overhanging length (i.e., the distance of the pulley centre line from tire nearest bearing) =
0.30 m; Belt thickness = 10 mm; Safe sirear stress for shafts = 40 MPa; Safe stress for belt
= 2.5 MPa; Safe stress for rim = 4 MPa; Density of the leather = 1000 kg/m'.
Given Data: P = 18 kW = 18

=

40 N/mm2;

Pleather

0.25;

0belt =

2.5 MPa

OJ

103 W;

N = 200 r.p.m.; a

10 rnrn;

111; 1 =

(0)

(Jllm

= 165 = 165

40 MPa
=

rt

x 180

40 x 106 N/m2

Tofind: Design an overhanging pulley.

Solution:
I. Dimensions of pulley:

0c

We know that centrifugal stress,

0c

4 x 106
Velocity of the pulley is also given by

= p

rim'

and

7200 kg/rn ' for cast iron.

v2

= 7200 x v2 or

v =

23.57

v = 23.57 m/s

7tDN
60

= 7txDx200
60

or D = 2.25 m ADS. ~

(i;) Width of tirepulley (a): In order to find the width of the pulley, let us find the width

of the belt first.

Let

T, and T2 = Tensions on the tight and slack sides of the belt re pectively,
b ;; Width of the belt.

and

1.19

P

= (T, - T2) v

18 x 103 = (T, - T2) 23.57

or T, - T2 = 763.68

... (i)

T,

= ella

... (ii)

From equations (i) and (ii), we get

T)

T2

1487.62 Nand

725.25 N

Since the velocity of the belt (or pulley) is more than 10 mis, therefore centrifugal tension
must be taken into consideration.

Assuming a leather belt for which the density is given as

1000kg/m-'.
We know that centrifugal tension,

Tc =

In'

v2

where

We know that

In

Density x Volume

of the belt

Density x Area x Length

bxt

b x 10 = 10 b mm-

10 b x 10-6 m2

1000 x (10 b x 10-6) x 1 = 0.01 b kg/m

Then centrifugal tension, Tc = m- v2 = 0.01 b (23.57)2 = 5.55 b N
In

T

abe)t

2.5 x 106 x (lOb x 1O--{) = 2 5 b N

x Area of cross-section

of belt

abe)t

x (b x t)

T)

T - Tc

or

19.45 b

Width of the belt, b = 76.48 mm

Referring to Ta.ble 1. 13, the standard width of the belt = 90 mm
Therefore, width of the pulley (a), referring the Table 1.6(a), is given by

Belt width + 13 mm

90 + 13

103 mm

Then, referring to Table 1.6(b), the standard pulley width is 112 mm.

For single belt,

t = 2~0

+ 3 mm

2250
200 + 3

... [From data book, page no. 7.57]

14.25 mm

Design a/Transmission

Systems

1.20

2. Dimensions

0/ arms :

6 (for diameters over 450 rnm)

7 56]
... [From data book, page no. .

Number of arms, n =

IS

where

Wn

given by

2.94

D = Diameter of the pulley = 2250 mm, and

Number of arms = 6

112 x 2250
4x6

..

and

Minor axis =

(iii)

Major axis
2

64.38 mm say 65 mm Ans . ...,

65
= 32.5 mm
2

3
- x Major axis
4

= '4 x 65 = 48.75 mm

3. Dimensions of tile II ub :
(i) Diameter of the hub : In order to find the diameter of the hub, let us find the diameter
of the shaft first.
Let

We know that the torque transmitted by the shaft,

p x 60
T = 2 1t N

18 x 103 x 60
21t X 200

859.44 N-m

and bending moment on the shaft due to the tensions of the belt

M = (T) + T2 + 2 Tc) L = (1487.62 + 724.25

T2 + M2

= ~

= ~

(859.44)2 + (960.56)2

= 1288.92 N-m = 1288.92 x 103 N-mm

We also know that equivalent twisting moment (T ),
e

1288.92 x 103 ==
or

7t

1 6 x as x d3 - ~
16 x 40 x d3

d = 54 75
.

mm

x 5.5 x 90) 0.3

'" (.,' Tc

960.56 N-m
We know that equivalent twisting moment (Te),

T,

+2

say 55 mm,

= 5.55 b N)

1.21

= 2 x Diameter of the shaft

= 2 x 5S = 110 mm

(ii) Length of the hub = 3 x Width of the pulley (a)

2

= 3"

112

74.66 mm

4. Crown height of tire pulley (II) : For 2250 mm pulley diameter and 112 mm pulley
width, from Table 1.7(b), the crown height is selected as h = 2 mm ADS ...,

The two different design procedures used are:

Using the manufacturer's data, and

(i)

(ii) Using the basic equations.

1.18. DESIGN OF FLAT BELT DRIVE BASED ON MANUFACTURER'S

DATA

In actual practice, the designer has to select a belt from the manufacturer's catalogue
(which were obtained by their long experience). The required information for the selection /
design of a flat belt are:
(i)

Power to be transmitted,

(ii)

(iii)

The step by step procedure is as follows:

1. Selection of pulley diameters:

Select the pulley diameters and angle of contact (i.e., wrap angie). By using the given belt
speed and assuming number of plies, minimum pulley diameter is chosen. Use Table 1.8 to
choose the diameter of the smaller pulley
Table 1.8. Minimum pulley diameter for the given speed and the number of belting plies, mm
(from data book, page
No. of plies
3

4
5
6
8

==

Maximum

110.

7.52)

10

IS

20

90
140
200
250
450

100
160
224
315
500

112
180
250
355
560

25

30

140
200
315
400
630

180
250
355
450
710

Design a/Transmission Systems

--------------------~~~~==~~--

~I.~n

2. Calculation 0/ design power in kW:

Calculate the design kW by using the relationship given below.
Rated kW x Load correction factor (Kj)
Design kW

.. , (1.18)

Arc of contact factor (Ka) x Small pulley factor (Kd)

(i) Load correction/actor (KJ : This factor is used to account for the nature of application
and type ofload. The value of Kscan be selected from Table 1.9.

Ks (from data book, page no. 7.53)

Ks

1.0
1.2

light machine tools, etc.
Intermittent loads - Reciprocating pumps and compressors, heavy
machine tools, heavy duty fans and blowers, etc.
Shock loads - Crushing machinery, hammers, presses, grinders,
rolling mills, etc.

1.3
1.5

(ii) Arc 0/ contact factor (KaJ': The load rating (i.e., rated power capacity) is given for
1800 of contact. So, it has to be corrected for actual arc of contact. A decrease
..

d)

Arc of contact

1800

D and d

where

(D ~

x 600

in arc of

... [From data book, page no. 7.54]

C = Centre distance.
For the calculated value of arc of contact, the arc of contact factor (K(l) is selected from
the Table 1.10.
Table 1.10. Arc
Arc of
contact

90

Correction
factor

1.68

120

130

140

1.33

1.26

1.19

0/

contact factor, Ka (from data book, page

150

1.13

7.54)

110.

160

170

180

190

200

210

220

230

240

250

1.08

1.04

1.00

0.97

0.94

0.91

0.88

0.86

0.84

0.82

(iii) Small pulley factor (K~ : This factor is used to account for the amount of bending or
flexing of the belt and how this affects the life of the belt. Use Table 1.11 for small pulley
factor.
Table 1.11. Small pulley factor, Kd (from data hook, page no. 7.62)
Small pulley diameter

K"

Upto 100 mm
100-200 mm
200-300 mm
300-400 mm
400-750 mm
Over 750 mm

0.5
0.6
0.7
0.8
0.9
1.0

Flat Belts and Pulleys

1.23

3. Selection of a belting :
Select a belt referring to Table 1.12.
Table 1.12. Load rating of fabric belts per mm width per ply at 1800 are of contact at
lQ m/s belt speed (from data book, page no. 7.54)

Type
HI-SPEED duck belting (light duty)

0.023 kW/mmlply

FORT duck belting (heavy duty)

0.0289 kW/llImlply

Correct the load rating to the actual speed of the belt by using the relation given below ..

V
TO
...

5. Determination of belt width:

Determine the belt width by using the following relation:
Design power
.
.
Load ratmg x No. of plies

Width of belt =

". (1.19)

Knowing the smaller pulley diameter and velocity of the belt, and consulting Table 1.8,
the number of plies can be found.
The calculated belt width should be rounded off to the standard belt width by consulting
Table 1.13.
Table 1.13. Standard widths of transmisslon belting (from data book, page
4 ply

3 ply

mm
25
32
40
44
50
63
76
90
100

mm
25
32
40
44
50
63
76
90
100
112
125
140
152
200

5 ply

mm
76
90
100
112
125
152
180
200
22-l
250

6 ply

R ply

mm
100
112
125
152
180
200
250

mm
200
250
305
355
400

--

1.6(a) and (b).

IlO.

7.52)

\
.:/

:'

Design a/Transmission

Systems

1.24

7. Calculation of belt length (L) :

Calculate the length of the belt by using the equation given below.

( 27t) (0 + d)
7t)
+ ( "2 (0 + d)

L = 2C +

2C

dY:

(0 4C

(0 + d)2
4C

is required to select a flat-belt drive/or a/an running at 360 r.p.m:

which is driven by a 10 kW, 1440 r.p.m: motor. Tile belt drive is open-type and space
available for a centre distance 0/ 2 m approximately. The diameter 0/ a driven pulley is
1000mm.
Given Data: N)

C = 2m; D

P = 10 kW

10 x 103 W ;

= 1000 mm.

Solution:

1. Calculation of pulley diameters:

Driven pulley diameter, D
We know that

velocity ratio =

360 r.p.m.
--;--....

1000 mm

D
Fan

_ Driver pulley speed

N)
1440
- Driven pulley speed - N2 = 360

=

1000
-4-

Fig. 1.14.

250mm

Ans. ~

Design kW
(i)

Rated kW x Load correction factor (Ks)

Arc of contact factor (KJ x Small pulley factor (Kd)

Rated kW = 10 kW

... [Given]

(ii) Referring to Table 1.9, load correction factor

(iii) To find arc of contact factor (Ka) :

)..a

'

1.25

Flat Belts and Pulleys

= 180

0
-

1000 - 250 )
0
2000
x 60 = 157.50

Consulting Table 1.10, arc of contact factor for 157.50, Ka::::: 1.08.
(iv) Consulting Table 1.11, small pulley factor, Kd
Design kW

lOx 1.2
1.08 x 0.7

= 0.7

15.873 kW

3. Selection of belt:
Consulting Table 1.12, HI-SPEED duck belting is selected.
kW/mmJply.

Its capacity

is given as 0.023

Velocity of the belt, V

7t

x 0.25 x 1440
= 18.85 mls
60

TO

x (18.85 ItO)

kW I mm I ply

5. Determination of belt width :

For 250 mm smaller pulley diameter and velocity of 18.85 mIs, consulting Table 1.8, the
number of plies can be selected as 5.
Width of belt

Design power
Load rating x No. of plies
15.873
0.04335 x 5 = 73.23 mm

Consulting Table 1.13, the calculated belt width should be rounded off to the standard belt
width.
:. For 5 ply belt, standard belt width = 76 mm

6. Determination of pulley width :

Consulting Table 1.6(a), the pulley width is given by
Pulley width = Belt width + 13 mrn = 76 + 13 = 89 mm
" Referring Table 1.6(b), the standard pulley width is 90 mm ADS. ~
7. Calculation of length of tile belt (L) :
We know that the length of an open belt,
L

2 C + ~ (D + d) + {_D- d)2
.
2
4C

2
4 x 2000

= 6033.8 mm

/i

1.26

l.tI J Design a belt drive to transmit 20 kW at 720 r.p.m. to an aluminiu",

( Example

rolling machine, the speed ratio being 3. The distance between the pul/eys is 3 m: Diamele,
of rolling machine pulley is 1.2 m.
P == 20 kW

Given Data:

== 20 x 103 W ,.

ROlling

N I == 720 r.p.m.;

machine
(driven)

Speed ratio == 3 ;
C == 3 m;

D == 1.2 m.

Solution:

Fig. 1.15.

The given arrangement

is shown in Fig.l.I5.

1. Calculation of pulley diameters:

Driven pulley diameter,
We know that

== 1200 mm

D
Driver pulley speed
== d == Driven pulley speed

speed ratio

]200

3 ==
Consulting

... [Given].

Table 1.5, the recommended

or d==400mm
driver pulley diameter

== 400 mm

2. Ca/cularion of design power ill kW:

Rated k W x Load correction

Design
(i)
(ii)

Rate kW
From Table 1.9,

20kW

... [Given]

Arc of contact

(iii)

factor (Ks)

Design

(D-d)
--

x 60

180 - (1200-400)
3000

60

1640

x, ~ 1.06.

For 164, From Table 1.10,

(iv) From Table I.] 1,

180-

Kd == 0.8
kW ==

20 x 1.5
1.06 x 0.8

== 35.377 kW

3. Selection of belt:
Consulting

Table

1.12,

FORT duck belting is selected. Its capacity

is given as 0.0289

kW/mmlply.

Velocity

of the belt,

-=
::;

1t

d NI
60

==

1t

x 0.4 x 720
60

==

V
10

15.08 m/s

1.27

---w-

= Load rating at 10 mls x (15.08)

= 0.0289 x
5. Determination of belt width:

(I~.g8) = 0.04358 kW I mm I ply

.

For 400 mm smaller pulley diameter and velocity .of 15.08 mis, consulting Table 1.8, the
number of plies can be selected as 6.
Width of belt

Design power

= Load rating x No. of plies

35.377
0.04358 x 6

= 135.29 mm

From Table 1.13, for 6 ply belt, standard belt width = 152 mm Ans. ~
6. Determination of pulley width:

177 mm

:. Referring Table 1.6(b), the standard pulley width is 180 mm Ans."

7. Calculation of length of the belt (L) :

7t

2'

2C +

(D + d) +
7t

(D - d)2

4C

(1200 - 400)2
_
4 x 3000
= 8~66.6 mm

Ans. ~

1.19. DESIGN OF BELT DRIVES USING BASIC EQUA":IONS

In a belt drive, when the drive is transmitting maximum power without slip (i.e., at the
point of slipping) the tensions in belt are governed by the following equation,
T -my2
1

T2-mY2

where

...!!!!...
= esin ~

(l

ella. cosec ~

'" (1.20)

2f3 is the Y-groove angle (= 1800 for flat belts)

In equation (1.20), the term

ella cosec ~

represents the tension ratio at which slip occurs.

The load carrying capacity of a pair of pulleys is determined by the pulley which has the
smaller value of eJ.IIZcosec
fJ. Therefore, while designing a belt drive using basic equations,

first one should find which of the pulley (smaller or larger) governs the design.
Tofind the governing pulley (i.e., pulley governs the design) :

1. If the coefficients of friction are same for both the pulleys (i.e., both the pulleys are of
same material), then the smaller pulley governs the design. Because for open belt drive, the
smaller pulley has the wrap angle smaller than that of the larger pulley and hence the smaller
pulley will have the smaller value of eJ.lQ cosec P than the larger pulley. Therefore smaller
pulley will slip first.

/,---

.1

Design a/Transmission

Systems

1.28

2 If the coefficients of friction are different for both the pulleys (i.e., both th~tUlle;s ar~
of different material), then the pulley which has the smaller tension ratio (or sma er va ue 0
eJUlcosec j3 ) governs the design.
~

I Example

1.5

I A leather

0/ the

Electric motor

Air compressor

Power (in k W)

25

1440

360

Pulley diameter (in mm)

250

1200

3.8

4.7

0.3

0.25

-Angle

Coefficient

0/ friction

The density of the belt is 1000 kg/mJ. The permissible tension is not to exceed 145 N in
10 mm width. TI,e thickness of tbc belt may be taken as 8 mm. Determine which pulley is
governing the design 0/ the drive and find the necessary width to transmit
power taking into account the centrifugal tension also.
Given Data:

= 25

kW

= 25

x 103 W;

d = 250 mm; D = 1200 mm; (11 = 3.8 rad;

P = 1000 kg/rn-; Tl = 145-N in 10 mm width; t =
To find:

(i)

the required

NI ,= 1440 r.p.m.;
N2 = 360 r.p.m.;
J..LI= 0.3; J.i2 = 0.25;
8 mm.

(ii) Width of the belt.

Solution:
(i) The pulley which governs the design:
We know that a pulley which has the smaller value of e~a cosec ~ will govern the design.
Since the coefficients of friction are different for both the pulleys, first we have to evaluate
e~ (since 2~ = 1800 for flat belts) separately.
:. For smaller pulley :

e~l at

= eOJ x 3.8

= 3.127

e~2 a2

= 3.238

Here

e~1 al

(ii) Width

<

0/ the

e~2 a2.

eO.25 x 4.7

belt (b) :

Velocity of the belt. v =

1tdNI
60

1t x 0.25 x 1440
60

= 18.85 m1s

Let II and T2 be the tensions on the tight and slack sides respectively.
We know that the power transmitted (P),

1.29

P = (TI - T2) v
25 x 103

1326.29

... (i)

We know that cross-sectional area of the belt,

= b x

= b x 8 = 8 b mrn? = 8 b x 1Q-6 m2

m

= Density x Volume = Density x Area x Length

8 b x 10-3 kg/m

1000 x 8 b x 1Q-6 x 1

m- v2 = 8 b x 10-3 (18.85)2

We know that centrifugal tension,

Te

= 2.84 b N

We also know that the tension ratio considering the centrifugal tension,
TI - m v2

T2-my2

TI-2.84b
T2 - 2.84 b

or

T)-2.84b
(T)-1326.29)-2.84b

or

'" [e~)

e~) a)

a) -

= 3.127

. . [ .:

eJi) a)

3.127 ]

... (ii) [.: T2 = TI - 1326.29, from (i) ]

= 3.127

It is given that permissible tension (T) is 145 N in 10 mm width or 14.5 N/mm width.
,

:. TI

r

',1

x widt~

= 14.5 b

... (iii)

. .

Substituting the equation (iii) in (ii), we get

14.5.b - 2.84 b
14.5 b - 1326.29 - 2.84 b

On simplification, we get

1l.b(, h
1l.bb b .

= 3.127

= 167.23 mm

I Example 1.6 I Find the width of the belt necessary to transmit

7.5 kW to a pulley of

JOOmm diameter, if the pulley makes 1600 r.p.m; and the coefficient of friction between
the belt and the pulley is 0.22. Assume the angle of contact as 2100 and the maximum

tensionin the belt is not to exceed 8 Nlmm width.

GivenData: P = 7.5 kW = 7500 W " d
J.L =

0.22;

C1

= 210 = 210
0

1:00

TOjind: Width of the belt (b).

@ Solution: Velocity of the belt, v

7tdN

60

7t x 0.3 x 1600

60

25.133 rnIs

1.30

We know that,

7500 = (T1
TI

Also

T2

ella

T2) v

(TI -

T2) 25.133 or

eO.22

3.6652

= 539.15 Nand

TI

T2

TI -

2.2396 or

TI

... (i)

298.415

... (ii)

2.2396 T2

= 240.734 N

T2

..

T1

Maximum tension per mm width x width

= 8b

539.15 = 8 b or b = 67.4 mm
Consulting Table 1.13, standard width of the belt = 76 mm Ans. ~

I Example 1. 71 A flat

belt is required to transmit 35 kW from a pulley of 1.5 m

effective diameter running at 300 r.p.m: The angle of lap is 1650 and JJ = 0.3. Determine,
taking centrifugal tension into account, width of the belt required. It is given that the belt
thickness is 9.5 mm, density of its material is 1.1 Mg/m3 and the related permissible
working stress is 2.5 MPa.
Given Data: P = 35 kW = 35 x 103 W;
1t

0'

= 0.3;

= 9.5

Tofind:

Width of the belt (b).

1tdN
... Velocity of belt, v = ~

Solution:
- ~

1t

x 1.5 x 300
60
= 23.56 m/s.

.~ e ,

Let

We know that,

p = (T1

T2) v

35 x 103 = (TI - T2) 23.56

or TI - T2 = 1485.45

... (i)

T)
T2
Solving

(0 and

= ella

(ii),

eO.3 x

T) = 2568N

Cross-sectional area of the belt

bx

t =

and T2 = 1082.19N

9.5'b mrn-

9.5 b x 1~

m2

We know that mass of the belt per meter length,

m

Centrifugal tension, Tc

Density x Area x Length

1100x9.5bx

m v2 = 0.01045 b (23.56)2

l~x

1=

p x (b x t) : I

0.01045b

kg/m

5.8 b N

... (ii)

and

1.31

bxt)

0" (

= 2.5 x 106 x 9.5 b x lQ-{>= 23.75 b N

We also know that

T=TI+Tc
23.75 b = 2568 + 5.8 b or b = 143 mm

I Example

1.8

to transmit 12 kW from a motor running at

720 r.p.m: The belt is 12 mm thick and has a mass density of 0.001 gm/mmt. Permissible
stress in the belt not to exceed 2.5 Nlmm2. Diameter of driving pulley is 250 mm whereas
the speed of the driven pulley is 240 r.p.m. The two shafts are 1.25 m apart. Coefficient of
friction is 0.25. Determine the width of the belt.
Given Data:

P = 12 kW

12 x 103 W;

p :: 0.001 grn/mrn! = 1000 kg/m'';

d I = 250 mm = 0.25 m; N2 = 240 r.p.m.;

NI = 720 r.p.m.;

= 2.5 N/mm2 = 2.5 x

C = 1.25 m; ~L = 0.25.
0"

= 12 mm;
106 N/m2;

Toflnd : Width of the belt (b).

Solution:

Velocity of belt, v

N,

0.25
240
= -d
720
2

9.425 m/s

or d2 = 0.75 m

d2-d,
2C

0.75 - 0.25
= 0.2
2 x 1.25

a = sirr ' (0.2) = 11.54

or

INote I Since

a =

d2

SIl1

x 0.25 x 720
60

d,

N2
Speed ratio = -

We know that

1t

the material is same for both the pulleys, therefore the smaller pulley governs

the design.

Arc of contact for smaller pulley, as = (180 - 2 a) 1;00

= (180 - 2 x 11.54) x 1;00 = 2.74 radians
We know that

TI = e)lUs
T2

Also
12xI03

(TI

eO.25 x 2.74

1.983 or TI=1.983T2

T2) v

= (TI-T2)9.425

or TI-T2=

Let

... (i)

b = Belt width in mm.

1273.2

T2 = 1272.2 N

... (ii)

1
Design a/Transmission Systems

1.32

Cross-section of the belt

= b x t = b x 12 = 12 b mm2 = 12 b x 10"-6m2

We know that mass of the belt per metre length,

m = Density x Area x Length

= p x (b x t) x I
= 1000 x (12 b x 10~) x I = 0.012 b kg/m
Centrifugal tension, Tc = m y2 = 0.012 b (9.425)2 = 1.065 b N

o x (b

30b N
T} +Tc

x t) = 2.5 x 106 x (12 b x 10~)

=
30 b = 2545.42 + 1.065 b or b = 87.97 mm
Consulting Table l.13, standard belt width = 90 mm Ans."

We know that

, Example 1.9 , Design a rubber belt to drive a dynamo generating 20 kW at 2250

r.p.m: and fitted with a pulley 200 mm diameter. Assume dynamo efficiency to be 85%.
Allowable stressfor belt material = 2.1 N/mml
Density of rubber

1000 kg/mJ

1650

0.3

= 20 x 103W ~ N = 2250 r.p.m. ~ d = 200 mm = 0.2 m ~

0.85 ~ o = 2.1 N/mm2 = 2.1 x 106 N I m2 ~ p = 1000 kg 1m3; a = 165 =

Given Data: P = 20 kW
TId

165

= 85%
1t

180

Tofind:

J.L

= 0.3.

Design a rubber belt (i.e., width and thickness of the belt).

Solution:

Velocity of belt,

1t

dN

= 60 =

1t

x 0.2 x 2250

60

= 23.6 mls

We know that

20 x 103
Also

T}
T2

... (i)

Solving (ijand (ii), we get T} = 1719N

and T2

... (ii)

= 724 N.

Let band t be the width and thickness of the belt respectively in mm.
Assume thickness of the belt, t = 10 mm ADS. ~
Cross-sectional area of the belt

= bxt

::: b x 10

= lOb mm-

lOb x 10-6 m2

1.33

m

= Density

x Area x Length

= pxbxtxI

= 1000 x (10 b x 10-6) x 1 = 0.01 b kg/m

Centrifugal tension, Te

m- v2

Maximum tension in the belt, T = c x (b x t) = 2.1 x 106 x (10 b x 10-6)

= 21 bN
We know that

T=T)+Te
21 b = 1719 + 5.5696 b or b = 111.4 mm

standard belt width = 112mm Ans."

( Example 1.10 , A leather belt 125 mm wide and 6 mm thick, transmits power from a
pulley with the angle of lap 1500 and u = 0.3. If the mass of 1 m3 of leather is 1Mg and the
stress in the belt is not to exceed 2.75 MPa, find the maximum power that can be
transmitted and the corresponding speed of the belt.
GivenData:

b=125mm=0.125m;

e = 150

t=6mm=6x
1t

10-3m;

J.L = 0.3;

106 N/m2.

To find: Maximum power and corresponding speed.

Solution:
Speed of the belt for maximum power:
T = o xbx

t =

We know that maximum tension in the belt,

2.75 x 106 x 0.125 x 6 x 10-3 = 2062.5 N

= Density x Area x Length = p b . t . I

= 1000 x 0.125 x 6 x 10-3 x 1 = 0.75 kglm

v=~

2062.5
3 x 0.75

= 30.25mls

Ans."

We know that for maximum power to be transmitted,

T
2062.5
Centrifugal tension, Te = 3 =
3
= 687.5 N
and tension in the tight side of the belt,
Tl = T - Te

_~!tt~. _

= 2062.5 - 687.5

= 1375 N

Design of Transmission Systems

1.34

We know that

TI
=
T2

or

TI
T2 = 2.195
Maximum

power transmitted,

1.11 lIn

2.62

1375
_-=
2.195

2.195

626.53 N

= (TI _ T2) v
=

I Example

eOJ

ella

(1375 - 626.53) 30.28 = 22.66 kW

Ans. ~

a belt drive, the tension ratio is 2.6. The mass of the belt is J kg/m

length. It runs at a speed of 5 m/s and at this speed, power transmitted is 8 k W. What
should be tile initial tension in the belt and what should be the streng til of the belt?
Given Data:

TI

T =

2.6;

In

1 kg/rn ; v

= 5 m/s

; P = 8 kW

8 x 103 W.

Solution:

(TI - T2) v

8 x 103

(T, - T2) 5 or

2.6

TI

2600 N and T

111'

We know that

TI

Given that,

T2

Centrifugal

tension,

or TI

\ 2

11

TI _ T_ = 1600

... (ii)

2.6 T2

=
=

... (i)

n idcrin

cntrifu

al ten i n,

TI

2600
=

1825 N Ans. ~

Strength of the belt (T) :

Strengt.h of the belt = Total ten i n of the tight side
T

I Example

1.12

IA

TIT

2600 ' 25

(III

2625 N Ans. ~

open belt drive. Tlte linear

velocity of the belt is 2.5 m/s. TI,e angle of lap on the smaller pulley is 165 ~ The coefficient
of friction is 0.3. Determine the effect on power transmission in the following cases:
(i)

(ii) Initial tension ill the belt is decreased by 8%,

(iii) Angle of lap is increased by 8% by the use of all idler pulley, for the same speed

1.35

(iv) Coefficient of 'friction is increased by 8% by suitable dressing to tile friction surface

of tile belt.
Also state which of the above methods suggested could be more effective?
Given Data:

Tofind:

2.5 kW

1t

1650

v = 2.5 mls ;

2500 W ;

= 2.88

1650 x 1800

~L

= 0.3.

Solution:

P = (T I

Power,

2500

.

T 2) v

!...

(T. - T2) 2.5

TI =

ellU

... (i)

or T, - T2 = 1000

eO.3x2.88

2.37

or T,

Tl

Solving(i)and(ii),weget
Initial tension,

To

1729.9N

T, +T2

and

729.9N

1729.9 + 729.9
2

T2

... (ii)

2.37T2

1229.9N

IO~

New increased

initial tension,

To'

T, +T2
or

108
100 x 1229.9

To'

1328.3 N

1328.3 N or T1 + T2 = 2656.6 N ... (iii)

T, .
As ~ and a remain unchanged,

or

ella

is same. So, T,

r, .=

Solving (ii) and (iii), we get

Power,

Increase in power

1868.3N

and

= 2.37

T2 = 78~.3 N

p.

2:7 -~.5
2.5 V

T2

P-v

2.7 k\y
0/

0.08 or 8/0

(ii) When initial tension is decreased by 8%:

New decreased

initial tension,

92
To' = 100 x 1229.9

or

TI

Solving (ii) and (iv), we get

Then,

Power,

To'

=
=

2.37 T2

T2

1591.5 Nand

2.S -2.3
2.5

1131.5 N

113 1.5 N or T I + T 2

P = (1591.5 -671.5)

Decrease in power

2.5

2263

671.5 N

2.3 kW

0.08 or 8/.,

--.

ns. --

... (iv)

___

1.36

(iii) Wilen angle of lap (a) is increased by 8%:

New angle of lap, a'
and

T1

108
100 x a.

= ella'

]08
100

x 2.88 = 3.1 104 rad

eO.3 x 3.1104

2.54 or T I = 2.54 T 2

... (v)

i.e., TI

Tension on the tight side remains same as before.

Then from equation (v),

= ] 729.9

T2

680.5 N

Power,

. power = [ 2.6242.5- 2.5 ]

... Percentaze
ercen age imcrease in

(iv) When coefficient of friction is increased by 8%:

New u'

T
New tension ratio, T I

108

= ] 00

x J.l

ell's

eO.27

108
100 x 0.25
x

2.88

0.27

2.54 or T I = 2.54 T 2

... (vi)

As initial tension is same,

Solving (vi) and (vii), we get

TI +T2
2

1229.9 N or TI + T2 = 2459.8
1764.9 Nand

'" (vii)

T2 = 694.9 N

Power, P = (~764.9 - 694.9) 2.5 = 2.675 kW

2.675 - 2.5
Percentage increase in power =
= 0.07 or 70/0 Ans."
2.5

Conclusion: Since the power transmitted by increasing the initial tension by 8% is more,
therefore in order to increase the power transmitted, we shall adopt the method of increasing
the initial tension. Ans."

I Example

1.13

I The

layout of a crossed leather belt drive is shown in Fig. 1.16. The

bell, 6 mm thick, transmits 7.5 kW and operates at a velocity of 13 mls approximately. The
coefficient of friction is 0.3 and the permissible tensile stress for the belt material is
1. 75 N/~.
The density of leather is 0.95 gm/cc. Calculate: (i) the diameter of pulleys;
(ii) the length and width of the belt; and (iii) belt tensions on the tight and loose sides. Take
length of the belt, 1% less to give initial tension.
6 mm = 6 x 10-3 m ;
P = 7.5 kW .= 7.5 x 103 W;
v = 13 mls ;
J.L = 0.3; o = 1.75 Nzrnm? = 1.75 x 106 N/m2;
p
=
0.95
grn/cc
=
950
kg/m '
N 1 = 1000 r.p.m.;
N2 = 500 r.p.m. ;

Given Data:

t =

1500 mm = 1.5 m.

1---

1500 mm

---1.1

Fig. 1.16.

,.j

Flat Belts and Pulleys

1.37

@Solution :
(i) Diameter of pulleys:

Speed ratio,

or 0=2d

and

velocity, v

13

1t

d Nl
60

1t

... (i)

d x 1000
or d
60

.

L = 2C +

2 x 250

500 mm

0.248 m
=

250 mm

'" [From equation (i)]

For a crossed belt, length of the belt is given by
( 1t )

2 x 1500 +

(0 + d) +

(0 + d)2
4C

+ 250)2
( 27t) (500 + 250) + (500
(4 x 1500)

4271.84 mm

Belt length

=
Power, P =

0.99 x 4271.84

4229 mm

(Tl - T2) v

For a crossed belt drive,

a = sirr!

Angle of contact, as

We know that
Solving (i) and (ii), we get

Let

TJ

(D+d)
2C

= sin-J (500+250)

2 x 1500

(180 + 2 a) 1;0

T2

= e~

TJ

eO3 x 3.646 =

867.56 Nand

... (ii)

14.470

2.985 or T J

= 2.985

T 2'" (iii)

T2 = 290.64 N

Cross-section of the belt = b x t = b x 6

We know that mass of the belt per metre length,
m

= 6 b mm? = 6 b x 10-0 m2

Density x Area x Length

pxb

txI

J
"

Design o/Transmission

Systems

1.38

= 950x6bx

kg/m

Centrifugal tension, Tc = m- v2 = 5.7 x 10-3 b (13)2 = 0.963 b N

maximum tension in the belt, T

and

... (iv)

cs=b>!

T=TJ+Tc

We know that

10.5 b

100 mm

Substituting b = 100 mm in equation (iv), we get

Centrifugal tension, Tc

and

tr-:

,/L

0.963 x 100

96.3 N

T I + Tc

867.56 + 96.3

T2 + Tc

963.86 N.

REVIEW AND SUMMARY

Based on the shape of cross-section of the belts, belts are classified as flat belts, V-belts
and ropes (i.e.. circular belts).
Types offlat belt drives and their applications are tabulated in Table 1.2.
Belt materials: Leather,fabric and colton, rubber, balata and nylon core.
Velocity ratio of belt drive:
(i)

(ii)

(iii)

N2
N,
N2
N/

d, + t
d2 + t

dJ + I [
S ]
d2 + t 1- 100

NJ

... [when considering the thickness of the belt]

... [when considering the slip of the belt]

a, E+{a;

N2

(iv)

N2
N/

d,
d2

d2 x E + ~

where NJ and N2
d / and d 2
t

=

E
uJ and u2

=

------~

N,

./

Velocity ratio of a compound belt drive:

Speed 0/ last dri~en = Product of diameters 0/ drivers
Speed offirst driver
Product of diameters of drivens

./

Length of the belt (L) :

where

= 2 C + !I

1.39

(D + d) + (D - d)2
'I
4C

... [For open belt drive)

2 C + !I (D + d) + (D + d)2
2
'I
4C

d and D = Diameters of smaller and larger pulley diameters, and

C = Centre distance between the pulleys .

./

Wrap angle or angle of contact of pulleys (a) :

For open belt drive:

and

2C

degrees

2C

degrees

For cross belt drive:

Wrap angle for smaller pulley, as = 180 + 2 . sin ! (D2 ~ d) degrees
and

Wrap anglefor larger pulley, aL

./

Power transmitted,

./

Tension ratio:

./

Centrifugal tension:
where m

./

P
TJ
T2

(IJ - T~ v

epa

180 + 2 -sin:' (D2 ~d)

degrees

Tc = mvl
Mass per unit length of bell.

Initial tension (IoJ of the belt is given by

... [Neglecting centrifugal tension)
... [Considering centrifugal tension}

./

(i)

Where

vmax

ff.,

and (ii) T= 3 Tc

Maximum tension in the belt

TI + Tc

Design a/Transmission

1,40

In this chapter, the design of flat belt pulleys are presented with step by step proced

{./
./

Design of flat belt pulleys: To find (i) Dimensions of pulley (includes diameter,
and thickness of the pulley), (ii) Dimensions of arms (includes number of arms,
. section of arms and arms taper),' and (iii) Dimensions of hub (includes diameter
length of hub).

./

Two different design procedures used for belt drives are: (i) using the manufacture
data,' and (ii) using the basic equations.

,/

Step by step procedure for the design of 'flat belts using the manufacturer's
in this chapter with sufficient example problems.

,/

Flat bell design: To find: (i) Type of bell (i.e., Hi-speed or Fort), (ii) Bell width
number of plies, and (iii) Belt length.

./

Design

WIll

ustn basi

.
'h
equations: Ti e pulley which has the smaller value of tension ra
govern the design of the drive.
G

OSIC

REVIEW QUESTIONS

1.

2.

data is g

Enumerate the various types of belts used for the transmission of pow
What are the materials used in flat belts.
er.

3.
4.

s.

6.
7.
8.
9.
10.

Wha

I'

Oo.

' II S JP and (Iii) creep in b It

t is the effect of centrifugal tension on power tr
'.
e s.
Wh t ." be
ansmlsSlon by a flat belt?
. ~ WI
the effect on the limiting ratio of
.
.
Ihetlon between the belt and rim of pull
. d tensIons of a belt if the coefficient of
same?
ey IS oubled while angle of I
.
[Ans . R .
.
ap remams the
What is the purpose of having an idler pull
. b
'. ano of tensIOn will be squared1
L'1Stout the losses in belt d .
ey In elt dnve ?.
,
. fives.
What are the v .
'T
anous s~sses set up in a belt?
What is the ,.ffi
f
.
l'"
ect 0 centre distance and d'
Wh t'
l8ltleter of puJJey
h
a IS crowning of pulleys?
on t e life of a belt?

Flol Bells and Pulleys

1.41
PROBLEMS FOR PRACTICE

1.

Design a cast iron pulley for the following specifications:

Power transmitted = 18 kW; Speed of shaft = 250 rpm; Ratio of tensions = 3: Velocity of
leather belt = 12.5 m/s; Allowable belt tension = 4200 N/m of belt width: Number of
arms with elliptical section = 6; Safe shear stress for shaft = 56 MPa; Safe tensile stress
for Cf. = 14 MPa.

2.

An overhung pulley transmits 3S kW at 240 r.p.m. The belt drive is vertical and the
angle of wrap may be taken as 1800 The distance of the pulley centre line from the
nearest bearing is 350 mm. Jl = 0.25. Determine:
I. Diameter of the pulley,
2. Width of the pulley assuming thickness of belt of 10 mm,
3. Diameter of the shaft, and
4. Size of the arms (six in number).
Take the section of the arm as elliptical. Safe stress for arms = 15 N/mm2; Safe shear
stress for shafts = 50 N/mm2; Safe stress for belt = 2.5 N/ll1m2; Safe stress for rim = 4.5
N/mm2; Density of leather = 1000 kg/rn'.

Problems on design of flilt belt drive using manufacturer's data :

3. It is required to select ~ flat-belt drive to connect two transmission shafts rotating at 800
and 40.0 r.p.rn. respectively.
The centre-to-centre
distance between the shafts is
approximately 3 m and the belt drive is open type. The power transmitted by the belt is
30 kW. Also select preferred pulley diameters and specify the belt.
4.

S.

6.

Design a fabric belt to transmit 15

1200 r.p.m. The diameter of engine
pulleys is 2 nl.
A belt is to transmit 2S kW at 720
Centre distance between the pulleys

kW at 480 r.p.m. from an engine to a line shaft at

pulley is 600 mm and centre distance between the
r.p.m. to a rolling machine with a speed ratio of 3.
is 2.8 m. Design a suitable belt drive if the rolling

machine pulley diameter is 0.9 111.

Design a fabric belt to transmit 7.5 kW at 8 r.p.s. of an engine to a line shah .u 22 r.p.s.
Engine pulley diameter is 550 mill and centre distance is 2 m.

Problems on design of jlllt belt drive using basic equations :

7.

The specifications

of a belt drive from a motor to an exhaust fan are given below :

Motor

ran

n111l

350

1100

2.75

4.25

Coefficient of friction

OJ

0.25

Speed.

l(lOO

~5n

20

Pulley diameter.

Lp Ill.

POWl:r. kW

AFrB:J.P~

~~n

__

..

.X

Design a/Transmission

Systems

1.42

.
. ible tension of 16 N/mm width is used. The density of the
Leather belt Ilavmg perrrnsst
.
. h oultev i
belt is 1000 k~3. The belt is approximately 8 mm thick. Determme w.hlc pu e~ IS
governing the design of the drive and find the necessary width to transmit t~e required
power taking into account the centrifugal tension also. [Ans: Smaller p~lley 152 mm]
8.

Determine the width of a 97.5 mm thick leather belt required to transmit 15 ~W from a
motor running at 900 r.p.m. T Iie diiameter 0f tlie dri
nvm g pulley of the motor IS 300 mm.
The driven pulley runs at 300 r.p.m. and the distance between the centre of two pulle~s
is 3 metres. The density of the leather is 1000 kg/m''. The maximum allowable str.ess III
the leather is 2.S MPa. The coefficient of friction between the leather and pulley IS OJ.
[Ails:

Assume open belt drive and neglect the sag and slip of the belt.
9.

80 mm]

The following data relate to a flat belt drive: Power transmitted 18 kW; Pulley diameter
1.8 rn; Angle of contact 1750; Speed of pulley 300 r.p.m.; Coefficient of friction between
belt and pulley surface 0.30; Permissible stress for belt 300 N/cm2; Thickness of belt
8 mm; Density of the belt material 950 kg/rn'. Determine the width of belt required
taking centrifugal tension into account.
[Ails: 44 mm]

10. A pulley is driven by a flat belt, the angle oflap being 1200 The belt is 100 mm wide by
6 mm thick and density 1000 kg/m-'. If the coefficient of friction is 0.3 and the maximum
stress in the belt is not to exceed 2 MPa, find the greatest power which the belt can
transmit and the corresponding speed of the belt.
[Ans: 9.67 kW; 25.82 m/s]
11. An open belt drive connects two parallel shafts 1.2 m apart. The driving and the driven
shafts rotate at 350 r.p.m. and 140 r.p.m. respectively and the driven pulley is 400 mm in
diameter. The belt is 5 mm thick and 80 mm wide. Coefficient of friction between belt
and pulley is 0.3 and maximum permissible tension in the belting is 140 N/cm2.
Determine (a) .diarneter of the driving pulley, (b) maximum power that can be
transmitted by the belting, and (c) required belt tension.
[Ans: 160 mm; 462 W; 395.89 N]
12. The power transmitted between two shafts 3.5 metres apart by a cross belt drive round
the two pulleys 600 mm and 300 mm in diameters, is 6 kW. The speed of the driver is
220 r.p.m. The permissible load on the belt is 25 N/mm width of the belt which is 5 mm
thick. ji = 0.35. Deterrnine : (1) necessary length of the belt; (2) width of the belt; and (3)
necessary initial tension in the belt.
[Ans: 8.472 m ~52 mm ; 888 N]

13. Power is transmitted by an open belt drive from a pulley 300 mm diameter running at
200 r.p.m. to a pulley 500 mm diameter. Angle of lap on the small pulley is 1650 The
belt is on the point of slipping when 2.5 kW is being transmitted.

The coefficient

of

(a) Initial tension in the belt

is increased by 10%, and (b) Suitable dressing is given to the friction surface at the belt
to increase the coefficient of friction by 10%.
[Ans: First method is more effective]

\.

1.43

Flat Belts and Pulleys

14. In an open belt drive, the linear velocity of the belt is 3 mls. The angle of lap on the
smaller pulley is 166, the coefficient of friction is 0.3 and the power transmitted is
3 kW. Determine the effect of power transmission in the following cases:
(i)

(ii) Initial tension in the belt is decreased by 10%,

(iii) Angle of lap is increased by 10% by the use of an idler pulley, for the same speed and
the tension on tight side, and
(iv) Coefficient of friction is increased by 10% by suitable dressing to the friction surface of
the belt.

10%;

-_.---J

V -Belts and Pulleys

"The only way to discover the limtts of the possible
is to go beyond them into the impossible. "

- Arthur C Garke

2.1. INTRODUCTION
V -belts are
mixer, grinder,
machinery, and
that V -belts run

used with electric motors to drive blowers, compressors, appliances (like

etc.), machine tools (like lathe, drilling machine,
farm and industrial
so on. V-belts are endless and run in
pul
grooved pulleys
in are called sheaves.

2.2. CONSTRUCTION OF V-BEL T

power is transmitted
t
between the
t and the V-gr

Fabric and
rubber cover

gi~tiol1
ults in
er
groove an
of a sheave
than the belt section
angle. This
ides the wedging action of the
belt in the groove. The exact value of this angle
depends upon the belt section, the sheave
diameter, and the angle of contact. If it is made
too much smaller than the belt, then the force
required to pull the belt out of the grooves will
be excessive. So usually groove angles of 32
and 38 are used.

Fabric
Cord
Rubber

Fig. 2.1. Cross-section of V-belt

Sufficient clearance must be provided at the bottom of the groove to prevent the belt from
bottoming as it becomes narrower from wear. Multiple V-belts are used in order to increase
the power capacity. As many as 12 or mote belts are commonly used in heavy-duty
applications.
2.2.1. Materials of V-belts
V -belts are made of cotton fabric and cords moulded in rubber and covered with fabric

2.2

OF V-BElT

DRIVE OVER

_, Power transmitted is more due to wedging action in the grooved pulley.

_, V-belt is more compact, quiet and shock absorbing.
_, The drive is positive because the slip is negligible due to wedge action.
_, Higher velocity ratio (upto 10) can be obtained.
_,
_,

V-belt drive can operate in any position (i.e., horizontal, vertical or inclined).
Multiple V -belts can be used, thus enabling transmission of more power.

_,

It cannot be used with large centre distances.

_,

It is not as durable as flat belt (because of high bending stress that is caused due to
higher ratio of belt depth to diameter of pulley than that in case of flat belt drive).

_,

Since the V -belt is subjected to certain amount of creep, therefore it is not suitable
for constant speed application such as synchronous machines and timing devices .

./

It cannot be used for large power .

./

The efficiency of the V -belt is lower than that of the flat belt.

./

The construction of V-grooved pulleys is complicated and costlier compared with

pulleys of the flat belt drive.

2.4. TYPES OF V-BEl TS

According to Bureau 'of Indian standards (IS :2494-] 974), the V -belts are classified as A.
B, C, D and E type (based on the cross-section of V -belts).The various dimensions of on
standard V-belt sections are shown in Table 2.2.
2.4.1. Specification of V-belts

V-belts are designated by its type and nominal inside length. For example, a C2845 belt
has a cross-section of type C and has a nominal inside length of2845 mm.
2.5. RATIO OF DRIVING TENSIONS FOR V-BEL T
TI

eJ.Ul!sin

= ella'

cosec

... (2.1)

T2
where

TI and T2

2P =
fl

Angle of the groove, and

Coefficient of friction between the beit and sides of the groove.

Total power transmitted

Number of'V-belts = Power transmitted per belt

.,

,..

(2.2)

I,i~
,
r

2.3

2.6. V-FLAT DRIVES

In a V-belt drive, if the large grooved pulley is replaced by a flat-faced pulley (and smaller
pulJey remains V-grooved), then the drive is known as V-flat drive. The larger pulley has a
greater contact angle than the smaller pulley, that compensates for the loss of wedging action.
V-flat drives are used in domestic piston pumps, domestic clothes drier and large punch
presses.

I .

2.7. DESIGN OF SHEAVES (OR V-GROOVED PULLEYS)

f
1. Materials of V-grooved pulleys:
The commonly
Table 2.1.

used sheave materials and their characteristics

are summarised

In

Table 2.1.
Material of sheaves

1.

Characteristics

Cast iron

It is economical, stable and durable. Also it has

excellent friction characteristics on V-belts.

2. Pressed steel

It is lighter and cheaper but it gives rise to excessive

belt slip, wear and noise.

3.

Formed steel

Primarily used in automotive and agricultural purposes.

4.

Diecast aluminium

Used for special applications.

2. Dimensions of sheaves:
The cross-section of a sheave (i.e., V-grooved pulley) for V-belt drives
Fig.2.2. (Refer data book, page no. 7.70).

~-----------------------------I------------------I

where

Ip

Pitch width,

Face width,

Edge of pulley to first groove centre,

..

',Scanned
,~;;:' \
'.
_--------by CamScanner

'-:;;:

IS

shown

In

2.4

Design a/Transmission

Systems

= Centre to centre distance of grooves,

dp = Pulley pitch diameter,
e

b
h

= Minimum distance down to pitch line, and

= Minimum depth below the pitch line.

The various dimensions of standard V-grooved pulley are given in Table 2.2.
Table 2.2. Dimensions of standard V-grooved pulley in mm (from data book, page no. 7.70)
No. of

Groove

Groove
Ip

cross-

dp

angle (2P)

section

sheave

grooves

in degrees

(n)

11

3.3

7S

32,34,38

8.7

IS

10

14

4.2

125

32,34,38

10.8

19

12.5

19

5.7

200

34,36,38

14.3

25.5

17

14

27

8.1

355

34,36,38

19.9

37

24

14

32

9.6

SOO

23.4

44.5

29

20

INote I

Face width, I

= (n -

1) e + 2 f

Design Procedure: The two steps involved in designing a V-grooved pulley are:
Select the cross-section of the belt (i.e., type of belt) depending on the power to be
transmitted, by consulting Table 2.3.

I.

Table 2.3. Data on standard V-belt sections (from data book, page no. 7.58)
Recommended
Cross
section

Area, mm2

minimum

of drive, kW

pulley pitch

symbol

dia, d, mm

Nominal top

Nominal

Mass per

width, W

thickness, T

metre, m

mm

mm

kg/m

80

0.7S - 5

75

13

0.106

140

2 -15

125

17

11

0.189

230

7.5-75

200

22

14

0.343

475

22 -ISO

355

32

19

0.596

695

30-190

500

38

23

2.

For the selected cross-section of the oelt, consulting Table 2.2, select the various
required dimensions of the V-grooved pulley.

..,

...:,)
2.5

, Example 2.1

I Design

a Vsgrooved pulley of a V-belt drive to transmit 14. 7 k W to a

compressor.
Given Data : P = 14.7 kW
To flnd : Design a V-grooved pulley (i.e., a sheave).

@Solution :
1. Selection of cross-section of belt:
For the given power transmitted (i.e., P

section 'C' is selected.

2. Selection of various dimensions of V-grooved pulley :
The cross-section of a V-grooved pulley is shown in Fig.2.2. For the selected belt crosssection C, consulting Table 2.2, the various dimensions of V -grooved pulley are given as
below.

=
Minimum distance down to pitch line, b =
Pulley pitch diameter, dp =
Groove angle, 2J3 =
Minimum depth below pitch line, h =
Centre to centre distance of grooves, e =
Edge of pulley to first groove centre, / =
Member of sheave grooves, n =
We know that face width, I =
=
Pitch width, Ip

19mm
5.7mm
200mm
34
14.3 mm
25.5 m
17 mm
14
(n - I) e + 2 /

(14-1)25.5+2x

17

365.5mm

3. Material selection:
Since the cast iron is economical,
material for V-grooved pulley.

DESIGN OF V-BEL T DRIVE

The two different design procedures used are:
(i)

data, and

(ii) Using the basic equations.

2.8. DESIGN OF V-BELT DRIVE BASED ON MANUFACTURER'S DATA
The design of V -belt is primarily concerned with the selection of belt section, selection of
pulley diameters, determination of number of belts and centre distance required for the given
transmitted power.

Design cf Transmisston Systems

2.6

Design procedure:
1. Sttection of belt section:
,
Consulting Table 2.3, select the cross-section

of a belt (i.e., type of belt) depending on the

power to be transmitted.
2. Selection o/pulley diameters (d and D) :
Select small pulley diameter (d) from Table 2.3. Then using the speed ratio, calculate the
large pulley diameter (D). These pulley diameters should be rounded off to a standard
diameter by using Table 1.5.
;<Selection

Select the centre distance, if not given, from Table 2.4.

Table 2.4. Selection of centre distance, C (from data book, page

CIO ratio

1.5

1.2

0.95

0.9

Cmin = 0.55 (0 + d) + T ~
_getermination

7.61)

Recommended

110.

C max

to

0.85

2 (0 + d)

of nominal pitch length:

Determine the length of the belt L (which is also known as nominal inside length) by
using the formula,
L

2C +

(n)'2

(D-d)2

(0 + d) + - 4 C

For the calculated nominal inside length and belt section, consulting Table 2.5, select the
next standard pitch length.

length of the belt at the pitch

width (i. e., the width at the neutral axis of the belt). The value of the pitch width remains constant for
each type of belt irrespective of the groove angle .
./' For pitch length, add with inside length, 36 mm for A belt, 43 mm for B, 56 mm for C. 79 mm
for 0 and 92 mm for E belt.

5. Selection of various modification factors:

In order to calculate
determ ined.
(i) Length

the design power. the following

correction factor (F J

modification

factors have to be

For a given sheave speed. longer belt has more life than a short one. because the shorter
bell is subjected to the action of the load a greater number of times. For this reason. belt
correction factor (Fc).is used.

2.7

V-Belts and Pulleys

Table 1.5. Nominal Inside length, nominal pitch length and length correction/actor/or

standard

sizes 0/ JI-belts (from data book, page 110. 7.58, 7.59 and 7.60)
(The values for a few cases only given)
Nominll

Correction

Nominal pitch length, mm

factor,

Fe

inside
A

610

645

0.80

965

1001

1008

0.88

0.83

1905

1941

J948

J9~1

1.02

0.97

0.87

2438

2474

2494

1.08

0.92

2667

2703

2710

2723

1.10

1.04

0.94

3048

3084

3091

3104

3J27

1.13

1.07

0.97

0.86

3251

3287

3294

3307

3330

1.14

1.08

0.98

0.87

4013

4056

4069

4092

l.J3

1.02

0.92

4572

4615

4628

465J

l.J6

1.05

0.94

5334

5377

5390

5413

5426

1.19

1.08

0.96

0.94

l.ll

1.00

0.96

1.21

1.09

1.05

length,
mm

6045

6101

6124

6137

._

9093

9149

9172

9185

For the selected belt cross-section, choose length correction factor (Fe) from Table 2.5.

(ii) Correction factor for arc oj contact (Fttl

~

.-

First determine the angle of contact (or arc of contact) of the smaller pulley.
Arc of contact = 1800

(D-d)

x 600

... [From data book, page no. 7.68]

For the calculated arc of contact, select the correction factor from Table 2.6.

Arc of contact factor is taken into account because the power transmitted may be
limited by slipping of the belt on the smaller pulley.
Table 2.6. Arc

0/ contact/actor, Fd

(The values/or a few cases are given below)

Arc of contact on smaller
pulley (in degrees)

180
171
160
151
139
130
120

Correction

factor (proportion

of 1800 ratine)

V-V
V-belt on V-pulley

V-Flat
V-belt on flat pulley

1.00
0.98
0.95
0.93
0.89
0.86
0.82

0.75
0.77
0.80
0.82
0.85
0.86
0.82

Design of Transmission Systems

2.8
(iii) Service factor (F J

./

Select the service factor (Fa) consulting Table 2.7.

./

The service factor takes into account the severity of the load transmitted which
depends upon the characteristics of the driving and driven units.
Table 2.7. Service factor for V-betts, Fa (from data book, page no. 7.69)
Driving units type - I
10 hrs.

Service

16 hrs.

Over 16 hrs.

10 hrs.

(per day)
Light duty
Medium duty
Heavy duty

1.0
1.1

I.l
1.2

1.2

1.3
1.4

1.3

Extra heavy duty

16 hrs.

Over 16 hrs.

(per day)
1.2

1.1

1.2

1.3

1.2

1.3

1.3
1.4

1.4

1.4

1.5

1.6

1.5

1.5

1.6

1.8

INote I The details of driving units and driven machines under different duties are available

in the

data book, page no. 7.69.

6. Calculation of maximum power capacity :

Calculate the maximum power capacity (in kW) of a V-belt using the formulas given in
Table 2.8.
Table 2.B. (from data book, page no. 7.62)
Belt cross-section

Maximum value of
'de' in the formula

Formula

symbol

where

mm

kW

kW

kW

kW

kW

x 10-4 S2) S

:0:

(0.79s-O09 - 5~.8 - 1.32 x 10-4 S2) S

e
142.7
(1.4 7 S-O'09 - -d- 2.34 x 10-4 S2) S
e
(3.22S-O09 - 5~.7
e

e

125
175
300 .
425
700

kW = Maximum power in kW at 1800 arc of contact for a belt of average length,

S = Belt speed, mis,
de = Equivalent pitch diameter
dp

= dp x Fb'

Fb = Small diameter factor to account for variation of arc of contact, from

Table 2.9.

_)
~V.~-B~e~/u~~an~d~P~u~I~/~~~~

~~

Table 2.9. (from data book, page no. 7.62)

Speed ntio ranle Old

1.0 to 1.019

1.00

1.02 to 1.032

1.01

1.033 to 1.055

1.02

1.056 to 1.081

1.03

1.082 to 1.109

1.04

1.11 to 1.142
1.143 to 1.178
1.179 to 1.222

1.223 to 1.274
1.215 to 1.340

1.08

1.341 to 1.429
1.43 to 1.562

1.10

1.09
1.11
1.12

l.OS

to 1.814
1.8tS to 2.948

1.13

1.06

1.14

I.S63

1.07

7. Determination of number of belts (n!) :

Determine the number of belts (nb) from the relation,

P
nb =

where

Fa

kWxFexFd

Fa

kW
Fe
Fd

= Rated power (i.e., rating of a single

= Length correction factor, and
= Correction factor for arc of contact.

V -belt),

-'

CactuaJ = A +
where

",j A2 -

... [From data book, page no, 7.61]

A=~-n[D;dJ
B

:c:

ill~df,

and

L ::: Nominal pitch length of the belt from Table 2.5 (refer step 4).

I ExaMple 2.2 I Design a V-belt drive to the following

Power to be transmitted

7.5/rW

specifications :

Speed of driving wheel - 1440 r.p.m;

Speed of driven wheel

:=

400 r.p.m.

Diameter of driving wheel =- 300 mm

Centre distance =- 1000"""
Service

=- 16 hours / day

Design a/Transmission Systems

2.10

Given Data:

= 7.5

= 300 111m = OJ m;

kW ;

N,

N2 = 400 r.p.m. ;

1440 r.p.m. ;
C

1000 mm = 1 m.

Toflnd : Design a V -belt drive.

Solution:
1. Selectioll of the belt section:
Consulting

Smaller pulley diameter,

Nt
1440
d = N2 = 400 = 3.6

300

... (Given)

mill

..

Larger pulley diameter,

C~~~)

Speed ratio

= 315

mm.

D = 3.6 d = 3.6 x 3) 5 = I) 34 mm

D = 1250 mm.

Centre distance,

(0/

C = 1000 mm

... (Given)

4. Determination of nominal pitch lengtt: :

. I' IllSIide Iengt I1, L
Nomina

=... ..,C

+ (

2x

1000+()

4676.85

2'7t )

(D + d ) + (D4- Cd)2
(1250+3IS)+(I~5~~:d:)2

I11Ill

For this nominal inside length and 0 section. consulting

length is selected as 4996 mm.

S. Selection of various modlflcotion factors :

(i) Length correction factor (F cJ
length correction factor,

Fe -= 1.18

{ii) Correction factor for arc of contact (F ,J

Arc of contact

tr

D-d)
(--C

I 80 -

1800 _ ( ) 250 - 3 ) 5)
1000

60
x 600 =

-_.-It

2.11

V-Beits and Pulleys

For this arc of contact, consulting Table 2.6, correction factor for arc of contact is selected

as Fd=O.83.
(iii) Service factor (F J:

Consulting

6. Calculation of maximum power capacity :

Consulting Table 2.8, for B section, power capacity formula is given as
kW = (0.79 S-009 - 5~~8 _ 1.32 x 10-4 S2 ) S

where

7t

x 0.3 ~~ x 1440

Belt speed

de

=
=
=
=

F~
de

dp

..

7tdN)

60

23.75 mls

Pitch diameter of the smaller pulley = d. = 315 mm

Small diameter factor for speed ratio of3.6 = 1.14
315 x 1.14

... [From Table 2J]

359.1 mm

But from Table 2.8, maximum value of de in the formula should be 175 mm.
Power, kW

(0.79 x 23.75-0.09-

~~.:

23.75

7. Determination of "umber of belts (n,) :

P x Fa

We know that

7.5 x 1.3
5.445 x 1.18 x 0.83

8. Calculation of actual centre distance:

Actual centre distance is given by
Cactual

where

and

A + \} A 2 - B

L _ [D+dJ

A = 4

B
Cactual

7t

634.42

{D-d)1
8

+ \}

4996
--4

{1250 - 315}2
8

= 634.42

8

109278

109278

5.445 kW

2.12

[!xamele 2.3 A centrifugal pump running at 340 r.p.m: is to be driven by a 100 kW

motor running at 1440 r.p.m. The drive is to work for atleast 20 hours every tillY. Tile
centre distance between the motor shaft anti the pump shaft is 1200 mm. Suggest a suitable
multiple V-belt drivefor this application. Also calculate the actual belt tensions and stress
induced.
Given Data: N2 = 340 r.p.m.; P = 100 kW; N) = 1440 r.p.m.; C = 1200 mm = 1.2 m
Tofind:

(i)

(ii)

Actual belt tensions and stress induced.

@Solution :
1. Selection of tile belt section:
Consulting Table.2.3, for power 100 kW, D section is selected.
2. Selection of pulley diameters (d and D) :
Since diameters of both pulleys are not given, therefore first select the smaller pulley
diameter from Table 2.3.
.. Consulting Table 2.3', for power 100 kW, smaller pulley diameter, d
Speed ratio
.. Larger pulley diameter, D

N)

355 mm.

1440

= -d = -N2 = -340 = 4235

.
=

4.235 x d

4.235 x 355

1503.53 mm

Consulting Table 1.5, the preferred larger pulley diameter, 0 = 1600 mm.
3. Selection of centre distance (C) :
Centre distance, C

1200 mm

... (Given)

4. Determination of nominal pitch length:

Nominal inside length, L = 2 C

7t

'2

(D + d) +

(0 -

d)2

4C

7t

2x 1200 +

'2

(1600+355)

(1600 - 355)2
4x 1200

= 5793.83 mm
For this nominal inside length and 0 section, consulting Table 2.5, the next standard pitch
length is selected as 6124 mm.
5. Selection of various modification factors:
(i) Length correction factor:
Fe = 1.00.

I"

2. l.i

"-8 !,~
I "lit ."
~ --------

-----'-'-~

(ii) Correction factor for arc of contact (F; :

Arc of contact

= 1800 _ (D ~ d )
=

x 60 = 180 - (

J 600 - 355)

1200

600

117.75

For 117.75, consulting Table 2.6, correction factor for arc of contact
For light duty, for over 16 hours continuous
machines of type II, consulting Table 2.7, the service factor, Fa = 1.3.
(iii) Service factor (F,.):

Fd = 0.81.

kW ~ (3.22

where

de

5~.7

S"'()09 ~

1t

Belt speed =

= dp

~ 4.78

d NI

60

7. Determination

= 355
=

S2 )

x 0.355 x 1440
60

1t

Power, kW

10-4

26.76 mls

x Fb

dt!

355 mm

for speed ratio of 4.235, from Table 2.9

1.14

x 1.14 = 404.7

( 3.22 x 26.76-0.09

= 21.44 kW
0/ number 0/ belts

506.7
)
404.7 - 4.78x 10-4 x 26.762
26.76

(n,) :
P x Fa

We know that

nb

= kW

Fe

100
21.44

8. Calculation

0/ actual

B
Caclual

..

"'::-.

Fd
1.3

1 X 0.81

centre distance:

where

Caclual

L
4 -

1t

In_

d)2

= ~8=

A + \] A2 - B

[O+d
8

] _ 6124
_ 4 -

(1600-355)2

= -

1t

[1600+355
8

= 763.27

193753.125

Design of Transmission Systems

2.14
9. Calculation of belt tensions (TI and T~ :

We know that,
power transmitted per belt =
100 x 103
8

... "(i)

From Table 2.3, mass per metre length, m = 0.596 kglm

groove angle (2(3) = 34.

Already found that arc of contact for smaller pulley, a. = 117.75

1t

x 1800

We know that the tension ratio for V -belts considering centrifugal tension,
Tl - mv'l

= ef.UX I sin

T2-mv2

T, - 0.596 (26.76)2
T2 - 0.596 (26.76)2

= ef.UX cosec ~

eOJ x 2.055 x cosec 17

8.237

Tl - 8.237 T2 = - 3088.68

or

T1

Solving (i) and (ii), we get

... (ii)

958.45 Nand

T 2 = 491.33 N Ans. ~

Consulting Table 2.3, cross-sectional area of 0 section

Stress induced

475 mm2

Maximum tension
Cross-sectional area

= 2.02 N/mm2

958.45
475

Ans. ~

2.9. DESIGN OF V-BELT DRIVES USING BASIC EQUATIONS

As discussed in section 1.19, the load carrying capacity of a pair of pulleys is determined
by the pulley which has the smaller value of ef.UX cosec P . Thus the pulley' which has smaller
tension ratio governs the design.
( Example 2.4

IA

is 0.0015

area of 2.5

kglcmJ and maximum

to 400 x 1(J4 Nlml. If J.l = 0.15, find the power that can be transmitted,
mean diameter of 300 mm and runs at 1000 r.p.m:

.....

stress

if

cml and
is limil~d

"

2.IS

Given Data: a
p

=
=

= 180 =
0

0.0015 kg I em!
300

Tofind:

mm

= 0.3

1800 x 1:00

1t

m;N

a = 2.5 em2

= 2.5

x 10-4 m2;

J.l = 0.15 ;

= 1000 r.p.m.

e SO/lIIion :

1tdN

60

1t

x 0.3 x 1000
60
= 15.71 m1s

3.426

TI

3.426 T2

We know that,

Tension ratio T:

or

7t x

cosec 22.SO

... (i)

= 0.0015 x 106 x 2.5 x 10-4 x 1

...
and

Centrifugal tension, Tc
maximum tension in the belt, T

= 0.375 kg I m
= mv2 = 0.375(15.71)2 =
=

crxa

400 x IQ4x2.5x

92.65N
10-4

= 1000N

T

TI +Tc

T,
T2 = 3.426

From equation (i),

Power transmitted,

P = (T t

907.5
- 3.426

2.5

I Two shafts

264.9 N

T2) v

= (907.5 -264.9)

I Examp/e

15.71 = 10.1 kW

Ans.1J

whose centres are 1 m apart are connected by a V-belt

drive. The driving pulley is supplied with 100 k Wand has an effective diameter of 300 mfIL
It runs at 1000 r.p.m: while the driven pulley runs at 375 r.p.m: The angle of groove on the
pulleys is 40 ~ The permissible tension in 400 mm2 cross-sectional area of belt is 2.1 MP".
The dellSity of the belt is 1100 kg/ml. Taking JJ = 0.28, estimate the number of belts
nqllued. Also calculate the lengll, required of each belt.
C = l m ; P = 100 k W = 100 x 103 W;
d = 300 mm = 0.3 m ;
N. = 1000 r.p.m.; N2 = 375 r.p.m.; 2P = 40 or p = 20; a = 400 mm2 = 400 x l~ m2:

Given Data:

(J

= 2.1

MPa

'--.

= 2.1

Scanned by CamScanner

106 N/m2 ; p

1100 kg 1m3;

J.l = 0.28.

2.16

Tofind: Number of belts required and length of each belt.

@Solution:

\1

1t

d NI

7t

60

x 0.3 x 1000

= 15.71m1s

60

. N2
d
Speed ratio, N I = 0
D

or

1000

NI
N2 x d

= 375 x OJ

0.8 m

Number of belts required: For an open belt drive,

sin a =
Angle of contact,

TI

or

0.8-0.3
2x I

= (180 - 2 a)
=

T
Tension ratio, T~

O-d

'""2C:

= 0.25 or a = 14.48

= 2.158

2.636

cosec 20

= 2.158
... (i)

T2

Mass of the belt per metre length, m = Density x Area x Length

Centrifugal tension, Te
and

Maximum tension in the belt, T

1100

m y2

= 0.44 kglm
= (0.44)(15.71)2 = IO?'.'~9N
x

400

IQ-6 x I

= a a
= 2.1 x 106 x 400

x IQ-6 = 840 N

T

TI +Te

or

TI

T - Te

From equation (i),

T2

.z;
= 2.158 = 2.158 = 338.93 N

731.41

..

(TI - T2) v

=

Number of belts
=

Total power transmitted

Power transmitted per belt

100 x 103
6165.86

16.22

=:

17 Ans. ~

2.17

Length of each belt: We know that length of each belt,

L = 2 C + ~ (0 + d) + (D - d)2
2
2C
=

I Example

3.852 mAns.

"

I Power

is transmitted between two shafts by a V-belt whose mass is 0.9

kglm length. The maximum permissible tension in the belt is limited to 2.2 kN. The angle
0
of lap is 170 and the groove angle 45 ~ If the coefficient of friction between the belt and
pulleys is 0.17,find
(i)

2.6

Given Data:

e = 170 = 170 x
To find:

7t

1800 = 2.967 rad; J.l = 0.17.

(i) Velocity of the belt ("), and (ii) Power transmitted (P).

Solution:
(i) Velocity of the belt:
Velocity of the belt for maximum power to be transmitted,

fl

. v - -\j];
-

---~
-\j 3 x 0.9

Tension ratio, T~ = e~a cosec p = eO.)7 x 2.967x cosec 22.5 = 3.736

... (i)

or
Centrifugal tension for the maximum power,
Tc = m v2

0.9 (28.545)2

733.33 N

Maximum tension
3

T)

T - Tc

T)
T2 = 3.736

2200
-3= 733.33 N

2200 -733.33

1466.67
3.736

1466.67 N

392.58 N

30.66kW Ans."

2.18

[Example

2.71

A compressor is driven by a 1400 r.p.m. motor by means of a flat belt

of thickness 20 mm and width 250 mm. The motor pulley is 115 mm diameter and the
compressor pulley is 1250 mm. TIle stmft centre distance is 1200 mm anti an idler is used to
make the angle of lap on tile smaller pulley 2100 and Oil larger pulley 280". Coefficient of
friction is 0.25 on tire smaller pulley and 0.3 011 tile larger pulley. The maximum allowable
belt stress is 2.J Nlmml and the belt weighs 1 x I 5 Nrmm', Determine the power of tile

rr

drive.
To eliminate idler pulley, tire smaller pulley is changed with Vsgroove pulley with
groove angle of 14". J.J = 0.1. Larger pulley and other data remaining the same, what shall
be the power transmitted?
Given Data:

N)

d = 315 mm = 0.315
as = 210

1 x 104 N/m3

Thickness

D = 1250 mm

m;

7t'

= 210

III = OJ ; o

1400 r.p.rn.;

2.1 N/mm2

20 mill;
7t

= 280 = 280

C = 1200 mm

1.25 m

Width

x 1800

250

mm

1.2 m

= 0.25

213 = 34 or 13= 17.

Solution:
J. Power transmitted by the flat belt drive:

Since the friction coefficients for both pulleys are different, therefore first we have to find
the pulley which governs the design. So we have to evaluate ells as and ellL al for the
pulleys.

e!lS as

<

ellL aL.

ellS as

elllal

= e.3x4.886

Therefore

eO.25 x 3.665 =

Weight density

1x

104

N/m3

d N1
60

.
or Mass density

Centrifugal

= 4.33

smaller pulley governs the design.

1t

Velocity of belt,

2.5

tension,

Maximum tension,

Tc

1t

x 0.315 x 1400

60

23.09 m/s

1 x 104
9.81
kg/m '

Density x Area x Length

I x 104
9.81

=
=

(0.25

0.02)

5.096 kg/m
m v- = 5.096(23.09)2

T = Stress x Area

2717.37N

c x (b x I)

= )0500

r;~~~~1
~
~Belts
and Pu eys

__

---.:.2~19
---...

---------:-

...

T - Tc

= 10500-2717.37

= 7782.63 N

= 7782.63

Slack side tension, T2 =

= 3 113 N

2.5

P = (T 1 - T 2) v

Power transmitted,

107.82kW Ans. ~

11. Power transmitted by the V-Flat drive:

Given that, in order to eliminate idler pulley the smaller pulley is changed with V-groovs
pulley and the larger pulley remains flat faced pulley (which is known as V -flat belt drive).
Since smaller pulley is changed to V -grooved pulley without idler, therefore we have to
calculate the new angles of contact.

Ang Ie 0 f contact,

<l

= SID
. -I (O-d)
2C

= SID
. _1(1250-315)
2 x 1200

0
=2293
.

and

<lL

= (1800 + 2(1) 1800 = (1800 + 2 x 22.930) 1800 = 3.94 rad

Again we have to calculate the tension ratios for both pulleys to find the governing pulley.

TI)
( T2

and

(T

Wefind

(~:)L

.)

T2

ell as . cosec

= el1QL

<

11 =

eO.) x 2.)4 x

= eO.3

x).94

cosec 17

= 11.03

= 3.26

(~:)s

Therefore, the larger pulley (i.e., flat faced pulley) governs the design.
Tight side tension, T 1 = 7782.63 N

TI

7782.63
3.26 = 2386.6 N

'"CI

2.20

2.10. RIBBED V-BELTS

t2.10.1. Introduction
Ribbed V-belts is a cable cord reinforced
transmission belt with 'V' shaped ribs along the
circumference of the belt, as shown in Fig.2.3. It is
flexible, with high power capacity per unit width and
is designed on completely integrated construction.
The ribbed surface provides maximum area of contact
and reduced face pressure.

Fig. 2.3. Ribbed V-belt

The ribbed V-belt is gaining wide acceptance in the automotive field due to the
advantages it exhibits over conventional V-belts. These belts are particularly good for high
speed and I or high ratio applications which conventional belts are unable to handle. The
smooth, vibration free performance and excellent reverse bend characteristics of this belt
enable the design of single belt, compact drive systems.
2.10.2. Applications
Ribbed V-belts have been selected for use on many applications. These applications range
from iil:: single multi-rib accessory drive concept (SMAC) for passenger cars to water pump,
alten\ator, and air conditioning drives on heavy trucks.

\.

2.10.3. Special Features of Ribbed V-8elts

./

Highly flexible and can be used with smaller pulley diameter resulting in lighter
and compact drive .

./

Higher power rating per unit width compared to conventional belt - 40% higher.

./

Almost eliminates the slippage due to maximum wedge contact on the pulleys .

./

Being thinner, the rear side can be used to drive additional accessories I idlers
without affecting belt life.

./

./

./

Can be used at higher speed more than 40 m/sec .

./

Give lesser wear and longer life to the pulleys due to lesser static tension and belt
slippage.

'"

Reduces down time and hence belt replacement cost.

2.10.4. Construction

Features of Ribbed V-8elts

Ribbed V-belt sections which are designated by the letter "K" and "J" are easily
identifiable, as shown in Fig.2.4, by measuring the distance between the adjacent ribs within

~V~-B~p~/~~~a~"~~~P~u~/I~~~'~~
-----------------------------------------------~
a belt. The "J" section belt has a smaller rib than the "K" belt and the overall thickness of the
"J" is less than the "K". Refer Table 2.10.
PK Type

PJ Type

PH Type

W3.56mm

W2.34mm

W1.60mm

(c)

(b)

(a)

(e)

(d)

Fig. 2.4. Construction of ribbed V-betts

The polyester tension cords are embedded into the belt to achieve longitudinal stability.
Then crosswise fibres are incorporated into the polychloroprene substructure for unsurpassed
transverse bending strength, finally the belts are ensured for maximum resistance to
temperature fluctuations and ozone.
Table 2. J O.Dimensions of various ribbed V-belts
Pitch:

Height of Rib:

Profile
(mm)

ht

Height of belt:

(mill)

(mm)

1.6

1.1

3.00.15

2.34

1.8

3.9 0.25

3.56

2.4

5.5 0.30

4.7

4.6

9.0 0.40

9.4

9.4

16.0 + 0.60

2.11. TIMING (OR SYNCHRONOUS) BELTS

Flat belt and V-belt drives cannot provide a precise speed ratio. because slippage occurs at
the sheaves. But certain applications require an exact output to input speed ratio. In such
situations. timing belts are used. The timing belts have teeth that mesh with bzroovcs in the
sheaves, as shown in Fig.2.5. Most timing belts are reinforced with glass fiber. steel or
aramid.

2.22

.,f

.,f

Materials

ill rubber

.,f

Types of V-belts : Based on the cross-section,

as A, B, C, D and E

V-belts are classified

type .
.,f

Specification

of V-belts : C2845 means C is the belt section and 2845 mm is the nominal

inside length.

Tensi
.
enston rano,

T2I

Number of Vsbelts

2;J

TOlal power transmilled

Power trans milled per belt

V-j1at drive.
Materials

of sheaves:

The design of Y-grooved pulleys are presented

Two

different

manufacturer's

design procedures

used

in this chapter.
for

V-belt

drives

are:

(i)

Using

the

Step by step procedure

for

presented

example problems.

with sufficient

the design

of Vsbelts using

the manufacturer's

V-belt design " To find (i) belt section (A, B, C, D or E), (ii) nominal

data

is

(iii) number of belts.

Design using basic equations

will govern the design of the drive.

At the end of this chapter, an engineering
are presented.

2.23
REVIEW QUESTIONS

1.

drive?

of V-belt drive when compared with flat

2.

Why slip is less in the case of V-belts when compared with flat belts ?

3.

4.

S.

How can you specify a V-belt?

6.

What are the materials used for sheaves (or V-grooved pulleys)?

7.

Write an engineering

belt

PROBLEMS FOR PRACTICE

Problems on design of sheaves (or V-grooved pulleys) :
I.

Design a V -grooved pulley of a V-belt drive to transmit 25 kW to an electric generator.

2.

100 kW power is transmitted using a V-belt drive. Design a sheave for the given V-belt
drive.

3.

60 kW of power at 720 r.p.m. is to be transmitted to a compressor shaft at 300 r.p.m. by

V-belts. Diameter of larger pulley is approximately 1500 mrn. Approximate
distance is 1650 mm. Overload factor is 1.5. Design the V-belt drive.

centre

4.

A 30 kW, 1440 r.p.m. motor is to drive a compressor by means of'V-belts. The diameter
of pulleys are 220 mm and 750 mm. The centre distance between the compressor and
motor is 1400 mm. Design a suitable drive.

S.

Select a V-belt drive for transmitting 1.5 kW from a motor running at 1450 r.p.m. to a
blower at 300 r.p.m. in an air conditioning plant. The centre distance should be atleast
1.5 times the diameter of the larger pulley. Diameter of motor pulley is 300 mm.

6.

Design a V-belt drive to transmit 10 kW at 400 r.p.m. The speed ratio is 3. The distance
between the pulley centres is 600 mm. The drive is for a crusher.

7.

A 10 kW, 720 r.p.m. motor is to drive a mixer at 180 r.p.m. The starting load is heavy
and the service is intermittent. Select suitable drive and determine the main dimensions
of the drive.

8.

A crusher running at a speed of 400 r.p.m. is driven by an electric motor of 10 kW with a

reduction in speed of 3 times. Taking a centre distance of 600 mm, design a V-belt drive.

2.24

Problems on design of V-belt drive using basic equations:

9.

Two shafts whose centres are I m apart are connected by a V-belt drive. The driving
pulley is supplied with 10 kW and has an effective diameter of 300 r.p.m. It runs at 1000
r.p.m. while the driven pulley runs at 375 r.p.m. The angle of groove on the pulley is
40. The permissible tension in 400 mm? cross-sectional area of belt is 2.1 MPa. The
density of the belt is 1100 kglm3. J.l = 0.3. Estimate the number of belts required.
[Ans: I0 belts]

10. An engine of 25 kW, has a speed of 650 r.p.m. It has to drive an electric generator at
1500 r.p.m. by means of V-belts. Diameter of pulley on the engine is 600 mm and the
centre to centre distance between the shafts is 3 metre. Groove angle of the pulley is 30
and the coefficient of friction is 0.25. If the maximum safe strength of the belt is 500 N,
determine the number of V-belts required for the drive. Neglect the belt thickness, and
assume the open drive.
[Ans: 3 belts]
II. A belt drive consists of two V -belts in parallel, on grooved pulleys of the same size. The
angle of groove is 30. The cross-sectional area of each belt is 750 mm2 and J.l = 0.12.
The density of the belt material is 1.2 Mg/rn! and maximum safe stress in the material is
7 MPa. Calculate the power that can be transmitted between pulleys 300 mm diameter
rotating at 1500 r.p.m. Find also the shaft speed in r.p.m. at which the power transmitted
would be a maximum.
[Ans: 171.75 kW ; 2809 r.p.m.]
12. Power is transmitted using a V-bclt drive. 'J he ilfl.:!~:dcd~i1f,le vI" V-groove is 30. The.
belt is 20 mill deep and maximum width is 20 mm. If the mass of the belt is 0.35 kg per
metre length and maximum allowable stress is 1.4 MPa, determine the maximum power
transmitted when the angle of lap is 140. J.l = 0.15.
[Ans: 6.53 kW]
Problems on V-flat belt drive:

13. A compressor is driven by a 1500 r.p.m. motor by means of a flat belt of thickness
20 mm and width 250 mm. The motor pulley is 300 mm in diameter and the compressor
pulley is 1440 mill. The shaft centre distance is 1200 mm and an idler is used to make
the angle of lap on the smaller pulley 215 and on larger pulley 275. Coefficient of
friction is 0.25 on the larger pulley and 0.3 on the smaller pulley. The maximum
allowable belt stress is 2.2 N/mm2 and the belt weighs I x IO-s Nzmrn-'. Determine the
power of the drive.
To eliminate idler pulley, the smaller pulley is changed with V-grooved pulley with
e = 34. Il = 0.25. Larger pulley and other data remaining the same, what shall be the
power transmitted?
[Ans: 117.2 kW ; 136.78 kW]

Wire Ropes and Pulleys

..There is a difference between happiness and wisdom.
He that thinks himself the happiest man is really so:
but he that thinks himself the wisest is generally the greatest fool."

- Francis Baro"

3.1. INTRODUCTION
Wire ropes are used whenever large power is to be transmitted over long distances (upto
150 m). The wire ropes are extensively used in elevators, oil
II drilling, mine hoists,
cranes, hauling devices, conveyors, tramways, suspension
s and other material
handling equipments. Wire ropes are preferred than
ropes because of its greater strength and reliabil

As compared

to

,/

ighter;;'ittt
erIe

a
in 0

,/

3.2.1. Materials of Wire Ropes

The commonly used materials for wire ropes are \ rought iron, cast steel, plow steel and
alloy steel. For special purposes copper, bronze, aluminium alloys and stainless steel are also
used.

3.3. CONSTRUCTION OF WIRE ROPES

The construction of the \\ ire rope i shown in
Fig.3. l . Iirst separate wires are twisted into strands
and then the strands are t\ isted about a core to form a
rope. The strands arc laid 011 a core made of hemp,
jute, asbestos or a wire of softer steel.

Wire
/

~._.----.

3.2

Design of Transmtssion Systems

Steel wire ropes are manufactured by special machines. In the process of manufacture the
wire rope is subjected to special heat treatment, which combined with cold drawing, gives
high mechanical properties to the wire.
3.4. CLASSIFICATION

OF WIRE ROPES

Wire ropes are classified depending upon the

direction of twist of the individual wires and that
of strands, relative to each other. They are:

~~
(a)

(b)

the strands are twisted into a rope in the opposite

direction to that of the wires in the strands , as
shown in FigJ.2(a). Such ropes find the greatest

(c)

application.

Fig. 3.2. Lays of steel wire ropes

2. Parallel or lang lay ropes: In these ropes, the direction of twist of the wires in the
strand is the same as that of the strands in the rope, as shown in Fig.3.2(b). These ropes are
more flexible and resist more wear effectively. Such ropes are employed in lifts and in other
hoists with guideways and also as haulage rope.

3. Composite or reverse laid ropes: In these ropes, the wires in two adjacent strands are
twisted in the opposite direction, as shown in FigJ .2(c).

INote I Besides

the above types, the direction of the lay of a rope can be either right-hand or left-

hand. But the right-hand lay ropes are more frequently used.
3.5. SPECIFICATION

OF WIRE ROPES

The wire ropes are specified (or designated) by the number of strands and the number of
wires in each strand. For example, a 6 x 7 rope means a rope made from six strands with
seven wires in each strand. Refer Fig.3.t.
3.6. GUIDELINES FOR THE SELECTION OF WIRE ROPE

The wire rope is selected based on its application. The Table 3.1 shows the standard
designation of wire ropes and their applications.
Table 3.1. Selection of wire rope
Standard designation

Application

6 x 7 rope

Used as haulage and guy rope in mines, tramways and power transmission.

6" 19 rope

Used a

elevators, tramways. well drilling, etc.

6x37rope

Used as an extra flexible hoisting rope in steel mill laddies, cranes. high
speed elevators.

8 x 19 rope

Used as an extra flexible hoisting rope.

mtd
~~~~~-----~---------------------------------------------.
Pfllleys

Wire RnIW..'

l)

3.7. STRESSES IN WIRE ROPES

The various types of stresses induced in a wire rope are :

1. Dinel slnss dll~ 10 t"~ w~;g"t oft"~ load to M lift~d and w~/ght of the rop (er;":

Let

.
..

W,

=
=

Weight of the rope, and

W+W,
Direct dress,

CJd

... (ll)

2. Bending stress wilen the rope passes over the sheave or drum (ut) :
We know that when a wire rope is wound over the sheave, then the bending stresses are
induced. The bending stress induced is directly proportional to the wire diameter and
inversely proportional to the diameter of the sheave.

.
Bending stress,
where

CJb

E, x dw
D

... (3.2)

dw = Diameter of the wire, and

D = Diameter of the sheave.

J. Stress due to acceleration (ua) :

Due to change in speed, an additional stress is induced. The stress due to acceleration is
given by
... (3.3)

where

V2 -VI

4. Stress during starting and stopping (un) :

During starting and stopping, force is required to accelerate the weight of the rope and the
load supported by the rope. This force induces an additional load in the rope and thus an

(/) When there is no slack in the rope:

... (3.4)

3.4
Design of Transmission Systems

/iij When there is slack in the rope beta

.
I'
:/1 re starlmg or I
.
h
h
.
considerable impact load on the rope.
s opping, t en t ere will be a

..

= W+W,

1 + 2'a

1+

hE

]
... (3.5)

where

as = Acceleration during starting or stopping,

h = Slack during starting, and
j =
Length of the rope.

5. Effective stress:
(i) Effective stress in the rope during normal working,

... (3.6)

est

ast +

0b

... (3.7)

(iii) Effective stress in the rope during acceleration

,
.,. (3.8)

The greatest of the stresses mentioned above should be less than the ultimate strength of
the wire material divided by factor of safety.
3.8. RECOMMENDED

FACTOR OF SAFETY FOR WIRE ROPES

The recommended factor of safety for wire ropes based on .the ultimate strength are given
in Table 3.2.
Table 3.2. Recommended factor of safety for wire ropes, n' (from data book, page no. 9.1)
Class 1

Classes 2 & 3

Class 4

3.5

4.0

4.5

4.5

Application

3.9. EFFECT OF NUMBER OF BENDS

We know that the rope life is directly proportional to the ratio Dmin / d (where Dmin is the
minimum diameter of the sheave or drum and d is the diameter of the wire rope). But
investigations have shown that at the same ratio Dmin / d rope life is approximately inversely
proportional to the number of bends. Therefore to obtain the same rope life, the effect of the
number of bends should be compensated by an appropriate changes in the ratio Dmin / d.
6

Scanned by CamScanner

_lS

Wire Ropes and Pulleys

Ttlb/~ 3.3. (D".;,/d) as a/unction o/tlle number of bends (from data book, page no. 9./)
No. of

10

16

20

23

25

26.5

28

30

31

32

33

bends

Dmi,/d

I1

12

13

14

IS

16

34

35

36

37

37.S

38

1. Selection 0/ suitable wire rope:

First select the suitable type of wire rope for the given application, from Table 3.1.

2. Calculation

Calculate the design load by assuming a larger factor of safety, say 15 (or find the design
load by assuming a factor of safety 2 to 2.5 times the factor of safety given in Table 3.2).
..

3. Selection of wire rope diameter (d):

Select the wire rope diameter (d) from Table 3.4, by taking the design load as the breaking
strength.
Table 3.4. Group 6 x 19 (from data book, page no. 9.5 and 9.6)
Nominal breaking strength of rope, kN
Diameter of rope

mm

Approx. mass
kglm

au

= 1600 to

1750 N/mm2

Tensile strength of wire,

au = 1750 to 1900 N/mm2

0.54
0.94
1.25

86

94

134
193

147
211

22

1.84

259

25

2.41

340

284
376

32
38

3.76

533

584

5.43

767

f4

7.38

1047

843
1148

48

8.48

1199

1321

12
16
18

CJu

6
10

0.15

15
40

12

0.4
0.55

16

0.95

96

20

1.45
2.25

150
230

2S

--

55

CJu

= 1250 to 1400 N/mm2

17
45
60
110
170
260

I!------------------------------------

o~D~e~si~gn~oJ~T.~r~an~s~m~~~s~iO~n~S~ys~te~m~s~o

4. Calculation of sheave diameter (D) :

Consulting Table 3.5, obtain the diameter of sh
(

C:
d
eave or drum). Always larger sh~ave
diameter ISprelerre .
Table 3.5. (from data book

, page

110.

9.1)

* Dtnin
~

Rope

Purpose

(Ratio upto V = 50 m/min)

Class 1

2&3

Mining installations

All ropes

100

100

100

Cranes &

6 x 37

15

17

22

Hoists

6 x 19

19

23

27

,.;Ratio for 50 m/min of rope speeds - to be increased by 8% for each 'additional speed of
50 m/min.
5. Selection of the area of useful cross-section of the rope (A):
Consulting Table 3.6, select the area of useful cross-section of the rope.
,

Table 3.6.
Type of construction

6x7
6 x 19

0.38 d2
0.4 d2

6 x 37

0.4 d2

d

... (3.9)

dw = 1.5-fi
where

= Number of strands x Number of wires in each strand.

7. Selection of weight of rope (W,) :
Obtain the rope weight (Wr) from Table 3.4.
.
bI
Calculate the various loads using the relations gIven e ow.
(i)
Direct load, W d = W + Wr
d
(ii)

.2:xA

xA=E

0
1 e in the speed of hoisting,
(iii) Acceleration load due to chat g [W +
W a ::: g
a
-

(Jb

WrJ

where a

v2 - vI

(when spee

d of the rope changes

t":

rrorn VI

to v in t seconds)
2

~H~~~n~R~~~.~~Qn~d~P~u/~/e~y~~

(a) When there is no slack in the rope:
Starting load, WS1 = 2 Wd = 2 (W + Wr)
(b) When there is slack in the rope :

CJ"

xA

(W + W,) [ I +

1 + 2'a

.s . r ]

(Jdlg

(i) Effective load on the rope during normal working, Wen = W d + W b
(ii) Effective load on the rope during acceleration of the load, Weo = W d + W b + W 0
(iii) Effective load on the rope during starting, West = W b + W st

10. Calculation of working (or actual) factor of safety (FSw):

Working factor of safety,

_ Breaking load from Table 3.4 for the selected rope

FS", Effective load during acceleration (Weo)

... (3.10)

INote I Generally

effective load during starting (W cst) is not used for calculating the working factor

11. Check for safe design:

Compare the calculated working factor of safety (FS",) with the recommended

factor of

safety (n') given in Table 3.2. If the working factor of safety is greater than the recommended
factor of safety (i. e., FSlI'> n'), then the design is safe and satisfactory.
If FSw < n', then the design is not satisfactory. Now choose some other rope with greater
breaking strength or increase the number of ropes.
12. Calculation of number of ropes:
_ Recommended factor of safety
Number of ropes Working factor of safety

n'
... (3.11)

- FS
\tI

I Example 3.1 I Design a wire rope for an elevator in a building 60 metres high and/or
a total load of 20 kN. The speed of the elevator is 4 m/sec and the full speed is reached in
10 seconds.
Given Data:

Height

= 60

m;

= 20 kN = 20 x 103 N ; v = 4

t=lOsec.

Tofind: Design a wire rope.

e Solution:
1. Selection of suitable wire rope: Given that the wire rope is used for an elevator, i.e..
for hoisting purpose. So lets use 6 x 19 rope (refer Table 3.1).

3.8

f
.
.
.
rosa
ety
0
15,
the
design
IS
calculated.

= Load to be lifted x Assumed factor of safety

20 x 15

300 kN

3. Selectiolt of wire rope diameter (d) : From Table 3.4, taking the design load as the
breaking strength, the wire rope diameter is selected as 2S mrn.
:. d

= 2S mm

for au = 1600 to 1750 N/mm2 and breaking strength

= 340

kN.

4. Calculation of sheave diameter (D): From Table 3.5, for 6 x 19 rope and class 4,
Dmin

d =

27 (for velocity upto 50 m/min)

Since the given lifting speed is 240 mlmin (= 4 m/s), therefore Dm;,/d ratio should be
modified. Thus for every additional speed of 50 mlmin, Dm;,/d ratio has to be increased by
8%.
Modified

Dmin

d =

27

(1.08)5-1 = 36.73 say 40.

- 5
[ ... 240
50 ....

= 40 x d = 40 x 25 = 1000 mm
5. Selection of tire area of useful cross-section 0/ the rope (A): From Table 3.6, for

6 x 19 rope,
A

Wire diameter,

= 2S0 mm2

d
dw == 1.5 {i

where

== 6 x 19 == 114

dw =

25

= 1.56 mm

1.5Tt!4

7.Selection of weight of rope (W,) :

From Table 3.4,
Approximate

mass

Weight of rope / m =
and

Weight of rope, Wr ==

2.41 kg 1m
2.41 x 9.81 = 23.6 N/m
23.6 x 60 = 1416 N

W + W r == 20000 + 1416 == 21416 N
(i)

(ii)

3.9

Bending

E,dw
D

x A

1000
[Take

'jii)

(w:w,)

Acceleration

E,

a
v2 - vI

where

a = Acceleration

t
I

= 0.4
Wa =

4-0
--10

m/s2

(2000~.;/416)

0.4

873.23 N

When there is no slack in the rc.-e, starting load is given by

WSf

2 Wd = 2 (W + Wr)

(i)

(ii)

(iii)

Wen

Wd + Wb

21416+32760

55049.23 N

West

,
:I

'('

'.

..
: ..

0.

".

factor'ofsafety
Since
therefore

..
."

the design is

32760 ~ 42832

75592 N

Breaking load from Table 3.4 for the selected ru~

340000
55049.23
'"

.
6.176

.f".
: .
(,.
t . F(O,m1:ahle 3.2; for hoists and class ~, .the rt!commend.ed
.'.

...

de~ii:it

6.

the working

W d + W b + Wa

Wea

54176N

.
factor

safe.

of safety

."
is greater

'.

'..

than the 'recommended'

.
factor

of :iafety

----------------------------

~D~~~i~gn~o~if~n~ra~m~m~~~s~w~

~ele
3.~ 1 Fo~ t~~ data of Example 3.1, determine the stress induced in the rope
t Slarling with an initia! slack of rope of 0. 2 m.

due '0

T'O find: Stress induced in the rope due to starting.

We know that the load dueto starting when there is a slack of 0.2 m on the

@So!ulion:

rope,
1 +. 2a s hE
W = 20000 N;

Wr

= 1416 N; E, = 0.84

as

32760 N;

a = 0.4 m/s2;

h = 0.2 m; /

= 60 m.

= 24102

106 N/m2 ;

1 + 2 x 0.4 x 0.2 x 0.84 x 1011 ]

85.66 x 106 x 60 x 9.81

..

21416

Wd

Wb

West

..

Stress induced

Wst
West

Wb

= 24102 + 32760 :-: 56862

56862 _
250 - 227.45 N/mm

Ans. ~

a wire rope for a vertical mine hoist to lift 1500 tons of ore in 8

hours shift from a depth of 900 m: Assume a two-compartment shaft with the hoisting skips
in balance. Use a maximum velocity of 12 m/sec with acceleration and deceleration period
'0/15 sec each and a rest period of 10 sec for discharging and loading the skips. A hoisting
skip weighs approximately 0.6 of the capacity. Take E, = 0.84 x lOS Nlmm2.

= 1500 tons = 1500 x 103 kg = 1500 x 103 x 9.81 =

14715 kN; Depth = 900 m; E, = 0.84 x 105 N/mm2 = 0.84 x 1011 N/m2; v = 12 mls =
Given Data: Weight to be lifted

720 m/min.

Tofind:

@ Solution:

v2 - VI

Acceleration,

as

12 - 0
15

21 as (2 = 21

Similarly distance travelled during deceleration period=

Scanned by CamScanner

0.8 m/s2

x 0.8 x (15)2

90 m

= 90 m

________

--.-------:..:3.11

Total distance truvellcd at full speed = 720 - 2 x 90 = 540 m

and Time required for travelling 540

III at

720 Ill/min

540
720

075 min
.

45 sec

Time required for one trip:

Acceleration period = 15 sec
Deceleration period

15 sec

45 sec

Total = 85 sec

Number of trips in a shift

=
=

8 x 60 x 60 ~ 339
85
14715
339

43.4 kN

Hoisting skip weight = 0.6 x load = 0.6 x 43.4 = 26 kN

Total load to be lifted by the ropes = Weight of ore + Weight of skip

43.4 + 26 = 69.4 kN ~ 70 kN

1. Selection of suitable wire rope: For hoisting purpose, from Table 3.1, 6 x 19 rope is

selected.
2. Design load: Assuming the factor of safety of 15, the design load is calculated.

70 x IS = 1050 kN

From Table 3.4, d

1750 Nzrnm? and breaking strength = 1199 kN.
3. Wire rope diameter (d):

50 m/min. But the actual speed is 720 m/min. ti.e.,

Dmin

48 mm is chosen, for

Dm~

d = 27 for

0'" =

class 4, for velocity upto

720
50 ~ 15 times 50 m/min).

has to be modified.
=

27x(1.08)IS-1

79.3 say 80

5.

A = 0.4 d2

= 0.4

(48)2

19 rope, the area of useful cross-section

= 921.6

rnrn-.

1600 to

of the rope,

Therefore

--------------------

~D~~~~~n~o~if~n~ra~m~m~U~Si~o

dw

48

_r
I.S V ;

= --;:::.====-

1.5 ~ 6 x 19

= 3mm

= 8.48 x 9.81 = 83.2 N/m

Weight of the rope = 83.2 x 900 = 74880 N = 74.88 kN

Weight of the rope 1m

(i)

+ Wr = 70 + 74.88 = 144.88 kN

(ii)

ab

xA

0.84 x lOS x 3
3840
x 921.6

(iii)

= Er ~ d", x A

= (W+Wr)
g

=

a
,

= 60.48 kN

(70+74.88)
9.81

W ea

.
xO.8

= 11.81 kN

= Wd + Wb + Wa

9. Working factor of safety (FS..,) :

Working factor of safety

Breaking load from Table 3.4 for the selected rope

1199

= 217.17 = 5.52
10. Check for safe design:
From Table 3.2, the recommended factor of safety (n') = 6
Since FSw < n', the design is not safe. But FSw value is closer to n' value, so the design is
marginally satisfactory.
The safe design (i.e., greater working factor of safety) c~n be achieved either by selecting
the rope with greater breaking strength or by increasing the drum diameter.
11. Redesign of rope: Now select the rope with breaking strength of 1321 kN from Table
3.4. For breaking strength 1321 kN and au = 1750 to 1900 N/mm2, the diameter remains
same as 48 mm. Thus the load and other calculations remain same.
1321
.. Working factor of safety, FSw = 21'i .17 = 6.082
Since the value of working factor of safety. is greater than the recommended factor of
safety,therefore the design is safe.

-...
----~--------------~213

_!ire
Ropes and Pulleys
W~~~~'~~

3.11. FAILURE OF ROPES

.
The failure of rope is mainly due to fatigue
an d wear while passing around
I . the
fl sheave
. .
.,
it
over
the
sheave
resu
ts
In
uctuabno
The bending and straightening of the rope as I passes
~
.
individ
I'
lide
on
each
other
and
over
the
sheave
stress leading to fatigue failure. The indivi ua wires s I
resulting in gradual wearing of both the rope and the drum.
The amount of wear that occurs depends upon the pressure between the rope and the
sheave and is given by

where

2T

'" (3.12)

dxD

Tension in rope,

Sheave diameter.

3.11.1. Fatigue diagram

The fatigue diagrams for 6 x 19 and 6 x 37 ropes are shown in Fig.3.3 (refer data book,
page no. 9.2). The fatigue diagrams are constructed by using experimental data.
0.006

-;
~

0.004

\
\
[\
~

.9:

0.002

I~ ~
5

2x10

6 x 37_
r-6
~
s
4x10

x 19

6x105

8x10S

106

Number of bends to failure

Fig. 3.3.

The fatigue diagram is plotted on cartesian co-ordinates, in which the number of bends is
taken as abscissa and a dimensionless quantity (pIau) as ordinate. The figure indicates that
the 6 x 19 rope has long (i.e., infinite) life if the value of ratio p/O'uis less than 0.0012.

I Example
I

3.4

~ore and tensile designation 1420 is used

to raise a load. TI,e nominal diameter of the wire rope and the sheave diameter are 10 and
4S0 mm respectively. Assuming long life on the basis. of fatigue consideration, determine
the maximum load that the wire rope can carry.
_
Given Data: 6 x 19 wire rope; au = 1420 N/mm2;

Tofind:

10 mm ; D = 450 mm.

Solution:

1420 N/mm2.

_'"

3.14

= 0.0012

1420

= 1.704 N/mm2

2T

where

p x;

dD

xD

N Ans. ~

I Example
(i.e.,

O'u

= 1750

0;

1750

Nlmm2) is used to raise tile load of 22 kN as shown in Fig.3A. The nominal

diameter of the wire rope is 10 mm and the sheave "as 550 mm pitc" diameter. Determine
the expected life of rope assuming 500 bends per week.
Given Data:

6 x 19 rope;

au

1750 N/mm2;

22 kN;

= 10 mm ;

Tofind:

Solution:

Let

From the Fig.3.4, we can write

2T = 22 kN [ignoring the weight of rope and the acceleration load]
or

T = II kN

We know that the contact pressure between

the rope and the sheave,
2T
P

piau

dD

2 x 11000
IOx550

4 N/mm2

=
=

4
1750
0.00228

Fig. 3.4.

3 3 the life of the wire rope is obtained as 2.8 x 105 bends

From the fatigue diagram, F Ig..,.
,
before failure;
2.8 x lOS
= 5bO weeks'
Life =
..
500
2.8

or

= 500

105
x 52

10.77 years Ans.~

,I

'1
I

3.15
Wire Ropes and Pulleys

3.12. DESIGN OF WIRE ROPE SHEAVES

We know that the bending stress induced in the wire rope,
dw

= E,

crb

where

Diameter of the sheave

So it is clear that the bending stress induced in the rope is inversely proportional to the
diameter of the sheave. Therefore the sheave diameter should be fairly large in order to
reduce the bending stress in the rope when they bend around the sheaves. Also the larger
diameter sheaves provide better and more economical service.
SheQ11e materials: For light and medium service, the sheaves are made of cast iron, but
for heavy service they are often made of steel castings. They are usually made in the form of
casting or weldment.
a

,.

!
e

.1

'I
_j

..r:::

r2

Fig. 3.5. Cross-section of standard groove

The cross-section of standard sheave groove for steel wire ropes is shown in Fig.3.5. (refer
data book, page no.9.10). The various proportions of sheave groove are given in Table 3.7.
Table 3.7. Proportions of sheave grooves, mm (from data book, page no. 9.10)
Wire

'1

'2

'3

'4

4.8

22

15

0.5

12.5

2.5

8.7

28

20

1.0

15

2.5

13.0

40

30

1.0

25

10

8.5

12

19.5

55

40

10

1.5

30

15

12

17

10

24.0

65

50

10

1.5

37.5

18

14.5

20

15

34.S

90

70

IS

2.0

55

22

20

28

20

rope dia.

1,

3.16
Design o/Transmission Systems

wireTherefore,
rope first. in order to design a sheave for wire rope, one should find the diameter of the
3.13. DESIGN OF WIRE ROPE DRUMS
Whenever more than one wire rope is used, one has to use rope drums to enable the rope
to be wound in several layers. The drum diameter is selected in the same manner as the
selection of diameter of sheaves. Drums for steel wire ropes are made of cast iron, more
rarely of steel castings or weldments.
With a power drive, the drum should always be provided with helical grooves so that the
rope winds up uniformly and is less subject to wear. The radius of the helical grooves should
be selected so as to prevent jamming of the rope. The standard and deep grooved drums for
wire ropes are shown in Fig.3.6. Table 3.8 gives the dimensions of standard and deep grooves
for drums.

(b) Deep groove

Fig. 3.6.

t.able 38
. . D'tmensto. ns of d.rum groovesfor wireropes, mm (from data book,page no. 9.9)
Ropedia, d

..._

'.

Standard

Groove

Deep Groove

S)

C)

'2

S2

C2

4.8

3.5

5.5

4.5

8.7

II

8.0

13

6.5

13

15

11.0

19

9.5

27

13.5

19.5

11.5

22

15.5

28

15.5

31

20.5

36

18.0

39

21

42

12

28.0

50

24.5

CExample

. rope IS. use d for tile elevator in the building. The

Ire
3.6 I A 6 x 19 stee w
if200 m/min. The weight of the elevator cage
.

'mum
speed
0
t1J'Pe
Hlelghtis being lifted with a maxi

N. '7'1. tlfting sheaves are of the trac tiIon .J.

.
gers IS 8 k . tne
ts 12 kN and the weight of passen,
k factor of safety as 10.
Design a suitable wire rope sheave. Ta e
. . W
= 12 kN; W"""nge< = 8 kN ;
v
=
200
rn/min
,
elevator
Given Data: 6 x 19 wire rope ;
FS::::: 10.
I

3.17

Tofind:

@Solution :

Calculation

12 kN + 8 kN

=
=

Total load to be lifted x Factor of safety

20 kN x 10

20 kN

200 kN

Taking the design load as the breaking strength, consulting Table 3.4, the diameter of the
rope is selected as 25 mm.
:. d

= 25 mm

Dmin I d

For velocity upto 50 m/min,

27

As the lifting speed is 200 mlmin, this ratio has to be modified. That is, for every
additional speed of 50 mlmin, Dmin I d ratio has to be increased by 8%.

Dmin

d =

Modified

Then

Diameter of sheave, D

Design

27 x (1.08)4 -

34

= 850 mm

34 x 25

Ans. ~

The cross-section of standard sheave groove for steel wire

rope is shown in Fig.3.5. (refer data book, page no. 9.10).
Knowing the diameter of rope and consulting Table 3.7, the proportions of sheave grooves
are given below.

65 rnrn ;

h = 37.5 mm;

r2

= 5 mm ;

I Example

3.7

b = 50 mm;

I = 18 mm ;

r3

20 mm ;

c = 10 mm ;
r = 14.5 mm ;

r4

1.5 mm ;

15 mm.

diameter ropes is used in a

hoisting equipment. The maximum rope speed is 10 m/s. Calculate the drum diameter and
various dimensions 0/ drum grooves for wire ropes.
Given Data: 6 x 19 wire; n = 3 ; d
To find:

= 38 mm

; v = 10 mls

600 m/min.

Drum diameter and various dimensions of drum grooves for wire ropes.

@Solution :
Drum diameter:

From Table 3.5, for 6 x 19 rope and class 4,

Scanned by CamScanner

27

,,7
l.!!--

5 0

Therefore.

_ / d ratio has to be modified.

D",m
Dmin
d
Drum diameter,

= 27 x (1.08)12 - I

62.95 say 65

D = 65 d = 65 x 38 = 2470 mm

Ans. ~

Various dimensions of drum grooves: The standard drum groove for the wire rope is
shown in Fig.3.6(a). (refer data book, page no. 9.9). Knowing the diameter of rope and
consulting Table 3.8, the various dimensions of drum grooves are given below.
rl = 21 mm; SI = 42 mm and C1 = 12 mm Ans."
REVIEW AND SUMMARY
.f

Wire ropes are extensively used in elevators, oil well drilling, mine hoists, cranes.
conveyors, hoisting devices, etc .

.f

Types of wire ropes are: Cross or regular lay ropes, parallel or lang lay ropes, and
composite or reverse laid ropes .

.;

Specification of wire ropes: Wire ropes are designated by the number of strands and
the number of wires in each strand. For example, a 6 x 17 rope means a rope made from
six strands with seventeen wires in each strand.

.f

Selection of wire rope: 6 x 17 rope is suitable as haulage and guy rope, 6 x 19 and 6 x
37 ropes for hoisting applications .

.f

Stresses in wire ropes:

1. Direct stress,
acceleration, and 4. Stress due to starting.

2. Bending stress,

3. Stress due to

The life of the wire ropes are inversely proportional to the number of bends .
.f

In this chapter, the step by step design procedure for wire ropes is presented

with

sufficient example problems.

Wire rope design: To find: 1. Type of construction, 2. Rope diameter, 3. Sheave or
drum diameter, 4. Wire diameter, 5. Various loads and their stresses, 6. Working
factor of safety, and 7. Checkfor safe design .
.f

Thefailure of rope is mainly due to fatigue and wear while passing around the sheave .

.f

The contact pressure between the rope and the sheave is given by

2T
p = dxD
T = Tension in rope,
d = Rope diameter, and D = Sheave diameter.
From the fatigue diagram, for 6 x 19 ropes, the rope has infinite life if the ratio pIau is
where

0/
0/

less than 0.0012.

At the end of this chapter. the design of wire rope sheaves and drums are also discussed.

--

1
3.19

~w.~/~re~R~o~p~e~s~an~d~P~u~/~/e~ys~
------------------------------------~-REVIEW QUESTIONS
1.

2.

What are the applications of wire ropes?

What are the advantages of a wire rope when compared with chains and fibre ropes?

3.

How can you specify a wire rope? What do you understand by 6 x 17 construction

in

wire ropes?
4.

(a) 6x7rope;

(b) 6x 19 rope,

and

(c) 6x37rope.

5.

6.

Explain the various stresses induced in the wire ropes.

7.

How can you select a wire rope sheave or drum for the given wire rope?

Problems on design of wire ropes:

1.

Select a wire rope necessary for a mine hoist carrying a load of 72.5 kN to be lifted from
a depth of 250 metres. A rope speed of 7 mls is to be attained in 10 seconds.

2.

In an office building the elevator rises 400 m with an operating speed of 275 mlmin and
reaches the full speed in 10m. The loaded elevator weighs 22 kN. Design a suitable wire
.
.
v2
(275 / 60)2
rope.
[Hint : Rate of acceleration, a = 2 s = 2 x 10
= 1.05 rn/s]

3.

Select a suitable wire rope to lift 1 tonne of debris from a well of 50 m deep. The weight
of the bucket is 3000 N. The weight is being lifted with a maximum speed of 3 mlsec
and the maximum speed is attained in 1 sec. Determine also the stress induced in the
rope due to starting with an initial slack of 0.2 m.

4.

Select a wire rope for a vertical mine l.oist to lift 12000 kN of ore in each 8-hr shift from
a depth of 800 m. Assume a two compartment shaft with the hoisting skips in balance.
Use a minimum velocity of 12.5 mls with acceleration and deceleration of 15 sec each
and a rest period of 10 sec for discharging and loading the skips. A hoisting skip weighs
approximately

5.

Select a wire rope for the elevator in a building where the total lift is 180 m. The rope
velocity is 4.5 mls and the full speed is to be attained in 12 m. The lifting sheaves are of
the traction type. The weight of the elevator cage is 15 kN and the weight of passengers
is 10 kN.

6.

A workshop crane is lifting a load of 20 kN through a wire rope and a hook. The weight
2
of the hook etc., is 12 kN. The load is to be lifted with an acceleration of 1 m/sec .
Calculate the diameter of the wire rope. The rope diameter may be taken as 30 times the
diameter of the rope. Take a factor of safety of 6 and Young's modulus for the wire rope
0.8 x lOS N/mm2. The ultimate stress may be taken as 1800 Nzmm-'. The cross-sectional
area of the wire rope may be taken as 0.38 times the square of the wire rope diameter.

1-~.20~------------------------

~D~e~~I~gn~of~~~a~m~m~U~Ji~On~Sy

7. A 6 x 19 wire rope with fibre Core and tensile designation of 1570 is used to raise the

load of20 kN as shown in Fig.3.5. The nominal diameter of the wire rope is 12 mm and
the sheave has 500 mm pitch diameter. Determine the expected life of the rope assuming
506 bends per week.
[Ans: 12.5 years]
8. A 6 x 19 wire rope with fibre core and tensile designation 1600 (i.e., au = 1600 N/mm2)
is used to raise the load. The nominal diameter of the wire rope and the sheave diameter
are 12 mm and 540 mm respectively. Assuming infinite life (i.e., pIau = 0.0012) on the
basis of fatigue consideration, determine the maximum load that the wire rope can carry.
[Ans :

6220.8 N]

Problems on design of wire rope sheaves and drums :

9. A 6 x 19 steel wire rope is used in a hoist to lift the ore in a copper mine. The weight of
the car and cage is 25 kN. The maximum rope speed is 10 m/s. Design a suitable wire
rope sheave.
10. A four 6 x 19 steel wire rope of diameter 28 mm is used in a crane. The maximum rope
speed is 8 mls. Calculate the drum diameter and various dimensions of drum grooves for
wire ropes.

J
Chain Drives
"My grandfather once told me that there were two kinds oJpeOple:
those who do the work and those who take the credit. He told me to try to be in the first grOUp;
there was much less competition. "
-Indira

GtuuIIU

4.1. INTRODUCTION
The chain drive is intermediate between belt and gear drives. It has the major advantages
of both belt and gear drives. Chain drives are used for velocity ratios less than 10 with chain
velocities upto 25 mls and power ratings upto 125 kW. Chain drives are popularly used in the
transportation industry such as bicycles, motor cycles and automobile vehicles. They also
find wide applications in agricultural machinery, metal and wood working machines, textile
machinery, building construction and materials handling machinery.
4.2.

BELT AND GEAR DRIVES

WITH

./

./

They are more compact than belt or gear drives .

./

There is no slip between chain and sprocket. So they provide positive drive .

./

./

./

./

./

./

./

They require proper maintenance (particularly lubrication) and slack adjustment

compared with belt drives .
Noisy operation .

./
./

They require the take-up devices (to compensate the increase in chain pitch due to
wear of chain joints).
.
More complicated design.
I

__---~~----------------------------~D~~~~~n~Of[TI~r~a~m~m~~~s~;o~n~s~~s~

1.

2.

ams,) and

3.

All these chains will be discussed , in detail ,ein th

10 II'
owing
c.

sections.
.

./

In low capacity hoisting machines such as hoists, winches and hand operated
cranes as the main lifting appliances .

./

As slings for suspending the load from the hook or other device.

c/,ain

They are pitch (t) equal

to the inside length of the link, outside width (B) and diameter (d)

of the chain bar.

1.Depending on the ratio between the pitch and tl,e diameter of the chain bar:

If t ~ 3 d, then the chains are known as short link chains.

(b) Lollg link chalns : If I> 3 d, then the chains are known as long link chains.

2.Depending on the manufacturing accuracy:

. (a) Pitched chalns : When the permissible deviations from the nominal pitch size is

".'thin i 0.03 d and from the outside width is within i 0.05 d, then the chain is called as
Pitchedchain .
. (6) Calibrated chalns : When the permissible deviations is within i 0.1 d of the nominal
Slze

in pitch and outside width, then the chain is known as calibrated chain.

r~~~

------

Q1ain Drives

4.3

--..

./'
./'

.
Id d) hains are formed from oval steel hnks an the sequence shown in
Fig.4.2 .
Link chains are manufactured from steel 2 and 3.

o
o
(b)

(8)

Fig. 4.2. Stages ill tue manufacture

(c)

(d)

of welded c/,ains

(a) Blanks of cut steel bar, (b) Prebent blanks, (c) Chain assembled prior to welding,

./'

Links for welded chains are formed by a number of methods. Mostly forge
welding and electric resistance welding are used .
./' In forge welding, a single weld is made in the link. In the electric resistance
the straight sides of the link. The resistance welding method produces more
accurate chains with increased strength .
./' When assembling separate lengths of forged links into chains, the welded ends of
each pair of adjoining links should form one joint to increase the life and strength
of the chain. Chains welded by the electric resistance method can be assembled in
any manner .
./' After manufacturing, the chains are annealed.

4.8. SELECTION

In link chains, it is extremely difficult to determine the actual stresses. Because, with
respect to external forces the links of welded chains are statically determinate and with
respect to internal stresses three-fold statically indeterminate. Therefore the stresses are
determined approximately.
The chains are checked for tension. To compensate the statically indeterminate feature of
the chain, somewhat reduced safe stress is taken.
The general formula for selecting link chains in tension is given by
Psafe

where

Pbr

n
Safe load carried by the chain,
Breaking load of the chain, and

=
=
n = Factor of safety from Table 4.1.

Psafe
Pbr

... (4.1)

Design a/Transmission

Table 4.1. Data/or selection o/link chains

r-"

Systems

Chains

Drive

Factor ofsa(eb', n

Hand
Power

3
6

2.

Hand
Power

4.5

3.

Welded uncalibrated on slings

I.

The intensity of wear depends on the following factors: the ratio between the pitch of the
chain and drum, the tension and speed of the chain, the angle of relative turn of the links as
they pass around the sheaves, the environment, etc.
./

"

./

./

Heavy height.

"

Susceptibility to jerks and overloads .

./
./

Sudden failure .
Intensive wear of the links in the joints.
TRANSMISSION

Chain

A roller chain provides a readily available

and efficient method for transmitting power
between parallel shafts. That's why the roller
chains are also called as transmission chains. A
roller chain consists of an endless chain running
Over two sprockets _ driver and driven. A
sprocket is a wheel with teeth of a special
profile. Smaller sprocket is called pinion and
bigger one is called wheel. Typical roller chain

Driven sprocket

Driving sprocket

on sprocket is shown in Fig.4.3.

4.12. CONSTRUCTION OF ROLLER CHAINS
.
The
. . h
. Fig 4 4 It consists of alternate hnks made of
.
construction of a roller cham IS sown m
..,
. f k
Inner and outer link plates. The outer plates are known as pm m or

"

SC~h~a~;n~D~r~N~~=-

---------------------------~

.
Th e 0th er parts of a roller chain are
the inner plates are called roller link.
fi pin,
d i bushing Irwj
roller. Pins are press fitted into the outer plates whereas bus/res ar~ pre.ss Itte into ~heinllt:
plates. The pin and the bush form a swivel joint and the outer !mk IS free to sWivel wi~
respect to the inner link. The chain rollers mounted on the bushings roll over the sprOcket
teeth.
Pitch.

Fig. 4.4. Construction of a roller chain

4.13. CHAIN MATERIALS

./'

Link plates are made of cold-rolled, medium-carbon or alloy steels such asC4j.
C50 and 40 Crl .

./'

Pins, bushings and rollers are made of carburizing steels such as CIS, C20, ana
30 Ni4 Crl.

Roller chain is specified by three dimensions - pitch, width and diameter.

Pitch: It is the distance fro-n centre to centre of adjacent pins or rivets.
Width: It is the nominal width of the link or the length of the pin.
Diameter: It refers to the actual outside diameter of the roller.

Roller chains are available in single-row or multi-row construction such as simple.\,

duplex o~triplex strands as shown in Fig.4.5. (refer data book, page no. 7.71) .

Fig. 4.5.

".15. GEOMETRIC RELATIONSHIPS OF A ROLLER CHAIN AND SPROCKET:

Fig.4.6 shows a sprocket driving a chain in a counter clockwise direction.
p = Chain pitch,

Let

= Pitch angle,

aJ2 = Angle of articulation,

D = Pitch circle diameter of the
sprocket, and

Variable

sprocket.

Pitch angle, a

360
z

'" (4.2)

of the figure,
. a
n/2
sin - = ~
2
D/2

or

INote I

[ .,'a = 3~0 ]

. (180)
z

sin (~)

SIO

'" (4.3)

as it enters

articulation.

Transmission (or velocity) ratio of chain drive (i) :

Let
N 1 and N2 = Speeds of rotation of driving and driven sprockets respectively,
zi and z2 = .Number of teeth on driving and driven sprockets respectively.
N)
z2
Transmission

ratio, i

N-

=;- 1

and

... (4.4)

Pitch dituneters of sprockets:

Let
d) and d2 = Diameters of driving and driven sprockets respectively.
Then, the equation (3.2) can be' rewritten as
Diameter of driving sprocket,
and

d1

d2 =

p
sin (1801

... (4.5)
z)

... (4.6)

.The average velocity of the chain is given by

v

Scanned by CamScanner

1tDN
60

= zpN
60

... (4.7)

~C~h~a'~'n~D~r~w~u~
~

--------------------------

In terms 0

(4.8)

Ip xp

where

L = Length of the chain in mm, and

.
I = Number of links (or pitches) in the cham.

(or pitches).

N"",ber of lillo in th chain (I,) :

.
.
. h hai
be determined
The approximate number of links (or pitches) m t e c am can
following formula.

Ip
where

= 2 (~)

by using the

(!)

...(4.9)

a = Centre distance between axes of driving and driven sprockets in mm

It is known that the calculated number of links (/p) should be rounded to the next digit.
Since the chain consists of alternate pairs of inner and outer link plates, therefore it is always
preferred to have even number of links. When the chain has odd number of links, an
4.16. CENTRE DISTANCE

The centre to centre distance between the axes of the two sprockets corrected to an even
number of links can be determined by using the following relationship.
Centre distance, a
where

__ e+..Je2-SM
- 4

(Z2 2: 1
z

M =

r'

[from d ata b ook, page no. 7.75] ... (4.10)

xp

a constant.

on ~:ctual Pkractiche~
a small amount of sag is essential for the links to take the best position
sproc et w eel. Therefore in 0 d t
should be decreased b th
r er 0 accommodate the initial sag, centre distance
y e amount fla.
Ila = ~
where

Scanned by CamScanner

[f - (Z;1I-:;

r.

p ] '" 0.5

f ..
1tS

0.02 a

4.8

4.17. CHORDAL (OR POLYGONAL) ACTION

An
.
. important ..factor affecting the operating smoothness of a roller chain driIve, particularly
at. high speeds, IS chord~1 action. The chordal action is illustrated in Fig.4.7(a) and (b). In
Flg.4.7(a), ~oller A has Just seated on the sprocket, and the centreline of the chain is at the
chordal. rad.lUsr c: After the sproc~et rotates through angle (al2), the chain is in the position
shown ID Flg.4.7(b). Here, the cham centreline is at the sprocket pitch radius rc.

I-p-I

Chordal rise, r - rc

-~-----~l--, Pitch
circle

---------j--------_.

-----L

--1
(b)

(a)

Fig. 4. 7. CI,ordai action of a roller chain

The amount of chain rise and fall (i.e., chordal rise) is given by

tor

= rc-r=r(l-COS~)

=r[l-COSC!O)]

... (4.11)

where
z = Number of teeth in the sprocket.
Thus it is clear that the linear speed of the chain is not uniform but varies from V min to
vlfIIJ%
during every cycle of tooth engagement. This results in a pulsating and jerky motion.
7t

0 N cos (

i)

60

7t

and

Vmax

DN
60

... (4.12)

Because of chordal action, a chain drive is analogous to a belt drive running with a prism.
~

In order to reduce the variation in c/,ain speed, the number of teeth on the

sprocket should be increased.

[!Vote) It is better to use an odd number of teeth (such as 17, 19 or 21) for the driving sprocket.
The odd number of teeth of the sprocket, in combination with an even number of chain links, facilitates
moreuniform wear.
4.18. DESIGN PROCEDURE OF ROLLER CHAIN

Select a preferred transmission ratio from Table 4.2.

r-

4.9

Chain Drives

Table 4.2. Transmission rallo, I (from dala book, page no. 7.74)

1-2
30

INote I

27

2-3

3-4

4-5

5-7

27 25

25-23

23 - 21

21 - 17

zimin

3. Determination of number of teeth on the driven sprocket (l; :

Determine the number of teeth on the driven sprocket (z2) by using the transmission
ratio (I) and z r-

Recommended

value of l2:

z2max

100 to 120

Now check whether the calculated z2 is less than the recommended z2

z2 is large, the stretched chain may slip off the sprocket for a small pull.

max'

Because, when

4. Selection of standard pilch (P) :

Knowing (or assuming) the initial centre distance (a), detennine the range of chain pitch

by using the relation

a = (30 - 50) P
... (4.13)
From the pitch range obtained, consulting Table 4.4, select a suitable standard pitch.
Table 4.4. (from data book, page no. 7. 74)
No. or teeth on pinion
Pitch,p, mm

sprocket

z.
7
9

s.

15
21
27
35
45
Selection of the chain

..

9.525

2800
2800
2400
2400
2100
1800
1600

12.7

15.875

2600
2400
2400
2100
1800
1600
1400

2000
1800
1800
1500
1300
1200

Select the chain type and hal

..
c am number, by using the selected
Table 4.5. Initially assume simplex or d I
hai
up ex cam.

1000

standard pitch,

from

~~'

__ --------------------------

~D~e~~,~g~n~oflTJ~r~a~m~m~~~~

Table 4.5. (from data book, page nos. 7.71, 7.72 and 7. 73.
This table gives some detailsfor afew c/.alns.)
~

Designation

Rolon

ISO No.

No.

Roller

Bearing

Breaking

Mass/metre

diameter,

area, A

(average)

d"mm

mm2

newton

m,kg/m

Pitchp,
mm

Width
between
inner plates,
b,mm

088-1

Rl278

12.7

8.51

50

18200

0.70

8.00

088-2

DR1278

12.7

8.51

100

31800

1.32

8.00

088-3

TR1278

12.7

8.51

150

45400

1.95

8.00

lOA-I

R50

15.875

10.16

70

22200

1.01

9.55

IOA-2

DR50

15.875

10.16

140

44400

1.78

9.55

IOA-3

TR50

15.875

10.16

210

66600

3.02

9.55

12A-1

R60

19.05

11.9

105

32000

1.47

11.90

12A-2

DR60

19.05

11.9

210

63600

2.90

11.90

12A-3

TR60

19.05

11.9

315

95400

4.28

11.90

INote I R -

on the driving side of the chain (P-d :

driving side (PT)

Tangential fOrCe}
_
due to power
+
{
transmission (PI)

or

PT

Centrifugal
tension (P c)
due to speed
of the chain

Tension
}
+ due to chain
{
sagging (P,,)
... (4.14)

P, + Pc + P s

P, -

Where

1020N
v

... (4.15)

xpxN]
60 x 1000

Z2 xp x

z]

= mil
m = Mass

60 x 1000

:
... (4.16)

P,
Where

or

N2

(iii) Tofind tension due to sagging (P,) :

p.. = k-

... (4.17)

Clio;" Driws
where

4.11

ffi'
nt of chain drive,
oe lClent of sag taking into account the arrangeme
from Table 4.6.

k == C

II:

m- g, and

a - Centre distance in metre.

T.b/~ 4.~ CoqJkklfl/or s.g, k (from dala book, pale no. 7. 76)
Position or chain drive

Horizontal

Upto400

Vertical

("J :

7. c.Jcu/atio" of servic /Ior

The service factor is used to account for variations in the driving and driven sources for
roller chains.
:.

*s == * r : *2 . *3 . *4 . *s . *6
... (4.) 8)
*1' *2' *J' *4' *s and *6 from Tables 4.7 to 4. )2 correspondingly.

Service factor,

"J (from data book, page no. 7. 76)

kJ

1.0

1.25

1.5

Table 4.8. Factor lor distance regulation, k 1(from data book, page no. 7. 76)
kl

Types of distance re2ulation

1.0
1.1

Drive using idler sprocket
Fixed centre distance

1.25

k3

Ip
zi + z2

Ip

%. +Z2
Ie

> I or

Dp

< 2Sp

1.25
1.0

.. I.S or

Dp

(30 to 50)p

~ 2.0 or

Dp "'"

(60 to 80)p

zi +z2

7.76)

0.8

== 2 op

z +z
I
2 +
+
2

[(Z2-ZI)/27t]2
op

[to be corrected to a greater even

be

Dum r

.....

.~!2

---------------------Qp

~D~u=.~~~n~o.f~Tr~a~m~m~U~!~ion~S~~~

= 001 p.

where

ao = Initially assumed centre distance in mm, and

p

Pitch, mm.

Table 4.10. Factor for the position of the sprockets, k4 (from data book, page
Position of the sprockets
Inclination

the centres

110.

7.77)

k..
of the

More than 600

1.25

Table 4.11. Lubrication/actor, ks (from datil book, page no. 7.77)

kS

Types of lubrication
Continuous (oil bath or forced lubrication)

0.8

Drop lubrication

1.0

Periodic

1.5

Working

k6

1.0

Double shift of 16 hours a day

1.25
1.5

Continuous running

Design load - Total load on the driving side of the chain
or

Service factor
... (4.19)

PT x k,

9. Calculation0/ working factor of safety (FS'; :

Calculate the working factor of safety by using the relation

P';Xk. ... (4.20)

10.Check/or/actor ofsafety:
Compare the working factor of safety with the recommended minimum value of factor of
safetygiven in Table 4.13.

s~

~C~M~i!n~Dr~~~

~~

Tab/~ 4.13. Factor of safety, n '(from data book, page no. 7. 77)

Speed of smaller sprocket, rpm

Pitch
p.lDm

upto 50

200

400

600

800

1000

1200

1600

2000

2400

2800

7.0

7.8

8.55

9.35

10.2

11.0

11.7

13.2

14.8

16.3

18.0

9.525
12.7
15.875

If the working factor of safety (FSw) is greater than the recommended minimum value of
factor of safety (n'), then the design is safe and satisfactory.
If the working factor of safety is not satisfactory, one more chain may be added (i.e.,
simplex to duplex or duplex to triplex) to the existing one or the chain pitch may be
increased.
11. Check/or the bearing stress in the roller:
./

o

Bearing area

P, x ks
A

... (4.21)

Take the bearing area (A) value from Table 4.5 .

./

Now compare the calculated bearing stress (or induced stress) value with the
allowable bearing stress value given in Table 4.14.

For safer design, the induced stress should be less than the allowable bearing stress.
Table 4.14. AUowable bearing stress,

Ia/,

Pitch
p, DIDI

<50

200

400

600

800

1000

1200

1600

2000

2400

2800

35

31.5

28.7

26.2

24.2

22.4

21.0

18.5

16.5

15

13.7

9.525
12.7
15.875

./

Ip

Qp

2Qp

"0
p

[ ZI +2 Z2 ]

(Z2 -;1 )2
+

pitch

Qp

[from data book, page no. 7.75]

[from equation 4.9]

4.14

./

Correct the calculated number of links (/ ) into

./

Now calculate the actual length (L) of chain using the formula
L = / x p
p
[from data book, page no. 7.75]

an even number .

1J. Calculation of exact centre distance:

Calculate
. h es) usmg
.
. the exact centre distance corrected to an even numbe r 0f liIn ks ( pitc

the re Ianon

xp

where
M

and

(Z22~ZI

constant

Decrement in centre distance for an initial sag, Sa

Exact centre distance

=
=

0.01 a
Q-

0.01 a

0.99

14. Calculation of pitch circle diameters (pcd) of sprockets :

Pcd of smaller sprocket, d I

p
sin (180 I z)

io

sin (I

I z2)

dOl

and
where

d,.

+ 0.8 d,

... (4.22)

= d2 + 0.8 d,

... (4.23)

dl

equipped with a 9.5 kW engine uses a roller chain as theflnal

drive to the rear axle. The driving sprocket runs at 900 r.p.m: and the driven sprocket at
400 r.p.m. with a centre distance of approximately 600 mm. Select the roller chain.
GivenData: N = 9.5 kW; N) = 900 r.p.m.; N2 = 400 r.p.m.; Qo = 600 mm.
TOflnd: Select (i.e., design) the roller chain.

@Solution :
1.Determination of the transmission ratio (i) :
..
..
N)
900
Transmission ratio, , = N2 = 400
(Since the transmission
to COnsultTable 4.2)

'!Etc'

2.25

ratio can be calculated from the given data, therefore we need not

--

4.1S

C}taill /)riveS

From Table 4.3,

%.

= 27 (for ; = 2 to 3) is selected.

1. J)ete,.",;nalioll o/llumber

o/teeth Oilthe driven sprocket (I.,) :

z2 = i x z. = 2.25 x 27
Recommended value,

z2mca -

...

1.2

60.75 ~ 61

100 to 120
61 is satisfactory .

...

Centre distance, a = (30- 50)p

600
a
Maximum pitch, Pmax - 30 -30

and

Minimum pitch, Pmin

We know that

a
50

600
-50

20mm

12mm

Any standard pitch between 12 mm and 20 mm can be chosen. But to get a quicker
solution, it is always preferred to take the standard pitch closer to Pmax' Refer Table 4.4.

...
S. Selection

Standard pitch, p

15.875 mm is chosen .

0/ the chain:

Assume the chain to be duplex. Consulting Table 4.5, the selected chain number is
10.40-2/ DRSO.
6. Calculation

(i) Tangential force (P; :

P, where

t020N
v

N = Transmittedpower
v

60 x 1000

(Ii) Centrifugal tension (PJ

Pc
From Table 4.5,

...

m
Pc

9.5 kW

1020 N
v

_ 27 x 15.875 x 900
60 x 1000
1020 x 9.5
= 1507 N
6.43

Chain velocity in m/s

_ z. xpxNI
PI =

in kW

mvl
1.78 kglm
1.78 (6.43)2 = 73.59 N

6.43 m/s

4.16
Design o/Transmission Systems
(iii) Tensio due to sagging (P J

P, = k- w, a
From Table 4.6,

k = 6 (for horizontal)

P,

=
=

6 x 17.46 x 0.6
PI + P, + P,

J 507

Pr

0.6 m

62.82 N

+ 73.59 + 62.82

1643.4 N

7. Calculation of service factor (kJ :

We know that the service factor,
ks

k, k2 . k3 . k4 . k5 . k6

k, = 1.25

k2

k3 =

k4 =

= 1
k6 = 1.25

ks

(30 to 50) p)

(for] 6 hours I day running)

ks = ] .25 x ] x ]

X ] X ]

x 1.25 = ] .5625

Design load = Pr x ks = 1643.4 x 1.5625 = 2567.8 N
9. Calculation of working factor of safety (FSwJ :
FSw

2567.8 = 17.29

10. Check for factor of safety :

Consulting Table 4.13, for smaJler sprocket speed of 900 r.p.m. and pitch 15.875 mm, the
required minimum factor of safety is 11. Therefore the working factor of safety is greater
than the recommended minimum factor of safety. Thus the design is safe and satisfactory.
11. Check/or the bearing stress in the roller:
We know that

PI ~ ks ; where

= 1507 x ] .5625 = 16.8 N/mm2

140

Scanned by CamScanner

~-----------------------------------------------~
. on f.bIe 4.14. for II1\.IIIer .pmc:kd speed of 900 r.p.m. and picdl 1 S.175 nun. lilt
belting .uesl is 22.4 Nlmml. Theftfore !he induced smss is less than lilt

al

...t* bearing.-o

U..CIk_lIIllMf

+~) (

(L) :
%,

2 Qp + (

p =

0/ aact

600
- 15.875

pitch

2" J2

Qp

Centre distance

<

( 27 + 61)

. (61

37.795

- 27) I 2Jt

37.795

J2
::I:

120.36

Ip x P

centre dista"c~ (a) :

We know that

= e+

e =

and

y e4
2

8M

ZI+Z2)
2

Ip - (

P
(27+61)
2

= 122 -

= (61-27)2

(Z2-ZI)2
27t

29.28

78

_
- 29.28

2n

78 +y 782 - 8

15.875 = 613.11 mm

= 0.01 a = 0.0 I (613.11) = 6.1311 mm

Exact centre distance = 613.) I - 6.1311 = 606.978 mm

~rement
..

.2

.'

I J. ClllcIllIllWII

(%2 - :,)

= 2 (37 <795)

in centre distance for an initial sag

14. CIIlcllllllioll

0/ sprocket

diam~ters :

SlIUIIlu sproclcet :

p
sin (180 1 zl)
t 5.875

and

where

Sprocket outside diameter,

dOl = d I + 0.8 d,

d, = Diameter of roller, from Table 4.5 = 10.16mm

dOl = 136.74 + 0.8 x 10.16 = 144.868111111

Design ofTrQnsmiss;~n Systems

4.18

Larger sprocket:
Pcd of larger sprocket, d 2

P
sin (180 / z2)

= 308.38

Sprocket outside diameter, d02

and

15.875
=---sin (180 / 61)

mm

d2 + 0.8 d,

- 308.38 + 0.8 x 10.16

= 316.51

mm

[Example 4.21 The transporter of a heat treatment furnace is driven by a 4.5 kW,
1440r.p.m. induction motor through a chain drive with a speed reduction ratio of 2.4. The
transmission is horizontal wlth bath type of lubrication. Rating is continuous with 3 sid/is
per day. Design the complete chain drive.
Given Data: N = 4.5 kW; Nt == 1440 r.p.m.; i = 2.4.
Tofind: Design the chain drive.
@Solution:
1. Transmission ratio,

2. Tojind

ZI:

i = 2.4 (Given)

From Table 4.3,

3. Tojindz2:

z2 -

Recommended z2 max

z,

ixzt

:. N2

N)

1440

2.4 =

600 r.p.m.

= 27 (for i = 2 to 3) is chosen.
= 64.8 ~ 65

= 2.4x27

= 100 to 120. .,

Z2

65 is satisfactory.

4.: Standard pitel, (p): Since the centre distance is not given, we have to assume the
initial centre distance, say a = 500 mm.
We know that

= (30 - 50) P

...

Pmax

a
30

and

Pmin

500
a
-50
50

500
-30

- 16.6 mm
=lOmm

From Table 4.4, in between 10 and 16.6 mm, a standard pitch, p = 15.875 mm is chosen.

5. Selection

0/ cl,ain : Assume

PT

- PI + P,

+ P,

1020N
v

(i)

PI -

Where

N - Transmitted power in kW = 4.5 kW

(Given)

~C~ha~i~n~D~rr~v~~

~~

= Velocity of chain in mls

zi x P x Nl

= 60 x 1000 =
P

1020 x 4.5
10.287

=
I

27 x 15.875 x 1440
60 x 1000

10.287 mls

446.19 N

= mv2

(ii)

pc

From Table 4.5,

= 1.01 kglm
Pc = 1.01 (10.287)2 = 106.88 N

(iii)

Ps

= k,w'a

(for horizontal)

= mg = 1.01 x 9.81 = 9.908 N/m and a= 0.5 m

P s = 6 x 9.908 x 0.5 = 29.72 N
w

(iv)

466.19 + 106.88 + 29.72

kl k2 . k3 . k4 . ks . k6

582.79 N

7. Service/actor:

ks

kl

= 1.25

k3

k4

ks

0.8

k6

1.5

= 1.25 x 1 x 1 x 1 x 0.8 x 1.5

8. Design load = PT x ks = 582.79 x 1.5 = 874.19N
k,

9. Working/actor of safety
FSw

= (30

to 50) p)

1.5

Breaking load Q from Table 4.5

22200
874.19

25.39

From Table 4.13, for smaller sprocket speed 1440 r.p.m. and pitch 15.875 mm, the
recommended minimum value of factor of safety (n') is 13.2. Since the working factor of
safety is greater than the recommended minimum value of factor of safety, therefore the
design is safe and satisfactory.
f/fI' ..

0'

70

4.20

From Table 4.14, for smaller sprocket speed 1440

.
pm
allowable bearing stress is 18.5 N/mm2 Since the' d r . an.d pitch 15.875 mm, the
.
m uce d stress IS I th
bearing stress, the design is safe and satisfactory.
ess an the allowable
11. Actual length of chain (L) :

where

'

= ao

2Q +
p

Ip

(ZI ; Z2)

+ [(z2 - z,) 1 2n ]2
ap

500

= 15.875 = 31.496

2 (31.496) + (27 + 65)

[ (65 - 27) 1 2n
2
+
31.496

J2

= 110.153 ~ 112
(rounded off to an even number)
Actual length of chain, L = Ip xp = 112 x 15.875 = 1778 mm
12. Exact centre distance:
a

xp

(ZI ; Z2)
[(Z\~ZI)
Ip _

e =

where
and

66 +

C7;

112 _

(65;;.27

V 662 4- 8 x 36.57

Decrement in centre distance for an initial sag, /).a

Exact centre distance.

65)

66

36.57

15.875

514.92 mm

= 0.01 a = 5.149 mm

13. Sprocket diameters:

For smaller sprocket:
and

Pcd

136.74 mm

d,

do,

= Diameter of roller = 10.16 mm

= 136.74 + 0.8 x 10.16 = 144.87 mm

and

15.875
sin (180/27)

Pcd

Sprocket outside diameter, d02 = d2 + 0.8 d,

= 336.71 mm

15.875
sin (180 1 65) = 328.58 mm

328.58 + 0.8

10.16

-~~--------------------------------~~

eMi" I!!:!"es
::::;;--'Example 4.3

I A compressor is to be actuated/rom

aID kW electric motor. The ".o~o,

skatis 970 r.p.m: and that o/the compressor is to be JJO r.p.m. The compress~r opertll'''1
in two shifts. The minimum centre distance should be 1000 mm: Design a suuable chili"
drive.
Given Data: N = 10 kW; N. = 970 r.p.m.; N2 = 330 r.p.m.;
Tofind:

ao = 1000 mm.

Design a suitable chain drive.

@Solution :
1. Transmission ratio : i

2. Tofind

1./:

J. Tofind

1.2 :

N.
N2

From Table 4.3, 1.)

Z2

Recommended

z2max

=
=

i x z.

970
330

2.94

25 (for i = 2 to 3) is chosen.

2.94 x 2S

A:j

74

:. 1.2 = 74 is satisfactory.

100 to 120.

4. Standard pilch (p): We know that a = (30 - 50) P

and

Pmax

30

P",in

50

1000

= 30 =

33.33 mm

1000

= So =

20 mm

It can be seen that, in Table 4.4, there is no standard pitch in between 20 mm and
33.33 mm. Therefore we cannot proceed further.
(refer Table 4.9)

a = (60 to 80)p

Now take

..
and

Pmar = 60

1000
-60

= 16.66 mm

-a

1000
--80

= 12.5 mm

p"""

80

Any standard pitch between 12.5 mm and 16.66 mm can be chosen. Therefore, from Table
4.4, the standard pitch (closer to Pmar) is selected as 15.875 mm.
5. Other design par~ten:

Knowing the standard pitch, the chain selection, total load

calculation, service factor selection, design load calculation, check for factor of safety, check
for bearing stress in the roller, actual length and centre distance calculations, and sprocket
diameters calculations can be proceeded as discussed in the previous examples.

[ EXllmfJle 4.4

IA

bucket elevator is to be driven by a gear motor and a roller chaill

drive. Gear motor power = 7.5 kW: Speed 0/ gear motor = 1400 r.p.m.; Transmission ratio
-10: I; AssulM a minimum centre distance belween sprockets = 550 mill. Sekct a suiJoblt
cltaht.

Glvell Data: N = 7 5 k~;

N = 1400 r.p.n.. ; i = 10 .

.I.

-= 550 !nfT'.

Ttlf",d: Select a suitable chain.

e StJIuJioll :
J frtUISmission ,lI1io, ; = 10
.

... (Given)
., Ttlfilld %1: From Table 4.3, for ; = 10 the recommended
be f
h
Ito
'num
r 0 teet on the
. 'on sprocket (zl) is not available. But from Table 43. , for; > 7,can
it
be seen t hat
pIn!
shouldbe lessthan 17.

z,

If we assume Z I as 15, then z2 = lOx 15 = 150 which is greater than the recommended
Z2 /IItl% (,'.,e , 100 to 120) value. Therefore it is not acceptable
. Nowassume

z,

zi as

Then z2 = ; x zi
= II is acceptable.

11.

= lOx II

Z2 max'

Hence

Now proceed the problem as discussed in Examples 4. I and

4.2, to find the other design parameters such as standard pitch, chain type, design load,
workingfactor of safety, induced stress in the roller, actual chain length, exact centre distance
and sprocket diameters.
3. Other design parameters:

DESIGN OF SPROCKET WHEELS

4.19. SPROCKETS

It is understood that the operation of a chain drive is largely dependent on the quality of
sprocket wheels. In general sprockets are made of low carbon or medium carbon steels. But
sometimesstainless steel is also used for sprockets.
4.20. TYPES OF SPROCKETS

(a)

(b)

(c)

(d)

Flg.4.8.

. d in design practice. They are :

stylesof sprockets are standardize
. . 8( )
.
nsions as shown In Fig.d. a.
~ Style A is a flat plate with no hub exte
,

OUr

~C~'h~a/~'n~D!!_r~iv~!S:!_

./

4.23

--:-

Style B has a hub extension on one side of the plate (flange),

as shoWn ill

Fig.4.8(b) .

./

Style C has hub extensions on both sides of the flange, as shown in.Fig.4.8(c) .

./

Style D has a detachable hub, as shown in Fig.4.8(d). The style D hub is normally
attached to the flange with bolts.

4.21. SPROCKET DIAMETERS

The five important sprocket diameters are pitch, outside, bottom, caJiper and maximum
hub diameters, as shown in Fig.4.9.

..

'.

Caliper
diameter

Max hub
diameter

I~

14----

Outside diameter

....

---i

Fig. 4.9. Roller chain sprocket diameters

The equations for those diameters are :
(i)

Pitch diameter

(ii)

Outside diameter

(iii)
(iv)
(v)

p
sin (180/ z)

P [ 0.6 cot ( ~)

Bottom diameter

Caliper diameter

'!O) -

(:0) _

I ] _ 0.03

4.22. TOOTH FORM

The standard tooth form d
fiI
f
The pri . Idl
.
an pro I es 0 a sprocket wheel are shown in Fig.4.1 O(a) and (b).
ncipa
ImenSlOns of the tooth profile are given in Table 4.] 5.

01

4.24

(b) Rim profile for sprocket

Fig. 4.10.
Table 4.15. Proportions of the sprocket wheel (refer Figs.4.10(a) and (b))
Dimension

SoNo.

Notation

Relation

1.

Chain pitch

2.

D =

sin (180/z)

3.

Roller diameter

dr

4.

bl

5.

Transverse pitch

PI

6.

Top diameter (outer)

Do

DO = D +0.8dr

7.

Root diameter

Df

Df = D-2 r;

8.

r;

(r;}max

= (0.505 d; + 0.069 ~

(r;}m;n

= 0.505 dr

9.

re

(r e )max - 0.008 d; (z2 + 180)

= 0.12 d; (z + 2)

(re )m;n

10.

a.

(lmax

90
= [ 120 -7

(lm;n

90
= [ 140 -7

11.

12.

13.

Tooth width

.__ 14.

Tooth side relief

Scanned by CamScanner

ha

(ha )max

= 0.625 p - 0.5 d; +

(ha )m;n

= 0.5 (P-dr)

rx

(rx)m;n

bj1

bj1

bj1

= 0.95 bl if p > 12.7 mm

ba

ba

0.1 p to 0.15p

0.8p
z

Chain Drives

4.25

Therefore, knowing the chain pitch (P) and the chain type, we can determine the various
dimensions of the sprocket wheel using the relations given in Table 4.15.

INote I

Instead of using the relations, the various dimensions of the sprocket wheel can be straight

away selected from the data book. So refer data book, page no. 7.79 and 7.80.

I Example

IAssume

the dtda of Example 4.2, and calculate the following

dimensions of the driving sprocket wheel: (i) outer diameter; (ii) roller sealing radius;
(iii) root diluneter; (iv) tooth flank radius; (v) tooth side radius; (vi) tooth width; and
(vii) tooth side relief.
4.5

pitch, p

simplex and lOA - I/R50;

= 27.

zi

of driving sprocket, 0 =
.
SID

(180)
zi

15.875

= 136.74 mm

. (180)
SID
27
Roller diameter, d,

and

Do

10.16mm

= 9.SS

mm

D + 0.8 d,

{ii) Roller setl/ing radius (rJ :

From Table 4.15,

(r,)max

and

(r,)",,"

(0.505 d, + 0.069

0.505 d,

0.505 (10.16)
5.28 + 5.13

::

~)
~10.16

5.28 mm

= 5.13 mm

= 5.205

.J

From Table 4.1 S,

0-2r

136.74 - 2 (5.205)

= 126.33

mm A ... ..,

-4.26

Design o/Transmission Systems

From Table 4.1 5,

(r~)max =

0.12 d, (z + 2)

73.88 + 35.35

and

From Table 4.15,

0.008 d, (z2 + 180)

35.35 mm

= 54.6 mm

Ans. ~

(rX)min

p = 15.875 mm Ans. ~

From Table 4.15,

0.95 b,
0.95

if p> 12.7 mm
9.55

9.0725 mm Ans. ~

(vii) Tooth side relie!(bj :

From Table 4.15,

ba = 0.1 p to 0.] 5 p

= (0.1
or

ba

15.875) to (0.15
1.587 + 2.38
x

x ] 5.875) =

1.687 to 2.38

1.98 mm Ans. ~

DESIGN OF SILENT CHAIN

4.23. SILENT (OR INVERTED-TOOTH) CHAIN

Inverted-tooth chains are also called silent chains because of their relatively quiet
operation. Silent drives are often selected for high-power, high-speed and smooth operation.
Silent chains have inward-pointing teeth that engage the sprocket, as shown in Fig.4.ll.
4.24. CONSTRUCTION

Silent chains consist of toothed link plates that are pin-connected to permit articulation, as
shown in Fig.4. J 1. The link teeth and the corresponding sprocket teeth are usually straightsided.
Various provisions are made to prevent the chain from sliding off the sprockets. They are:
(i) Centerguide chain: It has central guide links that fit central grooves in the wheels,
as shown in Fig.4.] I(b).
(ii)
Side-j1ange silent chain: Fig.4.] I(c) shows a chain with side guide links that
(lii,i1
'J
Duplex (or bend back) chain: It has teeth on both sides, as shown in Fig.4.II(d). It
can be used in 'serpentine drives whereby sprockets are driven from both sides of
the chain.

Chain Drives

--------------------

-'4.27

(d)

Fig. 4. I I. Inverted-tooth (silent) chains

4.25. TYPES OF SILENT CHAINS
Depending upon the type of joint between links, the silent chains are classified into:
(i) Reynold chain: In Reynold chain, the links are connected by pins resulting in sliding
friction.

(ii) Morse chain: In Morse chain, the rocker pins are used.
ROLLER CHAINS

./ It can be used for high-speed and high-power applications .
./
./

They operate much smoother and quieter than roller chains .

More reliable due to laminated construction.

___
4.28__..------------------

!!:_~.~.r~~~~~
eSlgn OJ ransmission Systems
I

./'

More heavier .

./'

More complex .

./'

More expensive .

./'

./'

Require more careful maintenance.

Due to the above reasons, the silent chains have limited app I'icanons.
.
4.27. DIMENSIONS OF THE VARIOUS PARTS OF THE CHAIN

The dimensions
of the various parts of the chain are usuall y given
"
'.
m terms
The approximate values are given below:
5

I.

Roller diameter,

d,

2.

Pin diameter,

dp

3.

Chain width (i.e., the distance between the roller link plates) :
b,

8'

16x
8'5
8'

pitch

x pitch

4.

tp =

5.

bo

6.

ho =
7.

pitch

b, + 2 tp

0.82

pitch

Maximum height of roller link plates (i.e., the inner plates):

hi

8.

f the
the pitch.
ni

x pitch

Length of roller,

l, =

0.95

pitch

0.9 b, - 0.15

~oteJ As already mentioned, for low and medium speeds the roller chain is recommended. For

[EXample 4.6

IA

Given Data:

Tofind:

Design the silent chain.

e Solution:

The dimensions of various parts of the silent chains in terms of its pitch are
calculated as below.

~~~~--------------------------------~

_hain DriveS

dr

I. Roller diameter:

dp

2. Pin diameter:

5
= -8 x

pitch

5
= -8 x

12.7

7.9375 mm

5
. h
16 x prtc

5
= 16 x

12.7

3.9687 mm

3. Chain width (i.e., the distance between the roller link plates) :

tp

= i1

._
5. Width between outer plates:

hi

bo

ho

7.9375 mm

. h
x Pltc

.1
-8 x . 12.7 = 1.5875 mm

= hi + 2 tp
= 7.9375

6. Maximum height of pin link plates:

pitch

+ 2 (1.5875) = 11.1125 mm .

0.82 x pitch

0.82 x 12.7

7. Maximum height of roller link plates:

hi = 0.95 x pitch

8. Length of roller:

=
l, =
=

= 10.414 mm

0.95 x 12.7 = 12.065 mm

0.9 b, _ 0.15
0.9 x 7.9375 _ 0.15 = 6.9937 mm

REVIEW AND SUMMARY

and

./

Types of chains: 1. Link (or welded) chains. 2. Transmission (or roller) chains.
3. Silent (or inverted tooth) chains.

./

Link chains are widely used in low capacity machines such as hoists. winches and hand
operated cranes, and as slingsfor suspending the loadfrom the hook or other device.

./

are discussed in this chapter .

./

Similarly, the construction, specification, geometric relationships of transmission (Le.,

roller) chains are also presented in detail with sufficient illustrations.

~~
"

----------------------------

~D~u~~~n~o~if~ff~a~m~m~u~~

Designprocedure fo~ roller c~ain : 1. Tofin~ number of teeth in the driving and driven
sprockets; 2. Selection of pitch; 3. Selection of chain type; 4. Calculation of PT;
5.Calculation of design load; 6. Check for factor of safety; 7. Checkfor bearing stress
on roller; and 8. Calculation of actual length of chain and exact centre distance.

"

A sprocket is a wheel with teeth of a special profile. The design of sprocket for the
selected chain is also presented

"

The inverted chains are also called silent chains because of their relatively quiet
silent chains are discussed at the end of the chapter.

REVIEW QUESTIONS

I.

2.

4.

5.
6.

How can you specify a roller chain?

Write an engineering brief about the chordal action of a chain drive.

7.

In chain drives, the sprocket has odd number of teeth and the chain has even number of

8.

What are the materials used for making chains and sprockets?

9. Write short notes on sprocket wheels.

10. What is a silent chain? In what situations, silent chains are preferred?
12. Explain the construction of silent chains.
PROBLEMS FOR PRACTICE

Problemson design of transmission chains:

. dri t
tuate a compressor from 15 kW electric motor at 1000 r.p.m.,
I . DesiSign a c h am
rive 0 ac
..'
.
t 550 r p in Minimum centre distance IS 550 mm. The cham
the compressor runnmg a
. . .
.
k 8
tensi
b
di t d by shifting the motor on rails. The compressor IS to wor
ension may e a ~us e
hou~day.
.
.
2. Design a roller chain to transmit power from a 7.5 kW motor t:; ~c:roca:mg. p~:~
The pump is to operate continuously 24 hours per day. The spe 0 t e. mo or IS I
. 600
m The motor can be located at a distance not ess
r.p.m. and that of the pump IS
r.p..
than 700 mm.

~C~h~Q~m~D~r~w~e~s
3.

Design a chain drive to run a compressor

r.p.m., the compressor

4.

The centrifugal

pump at 550 r.p.tn.

pump is located at 700 mm from the motor. Design a chain drive and

draw the arrangement.

5.

Select a suitable chain to transmit 50 kW at 900 r.p.m. of the sprocket pinion. A speed
reduction of 2.5 : I is desired. The driving motor is mounted on an adjustable base. The
load is steady, the drive is horizontal and the service is 16 hours a day.

6.

It is required to design a chain drive with a duplex chain to connect a 15 kW, 1440 r.p.m.
electric motor to a transmission
moderate shocks.

(i)

(ii)

Select a proper roller chain.

involves

(iii) Calculate the pitch circle diameters of the driving and driven sprockets.
(iv) Determine the number of chain links.
(v)

Calculate the exact centre distance.

During preliminary stages, assume the centre distance as 40 times the pitch of the chain.

Problems on design of sprocket wheels :

7.

Assume the data of problem I, and calculate the following dimensions of the driving
sprocket wheel: (i) outer diameter; (ii) roller seating radius; (iii) root diameter,
(iv) tooth flank radius; (v) tooth side radius; (vi) tooth width; and (vii) tooth side relief.

8.

Design the driving sprocket wheel, for the data of the problem 2.

9.

A centrifuge is to be driven by an electric motor. A 15.875 mm pitch silent chain is used

for this purpose. Design the silent chain.

10. A 19.05 mm pitch silent chain transmits 15 kW from a four-cylinder internal combustion
engine to a vibrating screen. Determine the various dimensions of the chain parts.

Spur Gears
"Opportunity is missed by most people because it comes
dressed in overalls and looks like 'Work."

- T"om"~ Edison

5.1. INTRODUCTION
Gears are toothed wheels used for transmitting motion
power from one shaft to
another when they are not too far apart and when
locity ratio is desired. In
comparison with belt, chain and friction drive
compact, can operate at
high speeds and can be used wher
e.
Iso gear drives are used when
large power is to be trans, ......
~
o the gears in position is much less
in lower bearing pressure, less wear 011 the
than in an equivalent frictio
bearing surfac
nd Limitations

of Gear Drive Over Chain and Belt Drives

1. Since there is no slip, so exact velocity ratio is obtained.
2. It is capable of transmitting larger power than that of the belt and chain drives.
3. It is more efficient (upto99%) and effective means of power transmission.
4. It requires less space as compared to belt and rope drives.
5. It can transmit motion at very low velocity, which is not possible with the belt
drives.
limitations

1. The manufacture of gears require special tools and equipments.

2. The manufacturing and maintenance costs are comparatively high.
3. The error in cutting teeth may cause vibrations and noise during operation.
5.1.2.Definition of Gear
.A circular body of cylindrical shape or that of the shape of frustum of a cone and .of
uOifonnsmall width, having teeth of uniform formation, provided on its outer circumferenual
surface, is called a gear or toothed gear or toothed wheel.

-_

Scanned by CamScanner

Design of Transmission Syste".,!

5.2
5.2. CLASSIFICATION

OF GEARS

1. Cla.slflcatlon based on the relative position of their shaft axes:

(il Parallel shafts
Examples: Spur gears, helical gears, rack and pinion, herringbone gears and internal
gears.
(Ii) lnters~ct;ng shafts
Examples: Bevel gears and spiral gears.

(iii) Non-parallel, non-intersecting shafts

Examples: Worm, hypoid and spiral gears.
2. Classification based on the relative motion of the shafts :
(i) Row gears: In this type, the motion of the shafts relative to each other is fixed.
(ii) Planetary and differential gears
3. Classification based on peripheral speed (v) :
(i) Low velocity gears
v <3 m/ s
(ii) Medium velocity gears v = 3 to IS m / s
v > 15 m / s

4. Classification based on the position of teeth on the wheel:

(i) Straight gears
(iii) Herringbone gears

(ii) Helical gears

(iv) Curved teeth gears

1--1-

(i) External gearing

(.i.i! Internal ge~ri.ng
(III) Rack and pinion
But from our subject point of view,
gears are broadly classified into four
groups, viz., spur, helical, bevel and

./J;\.I(X-....\

~-''):~-i-'
~_

.......
, '- ..
~

_,,/

.,*

"IIDjITIIIlIIIIIhjU IIIII

worm gears.
0/ Spur gears (sometimes

called

to the axis of rotation are used to

transmit motion from one shaft to
another parallel shaft, as illustrated in
Fig.5.1 (a).
0/ Helical

gears

have

teeth

shown

in Fig.5.I.(b).

The

as

double

helical gears connecting two parallel

shafts

gears.

are

k.iown

as

herringbone
Fig. 5.1. Typesof gears

Spur Gears

5.3

./ Bevel gt~rs have tee~h form~d on conical surfaces. They are mostly used for
transmitting monon between mtersectmg shafts. A straight-tooth bevel gear is shown in
Fig.S.l(C).

./ Worm gears consist of a worm and a worm wheel, as shown in Fig.S.l(d). Worm and
worm wheel can be visualised as a screw and nut pair. They are used to transmit motion
between non-parallel non-intersecting shafts.
In this chapter, the design of spur gears will be discussed.
~oltJ

The smaller of two gears in mesh is called pinion and the bigger gear is called whee! or

Itllr.

5.3. SPURGEARS

In spur gears, the teeth are straight and parallel to the axis of the wheel. The gearing so
formed is called spur gearing. They are used to transmit rotary motion between parallel
shafts. This gearing may be internal or external. External gears rotate in opposite directions
while internal gears rotate in the same direction.

5.3.1. Tenninology

Used in Gears (Gear Nomenclature)

The terminology of gear teeth is illustrated in Fig.5.2. The various terms used in the study
of gears have been explained below.

-'

~d8\~\)11'

_ .

,-' .
oeO~\)11'

Clearance

Circle
Oedenaum

CIrcle

Design of Transmission Syste1tl3

5.4

Pinion: A pinion is the smallest of two mating gears. The larger is often called the gear

1.

or the wheel.

2. Pitch circle:

It is an imaginary circle which by pure rolling action, would give the same

motion as the actual gear.

Pitch circle diameter: It is the diameter of the pitch circle. The size of the gear is

3.

usually specified by the pitch circle diameter. It is also called as pitch diameter.

4.

Pitch point: It is a common point of contact between two pitch circles.

5.

Pitch sur/ace: It is the surface of the, rolling discs which the meshing gears have
replaced at the pitch circle.

6.

(a) Circular pitch (Pc) :

It is the distance measured along the circumference of the pitch circle from a point on one
tooth to the corresponding point on the adjacent tooth.
Circular pitch,

I. r, --

where

1t

D .

... (5.1)

(b) Diametral pitch (Pd) :

It is the ratio of number of teeth to the pitch circle diameter.
Diametral pitch,

IP

d ~

~ ~

... (5.2)

(c) Module pitch (m) :

It is the ratio of the pitch circle diameter to the number of teeth.
Module, [ m ~ ~ [

... (5.3)

7.

Addendum circle (or Tip circle) : It is the circle drawn through the top of the teeth and
is concentric with the pitch circle.

8.

tooth.

9.

Dedendum circle (or Root circle): It is the circle drawn through the bottom of the circle.

It is the radial distance of a tooth from the pitch circle to the top of the

10. Dedendum : It is the radial distance of a tooth from the pitch circle to the bottom of the
tooth.
11. Clearance: It is the radial distance from the top of the tooth to the bottom of the tooth,
in a meshing gear. A circle passing through the top of the meshing gear is known as
clearance circle:

Spur Gears

5.5
12. Total depth: It is the radial distance between th

dd d
e a en urn and the dedendum of a gear.
Total depth = Addendum + Dedendum '

13. Working depth: It is the radial distance from th

dd d
.
en urn circle to the clearance
hi
e 0 mes 109 gears.
14. Tooth thickness: It is the width of the tooth measured al ong th e pitc
. h eire
. Ie.
. I I'
I
eire e. tIS equa to the sum of the addendum ofth

e a
tw

15. Tooth
space: It is the width of space between the two adiacenr t th
d I
. h . I
~
ee measure a ong the
pitc eire e.
16. Backlash: It is the difference between the tooth space and the tooth thickness along the
pitch circle.
Backlash = Tooth space - Tooth thickness
17. Face width: It is the width of the gear tooth measured parallel to its axis.
18. Top land: It is the surface of the top of the tooth.
19. Bottom land: The surface of the bottom of the tooth between the adjacent fillets.
20. Face: Tooth surface between the pitch circle and the top land.
21. Flank: Tooth surface between the pitch circle and the bottom land including fillet.
22. Fillet: It is the curved portion of the tooth flank at the root circle.
23. Pressure angle (or Angle of obliquity) (;) : It is the angle between the common normal
to two gear teeth at the point of contact and the common tangent at the pitch point. The
standard pressure angles are 14 Y:z0 and 200
24. Path of contact: It is the path traced by the point of contact of two teeth from the
beginning to the end of engagement.
25. Length of path of contact (or Contact length) : It is the length of the common normal
cutoff by the addendum circles of the wheel and pinion.
26. Arc of contact: It is the path traced by a point on the pitch circle from the beginning to
the end of engagement of a given pair of teeth. The arc of contact consists of two parts.
Theyare:
(a) Arc of approach: It is the portion of the path of contact from the beginning of the
engagement to the pitch point.
(b) Arc of recess: It is the portion of the path of contact from the pitch point to the end
of the engagement of a pair of teeth.
27. Velocity ratio: It is the ratio of speed of driving gear to the speed of the driven gear.

I
where

= ~

= ~

". (5.4)

NA and NB = Speeds of driver and driven respectively, and,

= Number of teeth on driver and driven respectively,
ZA and ZB

t:

Design of Transmission Systel1lJ

5.6

28. Contact ratio: The ratio of the length of arc of contact to the circular pitch is Im.own as
contact ratio. The value gives the number of pairs of teeth in contact.
5.4. LAW OF GEARING (OR CONDITIONS OF CORRECT GEARING)

The law of gearing states that for obtaining a constant velocity ratio, at any instant Of
teeth the common normal at each point of contact should always pass through a pitch point
(fixed point), situated on the line joining the centres of rotation of the pair of mating gears.
The law of gearing states the condition which must be fulfilled by the gear tooth profiles
to maintain a constant angular velocity ratio between two gears. This is the fundamental
condition which must be satisfied while designing the profiles of the teeth of the gear wheels.
5.5. FORMS OF GEAR TOOTH PROFILE
Two curves of any shape that fulfill the law of gearing can be used as the profiles of teeth.
If profile of the teeth of one of the mating gears is arbitrarily chosen and the profile of teeth
of the other gear is determined so as to satisfy the law of gearing, such teeth are known as
conjugate teeth. Gears having conjugate teeth can be successfully used for transmitting
motion but they are difficult to manufacture as special devices are used for this purpose
which are costly. So conjugate teeth are not much common in use.
Therefore the common forms of teeth profiles used in actual practice are:
(i) Involute tooth profile,

and

(ii) Cycloidal tooth profile.

Table 5.1 shows the comparison between the involute and cycloidal tooth profiles.
Table 5.1. Involute Vs Cycloldat toot" profile
Involute Tooth Profile

S.No.

1.

operation.

the

2.

velocity ratio.

Centre distance should not vary.

3.

Interference occurs.

No interference occurs.

4.

Easier to manufacture.

It is difficult to manufacture
and epicycloid are required.

5.

Weaker teeth

6.

convex surfaces.

Less wear and tear as concave flank makes contact

with convex flank.

Pressure angle varies. It is zero at the pitch point

and maximum at the start and end of engagement.

5.6. STANDARD SYSTEMS OF GEAR TOOTH

The American Gear Manufacturers Association (AGMA) and the American National
Standards Institute (ANSI) standardised the following four forms of gear teeth depending
upon the pressure angle.

Spur

Gears

5.7

2.

3. 20 full depth involute system, and

.
In actual practice, the 200 involute system'

id I
.
IS WI e y used.
4.

Involute System

./'

./'

./'

./'

./'

5.7. STANDARD PROPORTIONS OF GEAR SYSTEMS

The Table 5.2 shows the standard proportions in module (rn) for the four gear systems.
Table 5.2. Standard proportions of gear systems
Particulars

S.No.

14 YJ composite or full

20 full depth

20 stub involute

involute system

system

I.

1m

1m

0.8 m

2.

Dedendum

1.25 m

1.25 m

1m

3.

Working depth

2m

2m

1.6m

4.

2.25 m

2.25 m

1.8 m

s.

Tooth thickness

1.5708 m

1.5708 m

6.

Minimum bottom clearance

0.25

0.25 m

0.2m

7.

0.4 m

0.4 m

0.4 m

I Examp/~
tin

5.1 lIn

1.5708

III

III

pair of spur gears, the number of teeth on the pinion and the gear

The module is 6 mm. The pressure angle is 20 full depth.

Ctdclllale:
the cemr distance,
(ii) the pilch circle diameters of the pinion and the gear,
(i)

and dedendum,

(iv) tooth thickness and bottom clearance, and

tlte gear ralio.
Given Data: z, = 20; z2 = 100; m = 6 rnrn ; ~

iv)

= 20 full depth.

Design o/Transmission

5.8

Systelns

@Solution :
(i) Centre distance (a): The centre to centre distance between two gears is given by

= (01 +02)
C

mZI +mz2
2

m(zi +z2)
2

where

6(20+100)
2

-360
-

mm

ns. ~

=
02 =

=
m z2 =

01
and

and

=
=

6 (20)

zi

6 (100)

120 mm
600 mm

Ans. ~

From Table 5.2, for 20 full depth involute system,

1m

1x 6

Dedendum

1.25 m

1.25 x 6 = 7.5 mm

= 6mm

Ans. ~
Ans. ~

{iv) Tooth thickness and bottom clearance:

From Table 5.2, for 20 full depth involute system,
Tooth thickness
and

bottom clearance

1.5708 m

= 0.25 m

1.5708 x 6

= 0.25

x6

9.4248 mm

1.5 mm

Ans. ~

Ans."

100
= 5 Ans."
20

Z2

Gear ratio = -

zi

I Example

5.2

I A pinion

= -

with 25 teeth and rotating at 1200 r.p.m: drives a gear which

rotates at 200 r.p.m: The module is 4 mm. Calculate the centre distance between the gears.
Given Data:
Tofind:

z)

= 25; N) =

1200 r.p.m.;

N2

= 200 r.p.m.;

e Solution:

Gear ratio, i
Z2

__ z2
z)

6xz)

N) _ 1200
N2
200

150

6x25

Then, centre distance between the gears is given by

C = m (z) + z2) _ 4 (25 + 150)
2
2
= 350 mm

Ans. ~

= 4 mm.

Spllr Gears

5.9

I Example

5.3 ) A pair of Spur

.
gears Wllh a centre dl
speed reduction of 4.5 : 1. The m d. I .
stance of 495 mill is
o u e IS 6 mm. C I I

pinion and the gear.

Given Data:
Tofind:

and

C == 495 rnm : i == 45 .

.,

m - 6 mm,

Number of teeth on the pin'

d
Ion an the gear (i.e .

@ Solution:

Gear ratio, i ==

centre distance,

ILfIU/ /111 "

z2
zi

== 4 5
.

or z2 == 4.5

zi

and z2)'

zi

... (i)

or 495 = _6_{Z_;_I_+_Z:;:..2)
2

or

... (ii)
Solving equations (i) and (ii), we get
zi

. I Example

== 30 and

z2

== 135

Ans."

~.4 A ~oothed wheel lias 112 teeth. Its module is 1.75 mm: Find pitch
diameter, the circular pitch and the diameteral pitch.

~.JvtData:
,,!.f:'d:

z == 112;

= 1.75 mm.

(i) Pitch diameter (D), (ii) Circular pitch (Pc)' and (iii) Diameteral pitch (pd)'

Solution:
(i) Pitch diameter (D) :

Pc

nD
Z

==

7t

196
112

112

== 5.497 mm

0.57 tooth/mm

Ans.~
Ans."

5.S. GEAR MATERIALS

In modern industries, a wide variety of gear materials are used. The gear materials are
broadly grouped into two groups viz., metallic and non-metallic materials.
1. Metallic materials:
(a) Steel: ../ So far, the most widely used material in gear manufacture is steel. Almost
all types of steels have been used for this purpose .
../' To combine the property of toughness and tooth hardness, steel gears are heat treated .
../' Steels with BHN < 350 are used in light and medium duty drives. But steels with
BHN > 350 are used in heavy duty drives and also where compactness is required.

Design of Transmission Systems

5.10

../ The plain carbon steels used for medium duty applications are 50 C 8, 45 C 8, 50 C 4
and 55 C 8. For heavy duty applications, alloy steels 40 Cr I, 30 Ni 4 Cr I and 40 Ni 3 Cr 65
Mo 55 are used. For planetary gear trains, alloy steel 35 Ni I Cr 60 is recommended.
(b) Cast iron: ../ It is used extensively as a gear material because of its low cost, good
machinability, and moderate mechanical properties .
../ Generally, large size gears are made of grey cast iron of Grades FG 200, FG 260
FG 350 .

Or

(c) Bronze:

../ It is mainly used in worm gear drives because of their ability to

../ Bronze gears are also used where corrosion and wear are a problem .

They are costlier .

../ The bronze alloys are either aluminium bronze, manganese bronze, silicon bronze, or
phosphorus bronze.

2.

Non-metallic

materials:

../

The non-metallic materials

compressed paper and synthetic resins like nylon are used for gears .

like wood,

and

rawhide,

(iii) Damping of

shock and vibration .

INote'

(i) Low load carrying capacity; and (ii) Low heat conductivity.

The material for pinion should always be better than the material of the mating gear.

Because the teeth of pinion undergo more number of cycles than those of gear and hence quicker wear.
The properties of the various materials used for the gears are given in Table 5.3.
Table 5.3. Gear materials and their properties (from data book, page no. 1.40)
Tensile
Material

Condition

strength (au)'

Yield point
stress (0,),

N/mm2

N/mm2

BUN

I. Grey cast iron

As cast

200

179 min

As cast

250

197 min

As cast

350

207 min

Heat treated

350

300 min

2. Phosphor bronz.e

Sand cast

160

Chill cast

240

70 min

Centrifugal cast

260

90 min

(i)

60 min

5.11
r-Tensile

"bferia'

Condition

strength (au),

Yield point
stress (0,),

N/mm2

N/mm2

BUN

3- CdSlnls
(i) Grade 1 (i.e., CS 65)

650

400

190 min

710

570

207 min

850

710

248 min

1050

870

31 i min

1250

1020

363 min

Normalised

490

240

137

(ii) C 30

600

300

179

(iii) C 40

"

630

330

217

[iv) C 45

"

700

360

229

750

420

255

4. Fo,,~ SIMs
(.) CtUbtHI stub
(i) C 14, C 15

(v) C 60

Normalised

(i) 40 Cr I

Hardened and tempered

800

540

229 min

(ii) 40 Ni 3

"

900

600

229 min

(iii)40 Ni 2 Cr I Mo 28

"

1175

880

255 min

(iv)40 Cr 2 AI I Mo 18

"

975

700

255 min

The
../
../
../
../

selection of the gear material depends upon :

Type of service
,/ Peripheral speed
Method of manufacture
,/ Degree of accuracy required
Wear and shock resistance
,/ Cost of the material
Space and weight limitations
longer life requirements .

../

5.9. GEAR MANUFACTURING

Gears can be manufactured by various processes that can be classified under the following
three topics.
1. Gear milling:'/

Almost any tooth can be milled. However only spur, helical and

straight-bevel gears are usually milled .

../ Surface finish can be held to about 3.2 urn.

Design of Transmission Syste~

5.12

2. Gear generating:
,( In the generating process, teeth are formed in a series of passes
by a generating tool shaped somewhat like a mating gear. Either hobs or shapers can be used.
Surface finishes as fine as about 1.6 urn can be obtained.
v" Robbing:

The hob is simply a cutting tool which is shaped like a worm. Hobbing can
produce almost any external tooth form except bevel gear teeth. Hobbing closely controls
~ Shaping: Using a shaper, teeth may be generated with either a pinion cutter or a rack
cutter. They can produce external and internal spur, helical, herringbone, and face gears.
3. Gear molding:

v" Injection molding produces light weight gears of thermoplastic

material.

v" Die casting is a similar process using molten metal. Zinc, brass, aluminium,
magnesium gears are made by this process.
v" Sinter;ng is used in small, heavy-duty
are mostly used for this process.

v" Investment casting and shell molding produce medium-duty

rough applications.

and

and pumps. Iron and brass

iron and steel gears for

5.9.1. Gear Finishing

In order to improve accuracy and surface smoothnes . the gears produced must undergo
gear finishing operations. The generally used gear finishing perati n are having, grinding,
lapping and honing.
5.10. GEAR TOOTH FAILURE

The two modes of gear tooth failure are:

I. Tooth breakage (due to static and dynamic loads), and
2. Tooth wear (or surface deterioration)
(a) Abrasion
(b) Pitting, and
(c) Scoring or seizure
1. Toot" bre,dage: The load on any gear tooth is cyclic and therefore fatigue fracture of
tooth may occur at the root. Tooth breakage may also be cau ed by an unexpected heavy load
imposed on the teeth.
1. Tooth wear (or surface deterioration} :
(II) AbrlUion : When some foreign materials such as dirt, rust or metal particles

in between the mating teeth, there will be wear of tooth surfaces.

abrasion wear.

Thi

deposited
wear is known as

J!!!!_Gears

5. I 3

(6) PiJtillg and spalling : Pi~ing is the process during which small pits are formed on the
active surfaces of gear tooth. It IS a surface fatigue failure which occurs when the load on the
gear tooth exceeds the surface endurance strength of the material.
(c) Scorin.g.or seizure: .Sc~ring ~an OCcur under heavy loads and inadequate lubrication.

At this condition, the lubrication 011 film breaks down and metal-to-metal contact occurs.
Hence high temperatures result and the mating spots of the two surfaces weld together. This
phenomenon is known as scoring or seizure.
5.11. FORCE ANALYSIS OF SPUR GEARS

The gears in contact are used to transmit power. It is understood that a tooth of driving
gear pushes the tooth of the driven gear in contact. According to the law of gearing, the'
resultant force F should always act along the pressure line, as shown in Fig.S.3(a). We know
that the pressure line is the tangent line which is tangent to base circles of both pinion and

gear.

.'

The resultant force F between mating teeth can be resolved at the pitch point into two

components, as shown in Fig.5.3(b).

(Driving pinion rotates clockwise)

,--="
.~IllP

(.

F,

d,

\._

Pitch circle
) (pinion)

lZfFr

Fr~
~Ft

1>('
/' P

d2)

\\

Wheel (

Illg

~;:~rde

.~

-_./

(b)
(a)
Fig. 5.3..
t F is a useful component.
The tangential componen
t
. ed
1. Tangential component (F,) :
f F the magnitudes of torque and transnutt
ing the value 0 t'
Because it transmits power. U s

power can be detennined.

= F
. .
.
t
F'
eparating force which IS always
..
d' I mponent
IS a s
ful
.
nt (F ) : The ra ia co
'k
S it is not really a use
f.
F does no wor.
0
erse
directed towards the centre of the ~ear'ft~e shaft. The force F, is also called as transv
es bend 109 0
component. This force F , caus

force or bending force.

Design o/Transmission

Systeltls

5.14
Let

M,

Nt and N2 = Speeds of pinion and gear respectively in r.p.m.,

d, and d2 = Pitch circle diameters of pinion and wheel respectively in m, and
~ =

Pressure angle.

M,

60 x P
27tN

The tangential component F, acts at the pitch circle radius.

M,

F, =

or

From Fig.5.3(b),

d
F, x 2
2 M,

F,' tan ~

... (5.5)

... (5.6)
Pitch line velocity (v) is given by

7tdN
60

mls

Then the transmitted power is calculated as

" -P-=-F-,-x-v----,

.. , (5.7)

5.11.1. Assumptions Made in Force Analysis

The assumptions made for the above force analysis are :
./

./

./

./

./

The effect of the dynamic forces is neglected .

./

As the point of contact moves, the magnitude of resultant force F changes. This
effect is neglected.
.

Spur Gears

5.15

[.rame/~ 5.5 A draft horse walks at a steady pace of 5 miles per hour (lit 2.23 m/s).
What st~ady force must it exert if the power output is exactly 1 horse power (lit 745 W).
Giv~n Data:
Tofmd:

o Solution:

We know that the transmitted power,

P = F, x v
or

745 = F, x 2.23

[xamele

5.6

I A pinion

= 333.37 N Ans. ~

of 120 mm pitch diameter, running at 900 r.p.m: transmits

5 kW of power to gear whose pitch diameter is 360 mm. For straight tooth, the angle of
pressure is 20 ~ Determine the tangential force, the transverse or bending force on shafts

Given Duta:

d1

120 mm

0.12 m ; N,

900 r.p.rn.;

P = 5 kW

5 x 103 W;

Tofind:

(i) Tangential and transverse forces (i.e., F, and F r)' and

(ii) Torques on driving and driven shafts (i.e., T, and T2)

@ Solution:

Gear ratio, i
N2

N, _ d2 _ 360
N2 - d , - 120
N,

900

= 3 = 3 = 300 r.p.m.
1td,N,

=
=

60
1t

1td2N2

60

(0.12) 900 = 5 655 m/s

60
.

/:. F. and F) .
(i) Tangential and transverse/Drees u.e., t
f.
. d p-Fxv
We know that the power transmltte,
- ,
3
_ ~ = 5 x 10 = 884.19 N Ans.~
Tangential force, F, - V
5.655
or
.
onent) force is given by
_
19 tan 200 = 321.82 N Ans.~
F = F/ x tan ~ - 884. x
r

'u'r}

{I

'I

Torques on

d . 'ng and driven shafts (i.e., T} and T} :

"VI

..

. '
h ft = Torque transmitted by plDlon
Torque on dnvtng s a

:rr-.
/

5.16

60 x P
T) = 27tN)

..

= 53.05 N-m

53.05 N-m

.

60 x 5 x 103
27t X 900

60 x P

= 2 7t N2

Ans. ~

60 x 5 x 103
27t x 300

159.15 N-m

159.15 N-m

Ans. ~

I Example 5.71 A

train of spur gears is shown in Fig.5A(a). Pinion 1 runs at 1750

r.p.in. hnd transmits 2.5 kW power to idle gear 2. The teeth are cut on the 200 full-depth
system and have a module of 2.5 mm: The number of teeth on gears 1, 2 and 3 are 20, 50
and 30 respectively. Calculate:
(i) the torque on each gear shaft, and
(ii) the components of gear tooth forces.

Also draw a free body diagram of gear 2 showing all the forces which act upon it and
determine the reaction on the idler gear shaft.
y

I,
I

-~vt,2 '

b -----

Fb2 -----,

Fb2

I
I

(a)

(b)

Fig. 5.4.

Given Data: N) = 1750 r.p.m. ; P

z) = 20; z2 = 50; z3 = 30.
@Solution:

200;

The pitch circle diameters of gears I, 2 and 3 are given by

d) = m z) = 2.5 x 20 = 50 mm ;
d2
d3

Scanned by CamScanner

= .~ z2 = 2.5 x SO
= m z3 = 2.5 x 30

75 mm.

= 2.5 mm ;

pur Gears
5.17

All three gears have the same pitch I'

. . .
velocity IS given as

me velocity (v) Th
. erefore for pinion 1, th e pitc
. h I'me

_1tdINI
60

VI

= 1t(50 x

10-3) 1750

60

4.581 m/s

Considering pinion 1 and gear 2 :

Let the tangential force of pinion 1
P = F

on gear 2

.
by,

,x v

= f = 2.5 x

or

IS

103

4.581

545.67 N

Fr12 = F ,12

tan ~

F'
= _!L

_ 545.67
cos ~ _ cos 200

12

580.69 N

The torque transmitted by the pinion 1 is given by

TI =

60 x P
21t NI

[ .: P = 2 1t6~ T ]

60 x 2.5 x 103
21t x 1750

= 13.64 N-m

Considering gears 2 and 3: Since gear 2 is an idler, it transmits no torque (power) to its
shaft.
Torque transmitted by the gear 2, T 2

= 0

Since gear 2 is an idler, whatever torque it receives from pinion 1 is transmitted to gear 3.
Therefore, the tangential component between gears 2 and 3 must be equal to the tangential
component between gears 1 and 2, as shown in Fig.5.4(b). Therefore

and

= 545.67 N

F~2

= F~2

F;2

= F~2 = 198.61 N

F32

= 580.69 N

FI2

2 1tN I TI
60

2 1tN3 T3
60

Design of Transmission Systems

5.18
NIT, = N)T)

or
or

by

Torque transmitted

gear 3, T3 = TI (~:)

[ .: i = ~: = ~ ]

= TI (~~)

T3 = 13.64 (~~)

20.46 N-m

Ans. ~

Reaction on the idler gear shaft: The shaft reactions in the x and y directions are
R~2 = -(F~2+F;2)and
R~2 = - (F~2 + F;2 ).
Here (-)ve sign is for reaction. Because reaction is always opposite in direction to the
force applied.
R~2

-(F'12

+F;2)

-(-545.67+

198.61) = 347.06N

and

R~2 = - (F~2 + F;2 ) = - (198.61 - 545.67) = 347.06 N

... [using sign convention (+)

i ;(-)~]

Therefore the resultant shaft reaction is given by

Rb2

I Example

= ~

(R~2 )2 + (R~2 )2

= ...J

(347.06)2 + (347.06)2

= 490.82 N

An5."

5.B A train of spur

gears is shown in Fig.5. 5. Gear J is
the driving gear and transmits 5 k W
power at 720 r.p.m: The number of
leeth on gears J, 2, 3 and 4 are 20,
.~O, 30 and 60 respectively. The
modllie for all gears is <I mm. The
gears Itave a 20 full deptlt invohu
profile. Calculate lite langOltiaJ and
radial components of the tooth force
between:
(i) Gears I and 2,

and

Z4 ::

Fig. 5.5.

w ~ N.

720 r.p.m.;

Zt =

20;

z2 =

50; z).== 30;

q, = 20.

@ So 'ulion: The pitch circle diameters of the gears 1, 2, 3 and 4 are given by

...
SpurGears

5.19

mZI

4 x 20

80mm;

d2 =

mZ2

4 x 50

200 mm ;

d3 =

mZ3

4 x 30

=
=

d4 =

mZ4

4 x 60

240 mm,

dl

The pitch line velocity for gear I is given as

1t

60

vI

~ x 80 x 10-3 x 720

dIN I

60

3.016 mls

(i) Considering gears 1 and 2: The tangential force of gear 1 on gear 2 is given by
I

F 12

vI

5xl03
3.016

1657.86 N Ans. ~

= F;2

F;2

x tan

q, =

603.41 N Ans. ~

F

F;2

= --

cos

12

1657.86
cos 200

q, =

1764.26 N Ans. ~

(ii) Considering gears 3 and 4 :

i

Speed of gear 2, N2

Gear ratio,

We know that,

N,
N2
NI
2.5

z2
z,

50
20

720
-2.5

2.5

288 r.p.m.

Since gears 2 and 3 are coaxial, the speeds are same i.e., N2 = N3
The pitch line velocity of gear 3 is given by

d3 N3 =

1t

7t

60

v3 =

x 0.12 x 288
60

1.809 m/s ... [.: N3

= N2 = 288 r.p.m.]

The tangential force of gear 3 on gear 4 is given by

= f..

F'
34

v3

5 x 10
1.809

= 2763.10 N Ans. ~

F'

34

F'

34

x tan

q,

1005.69 N Ans.

F

34 -

F;4
= 2763.1
cos cj>
cos 200

2940.43 N Ans.1?

l'

Design of Transmission Syste

5.20

I Example

5.9

I A train

of spur gears with 200 full depth involute teeth Is showII ill

Fig.5.6. Gear 1is the driving gear and transmits 50 kW power at 300 r.p.m: to the gear
train. The number of teeth on gears 1, 2,3 and., are 30, 60, 25 and 50 respectively, White
the module for all gears is 8 mm. Gears 2 and 3 are mounted on the same shaft. Gear 1 ;,
rotating in a clockwise direction when seen from the left side. Calculate: (i) the tangelltiat
. and radial components of tooth forces between gears 1 and 2, and gear 3 and 4; alld
(ii) draw afree body diagram of forces acting on each gear.

I
I

-----r--I

Fig. 5.6.

Given Data: ~ = 20; P = 50 kW

z3 = 25 ; z4 = 50; m = 8 mm.

Tofind : (i)

= 50 x 103 W' 'I N = 300 .p.m. ,

r

F, and F, of tooth forces between gears 1 and 2, and gears 3 and 4; and

@Solution : The pitch circle diameters of gears 1 2 3 and 4

.
by
_
' ,
are given
d , - m zi = 8 x 30 = 240 mrn .,

=
d3 =
d4 =
d2

m z2

m Z3
m z4

= 8 x 60 = 480 mrn ,.
= 8 x 25 = 200 mm ; and
= 8 x 50 = 400 mm.

(i) Tangential and radial components of tooth forces:

(a) ConSidering gears 1 and 2 We kn
th h .
.
.
ow at t e pitch line velocity of gear 1
VI = 1tdiNI
= 1txO.240x300
'
60
60
= 3.77 mls
We know that th ta
.
e ngential component of tooth force betw
een
gears 1 and 2
F;2 = -P = 50 x 103 _
'
VI
3.77
- 13262.9 N Ans.""tJ
and the radial component of tooth force betw

Spur Gears
5.21

,.

,
,

- F'
-

12

12

tan ....
't'

= F;2

cos 't'....

= 13262.9

.cos 200

14114.0SN

F34

(b) Considering gears 3 and 4 :

We know that,

NI

gear ratio, i

Speed of gear 2, N2

N2
NI

300

= 2 = T = 150 r.p.m.

Since gears 2 and 3 are coaxial, therefore speeds are same. i.e., N2

= N3.

The pitch line velocity of gear 3 is given by

1t

v3

d3 N3
60

1t

x 0.2~g x 150

1.571 mls

[.,' N3 = N2

= 150 r.p.m.]

We know that the tangential component of tooth force between gears 3 and 4,

,
Design of Transmission Systems

5.22

50 x 103
1.571

31830.99 N Ans."

F;4

F34

11585.53 N

__lL

31830.99 x tan 200

FI
=

cos <p

31830.99
cos 200

33873.83 N

(ii) Free body diagrams: The free body diagram of forces acting on gears and the shaft
Be is shown in Fig.5.7.

I Example

5.10

stage gear box is shown in Fig.5.B. The

number of teeth on the gears are as
follows: ZI = 20; Z2 = 100; Zj = 25 ;
z" = 150.
Pinion 1 rotates at 1100 r.p.m. in all
anticlockwise direction when observed
from the left side and transmits 12 k W
power to the gear train. The pressure
angle is 20 ~ Calculate:
(i) torques acting on shafts A, B
and C;

(ii) tangential
and
of tooth forces
components
between gearj' 1 and 2, and
gears 3 and 4,' and

200

100

Fig. 5.8.

(iii) resultant reactions at bearings E and F.

Also draw afree body diagram of the gear tooth forces.
Given Data:

z,

= 20;

z2 = 100; 13 = 25 ;

P = 12 k W
@ Solution:

12 x 103 W ; <p

= 150'

Z4

= 20

NI

::

1100 r.p.m. ;

m =

2a
(zl+z2)

2
(20

ISO
100

2.5

['.: a = 150 mm from Fig.5.8]

Pitch circle diamet.ers of gears I, 2, 3 and 4 are gi en by
d , ::

mZI

2.5x20

SOmm'

Spur Gears

5.23

d2 =

mZ2

= 2.5 x 100

= 250 mm ;

mZ3

= 2.5 x 25

d4 =

mZ4

= 2.5 x 150

= 375 mm.

d3

(i) Torquesacting on shafts A, Band C:

Torques acting on shafts A, Band
respectively.

Therefore torque acting on shaft A is given by

60 x p
27t NI
-

We know that,
Speed of gear 2, N2 =
Torque on shaft B, (M')B

= 104.17 N-m Ans.-c

100
-- -20 -- 5

Z2
zi

1100
5 = -5- = 220 r.p.m.

NI

60 x P
27t x N2

60 x 12 x J03

2n x 220

150

Z4

- z -- -25 = 6

COlISidering gears 3 and 4 :

and

60 x 12 x 103
2n x 1100

speed on gear 4, N4

220

NJ

= 6 = 6 = 36.66 r.p.m.
[.: N

Torque on shaft C, (M,)

2n
=

= N2 = 220 r.p.m.]

N4

3125.22 N-m

Ans.-c

"I

_ n diN
60

60

Tangential component of tooth force of gear I on gear 2 is given by

F~2

= ~

F~2

= F~2 x

==

Scanned by CamScanner

!()3

12

2S

tan.

4166.% N

4 J 66.96 x tan 20

5.24

FJ2

v3

F~2
cos ~

4166.96
cos 200

1t

x 62.5 x 10-3 x 220

60

= 0.72 m/s
Tangential force, F;4

and

P
v3

12xl03
0.72

= F;4 x tan ~

= 16667.86 N
=

F;4
cos ~

16667.86

= cos 20

(iii) Resultant reactions at bearings E and F :

The free body diagram of forces acting on gears and the shaft EF is shown in Fig.5.9.

F'2

lCS\$---------

F~

F'2

F34

F12

Shaft EF
Shaft EF

Spur Gears

5.25

Fig.5.10.

Tofind reactions (RF)v and (R Fiv : Consider vertical forces.

Sum of upward forces

or

(RE)v + (RF)v

F~2 + F;4

(RE)v + (RF)"

1516.65 + 6066.6

7583.25 N

... (i)

or

or

(RF)v

4766.6 N

(RE)v

7583.25 - 4766.6

... (ii)

2816.63 N

... (iii)

Tofind (RF)H and (RF)H : Consider horizontaJ forces.

Sum of right hand side forces = Sum of Jeft hand side forces

or

(RE)H + (RF)H

F~2 + F~4

(RE)H + (RF)H

20834.82 N

... (iv)

Taking moments about bearing E, we get

(RF)H x 0.350 - F~4 x 0.250 - F~2 x 0.100 = 0
or

(RF)H

Or

=
=

0
13096.2 N

(RE)H

.,. (v)

Design of Transmission Syste1trs

5.26
Resultant reaction at bearing E :

RE

= ~ [ (RE)H F + [ (RE)y]2

= ~

8235.3 N Ans. ~

Resultant reaction at bearing F :

RF

(7738.64)1 + (2816.63)1

= ~ [ (RF)H ]2 + [ (RF)y]2
= ~ (13096.2)1+ (4766.6)1
= 13936.67N Ans. ~

'Example

consists of three gears A, Band C as shown in

Fig.5.ll. The gear A has 72 internal teeth and
gears Band C have 20 and 32 external teeth
respectively. The gear B meshes with both A and
C and is carried on an arm EF. The sun gear A
rotates in a clockwise direction and transmits
7.5 kW power at 1400 r.p.m. to the gear train.
The module is 5 mm and the pressure angle is
20 ~ Calculate:

Fig. 5.11.

0) the tangential and radialforces acting on each gear, and

(ii) the torque that the arm EF can deliver to its output shaft.
Also draw afree body diagram offorces acting on each other.
Given Data:

zA

Zs

72;

Zc

20;

32;

7.5 kW

7.5

103 W;

Solution:

t:

dA

= m zA =

5 x 72

dB

= m zB =

5 x 20

= ) 00 mm;

de

= mzc

5 x 32

- 160 mm.

360 mm ;
and

LEF =

dA +dB
2

360 + 100
2

230 mm

Considering gears A and B :

Pitch line velocity of gear A,

VA

1t

0.360 x 1400
60

26.38 mls

Spur Gears

5.27

Tangential force of gear A on gear B, F~

vA
and radial force of gear A on gear B, F~

7.5 x 103
= 284.2 N Ans. ~
26.38

=---

F~

103.44 N Ans."

x tan

ct>

Then resultant force of gear A on gear B,

i'

F AB

F~B
cos

ct>

284.2
cos 200 ::-::302.44 N Ans."

"I

Considering gears Band C: Since the gear C (also known as ring gear) is fixed, therefore
forces acting on gear B is same as that of gear A, as shown in Fig.5.12.

(;;) Torque thai the arm EF can deliver to its output shaft: The free body diagram of
forces acting on each gear and arm EF are shown in Fig.5.12.

Arm EF

,
"

Fee = FAa

Gear A

GearC
Fig. 5./1.

From Fig.5.12, the force acting on the ann EF,

F EF = 2 F AB . cos 20
= 2 x 302.44 x cos 20
=

568.4 N

Torque that the ann EF delivered, T = LF x FEF

=

0.230 x 568.4

130.73 N-m

Design of Transmissmn
SYS
.
~

5.28

5.12. TOOTH STRESSES (BEAM STRENGTH OF GEAR TOOTH - LEWIS EQUATION

The frrs. anal sis of gear tooth stresses was done by Wilfred Lewis in J 892. The for

given by Lewis (also known as Lewis equation) still serves. as th~ basis for gearbending stress analysis. In the Lewis analysis, the gear tooth IS considered as a Canti
beam as shown in Fig.5. 13(a).
5.12.1. Assumptions

./'

The effect of radial component F,., which induces

negligible .

compressive

stresses

v: The tangential component F, is uniformly distributed across the full face Width.
./'

The tangential force F, is applied to the tip of a single tooth. In other Words .

, I

assumed that at any time only one pair of teeth is in, contact and takes the
to
./'

./'

. In Fig.5.13(b), the resultant force F is transferred.

.
to
Intersection of the line of action of resultant tooth I d F Pd)flt 0 from tip, where 0 is th

/!...............

/.....
, .'

b."

(F,/b)

,,
,
,:

.'

,:

oa

.:: .'..
r----:"
.,., . ..'.: '
f

..
I

.'

.'

/(a)

The resultant force F .

JS

Th

Fig. 5.13.

(b)

resolved into tw

0 component
.
e tangential component f
s I. e., FI and F
break the tooth
0 tooth force FI induces a b
. ,..
0/.
eanng st ress
component F indUces
,.
a compressive stress.

0/

Scanned by CamScanner

h.ich tends to

~~~~~------------------

~5~.2~9~

Since the direct compressive stress is very small as compared to the induced bending
therefore the effect of compressive stress on the tooth may be neglected Hence the
streSS'.
'.
.
,

be"d;"g stress IS used as the basISfor desIgn calculations.

From Fig.5.13(b), it is known that the section XX is the section of maximum stress or the
criticalsection.

Let

= FI x h,

h
0b

=
=

Length of the tooth,

Maximum bending stress at section XX,

b

Face width or width of gear face,

Thickness of the tooth at critical section XX,

1 =

Pc

= ~~ ,

= Maximum distance between centre line and the extreme fibre = t 12, and
Circular pitch.

At critical section XX,

Maximum bending moment, Mb = F t

... (i)

Mb

... (ii)

where y

= 112;

= b13/12;

and Mb

F, x h.

Substituting the values of y, I and M, in equation (ii), we have

(F, x h) x (112)
(~~)

or

= b .

0b

6 Ft x h

... (iii)

btl

(;2h)

." (iv)

MultiplyiQgthe numerator and denominator on the right hand side by PC' we get

or

(6 ~lpJ

F,

F,

= Pc' b . 0b . Y

e; -b- "b

... (5.8)

5.30
y

where

(2

6 h p;

constant,

Equation

=
b

F,

Pc' b . y'

is the maximum

transmit without failure.

I Beam

strength,

F(

7t.

m b

0b' ~

[.:

Pc

= 7t.

m]

... (5.9)

The values of the Lewis form factor (y) are given in Table 5.5.

INote I I.

In order to avoid the breakage of gear tooth due to bending, the beam strength should be

more than the effective force between the meshing teeth.

2. In the design of gears, it is required to decide the weaker between pinion and gear. In equation
5.9, the beam strength depends on the product (ob x y) since the m and b are same for pinion as well as

for gear.
(a)

When the same material is used for pinion and gear the pinion is always weaker than the gear.

(b)

y) decide

the weaker between pinion

and gear. The Lewis form factor y is always less for pinion corn pared with gear.
5.13. GEAR BLANK DESIGN

There are two basic methods of gear design:

(i)

Gear design using Lewis and Buckingham equations (or gear design based on beam
strength), which is recommended
by AGMA (American
Gear Manufacturers
Association);
and

(ii)

Gear design using basic relations (or gear design based on gear life), which is the
conventional method.

I.

GEAR DESIGN USING LEWIS AND BUCKINGHAM

(DeSign of Spur Gear recommended by AGMA)

EQUA'rIONS

As discussed in Section 5.12.2, the Lewis equation is given by

F, = p . b . 0h . Y
. The beam .stren~th is the maximum value of the tangential force that the tooth can trl.lnsmil
WIthout bending failure. Replacing F by F o by [].
.
I
S'
b
cr b ' ' we get

,
.>I

Spur Gears

5.31

=
F, =
Fs =
crb =
[ crb ] =
Fs

where

[ crb ]

::::::

=
Pc =
y* =
b

P: b . [crb] . y

7t.

m b- [crb]

.y

... [.: Pc

= 7t m]

Strength (or beam strength) of gear tooth,
Induced bending stress,
Allowable static stress, from Table 5.4, or
Ultimate stress (crut

3
Face width,
Circular pitch =

7t.

m, and

Lewis form factor based on Pc, from Table 5.5.

The value of Lewis form factor (y) in terms of number of teeth is expressed as follows
(fromdata book, page no.8.50) :
y = 0.124 - (0.684Iz), for 14~0 full depth involute system

0.175 - (0.841/z), for 20 stub system

The following table shows the values of allowable static stresses for the different gear
materials.
Table 5.4. Values of allowable static stresses
Material

(N/mm2)

56
70
105

140

196
126
224
350
460

Bronze

84

Non-metallic materials (like

Rawhide, Fabroil, Bakelite, etc.)

56

Forged steel, 'ca'\e hardened

Forged steel, heat treated
Alloy steel, case hardened

Note that we have two types of form factors, viz., form factor based on circular pitch (y) and form factor

1t

f
,

Design of Transm iss ion SyStems

----~--

~5.~J2~
TlIb/~ 5.5. Fomt/tlclor

II:

--

10FD

20 stub

0.330

0.380

0.454

40

0.336

0.389

0.459

0.339

45

0.340

0.399

0.468

0.295

0.360

50

0.346

0.408

0.474

0.270

0.308

0.377

55

0.352

0.415

0.480

20

0.283

0.320

0.393

60

0.355

0.421

0.484

22

0.292

0.330

0.404

65

0.358

0.425

0.488

24

0.302

0.337

0.411

70

0.360

0.429

0.493

26

0.308

0.344

0.421

75

0.361

0.433

0.496

28

0.314

0.352

0.430

80

0.363

0.436

0.499

30

0.318

0.358

0.437

90

0.366

0.442

0.503

32

0.322

0.3M

0.443

100

0.368

0.446

0.506

33

0.324

0.367

0.445

200

0.378

0.463

0.524

35

0.327

0.373

0.449

Rack

0.390

0.484

0.550

14 ~ FD

100FD

10 Stub

14 Ya FD

10

0.176

0.201

0.261

37

12

0.192

0.226

0.289

14

0.236

0.276

16

0.255

18

5.15. DYNAMIC EFFECTS

When a pair of gears is driven at moderate or high speeds, it is certain that dynamic effects
are present. In order to account for the dynamic effects, a velocity factor Cv (also known as
dynamic factor) is introduced. The velocity factor (cv) developed by Barth are given as
follows:
(i)

For ordinary and commercially cut gears made with form cutters and with v < 10
m/s:
3
c =

3+v

(ii)

For accurately hob bed and generated gears with v < 20 mls :
6

c,
(iii)

6+v

For precision gears with shaving, grinding and lapping operations and with v> 20
mls:
Cv

0.75
1 + v + 0.25

Fd

F,
Cv

... (5.10)

Sp~0~e=a~N~

~~

5.33

The tangential load (Fr) to be used in the Lewis e ti .

.
.
qua Ion ISthe load for which the drive is
to be designed. Therefore tangential load considerin th ffi
.
drive (i.e., service factor) is given by
gee
ect of service conditions of the
P

Ko

v
where

... (5.]1)

v
Ko

Pitch line velocity in mis, and

= Service or shock factor, from Table 5.6, to account for shock loading.
Table 5.6. Service I Shock factor

Ko

1.0

Light shock
Medium
Heavy

INote'

1.25

shock

1.5

shock

2.0

If the starting and rated torques. data are given in the problem, then service factor can be

calcuJated as below.

.
Starting torque
Service or shock factor, Ko = R ated torque
For example, the starting torque of motor is 140% of the rated torque, then service factor, Ko = 1.4.

the meshing teeth. The dynamic loads are due to the following reasons:

Let

./

./

Irregularities in tooth profiles,

./

Elasticity of parts,

./

./

./

Dynamic unbalance of rotating masses.

Fd = Total dynamic load on the gear tooth,
F(

FJ

Incremental load due to dynamic action.

Scanned by CamScanner

Design of Transmission

SysletnJ

5.34

Then,

Fd

F, + FI

The incremental load (FI) depends upon the pitch line velocity, the face width, material of
the gears, the accuracy of cut and the tangential
Buckingham

is
21 v (be + F,)
FI =

2 I v + ...J be + F,

Therefore Buckingham dynamic load (also known as Buckingham's

21 v (be + F,)
F, +
_
2 I v + 'J be + F,

where

Constant, known as deformation factor, in N/mm

A deformation factor (e) depends upon the tooth form, the material of the gears, and the
expected error in tooth profile. Consulting Tables 5.7(a) and b) the def rmati n value c can
be found.
Table 5.. (b) Expected error (e) In

Table 5.7. (a} Value of c

(fro", data book, page no. 8. 53)
Tooth

Maltrial

form

100111

of pinion

and gur

N/mm

14.5

profiles. ;11 mm

Firil clUJ

artfully

commer'cis]

cut gurl

57.0 c

00

114.tO c

oe

depth

MI5

gun

O.OI2~

78 0 c

~I iron

20 full

Prtcllion

o.
I

00

12~
Ol~

0.017

I iron

0.019

"

O.020~

4""

84 0

We kn \\ thai

modul
In order

agar
l

111

III

on it

an

av id fai Iurc

f ear

of Module)

rh,

m d Ie alue. The

~~:.:a~n

------

~~
5.35

J---

i.e.,
Module, m ~

F(
CV X 7t X

... (5.13)

b x [ ob ] x y

.-

Table 5.B. Recommended series of standard module in mm (from .I t b k

82"
,
aa a 00 ,page no. . '/
Choice-l

Choice-

I, 1.25, 1.5,2,2.5,3,4,5,

Choice

3.5,4.5,5.5,

3.25,3.75,6.5

7, 9, II, 14, 18

5.19. FATIGUE STRENGTH OF GEAR TOOTH

(Wear Strength of Gear Tooth or Wear Tooth Load)

The failure of the gear tooth is mostly because of wear between two meshing teeth. For
example, pitting is a surface fatigue failure. In order to avoid this type of failure, the
proportions of the gear tooth and surface properties, such as surface hardness, should be
selectedin such a way that the wear strength of the gear tooth is more than the effective load
betweenthe meshing teeth.
The maximum wear load (or wear strength of the gear tooth) mainly depends upon the
radii of curvature of the tooth profiles and surface fatigue limits of the materials. Therefore
themaximum or the limiting wear load of gear tooth is given by

I Fw =
where

d) b Q. Kw

... (5.14)

Fw

d)

Pitch circle diameter of pinion in mm (use d) irrespective of whether

pinion or gear is designed),

b = Face width of the pinion in mm,

Ratio factor

2x i
=
= --i+1
=

2x i
i-I

where
Z
p

2zg
, for external gears
Zg +zp
2Z
Zg

g .,

-zp

... (5.15a)

.. , (5.15b)

z/zp, and

5.36

K, = Load stress factor (also known as material combination factor) in

N/mm2, from Table 5.9.
=

(J..+_l)

f;ssinq,
1.4

Ep

Eg

... 5.16)

where

Table 5.9,

q, =

Pressure angle, and

Young's moduli of pinion and gear materials respectively.

Ep and Eg =

INote I The surface

endurance limit (f es) for steel may also be obtained by using the relation

f es =

... (5.17)

and Kw
Kw for 14 Yz

f es

Material
Pinion

f es

N/mml

Gear

Kw for 200 FD

FD

N/mml

N/mm1

Steel

Steel
150 BHN

342

0.206

0.282

250BHN

618

0.673

0.919

400BHN

1030

1.869

2.553

342

0.303

0.414

618

1.0

1.31

445

0.503

0.689

549

1.05

1.42

Cast iron

Steel
150 BHN

Cast iron

Steel
250BHN

Bronze

Steel
200BHN
Cast iron

Cast iron

Non-metal

Metal

1.4

5.28. NUMBER OF TEETH

The mmimum number of teeth on pinion to avoid interference is given b

2
zmi" = sin2 ~'

Y
where ~

Pressure angle.

ilMlW&e tooth profile with 14 'h 0 or 20 pressure angle is used.

herefolle, aaswne zi as given below:

~lY

./

ZI ~

./ z, ~ 32,

and

for 14'120 full depth system.

. .. (5.18)

~~--------------------------

~S.~37~

5. In the design of gears, it is required to express the face idth i

f

Ii
WI
in terms 0 module In
ractice,the optImal range of face width is
.
p
8 m < b < 12 m
f "'1
11'
... (5.19)
However, or imtia ca cu ations of gear design, face width is assumed as ten times of
module (i.e., assume b = 10 m).
5.22. fACTOR OF SAFETY
(i) Factor of safety for bending:
_ Beam strength of gear tooth
Fs
(F . Sknding - Dynamic load on gear tooth - Fd
The recommended factor of safety for bending is between 1.5 to 2.
(;;)Factor of safety for pitting:
_ Wear strength of gear tooth
Fw
(F . S) pnnng
..
- 0 ynarmc. Ioad on gear tooth - Fd

'" (5.20)

... (5.21)

The recommended factor of safety for pitting is 2.

5.23. DESIGN PROCEDURE

The gear is designed on the basis of beam strength using Lewis equation and checked for
1. Selection of material:
If not given, select a suitable pinion and gear materials,
referringTable 5.3.
2. Calculation of z 1 and z 2 :
-/ Ifnot given assume number of teeth on pinion zl ~ 7, say 18.
-/

Z2

P

F,
where

= -;

Ko

Power transmitted in watts,

1tdN.
I
d
Pitch line velocity = 60 ,m m s, an

Ko = Service I Shock factor, from Table 5.6.

4. Calculation of initial dynamic load (FttJ : Calculate the preliminary value of dynamic

Where

.I ..

FI

Fd

= -

. Cv

be

5.38

5. Calculation of beam strength (FJ :

the beam strength (Fs) in terms of module using the relation

Calculate

where

F,

1t. m . b . [ crb ] . y

Module in mm,

[ crb]

b = lOx module,

= Form factor, from Table 5.5.

6. Calculation of module (m) : Since the gear is designed on the basis of beam strength,
therefore

F s ~ F d: So equating Fsand F tP find the module.

Then select the nearest higher standard module value from Table 5.8.

7. Calculation of b, d and v :
b

./

./

Find pitch circle diameter (d I):

./

Find
m oi
pitc hi' me ve I'ocity ()v :

10m

d 1= Z . m

l I
1td60
N

Recalculate

of the gear

tooth using the relation

F,
9.

1t. m . b . [ crb] . Y

Calculation of accurate dynamic load (F{J: Calculate

accurately

using Buckingham's

where
In calculating

F +F

Deformation

by neglecting

the dynamic

21 v (be + Ft)
F + ----;::=====-

tit

equation as given below.

the dynamic

21 v + '.} be + F,

P/v.

./

./

./

Now increase the face width, module

or both. Usually, to reduce the dynamic load (F d)' the gear should be carefully cut

(i.e., to reduce the deformation factor (cj), Even for precision gears, F d > Fs' then
increase the face width, till F d < F s:

~~a~n--------------------

~5'23~9

II. Calculatio" of the maximum wear/oad (F.J :

Calculate the maximum or limiting wear load using the relation
r, = dlxbxQxKw

where

Q = Rauo eractor

2i

2 z2

= "+ I

-- z +
I

K,

z2

,an d

12. Checkfor wear:

"

Compare the calculated values of dynamic load (Fd) and wear strength (Fw)'

./

If Fd < Fw' then the gear tooth has adequate wear capacity and it will not wear out.
Thus the design is safe and satisfactory.

13. Calculation of basic dimensions of pinion and gear: Calculate all the basic
dimensions of pinion and gear using the relations listed in Table 5.10.
Table 5.10. Basic dimensions of spur gears (from data book, page no. 8.22)
Nomenclature

Notation

Formula

Module

2 a / (z, + z2)

Centre distance

m (z, + z2) / 2

fo

Height factor

fo = I, for

c

Bottom clearance

0.3

Tooth depth

In,

2.25

for stub

m,

1.9 m, for stub

Pitch circle diameter

dl

Tip diameter

da

dal

mz,;
(z,

d2

+ 2/0) m ;

do2 = (z2 +
df

Root diameter

dfl
d

f2

mZ2

(z,
= (z2 -

2/0> m.
2/0)

In

2c;

2/0> m - 2c.

. d
h weaker of the two gears.
is applie to t e
. .
Id b
.
te of tile same material, then tile puuon shou e
2. When both the pillion and II.e gear are mac, .,
mpared with gear therefore the pinion is
'.
.
.
I
less
for
pmlon
co
.'
designed. Since the Lewis factor y IS a ways
[Note

I I. The

Lewis equation

always weaker than the gear.

]
decid
the weaker between pinion
roduct [ob
x y eCI es
3. When different materials are use , t e p . .
d [
]
for the gear are calculated. Tile
0b2 Y2
and gear. That is, the product [obI ] YI fior the pinion. an
element which has lower I ub I y va lue s h uld be designed.
d

Design of Transmission Sysle111s

5.40

I Example

Given Data:

P = 4? kW;

5.12 Design a spur gear drive required to transmit 451flr at a pinion sPeed
of 800 r.p.m: TI,e velocity ratio is 3.5 : 1. The teeth are 200 f u/l depth involute with 18 teeth
on the pinion. Both the pinion and gear are made of steel with a maximum safe static stress
of 180 Nlmm2. Assume medium shock conditions.
[ 0b ] =

i = 3.5;

N, = 800 r.p.m.;

<I>

20;

Zt

=:

18 .,

180 Nzmm-.'

Tofind:

Design a spur gear.

Solution:

Since both the pinion and gear are made of the same material, the pinion is
weaker than the gear. So we have to design only pinion.

1. Selection of material: Given that the pinion and gear are made of steel. Assume steel
is hardened to 200 BHN.

2. Calculation of z, and

Z2:

Number of tee.h on pinion, zl = 18

Number of teeth on .gear, z2

... (Given)

= i x zl =

3.5 x 18

63

3. Calculation of F, :

= -v xK

1td1N1

where

1txmz1xNt

60

60 x 1000

1t X m x 18 x 800
60 x 1000

0.754 m

F,

45 x 10 x 1.25
0.754 m

74603

F,
= -C
v

where

Cv

Velocity factor, assuming v = 12 mls

6
6 + v' for accurately hob bed and generated gears with v < 20 m/s

=:

Fd

6
6 + 12

:: 0.333

74603
m

1
x 0.333

223809
In

~::e=~~s----------------

_J~
5.41

5. Calculation of Fs :

Fs =

Beam strength,

where

7t

=
=
=
=

m . b . [ 0b ] . y

Face width = 10 x m

... (assume)

Form factor
0.154 - (0.912 1 Z I), for 200 full depth system
0.154-(0.912/18)

= 0.1033

7tXmxl0mxI80xO.l033

F, -

= 584.15m2

6. Calculation of module (m) :

We know that,

6it \mL:.

m2

~84.15

If\.

or

module, m ~ 7.26 mm

From Table 5.8, the nearest higher standard module value under choice 1 is 8 mm.
7. Calculation of b, d and v :
b

= 10 x 8 = 80 mm
d , = m- zl = 8 x 18 =

10 x m

'"

.;

.;

1t

d1 Nl
60

Beam strength,

Fs =
=

where

F,

P
v

45 x 103
6.03

Deformation

= 11860

x 144 x 10-3 x 800

60

6.03 mls

m . b . [ (J b ] Y

1t.
1t X

9. Calculation of accurate dynamic load (Fd)

7t

144 mm

21 v (be + Ft)
F, + 21 v + '.} be + F,

7462.68 N,

factor, from Tables 5.7(a) and (b),

e, for 200 FD, steel and steel, from Table 5.7(a), and

e = 0.038, for module upto 8 and carefully cut gears, from Table 5.7(b).

Then ,

e = 11860 e = 1186<Yx 0.038 = 450.68 N/mm.

21 x 6.03 x 103 (80 x 450.68 + 7462.68)
7462.68 + 21 x 6.03 x 103 +~ 80 x 450.68 + 7462.68

50908.19 N

Scanned by CamScanner

5.42

10. Check/or beam strength (or tooth breakage) :

Since Fd > Fs' the design is unsatisfactory. That is dynamic load is greater than the beam
strength.
In order to reduce the dynamic load F d' select the precision gears. Therefore, fn>m Tab\~
5.7(b), e = 0.019 for precision gears.
Then, the deformation factor, c

11860 x e

Fd

21 x 6.03 x 103 (80 x 225.34 + 7462.68)

= 7462.68 + 21 x 6.03 x 103 + ~O x 225.~4
7467~6~--

-v

= 32920.46 N
Now we find F d < Fs' It means, the &~~ft~olh

Fw =
Q

where

~y

= Ratio factor

2i

i +- T

2 x 3.5

3.5 + 1

= 1.555, and

= 0.919 N/mm2, for steel hardened to 250 BHN,

Fw = 144x80x 1.555 x 0.919 = 16462.6N

from Table 5.9.

12. Check/or wear: Since Fd > Fw, the design is unsatisfactory. That is, dynamic load is
In order to increase the wear load (Fw)' we have to increase the hardness (BHN). So now
for steel hardened to 400 BHN, K, = 2.553 N/mm2, from Table 5.9.
..

Fw

144 x 80 x 1.555 x 2.553

= 45733.42 N

Now we find Fw> F d" It means, the gear tooth has adequate wear capacity and it will not
wear out. Therefore the design is satisfactory.
13. Basic dimensions of pinion and gear: Refer Table 5.10 .
m = 8 mm .

../

Module:

./

Number of teeth :

= 18 and

./

Pitch circle diameter:

d1

d2 =
./

Centre distance:

144 mm;
m z2

63

and

= 8 x 63 = 504 mm

m(zl+z2)
=

42 =

= 8 (18 + 63)
2

= 324 mm

,__ -. t-,t~

5.43

./

Face width:

./

Height factor :

./

Bottom clearance:

./

Tip diameter :

b = 80mm

10

= 1, for 200 full depth teeth

d.01

=
=

~zl+2fo)m

d02

(~2 + :]. 0)

dfl

(zl-2fo)m-2c
(18 - 2 x l) 8 - 2 x 2

4/2

=
=

0.25 m

0.25 x

(l8+2x

(63 + 2 x 1) 8

! m

(z2 - 2

8 = 2 mm

f 0) m -

= 160mm;and

1)8

520 mm.

124 mm;

and

2c

= (63:- 2 x 1) 8 - 2 x 2 = 484

mm

running at 300 r.p.m: is driven by a 15 kW, 1200 r.p.m.

motor thr(Jllgh ,,14l1z 9ful! dept" spur gears. The centre distance is 375 mm. The motor
pi"lon Is to be of C 30 forged steel hardened and tempered, and tile driven gear is to be of
~ast ir(Jn. Assumlnll mf!4ium slmck condition, design tile gear drive completely.
N~ = 300 r.p.m.;

Given Data:
T(1find:

1

@ Solution:

evaluate [crbl

",,(i

Since the ",,,(eri41\$ (1/ pinion

11~"r'''~ (/iff!!r~nf~fir&t wc? have
y, and [ crbl ] . Y2 to find out the weaker element,

Gear ratio, i

= Nt =
N2

1200
300

to

= 4

Assume zi = 18.
Z2

i x z,

4 x 18 = 72

z, = 18, and

Form factor, Y,

y,

0.270
112 x -7t-

Forpinion:

[ crbl ]

For gear :

Form factor, Y 2

= 9.625

h = 56 N/mm2,

...

[ ... y 1---]

YI
7t

= 72, and

from Table 5.4, for cast iron.

[ .: Y2

Y2
= -]7t .

We find [ crb2 ] Y2 < [ crbl ] YI i.e., the gear is weaker than the pinion. Therefore, we have
.
eSIgnthe
gear only.

tod

'J
,n'

Design 0/ Transmission Syslel

5.44

1. Material selection:

Pinion:

C 30 Forged steel;

Gear:

and

Cast iron.

... (given

Since the centre distance (a) is given, we need not t

equate F, and Fdto find the module. Here the module can be calculated using the relation
m (z, +z2)

a
375

or

= m (18 + 72)
2

or

Module, m

8.333

From Table 5.8, the nearest higher standard module under choice 1 is 10 mm.

b

10 x m

10 x 10

../

../

../

,.,

l'

= 'It

4. CalCulationof beam strength (FJ

Beam strength, F =

'It.

d2 -

d2 N2
60
=

m .b.[

.z, -- 10 x 18 = 180 mm

m . Z2
'It

x 720 x 10-3 x 300

60

]
CJh 2'

x 103
, = fv -_ IS11.31

) :
d

FI +

= 11.31 m/s

Y2

= 'It x lOx 100 x 56 x (0.3 6)

5. Cal.

'It

20160 N

21 v (be + FI)
21 v + \} be + F,

= 1326.26

N,

c ;::

Then ,

100 mrn

2'

where

../

Deformation factor from T

;:: 7850
c.
'
abIes 5.7(a) and (b)
e, ror 14 FD
'
e
' steel - cast iro
== 0.022, for mOdUle Upto J 0
.n: from Table 5.7(a), and
c ;:: 7850
and preCISion ge
x 0.022 :::: 172.7 N1m
ars, from Table 5.7(b).
m
1326.26 + _21 x 11.31 x 103 (JOO
;::
21 x 11.31 x 103 +
x 172.7 + 1326.26L
19911.85 N
100 x 172.7 + 1326.26-

Vi

Scanned by CamScanner

Spur Gears

5.45

6. Checkfor beam strength (or tooth breakage) :

We find Fd < Fs' It means, the gear tooth has adequate beam strength and it wiJI not fail
by breakage. Thus the design is satisfactory. .
7. Calculation of wear load (F.J :
where

dI x bx Q

i+1

Kill

K,,,

2x4 - I6
4+1
- .,an

Fw

180 x 100 x 1.6 x I

8. Check forwear:

28800 N

We find Fw > Fd" It means, the gear tooth has adequate wear

capacity and it will not wear out. Therefore the design is satisfactory.
9. Basic dimensions of pinion and gear: Refer Table 5.10 .
../ Module: m = 10 mm
../ Number of teeth: z. = 18, and Z2 = 72.
d1 = 180 mm, and d2

./

Centre distance:

../

Face width:

../

Height factor, fo = 1, for 14 Y2 FD .

../

Bottom clearance:

../

Tip diameter:

= 375

c = 0.25 m
dOl

df

Root diameter:

mm .

100 mm .

d 02
../

= 720 mm

=
=

I =

0.25 x 9

2.25 mm

10) m = (18 +2 x I) 9 = 180 mm; and

(z2 + 2 10) m = (72 + 2 xl) 9 = 666 mm
(z I - 2 10) m - 2 c = (18 - 2 x I) 9 - 2 x 2.25
(z) + 2

139.5 mm;

and

(z2-2fo)m-2c

(72'-2 x 1)9-2x2.2S

= ~~5mm.
(Example 5.14 , A bronze spur pinion rotating at 600 r.p.m: drives a cast iron gear at a
trow .....
rlllis of 4: 1. AIIoNIIIIW slatic stress for pinion and gear are 85 and 105
N~
r5/M!Ctively. TM pilliIJ. has 22 stQfHl4l~d20 0full dt!pJj~ ;IW~
uel& The power
Ir.... i*ed is 32 kW. The sill/ace elldluallCe linUJ for Ihe gear pair is 520 NI"".2, modulus
of el_icily of Ihe pillUM ",,*,iaJ is 1.2 x 11J5NI"",,1 aIIII that of gear is 1 x 1fJ,5 NI"""z. If
t~ Sllll'tu., I#WI-- is 25% ,..,e ,... tile IMIIII tlNt-, desig", tile gear drive completely.
Given Dala: NI = 600 rp.m.;
i = 4; [O'bl]
= 85 Nzmm-": [O'b2] = 105 N/mm2 ;

z,

==

E 2- J

....

22;

q, =

200,

x ]05 N/mm2;

Ko

.
Starting torque
Service factor = Rated torque

32 kW;

fes

520 N/mm2;

EI
=]

.25.

1.2 x 105 N/mm2

25~.4~8

------~-~.=-~-~-~~~ __~~~

D_e_si~gn~of_Tl_t_an_s_m_~_s_io_n_S~~_~/~ern~s

to ./inti f t}~sigli the geat drive,

SJHtt! the IHlJleflals 0/ plnton and gear are different; first we have to
evaluate [<1bl 1Yi Md ((Jb11 >'2 to find out the weaker element.
@ StJiulitJH!

Given that il
For pinion:

22; and

:1== , ':1 == 4 x 22

Forth factor,

..

88.

===

r 0bi])it

For gear: Form factor,

Yt = ~]
n
= OA40, for %2 = 88 (by interpolation), from Table ~.5.

Y2

[crlJ2]Y:Z

= 8.93 N/mm2

== 8S x 0.330

== lOS xQA4

[ .,'

== 14.7N/mm2

[.,' Y2= Y2]

n

We find [obI] YI < [ 0621 'vi' i.e., the pinion is weaker than the gear. Therefore we have
to design the pinion only.

1. MateridJ

seuato

... (Given)

Gear: Cast iron

2.

zi

= 22; and

z2

= 88.

3. Calculation of FI :
p

where

Ko
F/

Ko

1txmztxNt
60 x 1000

1t x m x 22 x 600
60 x 1000

Starting torque
Mean torque

0.691 m

_
- 1.25

where

ClI

F/
clI

= 6
=

Fd =

+ v ' for accurately generated gears with v < 20 m1s

6
6 + 12

57874.52
m

0.333
1
x 0.333

173797.37
m

~~Ge~a~~s ----------~~~------~--------~------------5_.4_7-

::r;--

5. Calculation of

r,:

Beam strength, F,

1t.

Face width == 10 x m

where

m . b [ ObI]

YI .

;.. (assume)

:::

Fs

0.154-(0.912/22)

= 1tXmx

"'=

0;1125

IOmx85xO.1125

300.41",2

6. Calculation of module (m) :

Fs ~ Fd

We know that,
300.41
or

m2

173797.37

Module, m ~ 8.33

From Table 5.8, the nearest higher standard module under choice 1 is 10 mm,

7. Calculation b, d and v :
./

b=10m

Facewidth(b):

./

lOx 10=100mm
Pitch circle diameter (d 1): d 1 = m . Z1 = lOx 22 = 220 mm

./

v =

1t dl

8. Recalculation of beam strength (F J

Beam strength, F, =

1t.

1tX

NI

60

1t

x 220 x 1O~3 x 600

60
= 6.91 mls

m . b . [ 0b]

.Y

lOx 100x85xO.1125

9. Calculation of accurate dynamic load (F J

30041.48N

21 v (be + F,)
Dynamic load, Fd = F +
,
21 v + \} be + F,
where

F, =
e

32 x 103
v 6.91

4629.96 N,

~ 8150e,

e ~ 0.022, for precision cut gears with module upto 10 mm,

from Table 5.7(b).
e ~ 8150 x 0.022 = 179.3 N/mm

Then,

Fd = 4629.96 +
= 27166.59 N

21 x6.91 x 103 (100 x 179.3+4629.96)

21 x 6.91 x 103 + ~ 100 x) 79.3 + 4629.96

Design of Transmission Systems

5.48
/0. Check for beam strengtl, (or tooth breakage) :.

We find Fs> Fd" It means, the gear tooth has adequate beam strength and It WIll not fail
by breakage. Therefore the design is satisfactory.
11. Calculation of maximum wear load (Fw) :

where

K",

= dl x

bxQx

Kw
2i

2x4
+ 1 = 1.6, and

= Ratio factor = i + I = 4

1.4

[1Ep + Eg1 ]

/2 . sin,
's 1.4

[.:

1.211 N/mm2

t, and Eg are given]

/ ~S'

42627.2 N

12. Check for wear: We find F,.. > F d" It means, the gear t

capacity and it will not wear out. Therefore the design is satisfactory.
/3. BlISic

~lISiDlIS

./

Module: m

./

Number of teeth:

./

Pitch circle diameters:

= 10 mm

'I = 22;

and

'2 = 88

d, = 220 mm'

and d2

= ", .;;

= 10

88

= 880

10 (22 + 88)

= 550 mm

dOl =

./

Root diameter :

dill

dfJ

(z I - 2 /0) m - 2 c

(22 - 2 x I) 10 - 2 x 2.5

195 mm'

d 12 = (z2 - 2 /0) m - 2 c

= (88 - 2

I) 10 - 2

2.5

855

BUD.

and

mm

~~S-------------------[]Xnmplt 5.1~ I A bakelite pinion driving

~S~.4~9
a cast iron gear. Tile pinion rotating at

700r.p.m. transmits 5 k ~ to a gear. Th~ velocity ratio is 3, the teeth are 200 full depth, and
-d is smooth. Design tire gear drive. Take the allowable static stress for bakelite as
tht I.,..
40NI",nr2

Given J)ata: N.

= 700

P = 5 kW;

r.p.m.;

; = 3; ~ = 20;

[ob]

40 N/m~2.

To find: Design the gear drive.

Since bakelite is a non-metallic material, bakelite pinion is weaker than the
cast iron gear. Therefore we have to design the pinion only.
@ Solution:

1. Material: Pinion - Bakelite,

2. Assume z.

18; and z2

= ;

F,

3. Calculation of F, :

where

x z.

xK

= -v

1t

54.

d. N.
60

= 0.66
Ko

3 x 18

. .. (Given)

1txmxz.xNI

60 x 1000

1t

m x 18 x 700
60 x 1000

= 1, for smooth load, from Table 5.6.

F,

4. Calculation initial F d:

Fd

where

clI

5 x 103
7578.81
0.66 m x 1 =
m

F,
clI
V e IOCIity f:actor -- 10.75
+ V + 0 .,25 for non-metallic gears

1+5

_L_

7578.81

x 0.375

= 20210.16

where

F,

1t.

Face width

m .b .[

(Jb ] . y

.., (assume)

= 10m

static stress = 40 N/mm2, and

[ (J b ] = Allowable
- 0 154 - (0 .912/z I) , for 20 full depth system
y = Form factor -.

=
Fs

0.154-(0.912/18)

= 1t
=

= 0.1033

m x 10m x 40 x 0.1033

129.85 m2

(Given)

Design of Transmission SYslenlS

5.50
6. Ca/cli/ation

0/ module:

We know that, Fs

129.85 m2
or

Module,

Fd:

20210.16
m

m ~ 5.38

From Table 5.8, the nearest higher standard module under choice-]

is 6 mm.

7. Calculation of b, d and v :

b = 10m

./

Face width:

./

./

= lOx 6

d1

m- zl

1td1 Nl
v =

60

60 mm

6 x 18 = 108 mm
1t

60

- 3.96 mls

8. Recalculation of beam strengtb :

F,

1tmb[crb]y

= 1t

6 x 60 x 40 x 0.1033

4673.18 N

9. Calculation of dynamic load: We know that the Buckingham's

equation

for dynamic

load is not applicable to non-metallic gears. Therefore the dynamic load for non-metallic
can be calculated as

Fd

F,
Cv

F, = -v =

where

c,

5 x 10
= 1262.62 N, and
3.96

. c.
( 0.75 )
V e Iocrty
tactor = 1 + v + 0.25

0.75 )
( 1 + 3.96
+ 0.25 = 0.4012

Fd =

gear

1262.62
0.4012

3147.12 N

10. Check/or beam strength (or tooth breakage) :

We find Fs> Fil' therefore the design is satisfactory.

Fw = d I x b x
where

Kill

Fw =

Q x K,

R . f
2 i
atro actor = i + 1

2x3
---

3+1

1.5, and

j'l

5.51

Spur Gears

, I

12. Checkfor

C'
I

the
design

wear:

13. BaJic dimensions of pin ion anti gear:

Module:

./

Number of teeth :

ZI

.; ,Pitch circle diameter:

./

Centre distance:

./

Face width:

./

Height factor:

./

Bottom clearance:

./

Tip diameter:

= 18; and Z2 = 54.

{II = 108 mm ; and

d2 = m . z2

6 x 54

= 324 mm.

a =

216 mm

60 mm

f0= I
c = 0.25

III

= 0.25

x 6

1.5 mm

dal = (zl + 2 f 0) m = (18 + 2 xl) 6 = 120 mm;

da2
dJ1

Root diameter:

df2

I Example

satisfactory.

m = 6 mm

./

./

IS

= (z2 + 2 f 0) m
= (z I - 2 f 0) m
= (z2-2fo)m

II

and

(I 8 - 2 x I) 6

96 mm ; and

(54-2x

312mm.

1)6

two stage spur gear reduction unit (Fig. 5.14)

with 200full depth involute teeth. The 'input shaft rotates at 1440 r.p.m. and receives 10 kW
power through a flexible coupdng .. TIre speed of output shaft should be approximately 180
r.p.m. All the gears are made of plain steel 45 C 8 (a"l = 700 Nlmm2). Tire service factor
can be taken as 1.5.
Given Data: \$ = 200;
Tofind:

NI

,1440 r.p.m.;

P = 10 kW; N4

180 r.p.m,;

Ko = 1.5.

Design the gear drive.

Solution:

The layout of
gears is shown in Fig.5.14. For"
ease of manufacturing,
the
pinions I arid 3 are made'
identical, while gears 2 and 4 are
also exactly 'identical.

In the design of gear train, we

need not to design all the gears. ':
Instead, the pair of gears which
transmits more torque (i. e., either
pair I or pair 2) is designed. So '~
first let us find the pair which
governs the design.

Fig. 5.14.

~~

----------------------------------~D~e~sl~.gn~O~if~v~~_a_n_s_n_l~_s_i_o_n_S~~_st_~

~.52
Total transmission ratio, if

Speed of first driving gear

Speed of last driven gear

==

1440
180

==

= -{7 = -{i == 2.8284

i x zi = 2.8284 (18) == 50.9]
= z3 = ] 8; and
= Z4 = 51.

i
Assume

zl

18...

z2

==
Zl

As stated earlier,

Z2

:::::5 J.

N. = ]440r.p.m.

N2
and

= N,

N3 = N2
N.

xG:)

= 1440GD

= 508.23

r.p.m.

N3 (;~)

508.23 x

= 508.23

(!D

r.p.rn,

. .. (Given)

We know that torque transmitted

is inversely
proportional
to the
speed
[.: T = 60 x P/21tN]. Therefore, in this case, gear 3 transmits more torque titan tile gear 1
because of its lower speed. Helice the second pair consisting of pillion 3 anti gear 4 are to

be designed.
1. Material: Given that the pinion and gear are made of alloy steel. Since both gears are

made of the same material, we have to design the pinion only.

2. Already calculated that z3 = 18 and Z4 = 51.

3. Calculation of F( :
where

FI = ~
v

Ko

1t X

m x z) x

N)

60 x 1000

x 18 x 508.23
60 x 1000

IT X Tn

0.479 m, and

Ko = 1.5.
F(

... (G' lven )

10 x 103
31315.24
0.479 m x 1.5 =

Fd

= .:

Cv

where

.)
= Velocity factor = _]___ =
= 0.375,
3+v
3+5
31315.2-i
83507.3
Fd =
x
=
m
0.375
m

Cv

assuming

=5

.,
~~

----

~5~.5~3~

5. Calculation of beam strength :

F,

7t.

m . b . [ 0b ] . Y

b = Face width

where
[ ab]

F,

Allowable

Form factor

0.154-(0.912/18)

tt x m x

6. Calculation of module:
757.22

m2

10 rn,

... (assume)

ai'

static stress

7~0

233.33 N/mm2,

and

0.154 - (0.912 I zl)' for 20 full depth system

0.1033

IOmx233.33xO.1033

We know that, F s

757.22m2

F d:

83507.3
In

or

m ~ 4.79

Module,

From Table 5.8, the nearest higher standard module under choice-l is 5 mm.
7. Calculation of b, d and v :

-/'

./

Pitch line velocity (v):

10 x 5. = 50 mm.

d3

10 m

./

m- z3

7t d3 N3
60

5 x 18

90 mm

7t x 90 x 10-3 x 508.23
60

Ii

2.395 mls
i' I

8. Recalculation of beam strength (FsJ :

Beam strength,

F s = 7t X m . b . [ a b

] .

7tx5x50x233.33xO.l033

18930.44 N

9. Calculation of accurate dynamic load (F(/J :

21 v (be + F,)

10 x 103
2.395

where
e

Fd

'j

21 v + \} be + F(

4175.36 N,

Deformation

11860 e, for steel and steel, from Table 5.7(a), and

0.025, for carefully cut gears and module upto 5 mm, from Table 5.7(b).

c = 11860
Then ,

= F, +

Dynamic

4175.36

0.025 = 296.5 N/mm

21 x 2.395 (50 x 296.5 + 4175.36)
+ 21 x 2.395 +~ 50 x 296.5 + 4175.36

9254.76 N

5 -4
--:?.--.--(0. Chec*/or ben'" strength (or tootl' breakage) :

fi d F ,. F
We nn

o :

11. Calcllla/ion 0/ maximum wear load (F",) :

Wear load, f.. ~ d I x b x Q x 1(" 2 i

i+1 ~ 0

Q ~ Ratio factor ~

where

~-

2 . Z4

~ 2.553 N/mm2, for 400

BJ:IN

1.478, and

18 + 51

f" ~ 90 x 50 x 1.478 x 2.553 ~ 16983

J2. Check/or wear: We find F", > F d' therefore t/.e design is satisftlCtOry.

13. Basic dimensions of gears: Refer Table 5.10.

m == 5 mm

Module:

./

Face width:

../

Height factor:

,f

Bottom clearance:

b == 50 mm

f 0 ==

For p.inions 1 and 3 :

./

Number of teeth :

1
c ~ 0.25 rn ~ 0.25 x

z. :::Z3 ==

1.25 DIm

18.

Pitch circle diameter: d I ~ d 3 ~ 5 x 18 = 90 mm

x

al
a3 zl+2!0)'" = (18+2
Tip diameter'
d == d - (

.:
,f

./

Root ,diameter:

mm
1)5=100

d i 1 == d f 3 == (z 1 - 2 f 0) m - 2 c
== (18 - 2 xl) 5 - 2 x 1.25 = 77.5 mm

For gears 2 and 4 :

./

Number of teeth : Zi == Z4 = 51

./
.,f

Pitch
circle
diameter:

./

TIp
dIameter:
Root diame.tcn:

d 2 == d 4 - 5 x 51

d
da 2 == dda4 -f2

/4

255 mm

. + 2 xl) 5 - 265 mrn

+ 2 f 0) m = (51
z2 - 2 f 0) m - 2 c

Z2

_. (51 - 2 xl) 5 - 2 x 1 25 .
- 242.5 mm

II. GEA
R DES.IGN BASED

(GearDesign usin9 Basrc

~NRelations)
GEAR LIFE
5.24.AsDYNAMIC
di
.
ther

iscussed In
i S ection
.
5.17
. mg
. . teeth.
e are dynamic loads betw een ,m
to the st aftc ,oad due t 0 power
the-mesh.

transmission,

~~S

~5~.5~5

--------------~

... Design torque,

where

M/

[M/]

K . Kd

M/

Pinion torque

(5.22)'

60 x P
2 1t N '

P = Power transmitted,
N

Speed of pinion,

K = Load concentration factor, from Table 5.11, to account for uneven

distribution of tooth load along the face width of the tooth, and

Kd

Dynamic

circular pitch errors, and velocity of operation.

Table 5.11. Load concentration foetor, k for cyttnartcut gears (from data book.page no. 8.15)
Bearings close to
gears and
symmetrical

IlIp= bid}

Asymmetrical
Over hung pinion

0.2
0.4

1.05

1.04

1.1

1.15
1.22

0.6
0.8
1.0
1.2

1.03

1.08

1.06

1.13

1.16
1.22

1.32
1.45

1.1

1.29

1.14

1.18 .
1.23

1.36

1.4
1.6

1.19

1.29

1.25

1.35

1.45
1.55

ds

diameter of the shaft;

Table 5.12. Dynamic load factor, Kit (from data book, page
IS Quality

.._

Cylindrical
gear

.._

--

r---.
10

t---

Conical
gear

Pinion
surface
hardness
HB

110.

Bevel

8.J 6)

1.0

3.0

8.0

12.0

3.0

8.0

12.0

18.0

< 350

1.2

1.4

1.1

1.2

> 350

1.2

1.3

1.0

1.1

< 350

1.25

1.45

1.2

1.3

> 350

1.2

1.3

1.1

1.2

< 350

1.35

1.55

1.1

1.3

1.4

> 350

1.3

1.4

1.1

1.2

1.3

< 350

1.1

1.45

--

1.2

1.4

> 350

1.4

1.2

1.3

s 350

1.2

8
10

I'

~
- 5-6

).

---

CEO BENDING STRESS, Gb

5.25. INDU
.
(.
modified LewIS equa
di stress equatIon i.e.,
Lnducedben mg

I

by
iI

==

a . m . b y

where

[M,l

== Form factor, from Table 5.13.

fi
y (from data book, page no. 8.18)
Table 5.13. Form actor,

I Noiil
5.26.

... (5.23)

y
0.308

35

0.452

12

0.330

40

0.465

14
16

0.355

45

0.471

18

0.377

50

0.477

20

0.389

60

0.490

22

0.402

80

0.499

24

0.414

100

0.505

26

0.427

150

0.515

28

0.434

300

0.521

30

0.440

Rack

0.550

DESIGN BENDING STRESS [

a" ]

As discussed in Section 5.10, the tooth breakage- is caused by fatigue due to repeated
bending stresses. Therefore permissible bending stress should be determined on the basis of
endurance limit and is given by

where

1.4

Kb/

n-

Ka x
x

_1 ,

0_1,

Kb/

Ka

n

= Factor of safety, from Tab Ie 5. I 7.

and

... (5.24)

5.57
Table 5. U. Life factor for bemllng, Kb/ (from datu book, page no. 8.10)
Material

Surface hardness

Life in number of

HB

cycles, N

s 350

~ 10'

Steel"

~ 25 x

10'

< 25

10'

Cast Iron

10'

<
> 350

Kb/

~ 10' IN
0.7

~IO'/N

If the case hardness HB > 350 and the core hardness HB < 350, then the coefficient

~IO'/N
Kb/

is obtained for HB < 350.

Table 5.15. Stress concentration factor for fillet, Ka (from data book, page no. 8.19)
Material and Heat Treatment
Steel, normalised, surface hardened

1.5

Steel, case hardened (low carbon steels)

1.2

Cast iron

1.2

Table 5.16. Endurance limit, u_I (from data book, page 110.8.19)
a_I' Endurance

Material

Forged steels

Cast steels

Alloy steels

0.35 au + 120
0.45 all

Cast iron

INote I

au -

N/mm2

O'y- Yield stress, N/mm2

Table 5.17. Factor of safety, n (from data book, page no. 8.19)
Material

Mode of
manufacture

Heat treatment

Factor ofsafety, n

Steel,

Cast

No heat treatment

2.5

Cast iron

Cast

Tempered or normalised

2.0

Steel

Cast or Forged

Case hardened

2.0

Forged

Surface hardened

2.5

Normalised

2.0

Design of Transmission Systems

5.58_------------~~....:.:!-----~~

Surface strength is proportional to the surface hardness and it is given by

[ CJ ]

== CB x HB x KcI

... (5.25)

== CR x HRC x KcI

C and C
where

Coefficients

depending

on the material

from Table 5.18,

HB == Brinell hardness number, and
KcI == Life factor for surface compressive

Surface hardness

Heat treatment

Material

Coefficient

Co or CR

HB S 350

Cs =2.5

any type

Normalised or
Hardened and
Tempered

Case Hardened

HRC == 55 to 63

CR == 31

Alloy steels

Case Hardened

HRC

55 to 63

CR -28

Case Hardened

HRC == 55 to 63

CR =22

C40; C45

Hardened and
Tempered

HRC - 40 to 55

CR = 26.5

C40;C45

Surface Hardened

HRC - 40 to 55

CR = 23

HB

170 to 200

Cs

2.0

HB

200 to 260

CB

2.3

=

85' C20
Mn85

Table 5.19. Life factor for surface (contact compressive) strength, K

(from data book ,page 110..
8 17)
cl
Material

Surface Hardness

Life factor

HB

KcI

~ 107
Steel

< 107

Steel

S 350

~ 25

If)7

<25

107

~ 107 IN
0.585

> 350
~

107 IN

107 IN

Cast iron

...
Spur Gears

5.59

The gear teeth in contact are nothing b t t

.
.
u wo curved surfaces under pressure. The stress
induced m the surface, known as Hertz contact stre ss, .ISgiven
.
by

o = 0.74 i I "'
where

= Gear ratio

Nl

= z2

N2

zl'

Eeq [M,}

... (5.26)

Eeq

I i 1 x

\j i b

and

2 El . E2
EI + E2 '

... (5.26a)

where EJ and E2 are Young's modulus of pinion

and gear respectively.
2 1 2
Table 5.20. Equivalent Young's modulus, E = 1 + 2 (from data book, page no. 8.14)
Wheel

Pinion

Tensile

Young's
Material

Equivalent

EI,

modulus

Material

au'

strength

N/mm2

N/mm2

Steel

2.15

lOS

N/mm2

105

2.15x

s 280

1.1 x

105

1.46

105

> 280

1.4 x

105

1.7

lOS

1.2

105

1.55

lOS

7 x 103

1.36

105

Nylon
of materials,

N/mm2

105

Bronze

modulus E.

2.15 x

Steel

CI

Young's

Young's
modulus E2,

5.29. CENTRE DISTANCE (a)

..r. ce cOlnpressive stress o should not exceed the design surface
W e k now t h at t h e surra
c
compressive stress [ ac]' i.e., (J'c S [ crc].

i 1
074
. - a

i1
ib

Eeq

[M,]

[ crc ]

By rearranging, we get
Centre distance, a ~ (i + 1)

.. , (5.27)

5.60
...::.:::..:......

Design
S"SI'e'lis
_:;_:__~ of Transmisstnn
_::_:::..:..=.:::.:...:::!_J'

where

[ O'c]

= ~

\jI

Ratio of gear width to centre distance, from Table 5.21

Table 5.21. Width to centre distance ratio, f// (from data book, page

110.

8.14)

'" = b I (/

Type of gear transmission

Open type gearing

0.1 to 0.3

Speed reducers (closed type)

(a) High speed 8 to 25 111/s

upto 0.3

upto 0.6

upto 1.0

I Note I

0.12toO.15

where b - face width, and d I - pinion diameter.

5.30. DESIGN PROCEDURE

1. Calculation of gear ratio (i) :

Calculate the gear ratio (i.e., speed ratio) using the relation

N,
z2
-- N2 - zl

1--

If gear ratio is not specified, it may be assumed to be unity. In case of multistage speed
reducers, the sped ratio may be selected from R 20 series.

2. Selection of materials:

Consulting Table 5.3, knowing the gear ratio i, choose the

suitable combination of materials for pinion and wheel.
3. If not given, assume gear life (say 20,000 Ius).

Calculate the design torque using the relation

[ Mt]
where

= Mt

K . Kd

.
60 x p
Transmitted torque = 2 7t N '

K = Load concentration factor, from Table 5.11, and

Kd. = Dynamic load factor, from Table 5.12.

,,L

Since datas are inadequate to select the values ofK and K,b initially assume K Kd::::
(The above details are taken from data book, page no.8.15.)

I.3.

5.61

IrS

I uel :

Tofilld

].

[ CJc

1 =

where CB or CR

CB HB . Kc/ or

[CJc]

= CR . HRC . Kc/

from Table 5.18,

HB or HRC
KcI

= Brinell or Rockwell hardness number , and

Life factor for surface strength, from Table 5.19.

The above relations are taken from data book, page no.8.16.
Calculate the centre distance between gears based
on surfacecompressive strength using the relation
a~

where

(i+I)
\V

Eeq [MIl
i\V

[CJc]

= Qa = Width to centre distance ratio, from Table 5.21.

Unless otherwise stated, take \V = 0.3 for initial calculations.

(i) Number of teeth on pinion, zi : Assume zi ~ 17, say 18.

(ii) Number of teeth on gear, z2:

z2

i x zi

B. Calculation of module (in): Calculate the module using the relation

2a
(zi + z2)

Using the calculated module value, choose the nearest higher standard module from
TableS.S.
. 9. Revision of centre distance (a) : Using the chosen standard module, revise the centre
distance value (a).

m (zi

+ z2)

b = \V a.
=

.,

"

0.74)2

m- z).

5.62
./

./

Calculate the value of 'tip : 'tip

b
d

11. Selection of quality of gears: Knowing the pitch line velocity (v) and consulting
Table 5.22, select a suitable quality of gear.
Table 5.22. Penpheral speed of gear (from data book, page

110.

8.3)

Straight bevel

IS quality

Preferred quality

Cylindrical gears

High precision

3&4

Above 15

upto 9

Precision

5&6

8 -15

upto6

1-8

upto 3

. 7,8,&9

Medium
Coarse

10 & 12

upto 1

10, 12

gears

upto 2

12. Revision of.design torque I Mil:

v" Revise K: Using the calculated value of'Vp'

v" Revise Kd:

pitch line velocity,

revise the value of dynamic load factor (Kd) from Table 5.12.

,/ Revise I Mil: Using the revised values of K and Kd, calculate the revised design
torque [Mt]

= M, . K . Kd.

./

0b

./

a~~b?Y

[M/]

Compare the induced bending stress

the value of [ 0b

],

refer step 5. If

0b

0b

s [0b l. then

0b ].

For

./

c
./

il
0.74 -;;-

\j ib

],

Eeq [Mt]

value of [ 0c

A/il

0c

0c

0c ],

0c ].

For the

then the design is safe and satisfactory

5.63

pinion.
./'

If the materials for pinion and gear are different, design the pinion first and check both
pinion and gear.
/

16. C!teck/or gear:

(i) C!teekfor bending:
./

or

O"b2

YI and'Y2

./

./

If crb2s [(Jh2

(ii)

= Induced

O"b2

],

(Jb2

[(Jb2],

and

Table 5.16.

consulting

(Jb2 ].

Checkfor wear strength :

Calculate the induced contact stress O"c2 for gear using the equation (5.26). In fact,

./

the induced contact stress will be same for pinion and wheel.
./

./

bending

stress

O"c2

i.e.,

O"c2

= (Jc'

in step 5.

and the design bending

stress [ (Jc2 ]. If

I)

,17.

Calculation of basic dimensions

of pinion

anti gear:
Calculate
dImensionsof pinion and gear using the relations listed in Table 5.10.
[xample 5.17] In a spur gear drive for a stone
el
;te . Tlte pinion is transmitting 30 kW {It 1200 r.p.m.
lOursper d.ay, SIX
',1

D'estgn
u(IYS a week and for 3years.
Given Data:
TOjilld
SOlul'

lher f

e Ore

,,
I(

III

t l.te {,lri
rtve.

C 40 steel; P

= 30

= 3.

0 .

!
I

.

SInce the pinion and gear are made of same material

iave to do the design (}f pinion alone.

1011:
We J

II

(i.e., C 40 steel),

fl

,~r
r

5.64

Design of Transmission

1. Gear ratio:

= 3.

SYSletns

... (Given)

2. Material selection:

'" (Given)

Assume surface hardness> 350.

3. Gearlife: Given that the gear i.s to work 8 hours per day, six days a week; and for 3
years. Therefore gear life in terms of hours is given by
Gear life

8 x (52 x 6) x 3
449280 x

N I = 449280

x 1200

= 53.9 x

107 cycles.

4. Calclilation of initial design torque I MIl:

Design torque, [M,]

K . Kd .

MI"

where M,

60 x P
, 60 x 30 x 103
= 238.73 N-m
21t NI = 21t x 1200

x,

1.3.

[ M,]

5. Calculatioll of Eeq, I ubI and I uel :

(i) To find Eeq : From Table 5.20, for C 40 steel,
(ii) To find

I ub I:

[ab
where

Kb/

1.4

Eeq
]

is given by

Kb/

n . Ka

. a_I, assuming rotation in one direction only' .

0.7 for HB > 350 and N ;:::25 x 107, from Table 5.14,
2, for steel tempered, from Table 5.17,

a-I ==
But

au ==
Q'

-I

2

630 N/mm

= 0.35 x 630

from Table 5.3, for C 40 steel.

+ 120

== 340.5 N/mm2
Then,

==

1.4 x 0.7
2 x 1.5 x 340.5

==

111.23 N/mm2

__ -----------------(iii) Tofind

I 0', J: The design contact stress [ 0c ] is given by

= CR' HRC . Kc(

[(Jc]
CR

where

_25~.6~5

26.5, for C 40 steel hardened and tempered, from Table 5.18, and

:c

= 40 to 55, for C 40 steel, from Table 5.18, and

Kcl = 0.585, for HB > 350 and N ~ 25 x 107, from Table 5.19.

HRC

[ CJ,]

26.5 x 55 x 0.585

852.64 N/mm2

6. Calculationof centre distance (a) :

( 0.74

We know that, a ~ (i + 1)
'V

where

[c ]

Eeq [M/]
i'V

0.3
3

( 0.74 )
852.64

a ~ (3 + 1)

..

r
2

3 x OJ

~ 152.89 mm or a = 155 mm.

7. Selection of z, and

Z2:

(ii)

z2

= i .ZI

3 x 17 = 51.

8. Calculationof module (m) :

2(lSS)
_
(17 + 51) - 4.56 mm

We know that,

m (zl + z2)

.f

.f

P'rtch diameter
.

2
V

b ==

\jJ'

== OJ

170mm

0/

0/

\V:.E_
P
d

-06
- .,

x 170 = 51 rnm

d I -- m . Z I

f pm
.. IOn (d)'I'

= ~85

and 'lip:

1t

S(l7+Sl}
2

dl NI

60

= 5 x 17
1t

= 85 mm

x 85 x 10-3 x 1200 == 5.34 mJs

60

Design"
. ol"Transmission~

/ I S~/eclionof qualtty 0 g
locity 5 34 mis, IS quality g
ear:
. 8 ears are selected.
. Table 5.22, for pI'tchof.line
ve OCI 1M. I:
rom

= 0.6 an d ror
~

12.
F RI!.IS'
. Oil 0'~ design 10rguI! of gear

.;

./

Revise

. K'
Revise
Kd: From
From Table 5.11, for 'l'p

8, HB > 350

K,,= 1.4.

v"

,.

bearings close to gears, K

Re.lSe

I'

v::::

5.3

MI x K x K"
238.73 x 1.03 x 1.4 _
344.24 N-m

Db:

"" Calculation of illduced hending stress,

crh:::
Where Y = Fonn ,actor -',
c:

and

x [MIl

(i+l)

amb.y

0366

I'

forz

We find crb < I crb J

SlIIisfactory.

cr = 170)( 5)(
51I))( 0.366
(3 +
- )( 344.24 x 103 = 86.78 Nlmm2
ti.e.,
86. 78
Nlmm2 <: 111.23 Nlmm2). Therefore Ilze desigll i

14. Clleckfor Wear strengtl,:

"" Calculalion Of indllced COlllaclslress, 0;,:

i+l ~ !i+l
e
cr = 0.74 -;;-"

V ib x Eeq

3+I

170

Qnd Satisfactory.

= 0.74 x
::: 765.9 N1mm2

[Mil

3+I
;
J
3x 51 )( 2.15)( 10- )( 344.24 x 10

.; We find cr <: ( cr J (i.e., 765.9 Nlmm2 <: 152.64 N1mm2). Therefore Ilze design is safe

J S. .;Ctl/culation
pinion mid gear:
MOdule: Of hasic dilllensions
III = Of
5 mm
V

Face Width:

Height factor:

wi'

Bottom clearance:

Tooth depth :

.;

Pitch circle di3Jneter:

Refer Table 5. I O.

h :::::51mb)

fo
d,

h
tl2

===

2.25 )( 5 = 11.25 Ill"I .

tn zi = 5 x 17 = 85 Illlll; and
'" z2 = 5 x 51 = 255 Illlll.
2.25 m

Spur Gears
~

5.67

Tip diameter:

do2 = (z2 + 2/ ) m = (51 + 2 x 1) 5

0

Root diameter :

dfJ

= (z I - 2 /0)
= 72.5 mm;

m ._ 2 c

265 mm.

(17 - 2 x I) 5 - 2 x 1.25

and

df2 .= (z2-2/0)m-2c

= (51-2x

1)5-2x.1.25'

242.5 mm

(LYole In the above problem, both gears are made of same material. Hence design of pinion alone
is sufficient. So, we need not to check for gear.

IA

[Example 5.18

cast steel 24 teeth spur pinion operating at 1150 r.p.m. transmit

3 kW to a cast steel spur wheel. The gear ratio is 2.25. The tooth profile is 200 full depth
involute. Design the gears and check for stresses.
Given Data:

Tofind:

ZI

= 24;

NI

~ = 200

Design the gears and check for stresses.

Since the pinion and gear are made of same material, (i.e., cast steel),
tfierefore we have to do the design of pinion alone. Assuming the gear life, say 20000 hrs, the
given gears are designed in the same manner as solved in Example 5.17.
@) Solution:

I Example

I Design

5.19

a spur gear drive to transmit 22.5 kW at 900 r.p.m. Speed

reduction is 2.5. Materials for pinion anti wheel are C 15 steel and cast iron grade 30
respectively. Take pressure angle of 200 and working life of the gears as 10000 hrs.
Given Data: P = 22.5 kW; N I = 900 r.p.m.; i = 2.5; ~ = 200; N = 10000' hrs.

To find:

Design a spur gear.

@)Solution : Since the materials for pinion and wheel are different, therefo_re we have
to design the pinion first and check both pinion' and wheel.

... (Given)

i = 2.5

1. Gear ratio:

2. Material selection:

Pinion:

Wheel:

3. Gear life:

... (Given

10000 hrs

Gear life in terms of number of cycles

N
4. Design torque

... (Given)

IS

10000 x 60 x 900

given by

54 x 107 cycles

I Mil:
[M,]

M,

K . Kd

__ ----------------_::D:...::e:::.s::.!::ig::....n-o~if-T.-,.a-n-s-.m-is-.s-io_n-..:S~i)'sle",
---..:!.
:
5.68

--

M,

where

= 238.73

N-m, and

= 1.3

K . Kd

... (assume)

Design torque, [ M,]

..

60 x P = 60 x 22.5 x 10
21t x 900
21tNI

5. ell/euilltion of E/ ' { 0"6I and { OJ I :

(i) To jilld E : From Table 5.20, for pinion steel and cast Iron (> 280 N/mm2),
/52

equivalent Young's modulus,

(ii) Tojint/{

Eeq

= 1.7 x 10 N/mm .

O"bl: The design bending stress [ ab] is given by

[ ab]

1.4 x Kb/
n . Ka

x a_I'

..

assuming rotation

s 350)

111

one

di

rrectron only -.

-/

-/

-/

From Table 5.15, for steel case hardened, stress concentration

-/

From Table 5.16, for forged steel, a_I = 0.25 (all + ay) + 50.

= 490 N/mm2

factor, Ka = 1.2.

au

:.

a_I

Then,

(iii) To jind

I D"cl:

1.4 x 1
2 x 1.2 x 232.5

135.625 N/mm2

[ac]
where

CR = 22, for C 15 case hardened steel, from Table 5.18,'

HRC = 55 to 63, for C 15 steel, from Table 5.] 8, and
=

Kef

0.585, for HB > 350, N;?: 25 x 107, from Table 5.19.

[ac J = 22 x 63 x 0.585

= 810.81 N/mm2

6. Ca/eulation of centre distance (a) :

We know that,
where

(i+l)

a;?:

\jJ

= a

== 0.3

a ~ (2.5 + I)
~

... (assumed

initially)

0.74 ) 2
1.7 x 105 x 310.35 x' 103
( 81 0.81
x ---2-.5......:x::....:0:...:.:..:.:3:...::._:...:_:..;:_

135.94 mrn or a -- 136 mm.

~~~

__ ------------________________________________~

7. Tofind

%/

lind

__
9

Z2 :

..

8. Calculation of module (m) :

2 x 136
= 18 + 45 = 4.32 mm

We know that,

II

I
11

9. Revision of centre distance:

New centre distance, a = m (zl + z2) _ 5 (18 + 45) = 157.5 mm
2
2

V'P:

./

./

./

./

'Vp

47.25

= ~

d,

1tdl Nl
60

= 5x

Ill' zl

1t X

18 = 90 mm,

90 xlO-3 x 900
60

= 4.24

m/s.

0.525.

11. Selection of quality of gear:

From Table 5.22, for v = 4.24 mIs, IS quality 8 gears are selected.
12. Revision of design torque
_

..

I Mt I :
= 0.525,

./

Revise K: From Table 5.] 1, for 'Vp

./

Revise Kd: From Table 5.12, for IS quality 8 and v = 4.24 mIs, Kd = 1.4.

./

Revise

I Mtl:.

[M/]

K ~ 1.03.

= MI' K . Kd
=

13. Check for bending:

-/ Calculation of induced ben~iig stress,

O'b :.

(i + I)
(Jb

Where

'.

(Jb

'" We find
.....

CJb

= a. m . b . y

[Mt]

Form factor

0.377, for zi

(2.5 + 1) x 344.24 x 10
157.5 x 5 x 47.25 x 0.377

= 85:89 Nzrnm"

< ( OR). Therefore the design is satisfactory .

~~

----------------------------------_D~e~s./~g~n~O~if~TJ~r~a_n_s_m_i_ss_i_o_n_S~~~

~.'70
14. Check/or wearstrength:
./ Calculation0/ induced contact st_re_s_s,_O"c-:
_--i+1
0.74 --;-

CJc =

../ We find

2.5 + I )
0.74 ( 157.5

684.76 N/mm2

< [oc]'

CJ

i+1
Tb_X_E_eq_[_M_,_]~

(2.5
+ 1 ) x 1.7 x 105 x 344.24 x 103
2.5 x 47.25

15. Checkfor wheel:

(i) Calculationof I ublwheel and I uclwheel
Wheel material:

NI
I

Wheel speed :
Life of wheel =
To find

-------

I ublwheeJ

900
2.5

360 r.p.m.

= 21.6'

x 107 cycles

=

[ CJb ]wheel

1.4 x KbI
n .K
x

CJ_I'

only.

\]"W ~

./

./

./

../

Kb/

107
2l.6 x 107

= 0.918 .

a_I

Then,
To find

I Uc lwheel
C

0.45 x 290 = 130.5 N/mm2

1.4 x 0.918
2 x 1.2
x 130.5 = 69.88 N/mm2

.
by
=

[ CJc ]wheel

where

23

.,

CB HB . Kc/

HB = 200 to 260, for cast iron, from Table 5.18, and

Kd

:.[cr]
c wheel

-\fW =
2.3

107
21.6xl07
= 0.879, for cast iron, from Table 5.19.
260 x 0.879 = 525.64 N/mm2
6

~.

Spur Gears
5.71

./

where

O"hl x YI

= O"h2 X Y2

and O"h2

O"hl

Induced bending stresses in the pinion and

wheel respectively, and

YI and Y2
From Table 5.13,

Y2
O"hl

85.89 x 0.377
or
../

O"h2

=
=
=
=

0.471, for z2

= 45.

O"b2 x

= 0.377

0.471

68.75 Nzmm?

Therefore the design is satisfactory.

(iii) Check for wear strength: Since contact areais same, therefore

= 684.76

CJ

wheel

= CJe pinion

Nzrnm-, Here CJe wheel> [ CJe ]wheel' It means, wheel does not have the required
wear resistance. So, in order to decrease the induced contact stress, increase the face width
(b) value 'or in order to increase the design contact stress, increase the surface hardness, say to
340 HB. Increasing the surface hardness will give [ CJe ] = 2.3 x 340 x 0.879 = 687.34
N/mm2, Now we find CJc < [CJc J. SO the design is safe and satisfactory.

16. Calculation of basic dimensions of pin ion and wheel : Refer Table 5.10.
m = 5 mm

./

Module:

./

Face width:

./

Height factor:

./

Bottom clearance:

./

Tooth depth:

./

b = 47.25 mm

/0=

1 for full depth teeth,

c = 0.25 m

h = 2.25 m

=
d,

d2
./

Tip diameter:

dal

Root diameter:

x 5 = 1.25 mm

2.25 x 5 = 11.25 mm .

= m- z, = 5 x 18 = 90 mm; and
= m . z2 = 5 x 45 = 225 mm,
= (z I + 2 f 0) m = (18 + 2 x l) 5 = 100 mm
+ 2 f 0) m

= (45 + 2 xl)

(z2

dfl

=
=

(18 - 2 x l ) 5 - 2 x 1.25

df2

=
=
=

(45 - 2 x 1) 5 - 2 x 1.25

da2

./

= 0.25

______

5 = 235 mm

(zl-2/0)m-2c

(z2 -

= 77.5

mm; and

2 /0) m - 2 c

__

= 212.5

,~,.T-~_~_.

mm

; and

5.72
5.31. CHECK FOR PLASTIC DEFORMATION

It is understood that during starting, braking or sudden stopping, instantaneous

act on the teeth. This instantaneous overloads (or instantaneous
plastic defonnation

overloa ds

se
on

Let

= Induced bending stress due to maximum instantaneous

o b max

torque,

di
(il)
Idnuce db en mgstress=ambY[Mt],

0b=

I . .
60 x P
M t = N omma pimon torque = 2 1t N '
[Mt ]max

=
=

bmax

Compare
b max

0b

2 Mt,

[Mt ]max
Mt

... (5.28)

s [ o b ]max

0b

Table 5.23. Permissible bending stress I OJb J max (firom cata

I book, page no. 8.21i
Core Hardness

Material

lOb Imax ' N/mml

No heat treatment
Steel

0.8 cry

HB < 350
Heat treated
0.36

Steel
HB> 350

Cast Iron

cU I K (J
0.60u

Let

c max

Induced contact stress due to maxi

.
axrmum instantaneous

= Induced contact stress, and

= 0.74 i 1 ""

= p

Scanned by CamScanner

I i ib1

\j

x Eeq [M t ]

..
ermissible contact stress, from Table 5.24.

torque
'

"

5.73

Spur Gea,.,5
Table 5.24. Permissible contact stress
Material

Steel

HB

Steel

HB > 350

42 HRC

Cast Iron

HB s 350

1.8 all

s 350

[ M,

8.21)

I 0e Imax N/mm2

Surface Hardness

3.1 0y

]ma.x

c max = c

110.

... (5.29)

If 0c max <

[Oc ]maJP

I Example

then the design is safe and satisfactory.

transmit 8 kW from a shaft rotating lit 1200 r.p.m. to a low speed shaft, with a reductionof
3: 1. Assume that the teeth are 200 full depth involute, with 24 teeth 011 tll.e pinion. The
pinion is to be of 4i}C 8 normalized steel and gear of 30 C 8 normalized steel. Assume that
the starting torque is 130% of the rated torque.
"Given Data:
P = 8 kW; N, = 1200 r.p.m. ; i = 3 ; ~ = 20 ; = 24 ;

z,

Starting torque

Tofind : Design a spur gear.

@) Solution:
1. Gear ratio:

=3

... (Given)

2. Material selection:

3. Gear life:

Pinion

40 C 8 normalized steel; and

Gear

30 C 8 normalized steel.

... (Given)

Assume 20,000 hours.

:. N = 20000 x 60 x 1200
4. Design torque

I Md:

144 x 107 cycles

[ Mt]

where
K

x K x Kd
60 x 8 x 103
21t x 1200 = 63.66 N-m, and

M,

60 x P
21t N,

x,

1.3

63.66 x 1.3

[Mt]
5. Calculation of Eeq,

= M,

....

= 82.76

N-m

= 2.15

1.4 x Kb/

Design bending stress, [M,]

(Assume)

Design of Transmission

5.74

,/

Kbl

s 350

1, for steel HB

,/

,/

Ka

,/

a_I

[ab

372 N/mm2.

(iii) Tofllld

Where

".

l.4xl

stress, [a

J=C

['.'

au

720 N/rnrn2]

x HB x KcI

HB

1<",

[ ac

a ~ (i + 1) "'\J

(JUi_)

V [a

? (3 + I)

x E q [M

'JI

7. Given that z,

V(~;n
c

:. z2 = i z, = 3

= 24.

24 = 72.

8. MOdule (III): ", == _2 a

_ ~ x 110
z, + zl - 24 + 72

From Table 5.8, the nearest higher Standard m

9. Revised Cent"edistance: a _ __"'_(._;._I_~

10. Calculatio"

0"

b d

..,

,/
",.

'"

,VQIf

f11::::

_.

mill.

'11.
P'p.

I 0 mrn

.t'

dule,

Face width (h) h.

- 4J x a == 0.] x 120 :::
Pitch diame''''
f . .
36 mOl
~ 0 PinIon (d,):
d ==
,
",. ZI == 2.5
24p.Itch line velOCity ( ) .
- 60 mOl .
7[ d N I
V

IjJP

..t. -- 60
~

= d
l

v=6lJ!

=~

60

::::0.6

3 77 m/s

22 t4

From Table 5
.

, Or

SY.S"

v ::::J. 77 mls

IS quality 8

Spur Gears

5.75

1M,I:

12. Revised design torque

From Table 5.11, for

\jI

== 0.6, K == 1.03.

,

[M/]

== M I KK

S;

63.66 x 1.03 x 1.55 == ]01.63 N-m

13. Check for bending:
==

Induced bending stress,

CJb

==

i+1
a- m . b . y [M/]

0.414, for

CJb

(3 + 1)
.
120 x 2.5 x 36 x 0.4]4 x ]01.63 x ]03

where

..
We find

< [ CJb

CJb

].

Zt

90.9 N/mm2

14. Check for wear strength : Induced contact stress is given by

CJc

We find

CJc

i+]

~i+]

0.74 - a

1
0.74(31;0 )

701.71 N/mm2

--:--b
I

x Eeq [M]I

(::3]6)X2.15X]05XI01.63XI03

M,

Rated torque

63.66 N-m

..

[M,]max

1.3 x 63.66

= 1.3 x M,

= 82.758 N-m

Induced bending stress due to maximum instantaneous torque is

I given by
CJb

max =

CJb

[M/]max

M,

82.758
90.9 x 63.66

- 11817NI
2
.
mm

[.:

CJb =

90.9 N/mm2]

From Table 5.23, for steel HB ~ 350, permissible bending stress is given by
[ CJb

Since

]max

< [IT)

Vb

mllx'

[.:

CJy

= 540 N/mm2]

Design of Transmission Systems

5.76

(ii) Check for wear strength: Induced contact stress due to maximum instantaneou
torque is given by

[ M, ]max
O'c

max

O'c X

82.758
701.71 x 63.66

M,

912.22 N/mm

s 350, permissible
x540 = 1674N/mm2

[O'c]max

Since

O'c

max

3.10'y
<[

O'c

3.1

]max '

the design is safe and satisfactory against plastic de/ormation

also.
16. Basic dimensions of pinion and gear: Refer Table 5.10 .
m = 2.5 mm

.,/

Module:

.,/

Face width:

.,/

Height factor:

.,/

= 0.25 m = 0.25 x 2.5 = 0.625 mm

Tooth depth:
h = 2.25 m = 2.25 x 2.5 = 5.625 mm
Pitch circle diameter:
dl = m- zi = 2.5 x 24 = 60 mm ;
d2 = m- z2 = 2.5 x 72 = 180 mm.

.,/
.,/

.,/

.,/

b = 36 mm

/0

Bottom clearance:

=1

Tip diameter:

Root diameter:

(zi + 2 f 0) m

=
=

(24 + 2 xl)

2.5

= 65 mm

(72 + 2 xl)

2.5

= 185 mm.

do2

=
=

(z2 + 2

dfl

(zi - 2 f 0) m - 2 c
(24 - 2 xl)

df2

=
=

dOl

(z2 - 2

f 0) m

2.5 - 2 x 0.625

f 0) m -

and

2c

= (72

- 2

= 53.75 mm

~ and

; and

1) 2.S - 2 x 0.625

= 173.75 mm.

I Example

5.21

I Design

a spur gear drive to transmit 12 kW at 1440 r.p.m: with a

'peed ratio of 3. The starting torque is 50% more than the mean torque. Assume suitable
1If/IJerials.

Given Data:
Tofind:

12 kW;

NI

1440 r.p.m.;

i = 3;

[M, ]max

= 1.5 M,.

Design a spur gear.'

e Solution:
Material selection:

Take same materials for both pinion and gear. Assume case twdened

alloy steel 15 Ni2 Crl Mo 15 material.

Spur Gears

5.77

Now the problem is very similar to the previous problem. So proceed this problem as
discussed in Example 5.20.

I
I,

Since the starting torque value is given, therefore the design should be checked for plastic
deformation without fail.

I!
I'
I

I'
I,
I

I,

RELATED TOPICS I PROBLEMS

,

In gears, the load (torque, stress or power) generally varies over period of operation. A
gear is generally subjected to higher load in the beginning of a day and then it oper utes at
various levels of lower loads. The number of cycles spent during high loads may be small.
However for designing the gears, the highest load should be considered. Fig.S.IS depicts the
variation of load as function of time.
When the load comprises of a maximum sustained torque MIl acting for (I hours at a mean
speed of N I and small sustained torques Ma, Mt3,
acting for (2' 13, ... hours, at
mean speeds ofN2, N3, ..... , then the equivalent number of loading cycles is given as
60
where

Neq

= -3
Mtl

MIl

t1

3
M/i

Ii

Ni

... (5.30)

t2

r
Mt1

Mt3

_t

Mt2

t3

Mt4

5.32.1. DeSign Procedure

While designing the gear for this case,..
. .
./ Use MIl to calculate the maximum induced bending and contact stresses. That IS m
equations (5.23) and (5.26), replace [ M/] by MIl
./

Use Neq t0 ca lculate the life factors. That is replace N by

factors Kbf andKc/.

Now proceed the design, as usual.

Neq

while calculating

life

~
"

Design of Transmission s,,'le

5;~.7~8

------------------------------~~------~~~~

( E.-cample5.11

I If

spur gear drive is used in a power-operated hoist. The required

service life is to be 95,750 hours. The mean utiliz~tion of the machine ti"'.e is 0.35. 'lire
driv trallSmits maximum sustained torque Mil durmg 0.15 top; 0.6 Mil dUring 0.5 topa"d
0.1 Mil during 0.35 top where topis the total operating time, constituting 0.25 of the cYcle
time. If the speed of drive is 700 r.p.m., find the equivalent number of cycles at lire
N = 95,750
0.25 x cycle time; N 1 = N2

Given Data:

top

Tofind:

hours;

= N3 =

Mean utilization
700 r.p.m.

of machine

time

0.35

Solution:

60

Neq

3
~

(i)

Nt It

Mli

MIl

Mil

Cycle time

95,750 x 0.35

where

33512.5 hours
... (Given)

Operating time, lop = 0.25 x Cycle time

0.25 x 33512.5 = 8378.125 hours

In this case, equation (i) can be written as

.'

60

Neq = M3

N I . II + Ma . N2 . 12 + M/3 . N3 . 13 ]

[Mil'

II

where

Ma

0.6 Mil;

II

0.15 lop

12

= 0.5

lop

13 = 0.35 lop

NI = N2

..

60

Neq = -3
MIl

... (Given)

0.15 x 8378.125

0.35 x 8378.125

= N3 =

=
=

1256.72 hours;

2932.34 hours;

and

700 r.p.m.

+ (0.6 M/I)3 x

700 x 4189.06 +

(0.2 Mil?
or

I Example

Neq = 9.177 x 107 cycles

5.23

I In a non-reversible

x 700 x 2932.34 ]

Ans."

type rolling mill drive, a gear is designed to run

20 hours per day, transmitting power in the following manner: (i) 3.5 kW for 4 seconds,
550 times a day, (ii) 1.2 kW for remaining day and (iii) 5.25 kW maximum (i.e., momentary
peak load) all at a constant speed of 50 r.p.m. Take the life of the gears is to be 8 years.

-LiJllr Gears
5.79

Gb~n Data: PI - 3.5 kW;

life of gears = 8 years.

P2 = 1.2 kW.

P
'

_
,"cu -

5.25 kW ; NI =

N2

= Nmax = SO r.p.m.

Tofind: Equivalent number of Ioa d'IIlg cycles (N )

'
eqr:
SIo ution : We know that f
.
60

eq

where

Mil

- M3

II

Mil'

60 x PI

2 7t NI

Ma =

60 x P2
2 7t NI

II .

N 1+ M3 . I

N ]

12

60 x 3.5 x I03
27t x 50

668.45 N-m

60 x 1.2 x 103
27t x 50

229.18 N-m

[Maximum torque]

4 seconds,

4 x 550 = 2200 sees I day = 602200

= 0 .61 Ilours / d ay
x 60

12

NI

N2

Neq

60
(668.45)3

II

19.39 hours / day

50 r.p.m.
[(668.45)3 x 0.61 x 50 + (229.18)3 x 19.39 x 50]

Neq

12.2 x 106 cycles

INote I In order to design the gear drive for the above problems, one has to use the following tips:
./

Mil

bending and contact stresses.

Use Neq = 12.2 x 106 cycles, to calculate life factors.
'"

From the given momentary peak load, P",ax = 5.25 kW, calculate the momentary peak
60 x 5.25 x 103 = 1002.68 N-m. Use this
. momentary peak torque
torque, M, max e =
27t x 50
M
to check for plastic deformation.
I

max

The reliability

R

5.80 .

Reliability

KR

0.90

0.85

0.99

1.00

Fewerthan

0.999

1.25

0.9999

1.50

Requirements

of application

where

KR

5.33.1. Design Procedure

If the reliability requirements are given in the design problem, then modify the design
bending stress [ crb ] and design contact stress [ crc ] as below.
Design bending stress = [cr

b ]

I KR;

c]

I KR.

and

... (5.31)
... (5.32)

Then proceed the design as usual, as discussed in Section 5.30.

I Example

5.24

I Assume

the data of Example 5.17, for the 90% reliability, design the

gear drive.
Given Data:
To find:

Reliability

90%

0.90.

@) Solution:

Refer Example 5.17 .

./

The gear ratio, material selection, gear life, and design torque are same as in
Example 5.17 .

./

Calculation of

[ crb]

111.23 N/mm

and [ere]
=

Ie]

852.64 N/mm2

0.85, from Table 5.25.

-

111.23
0.85

852.64 _
0.85 - 1003 N/mm

130.86 N/mm2,

and

Use this modified [ erb ] and [ ere ] values to calculate centre distance (a), and to
check for bending and wear strength .
./'

Then proceed the design in the same manner as discussed in Example 5.17.

~5.~8~1
:

~~a~N-----------5.34. DESIGN OF INTERNAL GEARS

The design procedure of internal gears is same as th
t
I
..
e ex ema gears,
modifications 10 the design formulas .
./

i:

10

II .
I' ht
owing, rg

Use negative sign in the induced contact stress formula. Now equation (5.26)
becomes

c = 0 74
C

./

ith

WI

L=J.
.... Ii - 1
a \j i b

x Eeq [M I ]

... (5.33)

Similarly use negative sign in the induced bending stress formula also. Now
equation (5.23) becomes
i-I

crb
./

... (5.34)

a- m . b . Y [Ml]

(z2-Zt)m

... (5.35)

5.35. DESIGN OF NON-METALLIC GEARS

Generally non-metallic pinions are used with cast iron gear, where smooth and noiseless
operation are required. In the non-metallic pinion - cast iron gear pair, pinion is weaker than
thegear. Thus only pinion is designed and check for beam strength is carried out.

5.35.1. Design Procedure for Non-metallic Gears

./

The design procedure for non-metallic gears are as same as that for metallic gears .

./

The design bending stresses are given in Table 5.26.

Table 5.26. Design bending stress/or non-metallic materials (from (lata book, page no. 8.20)
Material

( Gb

I, N/mm2

Textolite

50

Vulcanised fibre gears

36

Plastics

60

Bakelite

56

lli'ot~ ./ The design bending stress [ crb ] for non-metallic materials can also be calculated by
using therelation [crb]
Where

= au / n.

n = Factor of safety, 2.5 to 3.

0/

Readerscan refer Example 5.15, to clearly understand the design steps of non-metallic gear.

~
~5.82

----------------------------------D_e=sl~gn:=o:if=Tl=~=a=ns=m=,=s~si~o~nSYSt --"!"_1tIs
--......

====~----------~R~EV~I~EW~A;NnDisOiUMMiMM,AAlR~Y'------------./

At the b egtnntng
presented

./

In spur gears, the teeth are straight and parallel to the axis of the wheel .

./

The terminology of gear tooth (i.e., gear nomenclature)

./

Law of gearing states that for obtaining a constant velocity ratio, at any instant of teeth
the common normal at each point of contact should always pass through a pitch point .

./

Forms of gear tooth profile:

./

Standard systems of gear tooth: (i) 14 VJ composite, OJ) 14 Y2full depth involute
,
(iii) 20 full depth involute, and (iv) 20 stub involute system .

./

Gear materials: 1. Metallic materials - steel, cast iron, bronze, etc; and 2. Non-metallic
materials - wood, rawhide, compressed paper, bakelite, etc .

./

Gear manufacturing:
1. Gear milling; 2. Gear generation
shaping; and 3. Gear molding.

./
./

"
pttting
an d scoring.

of gears

Q10e

includes

hobbing and

lon,

(i)

F,

Ij

= F, x tan

(iii) Resultant tooth force, F = F, / cos

~ Gear design using Lewis and Buckingham's

equation:

where

F,

m = module,

Face width

= 10 x module

Y = Lewis form factor.

o accountfior dyna . I ad'
mtc 0 mg, a velocity fi t
.
Buckin ham'.
ac or Cv IS used.
g
s equatIOn for dynamic load (F J :
1;

./

Fd

::

F +
I

--

where c - D.I'.
- eJormation factor.

21 v

(be

+ FJ

21 v + \} be + FI

Spur Gears

5.83

where

./

2i
i+1

Ratio factor

s;

- --

j2
=

Lr Ep1

sin t/J

es 1.4

1 ]
+ Eg

Factor of safety:
(F . shendillg

17 and face width:

8 m < b < 12 m.

./

zJ;?

.;

When both pinion and gear are made of the same material, then pinion should be
designed. When different materials are used, the product [ ab 1 .y decides the weaker
between pinion and gear. The element which has lower [ ab
designed .

.;

1x

y value should

be

2. Calculate

Fs"

1. Equate F, and initial Fd, to get module;

Design procedure:

3. Calculate accurate Fd;- 4. Check for beam strength (or tooth breakage) (F" 5 F..):

5. Calculate Fw;

6. Check for wear (Fd < F,j; and 7. Calculate basic dimensions

pinion and gear.

II. Gear design based on gear life:
[Mfl

./

Design torque:

./

./

M, . K . Kd
i:t1 b .y [Ml ,
a . 111

ab =

[ ab 1

1.4 Kbl
n. K

x a_I'

(1

=
./

./

./

Centre distance:

x a_I' for two directions of rotation.

i+1

ac = 0.74 --;;[(J'cl

~ /i+1

\j ib

= CB x HB x KcJ

a ~ (i + 1)

x Eeq

or [(J'cl

0.74)2
( [ (J'c1

[Mfl
CR x /-IRe x KcJ

x Eeq.[ M,l
I

IJI

of

-t::

D_e_'7s_ign=--_;of:......_1J_ra_'_Js_m
SYstetn,s

5.S4~

Design procedure:
J. Select material,' 2. Calculate design torque; 3. Calculate desi
stress [ a" i and [ ac t. 4. Determine centre distance,' 5. Calculate module; 6. Checlc

bending (a"

r'

s [ a" l):

JO,.

7. Check for wear strength (o; S [ ac J); 8. Check for plastic

deformation (if required); and 9, Calculate basic dimensions of pinion and gear .

./' If the material is same for both pinion and gear, only the pinion is designed If th
materials are different, pinion is designed and checks are carried out for both Pinio;
and gear .
./'

At the end cf this chapter, the special topics such as gear design for variable loadin
gear design with reliability factors, design of internal gears, and design of non-melal/~
gears are 'also presented.
REVIEW QUESTIONS

I.

State the advantages and limitations of gear drive over belt and chain drives,

2.

Why is gear drive known as direct and positive drive?

3.

How can you classify gears? What different types of teeth are used in gears?

4.

Make a neat sketch of a gear and indicate the terminology used for it.

5.

Explain the following terms: (i) module, (ii) pressure angle, (iii) circular pitch, and
(iv) pitch point.

6.

7,

8.

9.

10. Explain the two modes of gear failures.

11. Deduce the expressions for tangential and radial components of tooth force in a spur
gear.
)2. Deduce the Lewis equation for beam strength.
f

) 3. What are the assumptions made in deriving Lewis equation?

15. What is Lewis form factor?
16. Write the Buckingham's equation for dynamic load and expression for limiting wear
17, Why is pinion made stronger than gear?
18. Discuss the design procedure of spur gears recommended
20.
Explain the design procedure of internal gears.

by AGMA.
cycles when gears are subjected

~~~~

~5~.8~5~

PROBLEMS FORPRACnCE
Problemon basic dimensions of spur gear:
I. In a pair of spur gears, the number of teeth on the pinion and the gear are 20 and ') 20
respectively ..The mod~le is 4 mm. If the pressure angle is 20 full depth, calculate : (i)
the centre distance, (II) the pitch circle diameters of the pinion and gear, (iii) the
addendum and dedendum, (iv) the tooth thickness, (v) the bottom clearance, and (vi) the
gear ratio.

[Ans: (i) 280 mm; (ii) 80 mm and 480 rnrn; (iii) 4 mm and 5 mm; (iv) 6.2832 mm;
(v) 1 mm; and (vi) 6]

Problemson force analysis of spur gear:

2.

A pinion of 100 mm pitch diameter, running at 1000 r.p.m. transmits 6.25 kW of power
to gear whose pitch diameter is 300 mm. For straight tooth the angle of pressure is 20.
Determine the tangential force, the transverse or bending force on shafts and torques on
driving and driven shafts.
[Ans: 1193.75 N; 434.43 N; 119.375 N-m; 358.125 N-m]

3. A pinion driving.a gear about 1110 of its speed transmits 20 kW of power at 2000 r.p.m.
The number of teeth for a full depth pinion of addendum equal to module should be such
that undercutting by a rack cutter is eliminated. The pressure angle is 20. The sum of
teeth on pinion and gear is required to be 200 while module is 5 mm. Calculate:
(i) number of teeth on pinion and gear; (ii) actual gear ratio; (iii) pitch circle diameters of
pinion and gear; (iv) tangential force; (v) radial force; and (vi) torque on driving shaft.
[Ans: (i) 18 and 182; (ii) 10.111; (iii) 90 mm and 910 mm; (iv) 2120 N; (v) 772 N;
(vi) 95.5 N-m]

4.

The pitch circles of a train of spur gears are

shown in Fig.5.16. Gear A receives 3.5 kW
power at 700 r.p.m. through its shaft and rotates
in the clockwise direction. Gear B is the idler
gear while gear C is the driven gear. The number
of teeth on gears A, Band Care 30, 60 and 40
respectively, while the module is 5 mm.
Calculate: (i) the torque on each gear shaft; and
(ii) the components of gear tooth forces; (iii)
Draw a free-body diagram of forces and
determine the reaction on the idler gear shaft.
Assume the 20 involute system for the gears.

[Ans: (i) (M')A

= 47746.48

N-mm; (M,>S

Fig. 5.16.

= 0; (M,)c = 63661.98

j

I
i.I
t,

.j

Design of Transmission Syste~

~5.~86~

5.

------------------------

__ ~~~~~~~~---

f two-stage gear box is

The la~ouFt.0 5 ~ 7 The number of teeth
shown m Ig..
. Z = 20;
on gears are as fo]Jows.
1
z2 -- 50',z3

'an
Pinion 1 rotates at 1440 r.p.m. 10
anticlockwise direction when. observed
from the left side and transmits 10 kW
power t 0 the gear train '. The pressure
angle is 20. Calculate:
(I) the
tooth forces between gears 1 and 2, and
gears 3 and 4; and (ii) the resultant
reactions at bearing E and F. Also draw
a free body diagram of the gear tooth

175

200

100

Fig. 5.17.

) F' - 132629 N' Fr

[Ans: CI
12 .
'12
(RE)H = 552.62 N; CRE)y

.1._

-------

forces.

6.

r'

= 603.41

= 482.73
N; (RF)H

N; F;4

3315.73 N; F;4 = 1206.83 N; (ii)

= 2542.06

5 N]

N; (RF)y - 1086.1

A planetary gear train is shown in Fig.5.18. The

sun gear A rotates in a clockwise direction and
transmits 5 kW power at 1440 r.p.m. to the gear
train. The number of teeth on the sungear A, the
planet gear B and the fixed ring gear Care 30,
60 and ISO respectively. The module is 4 mm
and the pressure angle is 20. Calculate: (i) the
tangential and radial forces acting on each gear;
and (ii) the torque that the arm can deliver to its
output shaft. Also draw a free body diagram of
forces acting on each other.
Fig. 5./8.

Problems on spur gear design based on beam strength:

7.

Design the 20 full depth teeth of a pair of gears to transmit a smooth continuous load of
30 kW at 1200 r.p.m. of the 20-tooth pinion. The velocity ratio is 3 and the material is to
be steel. The surface of the teeth may be heat treated as needed for wear.

8.

pump both bein.g

mounted on the same bed. Speed of the motor is 1440 r.p.m. Speed reduction desi~;
10 : 1. Motor power 35 kW. The gears are to have 200 pressure angle. Both the pml
and gear are made of steel with a maximum safe static stress of 180 N/mm2.

Spur Gears

5.87

9.

A pair of 20 full depth involute tooth

r.p.m. of the pinion. The velocity r ti .spur gear is to transmit 30 kW at a speed of 250
a 10 IS4 . 1 The "
.
d
allowable static stress of 100 N/m 2 '.'
piruon ISrna e of cast steel having an
allowable static stress of 55 N/mm2 ;h' whll.e the gear is made of cast iron having
the velocity accounts for the dyn '. Ie service factor can be taken as 1.5. Assume that
.
and suggest suitable surface hardn
f h.
e gears, specify their dimensions
ess or t e gears.
10. Design a gear drive to transmit 20 kW
distance between the shafts is 340
Th 1200 r..p.m. Velocity ratio is 3. The centre
cast steel and cast iron respectiv Immp' e materials for the pinion and the wheel are
. .
"
e y. ressure angle = 20 Th d .
c.
pmion material IS 84 N/mm2 a d tl
.
e esrgn stress lor the
n
ie surface endi
limi f
N/mm2. The modulus of elasticity of the . .
lra~ce. irmt or the gear pair is 60
ear is 1 x 105 NI
2
puuon material IS 2 x 105 Nzmm? and that of
g
mm.

II. A rawhide pinion is to transmit 30 kW at 115

.
is 4' 1 For 200 full de th .
I
0 r.p.m. to a cast Iron gear. Speed reduction
. .
p mvo ute teeth assumi
d'
h
..
.
gear drive.
'
109 me rum sock condition, deSIgn the
12. Design a two stage reverted spur
gear drive
(Fig.5.19)
for the
following data: Input power = 2.5
kW; Input speed = 1440 r.p.m.;
Overall reduction ratio = 9; Centre
distance between shafts = 300 mrn:,
All the gears are of alloy steel.

---~-T-'
L
300mm

----'"'-l.

Problemson spur gear design based on gear life:

13. Design a spur gear to transmit 2 kW at 1440 r.p.m. Desired speed ratio is 3. Use C45
steel for the gears.
14. Design a spur gear device for transmitting 50 kW from motor running at 1440 r.p.m. to a
machine running 360 r.p.m. Use C45 steel for the gears and specify the heat treatment, if
necessary. Design the gears.
15. Design a spur gear drive to transmit 10 kW at 1440 r.p.m. with speed ratio of 3. The
starting torque is 50% more than the mean torque. Assume suitable materials.
16. A steel pinion meshing with a cast iron gear transmits 7.5 kW. The pinion has a speed of
600 r.p.m. and the speed ratio is 3. Assuming 20 involute tooth profile, find the centre
distance between the shafts, module and exact number of teeth on the wheels. Check for
induced bending stress.
17. A 37.5 kW is transmitted at 450 r.p.m. to a shaft running at approximately 112 r.p.m.
through a spur gear drive. The load is steady and continuous. Design the gear drive and
check the design. Assume the following materials: Pinion - Heat treated cast steel; Gear

~
'f_JL.<.:
tf.
.

~.'

----

Design of Transmission Systems .

"

5.88

.
. 28 kW at 900 r.p.rn. Speed reduction is 2.5. Material
.
.
'ear
drive
to
transmit
18. Design 8 SpUIg ,
I d
t .ron grade 30. Take pressure angle as 20
for pinion and wheel are CIS stee an cas I
and working life of gears as 10,000 hours.
.
A motor shaft at 1440 r.p.m. is required to transmit 8 kW to.another shaft with a speed
19. reduction of 3 : 1. The starting torque may be taken as 40% hlghe.r than the ~e~n torque.
The gears are made of heat treated steel and the shaft of mild steel. PInion has a
minimum of 20 teeth. Design the gear drive.
20. The gear drive in a hoisting machine transmits maximum sustained torque M I during 0.2
lop; 0.4 Mil during 0.4 lop and 0.2 MIl during 0.4 lop where lop is the total operating time,
constituting OJ of the cycle time. The mean utilization of the machine time is 0.35. The
required service life is to be 100,000 hours. Find the equivalent number of cycles at the
maximum sustained load, speed being 750 r.p.m.
[Ails: 10.81 x 107 cycles]
21. In a non-reversible type rolling mill drive, a gear is designed to run 20 hours per day,
transmitting power in the following manner: (i) 2000 W: normally (ii) 5420 W for 4
seconds, 550 times a day, (iii) 7900 W maximum (momentary peak load) all at a
constant speed of 45 r.p.m. The life of the gears is to be 7 years. Determine the
equivalent number of cycles at the maximum sustained load. [Ans: 12.5 x 106 cycles]
Problem on gear desigll considering reliability factor:
22. A 3.5 k~ gas turbine running at 1400 r.p.m. will be used to drive the generator at 500
r.p.m. A life of SO hours with 99% reliability is required. Design the spur gear pair.

Helical Gears
"Sixty years ago I knew everything; now I know nothing;
education is a progressive discovery of our own ignorance ."

- Durant, Will

lcal gears are simple modification of

or mary spur gears.
e tea gear has tee In the
form of helix around the gear. The use of helical
gears is most common in automobiles, turbines and
high speed applications. A pair of helical gears is
shown diagramatically in Fig.6.1. It can be seen
that the teeth of the two wheels are of opposite
hand. The helixes may be. right handed on one

wheel an~~~ed
6.1.~es

on the other.
of Helical

Single-helical gear set.

~1.

Ge,J

There are three mam reasons why helical gears are preferred than spur gears. They are :
1. JYgise : Helical gears produce less noise than spur gears of. equivalent quality because
the tota\ contact ratio is increased. That is, at any time more than one pair of teeth (upto 10
\
pairs ofteeth) are in engagement. Since more teeth are in contact simultaneously, the load is
transferred gradually and uniformly as successive teeth come into engagement. Thus helical
gears operate more smoothly.
I

2. Load carrying capacity: Helical gears have a

greater ~d
carrying capacity than equivalent size
spur gears because the total length of the line of
contact is increased.
In spur gears the line of contact is parallel to the
axis of rotation, as shown in Fig.6.2(a). In this case,
the'total length of contact line is equal to the face
width. In helical gears the line of contact is diagonal
across the face of the tooth, as 'shown in Fig.6.2(b).
In this case, the total length of contact line is,greater

a...

_--b--_I

'd_/
T

Single line of

contact

~------------~
(a)

I-

__

Face width -_
Multiple
contact lines

(b)

Fig. 6.2.

~~

----------~D~e~S~ign~o~if_TJ_~_uns--m_I.~U~fu~n~Sy

~.2

J. Manufacturing:

.

Since the tee

of Helical Gears
.
the ~is of rotation, helical gears are subjected to a\'i.1
are me me 0
.'.
~
~~ ~t
load can be eliminated by usmg Herrmgbone (I.e., doub~

th are i I' d t

helical) gears. ~

1. P,

, ~"'Ii

./

They operate on two parallel shafts .

./

The magnitude of the helix angle is the same for the pinion and the gear.

./

They have opposite hand of the helix. i.e., a right hand pinion meshes with a left
hand gear and vice versa.

./

./

KINEMATICS AND NOMENCLATURE

OF HELICAL

:~ \_

GEARS

The geometry of a helical gear is shown in Fig.6.3: There-are three ways-to view the/teeth
on the rack. They are :
1. Transverse direction: If the teeth are viewed in the direction of motion of the rack (as
shown in Section A-A of Fig.6.3), then the orientation is called as the transverse dirtdion.
When considered in the transverse plane (that is, a plane perpendicular to the axis of the
gear), all helical gear geometry is identical to that for spur gears.
2. Normal direction: If the teeth are viewed in a direction that is aligned with the slant of
the teeth (as shown in Section B-B of Fig.6.3), then the orientation is called as the nornuU
direction.
3. Axial direction: If the teeth are viewed in the direction of the axis of the rack or gear,
then the orientation is called as the axial direction.
Let

p =

Helix angle,

Pn
Po

= Axial pitch,

Pd

Diametral pitch,

at and an

6.3

m,

and mn -

zl and Z2 = Number of teeth on pinion and gear respectively,

d1 and d2 = Pitch circle diameters of pinion and gear respectively,

Centre to centre distance between pinion and'gear,

The various terms used in the study of helical gears have been explained below.

is the angle between the tooth axis and the

plane containing the wheel axis. The helix
angle varies from 1S to 25.

each tooth per revolution. measured along
the axis parallel to the axis.

(PJ : The

distance between corresponding points on

in a plane
perpendicular to the shaft axis is known as

Pt

1t d 1

1t.

ml

= -. zl

.....-, .. :
., p~
=. ~.-

cos ,...'

...(6.1). .
b

4. Normal circular pitch (p,J: The

distance between corresponding points on
in a plane
perpendicular to helix is known as normal

(a)

Basic rack

circular pitch.

Pn = P I

cos

5. Axial pitch

A
I-'

n-.. mn,

... (6.2)

(paJ: The distance

(b)

teeth measured in a plane parallel to the
shaft axis is known as axial pitch.
p

= - PI
tan

J3

= - Pn
sin

J3

1t mn

. A
stu I-'

3)

(6.

(e)

Fig. 6.3. Helical gear geometry

(a) Gear, (b) Section AA (transverse plane),
(c) Section BB (normal plane).

Design of Transmission Sy".".,

~

6. Normal diametral pitel. (p,J: The reciprocal. of the normal module is ,knoWnas
normal dlametral pilch.
'" (6.4)

(aJ : The

along the plane A-A is known as transverse pressure angle, ar

B. Normal pressure angle (a,.) : The pressure angle measured in normal plane i.e., along
the plane B-B, is known as normal pressure angle,
The angles

an'

by the equation

an
tanat

tan

cos J3

... (6.5)

./

./

Pitch circle diameter of the gear,

d2

J3) Z I
cos J3) z2

(Inn / cos

= (mn

10. Centre distance (a) : The centre to centre distance between gears is given by the
relation
... (6.6)

... (6.7)

6.4. VIRTUAL OR FORMATIVE NUMBER OF TEETH (Zeq)

In the design of helical gears, an imaginary (virtual) spur gear is considered in normal
plane (i.e., plane A-A). This spur gear is called a 'virtual' or 'formative' spur gear. The
number of teeth on the virtual spur gear in the normal plane is known as virtual or formative
or equivalent number of teeth. It is given by
\
... (6.8)

where

J3 -

Actual number of teeth on a helical gear, and

lfIelix angle.

This virtual number of teeth value i~.useful during both designing and manufacturing (in
cutter selection) of helical teeth.
6.5. FACE WIDTH OF HELICAL GE~RS (b)

For smooth and continuous operation of the helical gears, it is recommended that the face
width is greater th~ the axial pitch.

Helical Gears

6.5

i.e.,

b ~

In practice,

b = 10 mn

::=

1t.

Pa or b ~

mn

sm

... (6.9)

6.6. TOOTH PROPORTIONS FOR HELICAL GEARS

There are no standard proportions for helical gears. The proportions recommended by
American Gear Manufacturer's Association (AGMA) are as follows:
../

15 to 250

./

8 to 25, for helical

- 25 to 40 for herringbone
../

../

Dedendum, minimum

- mn

../

Tooth depth

2.25 mn

../

Minimum clearance

0.2mn

../

Thickness of tooth

1.5708 mn

o.s ,

6.7. BASIC DIMENSIONS OF HELICAL AND HERRINGBONE GEARS

All the basic dimensions of helical and herringbone gears are listed in Table 6.1.
Table 6.1. Basic dimensions of heuca! gears (from data book, page no. 8.22)
S.No.

Nomenclature

Notation

Units

I.

Normal module

mn

mm

2.

Transverse module

ml

mm

3.

Centre distance

mm

4.

Height factor

10

5.

Bottom clearance

mm

Formula

ml

mn
-cos P

(..)
x (Zl.+ z2)
cos p
2

7.

mm

Tooth depth

diameter

mm

10

1;

0.25 mn

2.25 mn

2a
zl +z2

10
=

6.

2a ) x cos
zl + z2

J3 s:::-dZ

mn

d1

d2

1.9 mn,
mn

cos
mn
--x

cos

x zi ; and

p
.

zi.

Design

6.6
S.No.
8.

Notation

Nomenclature

9.

Units

mm

Tip diameter

mm

(~J} +2/0) m
(c::f3 + 2/0)

dal

d a2

dfl

dj2

(C::f3-2/o)mn-2c

=
=

n;

degrees

Helix angle

(c::

II.

Number of teeth

12.

f3

2/0 ) mn-2c;:

+ z2)

'7

-v

PI

Transverse circular pitch

= --

mm

ZI

z2
=-v2 cos3 ~

. and

'7

f3 '

dl

PI

'Itm

Pn

Plxcosf3='Itmn'

Pa

PI
Pn
'It. mn
= tan f3 = sin f3 = sin ~

=1tx-

z]

=
I

14.

Pn

mm

15.

Axial pitch

Pa

mm

I Example

2a

cos3

13.

p-

mn (zi

cos

IJId----

mn

10.

SYlleltl,

Formula

circle diameter)

Root diameter

Transmission

0/

Pn Icosp
'

pinion meshing will, 50

teeth gear. TI,e normal module is 4 mm: Find the required value of the helix angle if tilt
centre distance is exactly 165 mm:
Given Data: zl = 25; z2 = 50; mn = 4 mm; a = 165 mm.
6.1

Tofind: Helix angle (13).

Solution: We know that the centre distance between gears,
a =

13 -

(...!!!!L)
cos 13

(_i_)
cos 13
COS-I

x (ZI + z2 )
2

x (25 + 50) or cos

2

13 =

0.909

, Examp/e 6.2 A pair of parallel helical gears consists of a 20 teeth pinion and the
velocity ratio is 3 : 1. The.helix angle is 150 and the normal module is 5 mm. Ca/culate:
(i) the pitch circle diameters of the pinion and the gear; and
{ii) the centre distance.

\
\

Helical Gears

6,7

Given Data:
Toflnd:

zl

= 20;

.

(i) d, and d2;

@So/Iltion:

-- 5 mm.
and (ii) centre distance , a.

We know that,

z2

= ;.

zJ

3 x 20

60.

'il d1 and d2: We know that the PI'tC h eire

. Ie diiameters of pimon
..
and gear,

tl~

and

d1

(mn / cos B) zJ

d2

310.58 mm Ans. ~

a =

(co~'13) x (Z

= 207.05 mm

I Example

6.3

z2 )

I;

= (COs5IS" ) x

eo;

60 )

Ans. ~

I A pair of parallel /Ielical gears consists of an 18 teeth pinion meshing

with a 63 teeth ,gear. The normal module is 3 mm: The helix angle is 230 whlle the normal
pressure angle is 20 ~ Calculate:
(I)

(ii)

the axial pltch.

Given Data: Z I = 18 ;

(iii)

Tofind:

(i)

m.:

(ii)

z2 = 63 ;
0.1;

@Solutlon :
(I) Transverse module (mt)

mn = 3 mm;

We know that the transverse module is identical to module

d

Transverse module,

d,

d2

ml _-=-=Z
zi

Then

= 23', an = 20.

...

A
tJ

ml

Z2

_ ~

zi

_ 5~.:6

= 3.26 mm Ans. ~

(U) Transverse pressure angle (at) :

We know that the relation between angles ~, an and 0.1'
tan an
cos ~ - tan 0.1 or tan 0.1 tan 20
0

or
..

Transverse pressure aug Ie, at

tan an

cos ~

= 0.395

cos 23
- tarr! (0.395)

= 21.57

Ans. ~

6,8
Design' ofTran~'mI8NI()h6'IIMI
~~--~~=--------------------------------=~~----~.~
.....
(ill) 4U,,/ pitch (p.): We know that

Axial pitch, p a

or

Pa =

( E..\'tl"'pI~ 6."

IA

1tx3

. 230

Sin

consists of

(I

19-toolll pinion drlvl", a

a"gle OJ

S14fHHA IMr. Tilt! pinion lias a left-hand helix angle of 20~ a normal pressure
1-1 ~ ,,,,,I II norma! diametral pitch of 0.4 teeth/mm: Find:
(a)

7"'~

(b) T"~ transverse module and the transverse pressure angle.

(e) 71; pilch diameters of the two gears.
G;'~1fData :

=1 =

19;

f3 = 200;

57;

=2 =

an =

~.
v Solutiolf: \\ e knov that, normal module, mn
I

nln

0.4

= Normal

I
diametraJ

pitch (Pn)

2.5 mm.

\ (tl) T11~normal, transverse, and axial circular pitches:

Normal circular pitch:

Pn -

Pc-

1t

x mn =

7t

x 2.5 = 7.85 mm

Pn

f3

cos

1t x 2.5

cos 20

- 8.36 mm Ans.""
",

Pn

Pa

sin
1t

f3

sin

f3

x 2.5

sin 200

22.96 mm

Ans . ...,

",

Transverse module (m ,J-:

nI, =

P, it

_
it

Pn

_.;.;,._

cos

... [ .: P, = 11 x m, =

f3

7.85
-

it

x cos 200

2.66 mm

Ans."

Transverse pressun angle ( aJ :

_

tan a

or

tan a."
COS

_ tan 14.5

f3 -

cos 200

at - tan-I (0.275)

= 0.275

;';p 1

Helical Gears

..,

.........

6.9

"S' ..
t

;:a

(c) Tile pilcl. diameters oftllC~ two g'nr~':

d,

2.S
COs ~ x %, ~ cos 200 x ,19

=:

&II

~O.S5 mm ; and

2.5

[Example 6.5 A pair of paralleillel/elli gellrs cOlIs/~tsof a 1.l/eelll plnlon meshing

willt a 46 teeth gear. Tire helix allcle is 240 mU/llw Iwrlllill pressur tIIlgle 21 ~ The normal
module is 4 mm. Calculate :
(i) tile transverse

IIlodllle;

(/I) 11111
transverse pres.\'IIre IlIIgle;

(iii) the axial pitch;

(Iv) the pilclt circle (litll"Cler~'of lilt! pinion and the gear;
(v) II,e centre distallee; and
(vi) the addendum and dedendum circle dlameter (If the pili/Oil,
GivenData:

zl

= 23

z2

III"

== 4 111m,

Solution:
(i)

Tn, =

111"

cos

13

4:::::

4,38 mm Ans,,,

= cos 24

13,0."

and o.t'

tan o.n
cos 13
or

Transverse

pressure angle,

0.,

cos 24

Ans. ~

(iii) Axial pitch (p a) " We know that,

n -m;

7tx4
Axial pitch, Pa = sin 13 = sin 24

30.89mm Ans."

(iv) Pitch circle diameters OJI'tl,epin/on and the gear (i.e, d I anti d ~ "
d,

We know that

Inn

cos A.....x

Z,

4
cos 24

23 = 100.7 mm ; and

cos ...

(v) Centre distance

r. ,1
ta)

( cosm) 13

a b

__!L

We know that

(ZI +2 z2 )=

( cos424

) x

(23 +2 46)

= 151.06 mm

Design of TrQlUmi&sionsY"t"l1

6.10

'r

(111) Addndum iDUl dLdnuhon cirde diameJen of lhe pinion (i:e; did and d/ z) :
Addendum circle diameU:r (i.e., tip diameter) of the pinion,

do, -

(~IJ +219) m.

dOl -

(~~40

Dedendum circle diameter

djl

f0

where

+2 A J ) x 4

f 0 = height factor::: 1]

108.7].mm Ans."
i.e., root diameter) of the pinion,

(c:; Il

-210) m.-2 c

Height factor = 1, and

c - Bottom clearance
d"

... [.:

(C05~40-2

0.25 x mn

x I ) 4 -2 x I

0.25 x 4

I nun

= 90.71 mm Ans."

6.8. FORCE ANALYSIS ON HEUCAL GEARS

The three dimensional view of the forces acting against a helical gear tooth is shown in
Fig.6.4(a). The point of application of the forces is in the pitch plane and in the centre of the
gear face. The resultant fOJCe(F) whereby one helical gear transmits power to another gear is
resolved into three perpendicular components :
(i)

(ii)

(iii)

the axial

(FJ.

o
J

-i-"

.'

~PiIctr

-----*"---+~ x

(b)
qtinda

\~.~./
la)

Fig. 6.4. TootIIfoTces tU:ting on II hdicllJ gUT

Fa
(c)

-~------------Helical Gears

6.11

Let

F -

Tangential or t
.'
'

FI

Fa M d J3 Fr

tot~J'

Axial or thrust force ,

Transmitted torque,
Pitch circle diameter of gear,
Helix angle, and

0,/ and an Transverse and n

I
.
orma pressure angles respectively.
From triangle ABC (refer Fig.6.4(b ,

Fr and

F sin an

... (i)

BC> - F cos an

... (ii)

From triangle CBn (refer Fig.6.4(c,

'mil

Fa -

of~

BC

sin f3

F cos an . sin f3

'" (iii)

:earl

and

FI

~
-

... (iv)

Dividing equation (iii) by (iv), we get

Fa
FI
or

f3
F cos an . cos f3 = tan f3
F . cos an . sin

Axial force, Fa -

FIx tan

f3

... (6.10)

Equation (iv) can be written as

FI I cos an . cos f3

Substituting the above F value in equation (i), we have

F,

or

= cos
- an
=

F,

. cos

f3

[:5~]

Sin

an
... (6.11)

We know that the tangential component F, acts at the pitch circle radius. Therefore,
d

F t x-2

'M I

6. \2
Il

Design ofTransmi.uiOl'l.S~

"',Yi"' .. css .......

or

Tangential force,

F,

l:::

'" {6.i2j

60 x P

M I = 21t N

where

.: P = 2 it N~ .,

60

8.8.2. Dlractlon. of Force Components for Helical' Gears

is

./ 1~Inlle"t/1I1force direction
tangent to the
pltch circle and lies in the plane' of rotation. It

opposes the motion of the driving gear. For

example, for the gear pair shown in Fig.6.S, the
drivel' turns clockwise, and the tangential force
direction is inward. Tangential force on the driven
gear is equal and opposite to that for the driving
gcar .
1 (driver)

./ Rlld/1I1force dlrectlon is towards the centre

of u gear. Radial forces on the driver and driven
gears are equal and opposite.

Fig. 6.5.

./ Thrust force dlrectlon is given by treating the driving gear as a screw. The foHow~
guidelines can be used to determine the direction of the thrust component:

(i)

For the driving gear, use right hand for RH-helix and left hand for LH-heJix.

(ii) Keep the fingers in the direction of rotation of the gear and the thumb will ind~
the direction of the thrust component for the driving gear.
(iii) The thrust component on the driven gear is equal and opposite to that for the dmrffig
gear.
The above said guidelines can be verified 'by using the illustration shown in Fig.6.5.

li!mnple

6.6

I A pair

of parallel helical gears consists of an 18 teeth pinion meshing

with a 45 teeth gear. A 7.5 kW power at 2000 r.p.m: is supplied to the pinion through itJ
.,Iut/l. Tile normal module is 6 mm, w!Ii!e the normal pressure angle is 20'! The helix angle
Is 23 '! Determine the tangential, radial and axial components of the resultant toot/t f~
between the meshing teeth.
GlvenData:
z,=18;
z2=4S; P=7.SkW = 7.Sxl()3W;
N1=2000r.p.m.;

mn

6 mm ; a; = 20;

To find:

(i) F/;

(ii) Fr;

J3 = 23.
and (iii) Fa'

@Solution :
(J) Tllngenli(ll componelll of the resultant tootk force (F J

We know that,

F/

2 MI
d

Helical Gears
6.13

J~I

where

M, == Transmitted torque

60 x P
21tN

60 x 7.5 x 103
2 1tx 2000 == 35.81,N-m

Pitch circle diameter of pinion

...!!!!L
cos

F,

..

6 x 10-3
cos 23 x 18 == 0.1173 m

==

2 x 35.81
0.1173

f3

z,

We know that,

F =

[tan an ]
cos f3

F, x

610.43 [tan 20 ]
cos 23

(iii) Axial component of the resultant tootli force (F

11

We know that,

Fa -

I Example

6.7

I A torque

610.43

oJ :

f3

F, x tan

241.37 N Ans. ~

x tan

23

259.11N Ans."

of 250 N-m acts upon tile shaft of a helical gear whose pitch

circle diameter is 300 mm. The gear has 60 teeth and runs at 250 r.p.m: The pressure angle
of teeth in transverse plane is 180 and angle of helix is 28 ~ Calculate (i) Power
transmitted; (ii) Driving force;
(iii) Normal force on gear tooth , and (iii) Force
transmitted to shaft.
Given Data: M, = 250 N-m;
0./

d,

= 300 mm

= 0.3 m;

zl

= 60; N,

== 250 r.p.m.;

= 18 ;. 13 = 28.
Tofind:

(ii) Ft;

(iii) Fr;

and (iv) F

Q'

@ Solution :,

(i) Power transmitted (P) : We know that,

p
(ii) Driving force

21t N Mt
60

t.e, tangentialforce
2 M,

We know that,

F, -

2 1t x 2~0 x 250
60

6.544 kW Ans."

(Ft):

2 x 250
- 0.3

1666.67N Ans. ~

6.14
(iii) Normal fora

Le; radillJforce on gear tooth (PrJ:

We know that.

F,

F, [:~

The normal pressure angle (an) can be calculated using the relation
tan an -

tan at . cos

f3

= tan 18 x cos

or

an -

Therefore,

Fr

tan

160]

Fa -

I Example

6.8

tan

f3

1666.67

F/

= 0.287

We know that,

28

Am."

z=30
A

in Fig.6.6. A 7.5 kW power at 900 r.p.m: is supplied to pinion

A through its shaft The normal module is 4 mm and the
normal pressure angle is 18~ The pinion has left hand teeth,
while the gear has right hand teeth. The helix angle is 25 ~
The arrow indicates the direction of rotation when seen from
the left hand side. (i) Determine the components of the
resultant tooth force; and (ii) draw a free body diagram
showing theforces acting on the pinion and the gear.

1.

Pinion A -

Gear 8

RH

Fig. 6.6-

Given Data: P
an = 18;

7.5 kW

= 7.5

x loJ W; NA

= 900

r.p.m.;

mn = 4 mm;

J3 = 25.

So/ulion:
(i) Components of the resultant toothforce (i.e; F1' F, and FtJ:
We know that,

Pitch circle diameter of pinion,

Therefore, the tangential component

dA

F, =
-

60 x P

60 x 7.5 x IoJ
= 79.58 N-m
27t x 900

mn
cos t-'f.t

x zA

2 (MJA
dA

4
cos 250

2 x 79.58
132.4 x 10-3

1202.11N Au. ~

30

132.4 mm

~
\
H~~a~I~G~e~~~

"

__ -

F _
r

Fa -

The axial component,

F,

~~

6.15

[ tan an ]
cos (3

1202.11 [tan 18 ]
cos 25
F t X tan (3
1202.11 x tan 25

430.97 N Ans. ~

= 506.55 N Ans. ~

(ii) Free body diagram of the pinion and the gear:The free body diagram showing the
forces acting on the pinion and the gear is drawn, as shown in Fig.6.7. The/directions of force
components are found as discussed in Section 6.8.2.
I

,,

'~...... _'-

'
.... ,

, B

-_-_-.L
~I

"", I

---...._

,
,,

--

Fig. 6.7.

I Example

6.9] In Fig. 6.8, a o. 7~5kW

1800 r.p ttl. In the
electric motor runs at
d fi m the

as VJewe
ro
clockwise direcuon,
is keyed to
positive x-axls: The motor shaft
I
h aving a norma
an I8-teeth helical pinIon ,
l 01" 300
0
.1" 20
a /,elix ang e 'J
'
pressure angle oJ'
itch of 0.472
and a normal diametral p. is shown in
teethimm. The hand 0/ the helIX
thefigure.

_-

A
_

_.--250mm

17: ~

R.

6.16

Design o/TransmissionS)~
~,

0/ the tooth force,

and

(ii) Draw a three dimensional sketch of the motor shaft and pinion, shOwing th~I~
acting on the pinion and the bearing reactions at A and B. The thrust shouldIr
taken out at A.
Given Data: P = 0.745 kW 13 = 30 ; Pn = 0.472 teeth I mm.

Solution:

745 W;

N,

1800 r.p.m.;

zJ

18;

a.::: 2fF:

We know that,
Normal diametral pitch, P -

or

Normal pitch -

The pitch 'Circle diameter of pinion, d, -

mn

= 0.472 teeth / mm

0.472

= 2.12 mm
2.12

Inn

cos

f3

zi -

cos 300

18

44.06 mm

(i) Components of tooth force:

Transmitted torque, M I

...

Tangential component, F, -

60 x P
60 x 745
21tNI = 21t x 1800 = 3.952 N-m

2M
d

- 179.41 N

[tan an]
f3
[tan J
cos

179.41

Axial component, Fa - F, X tan

=

2 x 3.952
44.06 x 10-3

20
cos 30

f3

= 179.41 x tan 30

103.58 N Ans. ~

(ii) Calculation of bearing reactions at A and B: The forces F F and F actingon

" r
a
pinion C is shown in Fig.6.9. The force FI in the + z direction, F, in the _ y direction, and
Fain the - x direction, acting at point C are shown in Fig.6.9.
We assume bearing reactions at A and B as shown.
For

~ Fx

0, we get

F~

= Fa =

103.58 N

Taking moments about the z axis, we get

FrX(250+75)-FQx(~I)

- F~ x250

= 0

~~h~ca~/~G~e_a_n~

~~
6.17

or 75.4 x (250 + 75) - 103.58 x

(14.~)
2
- F~ x 250

or

- 0,

FYB = 8a.892 N
Fr
y

IFX -:
F~_~l/F~

/'

1-:

'/-1

C /

/ 7-~A--rl--:-=:':_ _

Mt~z

F,

Fa

_j --

FY

BIB

Fig. 6.9.

For L Fy = 0, we get
F~ -FY

or

-F

= 0

88.892 - F~ - 75.4 = 0

or

FY

- 13.492 N

Now taking moments about the y axis, we get

F~ x 250 - F, x (250 + 175) = 0

or

F~ x 250 - 179.41 x (250 + 75)

FZB = 233.23 N

or
For L F, = 0, we get

or

FZA _Fz B + FI

F~ - 233.23 + 179.41

FZA - 53.82 N

or
Therefore, resultant reaction at bearing A,
RA -

~-------

- -J (103.58)2 + {13.492)2 + (53.82)2

and resultant reaction at bearing B,

RB -

= 117.5N Ans.1;I

-v (F~ )2 + (F~ )2 + (F~ )2

- -v 0+

(88.892)2 + (233.23)2

- 249.6N Ans."

6.18
____________________

Design
of Transmission
(\"'1
..:::.....-=:.:.:.:.:.:.:..:::u~}',elJlll

-:--

'Example 6.10 The pitch circles of a

train of helical gears are shown in Fig. 6. 10.
Gear A, in the figlU~ has 16 teeth, a 200
transverse ang/~ a 150 helix angle, and a
normal module of 3 nun. Gear A drives the
idler gear B on shaft 'b', which has 36 teeth.
The driven gear on shaft 'c' has 28 teeth. If
the driver rotates at 1720 r.p.m. and transmits
shaft
Fig. 6.10.

Given Data:
NA

= 1720 r.p.m.;

Tofind:

zA

= 16;

at

f3 =

= 20;

15;

mn

=3

mm ;

zB

= 36;

Zc = 28;

P = 5.5 k\V.

@) Solution:

The pitch circle diameters of the gears ~ Band C are given by,
dA -

mn
cos 13 x

dB -

--13
cos

de

mn
cos 13 x ze

zA

mn

XZB

an -

or

13 =

tan 20 x cos IS = 0.3515

= 19.37

Forces between gears A and B :
60 x P
60 x 5.5 x 1()3
= 30.54 N-m
21t x 1720
21tNA

F'

1229[

F~

and

2 x (M,)A

Ft

Fa

dA

2 x 30.54
- 1229N
49.69 x 1<r3

[tIDcos a.13 ]
tID
1937 ]
. _cos 15

x tan

f3

447.32 N

= 1229 x tan 15

Ans."
329.31 N

Ans....,

--

Helical Gears
Forces between gears B and C . GA

ear B

IS

~6.:.!'!_9

----~

(M/)a == 0
We know that,

betw

velocity ratio

een gears A and B,1. :::: ~

N:>D

or

::::225 ::::764.44

2.25

28

== Zc

Nc

zB:::

36 ::::

Since the same power is transmitted from gear Ate

o gear

__j

r.p.m,

o.ns

::::982.~5 r.p.m,
Therefore

(~lt)c :::: 60 x p _ 60 x 5.5 x 103

2 1t Nc - 2 1t x 982.85 ::: 53.4 N-m

F~c

::::

F~c

FI
CB

Fr

::: 2 x (M/)c
de:
-

CB -

F'

Be:

2 x 53.+1
::: 86.96 . 10-:

F~B

=
:::

F~c

x tan

329.31 N

t!29 ~

[mna.]t3
cos

19.37 ] ~. _

= 1229 [ .tan
-cos 150
44,.J2 N
F~c

16

764.44

Nc :::: 0.778 :::: 0.778

Torque transmitted

36

::::-

andC,

i ::::~
or

-A

1720

NB == ~

Then velocity ratio between gears B

-8

::::_

p :::

.-\m.. ~

12_9). tun 15

It can be seen that, since gear B is idler, whatever torque it receives fu."'IID
transmitted to gear C. Thus, the tangential component between gears B and C m~
to the tangential component between gears A and B. Since the tangential ~~:S
equal, the radial and axial components are also be equal.

A ~
be ~~

~.1r'

iL~

[Example 6.11
The Fig. 6.11 shows a double reduction hehca! gmrsd. PiD. .. l is tk
driver, and it receives torque of 135.58 Nsm from its shaft in the directio S*O __ PUt .. J
has a normal diametral pitch of 0.315 teeth/mm (i.e; normal modtde

= 4_:15 = _1..1:5

--.).

14 teeth, and a normal pressure angle of 200 and is cut righl-handf!'d ~ir'II .dil ~
rI/
30,! The mating gear 2 on shoft 'b' has 36 teeth. Gear 3, ~'hieh is th~ dri..xr for tie SlAvaJ
pair of gears in the train, has a normal dlametral pitch of tu t~"_'" fi.~6' ----

6.20

._.___

module

__,

-1.'2 S mm), J S tellt/I, tlntl tl normat

,__

De.'18!!.!1..r"Qn6m~

wltl' a helix lIngle 0/1 J ~Milling R'lif 1/ 11(181/.1 teeth.

Find tile nllllJnltude 1",,1 dlractll)n III th force eXINel1 by tl,e beurlnlll lit C IInll D
Oh
"lil,{llb'. A.Nun,e bear/ng C can luke ,)nly rad/fll/l)od whil bellrlng D Is mounted 10lallt
botl' 'I,d/al l,nlllllfUNt 1o,,,/.
y

--0

---

76

37.6-

Fig. 6./1.

(3J ==

(32 ==

30;

z2

135.58 N-m;
mnl = mn2 = 3.175 mm;
zJ = 14; ani = 20 ;
= 36; mn3 = mn4 = 5 mm ; z3 == J 5 ; an3 == 200;
133 = 134 = 15; z4 = 45.

Tofind: Magnitude and direction of the force exerted by bearings C and D.

@ Solutio,,: The pitch circle diameters of gears 1,2,3 and 4 are given by

3.175

mnJ

dJ

d2

d3 =

mn2

cos 132
mn3

cos 133

xz

xz

= cos] 50 x 15
3

mn4

d 4 = cos

(34

3.175
cos 300 x 36

Z4

]31.98 mm;

77.65 mrn ; and

5
cos 15'0 x 45 == 232.94 mm

Forces between gears 1 and 2 :

(M/)I == 135.58 N-m

... (Given)

9~::../~G~e~
__~__ --

~~~

6.2'1

'd

2,(M)
U:::

2 x 13S.58
51.33 x 10-3 ::: 5282.68 N

o_

d1
F~2 and

F'

12

tan anI ]

(M

In -

cos (31

- 5282.68

F;2 (~2)

tan 200 ]
cos 300
= 2220.19 N

5282,68

3) =

3 J.9~ x 10-

348.6 N-m

Forces between gears 3 and 4 :

(M ,)3 F~4

(M ,)2
d3

34 - F~

F;4

348.6 N-m
2 (3~8.6)

2 (M 1)3 _

F,r
and

= F;4

77.65 x 10-3

[~Sa;:] =
x tan (33

8978.75 N-m

8978.75 [:~

8~78.75

~~: ]

tan ISo

3383.28 N

2405.85 N

The forces acting on the gears 2 and 3, and the components of the bearing reactions are
shown in Fig.6.12.

~I
;,

"

t:

Fig. 6.12.
.

o

.'
III vertical

(d
x 2 ) _1

F~2

(d )

pi

r
75
F 12 (

+ 87.5) .

F04
3

x -3
2

+ F'34 x 75

= 0

Design of Transmulion Sy,

6.22

or 212.5 x

Fb - 3050 x ( 1312'98)

( 77.65 )
2
+
3383.28)( 7S

Fb

or
For LV

= 0,

:::0

= 1890.41 N

Ph -

or

F~ - 3383.28 + 2220.19 - 1890.41 -

or

pYc -

F~ - F;4 + F;2

3053.5 N

Considering the forces in horizontal plane and taking moments about bearing C, we get

or

FXD

or

7208.67 N

F~ - F ~4

F~2+ ~

or

or

FXc

- 0
-

7052.76 N

For E F, = 0, i.e., considering the equilibrium of axial forces, we get

...

;:.

F~4-F~2 -F~
or

2405.85 - 3050 - F~ - 0
F~ - - 644.15 N

or

The negative sign indicates that F~ acts in the opposite direction to the direction shown in

Fig.6.12.
Therefore,

-v '(F~)2 + (F~ )2 + (F~ )2

- ~ (7052.76)2 + (3053.5)2 + 0
and

resultant reaction at bearing D -

7685.39 N AIJs. ~

-v

(F~ )2 + (Fh )2 + (F~ )2

---

- V,....(-72-08-.6-7~)2-+-(1-8-90-.4-1
)2-=--+
(--644~.15f
-

7~80.1 N ~.

Helical Gears

:;;---

6.23

DESIGN OF HELICAL
I.

GEARS

HELICAL GEAR DESIGN USING LEWIS

(Helical Gear Design Recomme n d ed by AND
BUCKINGHAM'S EQUATIONS
AGMA)

~RS

(Lewis Equation for Helical Gears)

. 1
,ormattve
gear is
.
.
peepend leu ar to the tooth element It .
d
an imagmary spur gear in a plane

IS un erstood that th b
virtual) gear IS nothing but the beam stre gth
.
e earn strength of formative (or
. .
n
of helical gear Th f
.
equation IS used to determine the beam str
h
.
. ere ore a modified Lewis
F _
engt of a hehcal gear. It is given by
s - 1t. mn b [ CJb ] y'
F _ B
t
gth
... (6.13)
s
earn s ren
of helical gears,
where

mn - Normal module ,
b -

Face width
where Pn

[ CJb]

Permissible

2Pn to 4 Pn (or) 10 m.,

Normal circular pitch = 1t. mn

y' _ Tooth form factor or Lewis factor based on virtual or formative

or equivalent number of teeth.
The beam strength (Fs) indicates the maximum value of tangential force that the tooth can
transmit without bending failure.
6.10. DYNAMIC LOAD ON HELICAL GEAR TOOTH (Effective Load on Gear Tooth)

As discussed in previous chapter, in addition to the static load due to power transmission,
there is dynamic load betWeen the meshing teeth. In order to account for dynamic loads, the
following two methods are used.
I. Approximate estimation of dynamic load using the velocity factor, which is used in

.2.

the initial stages of gear design, and

Accurate estimation of dynamic load using the Buckingham's equation, which is used
in the final stages of gear design.

1. Calculation of initial dynamic load (FtJJ :

,
I
f d amic load can be calculated by using the relation
e
pre
irrunary
va
ue
0
yn
Th
I
~
Fd :::

where

Cv

F, _ Tangential load considering service factor

_ -P x Ko'
v

.. , (6.14)

~~~.2~4

--------D_e_s~ign~o~if_n_rmu--m~u~n=on~s~

where

Power

transmifted

v = Pitch line velocity

Ko -

Service

I Shock

in watts,
=

idN
60

factor,

,in

mis, and

from Table

5.6.

e" ;;:: Velocity factor (c, values are the same as for spur gears)
::;:

for

3+\1'

v~

10

mis,

commercially

;;::

6
6+\1'

5,;'!

10,75
+ V + 0,25, for non-meta II'IC gears,

cut gears

v' for v> 20

mIs,

precision gears

Buckingham's

where

F(

21 v ( c b ' cos2 13 + F,) , cos

F, + 21 v + ~ cb . cos- 13. + F,

13

... (6.15)

b = Face width,
c

from Tables 5.7(a) and (b), and

13 = Helix angle.
6.11. WEAR STRENGTH OF HELICAL GEARS (WEAR TOOTH LOAD)

The wear strength equation of the spur gear is modified to suit helical gears. Thus the
modified wear strength equation for helical gears is given' by
where

d1,b

'Q'~

... (6.16)

cos213

irrespective of

Face width,

Ratio factor,

2x
j

+1

2 z2
zl

+z2

I
I

, for external gears

__________

....

,,/

&~iJ.. --\$.-;,P.~-

r~

~::i~~I~G~e_~_~
~~

__ ~

~~
6.25

_ W __2z2
i-I

z2 -;;

where i == velocl'ty ra ti10 == -z2

zl

.
N/mm2 fr
T
so own as matenal combination factor), in
, om able 5.9 (or)

[f;s

x sin

1.4

an ]

_L ]

E +E
P

f es

where

[.l

== Sm'
U

an -

Ep and Eg

J3

== Young's modulus of pinion and gear respectively.

== Helix angle.

INote I In the design of helical gears, the normal module mn should be selected from standards. For
the recommended series of modules, refer Table 5.8.

IS)

6.12. DESIGN PROCEDURE

Though the design procedure for helical and herringbone gears is exactly the same as for
spur gears, the step by step design procedure for helical gears is given below for ready
reference. In this method, the gear is designed on the basis of beam strength using Lewis
equation.
1. Selection

md

-/

-/

3. Calculation

Z2 = ;

zl'

ZI ~

P

r, - -; x Ko
.6)

of

where

P -

v -

Power transmitted in watts,

ndN
. mI and
Pitch line velocity = 60 ,an
s,

Service
.

_ .....1". ~ ad (F til : Calculate the preliminary value of dynamiC

4. Calcullltion of initial dyn~
0

Ko -

Design of TransmisSion SYSletns

6.26

----...::.

e"

where

= Velocity factor.

The value ofv used in velocity factor formula may be initially taken from 10 to 15 mls.

5. Calculation of beam strength (FJ: Calculate the beam strength (Fs) in terms of
normal module using the relation

F,

= 1tmnb[O'b]Y'

mn =

where

b = Face width in mm, initially assume b = 10 mn,

[ O'b 1

Design bending stress or allowable static stress, from Table 5.4, and

y' = Form factor based on virtual number of teeth, from Table 5.5.
6. Calculation of normal module (m,J : Since the gear is designed on the basis of beam
strength, therefore Fs ~ Fd' So equating Fs and Ftb find the normal module.
Then select the nearest higher standard module value from Table 5.8.

7. Calculation of b, d and" :
./

./

./

d,
=

=~

cos

x zl
p

7td1N1
60

8. Recalculation of the beam strength (F J

tooth using the relation

: Recalculate

accurately using Buckingham's equation as given below.

Fd = F,+Fl
=

Ft +

21 v (cb . cos213
21 v +

+ F,) . cos 13

-.J cb cos213

+ F,

. wh~re
c . = Deformation factor, from Tables 5.7(a) and (b).
Wh1le calculating the dynamic load (Fd), the value of tangential load (F) should be
calculated.by neglecting service factor 0<0).
'

i.e.,

F, = -;

Helical Gears
6,.27
10. Checkfor beam strength (or tooth breaka

rge)

./ If F d S FoS' the gear tooth h

b aka
Th th
as adequate beam strength and it will not fail by
re
gee us e design is satisfactory
./ If Fd > FS' then change face width
d .
I d (F ) th
,mo ule or both. Usually, to reduce the dynamic
;a
fi d , e .g~ should be carefuHy cut (i.e., reduce the deformation factor (c.
ven or precision gears, if Fd > Fs then increase the face width till F < F
11. Calculation of the maximum
'
d
s:
wear ..0 (F.,): Calculate the maximum or limiting
d1xbx9xK,.,
cos2

f3

2;
I+ 1

Q - RatIO factor

where

~.,

= -.-

2z2
d
z I + z2' an

12. Check for wear:

./

Compare the calculated values of dynamic load (Fd) and wear strength (Fw)'

./

If Fd < Fw' the gear tooth has adequate wear capacity and will not wear out. Then
the design is safe and satisfactory.

13. Calculation of basic dimensions ofpinion and gear: Finally, calculate the basic
dimensions of pinion and gear by consulting Table 6.1.

I Example

6.12

I Design

a helical gear to transmit 15 kW at 1400 r.p.m: to the

JoUowing specifications: Speed reduction is 3; Pressure angle is 20~ Helix angle is 15~
The material of both the gears is C45 steel: Allowable static stress 180 N/nun2; Sur/ace
endurance limit is 800 N/nutf1; Young's modulus of materia: = 2 x lOSN/nun2.
Given Data:
[ CJb] =

Nl

f es = 800 N/mm2;

180 N/nun2;

Tofind:

15 kW;

1400 r.p.m.;

El

=~

= 3;

20;

J3

15 ;

2 x lOS N/mm

Design a heJical gear.

@Solution:
1.Material selection:
2. Calculation of

Zl

Pinion and gear - C45 steel.

and

Z2 :

z 1 = 20

./

Assume

./

z2 = i x zi = 3 x 20 = 60

3.. CaicuIaJion of tangential load on tooth (F; :

P

We know that,

FI == -V x

Ko

... (Given)

6.21
v ... [ .: d. =
-

Ko :

"X

:'-13

z. and m_ i. in 'lnln'l

1400 x mn x 20
000
150 ;:: 1.518 mn mil

60x I

XCOI

1.25, assuming medium shock, from Table 5.6

15 x loJ.
5 _ 12353.45
P, ;:: 1.518 mn x 1.2 mn

...

4. CalculllIion of initial dynamk load (F tJJ

We know that,

Fd

where

"

P,
c"
6
6 + v' for v = 5 to 20 mls and carefully cut gears

= 6:

...

15

12353.45

43237.075

x 0.286 -

5. Cakulation

of beam strength

We know that,

PI

1t.

(F,) :

mn . b . [

0b ]

JI

b = Pace width = 10 mn (initially assumed)

where

... (Given)

[ b ] = 180 N/mm2

y' = 0.154 _ 0.912 , for 20 involute

Zeq

where

Zeq

...

y'

Then,

FI -

zi
cos3 ~

= 0.154 1t

20

= cos3 15 = 22.192::t: 23
0.912
23

= 0.1143

646.62 m/

6. Calculation of normal module (m,) :

We know that,

.1

PI ~ Fd

646.62mi
or

43237.075

mn ~ 4.058 mm

From Table 5.8, the nearest higher standard normal module is S mm.

Helical G_ears
6,29

7. Calculation of b, d and v :
./

n -

./
./

J

lOx S

d,

SO mm

m
cos f3 x

--!L

N,

v == 7t d,

Z,

::0

cos IS0 x 20 :: 103,53 mm

== 7t x 103.53

60
8. Recalculation of the beam st l'ength (F,) :
We know that,
FS == 7t. mn ' b . [ <J ] y'

10-3 ~ I4(J(J
= 759 mls

60

== 7tx5x50x

180xO.1143
9. Calculation of accurate dunaml

'J

16]5878N
.

F d == F + 21 v (cb cos2 f3 + F,) cos f3

I
21 v + ~ cb . cos2 f3 + FI

We know that,

15 x ]03
7.59

F == ~_

where

e, ~3 .

]976.28 N

c = Deformation factor, from Tables 5.7 (a) and (b).

-

11860 e, for steel and steel, 20 full depth, from Table 5.7(a).

e = 0.025, for mn upto 5 and carefully cut gears, from Table 5.7(b). ~ ~ :S~ '

...
Then,

c = 11860 x 0.025

Fd

1976.28 +

17772 N

= 296.5 N/mm

21 x 7.59 x ]()3(296.5 x 50 x cos2 ]5 + 197628)

21 x 7.59 x ]()3+~ 296.5 x 50 x cos? 15 + 1976.28

10. Check for beam strengtl, (or toot/, breakage) :

We find F, < Fd: So the design is unsatisfactory. In order to reduce Fdo we try with
(b), for precision gears, e = 0.0125.

precision gears. Fro"" T~!~

Then deformation~actor,

11860 x 0.0125

148.25

The newvalue ofFd is given by

21 x 7.59 x ]03 (148.25 x 50 x oos2 15 + ]97628)
Fd = 1976.28 + 21 x 7.59 x 1()3+~ 148.25 x 50 x oos215 + 1976.28

=.

10863.26 N
Now we find Fs > F d' It means the gear tooth has adequate beam strength and will not fail
by breakage. Thus the design Is satis/adory.,

:;

6.30

11. Calculation of the maximum wear

We know that,

Fw

s, x h x Q x x,

f3

COl2

21

Q - Ratio factor :: 1 + J

where

sin
- f ./ 1.4

Kw

::

(800)2

(1..

2~3
3+J

1,5

+ 1. ]

[_'

E.

:i+

sin 20" [

1.4

2 x JO~

h" 'IP

1.5635 N/mm2

We find

Pw > Ftl It means the gear tooth ha~ adtr~

wt;lr

capacity and will not wear out. Thus the design is safe and 6atJsfactOry.
13. Calculation of basic dimensions of pinion and gear:

Refer Table 6, J,

Normal:
./

Normal Module:

mn = 5 mm

./

Number of teeth:

Zl

./

Pitch circle diameter:

= 20; and

d1

Zz = 60.

::

103.53 mm;

::

310.58 mm

and

dz

m;z

= cos

f3 /

Z].

5
cm,l~

60

./

Centre distance :

a =

10 -

cos J3

(ZI +Z2)
2

cos J 5

(20+60)
2

207.05 mm

./

Height factor:

./

Bottom clearance :

c - 0.25 mn

0.25 x 5

= L25 mm

./

Tooth depth :

h - 2.25 mn

2.25 x 5

./

Tip diameter:

do. -

(C:~p

11.25 mm

+ 2 f 0 ) m.

(CO:~S. + 2 x , ) 5 = 113.53 DIm; and

'I

6.31

" (~~
== (

-/

Root diameter:

+2/0) m.

60
)
~s
1
S;
+
2
x
l
: 5 == 32058 mm.
.

- (c:~f3 - /0) , 2

2c

(c:: /0)
f3 - 2

m. - 2 c

./

Virtual number of teeth :

20
cos! 150

22.192 ~ 23;

f3 -

60
cos3 150

66 .57 ~ 67

ZI

cos! f3
z2

zv2 = cos!

I Example

6.13

Given Data:
Tofind:

and

I For the above example, calculate the end thrust on the gear.

'.

..

End thrust on the gear.

@ Solution : We know that the end thrust or axial load on the gear,
p
Fa = FI X tan
J3
=
X tan f3
.
v

[Example

6.14

IA

15 X 103

7.59

tan 15

529.54 N Ans."'tJ

compressor running at 360 r.p.m: is driven by a 140 kW, 1440

I'.p.m. motor through a pair of 200 full depth helical gears having helix angle of 25 ~ The
centre distance is appl'oximately 400 mm: The motor pinion is to be forged steel and the
dl'iven gear is to be cast steel. Assume medium shock conditions. Design the gear pair.
Given Data: N2

360 r.p.rn;

= 40 kW;

Nt = 1440 r.p.m.;

= 20;

J3

= 25

a=400mm.
Tofind: 'Design the ~eJical gear pair,
@ Solution:
Since th~,materials for pinion and gear are different, first we have to

y;

6.32

Gear ratio, ;
Assume

...

1440
360

4 x 20

zi

Z2

; x ZI

zvl

cos3

20

zi

J3 -

80

cos! 250 ~ 27;

and

80
Zv2 = cos3 250 ~ 108
Given that the pinion is to be forged steel and the gear is to be cast steel. ~
consulting Table 5.3, the following steels are selected.
Pinion Gear -

For pinion:

Forged steel, and

Grade 1 i.e., CS 65 cast steel

[ crbl]

y; -

Form factor,

Y; -

[obi]

[CJb2]

Y;

Form factor,

[CJb2

We find (crbl)

Y; < [

Cfb1

]y;

y;,

112 N/mm2,

0.154 - (0;12)

-vI

0.154 - (

0.912)
27

112 x 0.1202

= 0.1202

]3.465 N/rrunl

0.154 - (0.912)

0.912)
0.154 - ( 108

105 x 0.1455

z,,2

0.1455

15.28 N/~

i.e., the pinion is weaker. Thus, we have to design the

pinion only.
1. Material selection: Pinion - 40 Ni 2 Crl Mo28; and Gear - Grade 1 cast steel
2.

ZI = 20

and

z2

= 80.

3. Calculation of module: Since the centre distance is given, we need not to equate f,
and Fd to calculate the module. The module can be calculated using the relation

a =

(;'-li) x(ZI;~)

6.33

mn_)

400 == (-

cos 25
or
Nonna] module, m == 7 25
n
.
mm
From Table 5.8, the nearest high
er standard no
I
./

./

Pitch circle diameter (d ). d

b == 10

mn - lOx 8 == 80 nun .

).

_ mn
) - -

cos

NI
60
5. Calculation of beam strength (Fs) :
./

We know that,

FS

rma module is 8 mm.

4. Calculation of b, d and v :

,/

(20 + 80)

'It.

'It X

'It d)

f3

xz

'It

8
=-I
cos 250 x 20 =

176.54 mm

x 176.54 X 10-3 x 1440

60
= 13.31 mls

mn . b . [ CJb' ] y'
8 x 80 x 112 x 0.1202

= 27067.76 N

We know that

where

'd

= F

+ 21 v (cb cos2 ~ + F,) cos~

21 v + \} cb cos2 ~ + F,

p _ 140 x IcP
v
13.31
= 10518.4N

c = Deformation factor, fromTables 5.7(a) and (b).

-

11860 e, for steel and steel, 20 full depth, from Table 5.7(a).

e = 0.038 mm, for mn upto 8 and carefully cut gears, from Table 5.7(b).

...

c = 11860 x 0.038

10518.4

Then,

= 450.68 N/mm

+ 21 x 13.31 x

I()3 (450.68 x 80 x cos2 25

21 x 13.31 x )()3
-

+-v

+ 10518.4) cos 25
450.68 x 80-x cos2 25 + 10518.4

46865.44, N

breakage): We find Fd> F" So the design is

unsatisfactory. Since the difference between Fd and F, is high, we can increase the face width

I
I

10(Jlh

by increasing the normal module from 8 mm to 9 mm.

Then

Face width, b

10 mn = 10 x 9 = 90 mm;

mn
9
x z) =
250 x 20
Pitch circle diameter, d 1 = -13
cos
cos
'It

Pitch line velocity,

d1 NJ

60

I
Generated by CamScanner from intsig.com

'It

= 198.61 mm ;

60

14.97 mls;

6.34

~

p

140 x 103
14.97
= 9352 N ; and

Expected error, e - 0.0205 mm, for mn upto 9 and precision gears

from Table 5.7(b).
:.

-

F

d -

21 x 14.97 x 103(243.13 x 90 x cos2 25 + 9352) cos 25

9352 +
21 x 14.97 x 103
243.13 x 90 x cos2 25 + 9352

+-v

34104.29 N

The modified beam strength (Fs) value is given by

F,

1t

= 34257.64 N

9 x 90 x 112 x 0.1202

Now we find F, > Fd" It means the gear tooth has adequate beam strength and it wiIJ not
fail by breakage. Thus the design is satisfactory.
8. Calculation of limiting wear load (F,.J :

dl xbxQxK"

We know that

FlII =

where

cos-

2i

&:

2x4

Kw

Fw

for steel hardened to 400 BHN, from Table 5.9.

198.61 x 90 x 1.6 x 2.553
cos2 250
= 88892.06 N

2.55) N/mm2,

wear: We find F,., > Fr It means the gear tooth has adequate. wear capacity
and will not wear out. Thus the design is safe and satisfactory.
9. Checkfor

10. Calculation of basic dimensions of pinion and gear: Refer Table 6.1.

-/

Normal'module : mn = 9 mm

./

Face width: b = 90 mm

./

-/

Zl = 80

d I = 198.61 mm;
- d2

_ mn
-:

----;i x z2

cos

fJ

= 794.43 mm

Generated by CamScanner from intsig.com

and
9

= cos 250

.
x

80

,J

Helical Gears

'"

6.35

Centre distance :
a = (~)
cos f3

= _
Height factor:

./

Bottom clearance:

'"

==

- 2

== 496.52

d02

+2 f0

mm

20

(3 + 2/0 ) mn

(CO:~50+ 2 I ) 9
(ZJ
) 2
cos f3 - 2 f
X

fJ =

mm

mIl

cos 25 + 2 x J

= (::

mIl -

20
= ( cos 250

d/2

(-.:r_f3

_ (

-2 x I

812.43 mm

9-2

x 2.25 = 176.11 mm; and

C::

(3 - 2/0 ) mn - 2 c

(CO:~50

Virtual number of teeth : Zvl

0/

(20+80)

2.25 x 9 == 20.25 mm

cos

aJ

Root diameter:

0.25 x 9 == 225

n -

ooth depth: h == 2.25 m _

Tip diameter:

./

(ZJ+Z)
-2

c == 0.25 m _
n -

'"

9_

cos 25

10= 1

'"

- 2

27; and

XI)
Zvl

9 - 2 x 2.25

771.93 mm

== 108

6.15 , A pair of 20" full depth involute teeth 30 D helical gears having u
velocity ratio of 3. Tile pinion is made of steel with allowable static stress of 100 N/nuttl
[Example

and the gear is made of cast steel will, allowable static stress of 70 N/nuttl. The pinion
transmits 40 kWat 1500 r.p.m. Determine all the basic dimensions of the gear pair.

Assume

width of face

0.154 - 0.0912

z'V

To find:

V

Given Data:
P=40kW;

where

as 3 times the normal pitch and tooth form factor as

NJ

q, = 20 te_; f3 = 30

J500r.p.m.;

b=3p".

Design the helical gear pair.

i = 3;

[CIhJ

= 100 N/mm ;

[CIh2 ]

== 70 N/mm ;

6.36

DesignofT~~

e Solution:
evaluate [ O'bl

] y'l

Since the materials for pinion and gear are diffemJt, f.. ~ ~ II
and [ 0b2 ]
to find out the weaker element. Assume z, = 20.

y;

Then,

i x z 1 = 3 x 20

Z2 -

ZI

zYI

cos313
Z2

For pinion :

60

Form factor,

20
cos3300

f3 -

zY2 _

cos3

y; -

0.154 _ (0.912),

[Obl]~

60
cos) 300

= 9238 ~ 93

for 2W

z,,1

- 0.154_(;112)
...

fun depIh

0.1246

0.144

100 x 0.1246

= 12.46 N/mm2

For gear :

[O'b2

We find [(61)

Y; < [ 0'61 )

y;,

]y;

-_

0.154 _ (0:;2)

i.e., the gear is weaker. Thus we have to tU:sigII 1MP

only.
1. Material selection: Pinion - Steel, and Gear- Cast steel
2. z 1 = 20; and

z2

= 60.

3. Calculation of tangential load on tooth (FJ :

We know that,
where

P
FI = -v
v

Ie
&~

7t

d2 N2
60

N.
60

= 7t x

...

x 1500 x mn x 20
60 x 1000 x cos 300

'.'

(mIJ
cos

~)
x 1000

mil
d I = cos
Px

ZI

and mil

. .

IS ID

j; ...

I11'1

'uP"

7t

Ko -

...

FI

Shock factor

1.814 mn

1.25, assuming medium shock, from Table 5.6-

40 x 1()l
21566.44
1.814 mn x 1.25 =
mil

We know that,

==

6+;,

6
6

for

'V

== 5 t 20 mI
o

+ IS = 0.286, assuming v = IS mls.

F d == 27566.44

1
96386.17
x 0.286 = ----0..;..;;..;..

mIl

mil

S. 0Ilcuhrti01l of bmm stre"gth (F j :

Weknow~

F, -

where

7t.

mil b . [ Gb2 ]

3 PIt = 3 x

b -

7t

y;

x mII ~ 10m II

Fs - 7txm"x IOmllx70xO.144
6. Clzkllllllioll of1f017IUJ/ modul~ (m,J:
Weknowth~

Fs
316.67 m2

"

or

~
~

... (Given)
= 316.67m2

II

Fd
96386.17
mil

6.726

From Table 5.8, the nearest higher standard module is 7 mm.

7. CillCu/atioll ofb, d andv:
-/

b == 10 mil

-/

-/

lOx 7 = 70 mm
mil
cos p

--A

=
_

&. lltzIcuJadoll of beam strength (FJ

Fd == F, +

21 v+~

7
300 x 20 = 161.66 mm
cos

dt Nt
60

'It

x 161.66 ~OIO-3 x ~500 = 12.7 mls

21 v (cb . cos2

We know that,

'It

XZt

f3 + F,) cos f3

cbcoslf3+F,

P _ 40 x 1()3 == 3149.61 N
F, - v 12.7
. factor , from Tables 5.7(a) and (b).
c
c.. st I and steel 20 FD, from Table 5.7(8).
_

e -

11860 e, lor

ee
'
m
upto 7 from Table 5.7(b).
0.017.JDDl, for"
'

6.38

~

Then,

21 x 12.7 x 103 (201.62 x 70 x cos2 30 + 3149.61) COs30

Fd = 3149.61 +
-

21 x 12.7 x 1()3 +

..I
~
v 201.62 x 70 x cos2 30 + 3149=:61'

15038.95 N

10. Check for beam strength (or tooth breakage) : We find F,. > F II- It means the ge
satisfactory.

beam strength

dJxbxQx~

We know that,

Fw -

where

Q - Ratio tactor = i + 1 = 3 + 1 = 1.5; an

cos2

J3
2i

e.

2x3

K,.. - 0.919 N/mm2, for steel hardened to 250 BHN, from Table 5.9.

...

Fw

161.66 x 70 x 1.5 x 0.912 = 20799.17 N

cos2300

12. Check for wear: We find Fw> F II- It means the gear tooth has adequate wear capacit
and will not wear out. Thus the design is safe and satisfactory.
13. Calculation of basic dimensions of 'pinion and gear: Refer Table 6.1 .
./

Normal module:

mn = 7 mm

./

Number of teeth:

ZI

./

Pitch circle diameter:

= 20;

and

Z2

= 60

dl = 161.66mm;

and d2=

7
- cos 300 x 60
./

a =

Centre distance :

(_!!l!!_)
cos J3

X (ZJ

10 -

cos

A XZ2
tJ

484.97 mm

+ Z2
2

7
20+60)
2
(
cos 30

./

mn

= 323.3 mm

./

Height factor:

./

Bottom clearance:

c - 0.25 mn

0.25 x 7 = 1.75 mm

./

Tooth depth :

h = 2.25 mn

2.25 x 7

./

Tip diameter:

dOl

15.75 mm

(c:~IJ +210) m.

- (co;~Oo + 2

XI)

7 = 175.66 mm; and

HelicalGears

6.39

(0::13 10) m.

(co:~oo + 2 x I) 7

(ZIcos f3 -

Q2

Root diameter;

/1

df2

II.

2f0

498.97 mm

mn - 2 c

(o~13-2/0)

=
~

+-2

m.-2 c

zvl

27; and

zv2

108

(Helical Gear Design Using Basic Equations)

6.13. DESIGN FORMULAS

FOR HELICAL GEAR DESIGN

Almost all the design formulas for helical gear design are same as that for spur gears.
However, the modified design formulas are given here for ready reference.

(i) Design torque (or) Design load (M;:

~M/]

We know that,

M,

where

K x Kd

M,

Transmitted torque

... (6.17)

60 x P
2 1t N '

Kd

,-or

Vb

-.

07

i 1
[Mt]
a b . mn y v
NI

where

= Gear ratio

= N;

z2

-,

zi

a - Centre distance between gears,

b - Face width,
n1n =

Normal modute.

... (6.18)

6.40

Design of n-ansmi3slon

By"'t""
~

y"
[ M I]

Form factor based on virtual number of teeth, from Table S.13, 8JJd

= Design torque.

=

[ CJb]

where

Kb/

1.4

Kbl

nKa
Kbl

nK

x a_I'

... (6.I9(a))
... (6. J9(b))

0-

a_I

n = Factor of safety, from Table 5.17.

(iv) Induced contact stress (uJ :

; - 0.7
where

Eeq

i1 ... /il
a
\j ib x Eeq [M/]

... (6.20)

Equivalent Young's modulus, from Table 5.20.

2 EJ E2

or

EJ +E2
where El and ~ Young's moduli of pinion and gear respectively.

... (6.21)
where Co and CR

HB HBC Kel

Coefficients depending on the surface hardness, from Table 5.18,

Brinell hardness number,
Rockwell hardness number, and
Life factor for surface strength, from Table 5.19.

a:2:(il)

where

'" -

3 (_0.7)2
[ael

Eeq

x [Mil
i",

... (6.22)

Helical Gears
6.41

6.14. DESIGN PROCEDURE

Though the design p~ocedure for helical gears is same as for spur gears, .the step by step
design procedure for helical gears is given below for ready reference.

.
1. Calculation
of gear ratio (i): Use 1. = Nt
N2

z2

= _
Zt

Table 5.3.

consulting

4. Calculation of initial design torque I Mt

[ M t]

Use

Mt

i:

K x Kd

Since datas are inadequate to select the values of K and Kd, initially assume K Kd = 1.3.

5. Calculation of EelJ,

Ubi

and

I ucl :

./

./

To find [ob]:

Calculate the design bending stress [ob]

./

To find [ 0c]:

Calculate the design contact stress [ ere] using the equation 6.21.

6. Calculation of centre distance (a) :

Calculate the centre distance (a) using the equation 6.22.

./

./

z2

(Zl

and zJ) :

Z I ~ 17.

= i x zl

8. Calculation of normal module (m,) :

Calculate the normal module using the relation
In

==

2a
(z) +z2

) x cos

A
I-'

choose the nearest higher

standard normal
Using the calculate d norma I 1nodule value
,',.
,
module from Table 5.8.

f. r\

centre distance value.

Centre distance, a, ==

{c'ol11s' r:t) x (ZI

I-'

;Z2)

_6_.4_2

......,..............,..
............
.........,D_- 0......
\..;.1[(11 of 1'rat/,vml,Y6JCJll
...

b = \Jl x a. It

p,
l;;l

-t

1t
(.\

an ~

1t

Calculate the pitch line velocity (v):

Calculate the value

',~

CUll

./'

i~llJ,tjfN

and VIp:

./

~""'__~fl"I';

Use

of\Vp:

\jlp

Usc v

>

el,

z I x IU n

tl
IJ

111"

cos ~ x z,

el, N,

60

b
ell

11. Select tile suitable quali(v 0/ gear, consulting Table 5.22.

12. Revision 0/ design torque I M,l:
Revise K: Using the calculated value of \Ill" revise the value of load concentration

./'

factor (K), from Table 5.11.

./'

Revise Kd: Using the selected quality of gear and calculated pitch line velocity,
revise the value of dynamic load factor (Kd), from Table 5.12 .

./'

Revise

I MIl:

[ M I].

Use [M I]

13. Check/or

Using the revised values of K and Kd, revise the design torque

MI

K x Kd

bending:

./'

Calculate the induced bending stress using the equation 6.18 .

./'

Compare the induced bending stress with the design bending stress .

./'

If

14. If

fJb

fJb

s [fJb ], then the design is satisfactory.

>[

fJb ],

then the design is not satisfactory. Then increase the module or face

width, or change the gear material. The procedure is repeated until the design is satisfactory.
i.e.,

Gb

s [fJb ].

./

./'

./'

If

fJ ~ [ fJe],
e

then the design is safe and satisfactory.

. dilinensiOflS
16. Calculation of basic dimensions of tile gear pair: Calculate all the baSIC
of the pinion and gear using the equations listed in Table 6.1.

~~/~G~e~ar._~_'_'

-:

~~
6.43

0ot!l
./
./

./

The above listed procedure is for th desi

. .
e esign of pinion .
As discussed in Section 5 31 If Il
(le.fi"II only tile pin!
1'1';"
te malerlals of.tlle pinion and gear are sallie, then
lJ
on. 'J me materials of til I I .
the pin 1011first (III I l 'kfi
e p ~~on ..~-gear are dlfferent, then des/gil
c C tee or botl: pill/Oil (lIldHell,:
The induced bending stress in th
(
-'
e gear ob2) can lit!' determined by using the relation

Obi Yvl

where

CJ b I and

cb2

h2Yv2

... (6.23)

Induced bending stresses of pinion and gear respectively, and'

Form factors of pinion and gear respectively based on the
virtual number of teeth.

Since the contact area is same, the induced contact stress is same for both pinion and gear.
i.e., Oct = CJc2'

I Example

'6.16

I For

intermittent duty of

(lII

elevator, two cylindrical gears have to

1'(IIIsI;112.5 kW lit II pinion speed of 1200 r.p.m: Design tile gear pair for tile following
specifications: Gear ratio 3.5, pressure angle 20 ~ involute fuJI dept", helix angle 15 ~
Gears are expected to work 6 "ours a dayfor 10 years.
Given Data : P = 12.5 kW;

N, = 1200 r.p.m.;

q, =20~

i = 3.5;

FO';

Toflnd : Design the hel ical gear pair.

f3'=

15.
r

<,

Solution :
1. Gear ratio:

... (Given)

i = 3.5

2. Selection 01 material : For both pinion and gear, alloy steel 40 Ni 2 Cr 1 Mo 28 can
of same material, we design only tile
be se'I ecte d, consu I'ting T a hie 5.3. AoJ,Since tile gears are
,
pinion.
3. Gear life:
..

Gear life

The gear life in terms of number of cycles is given by

N == 21,900 x 1200 x 60 = 157.7 x 107 cycles

4. Calculation l!f initial design torque I M,

W e know that,

J:

[ M /] == M, x K x Kd
3

where
Assume

M/ K Ko

==

60 x p _ 60 x 12.5 x 10
2 1t N 21t x 1200
1.3

(_PS 6\

a , \~ )

== 99.47 x 1.3 == 129.31 N-m

99.47 N-m

/I -.1 '
l~)
,'c~-

Design of Transmission S
5. Calculation of
~

I O'cl:

Toflnd E eq .' From Table 5.20, for steel pinion and steel gear,

Eeq
~

and

Eeq, 100bl

Tofind

I O'bI:

r~.

14)

1.4 Kb/

= n-

[ CJb]

where

=

~ To find

where

~.

tV

=

0'_1

1.4 x 0.7
x 1.5

= 2.5

[ O'b ]

662.5

N/mm2

= 173.133

N/mm2

I C'c J : We know that the design contact stress,

[ O'c] = CR x HRC x Kc/
(
CR = 26.5, for alloy steel hardened, from Table 5.18,
HRC
Kcl

...

Ka

au

Then,

0'_1

...

Kb/

n
But

[ O'c ]

= 40 to 55, from Table 5.18, and

= 0.585, for steel HB > 350 and N ~ 25 x 107, from Table 5.19.
=

26.5

55

0.585

852.6 N/mm2

where

\V -

b
-a =03.

... (initially assumed)

3 ( 0.7)2
(3.5 + 1)
852.6
a ~ 117.6 mm say a

7. Assume
Then,

= 120 mm

zJ = 20.
Z2

= i X Zt =

3.5

20

2.}5 x 105 x 129.31 x UP

x
3.5 x 0.3

= 70

...
It

Helical

G~ea:...,.,~'S=~=~~

~~

6.45

8. Cn/clI/alion of normal module (m,J :

We know that,

a
(z 2+.,.)

m n --

2 120
x cos ~ = _x-.:..=-=...
(20 + 70) x cos 15 = 2.576 mm

-2

From Table 5.8, the nearest higher standa d

r normal module is 3 mm.
9. Revision of centre distance:

We know that,

(c::.~)

=
10. Calcukuion of b, d I'

'"

AXIal pitch, Pa

cos 150

(20 + 70)
~

mn

A
Sin tJ

1t

x3

'"

'"

Pitch line velocity (v):

'"

Tofind\jJp:

..

d L_.= -cos
--~

n d , N,

11. Selection

= 139.76 mm

and lJIp :

1t X

(ZI ;Z2 )

b
42
\jJp = d, = 62.12

of quality of gear:

60

v =

f3
7t

X ':"

-I --

cos3150 x 20

60

= 3.903 mls

0.676

From Table 5.22, for HB > 350 and v upto 8 m/s,

IS quality 8 is selected.
12. Revision of design torque

We know that,
where

[ M/]
K
Kd

...
13. Cileckfor

[M, ]

I Mt}-:

MI x K x K"

::::

= 1.2, for IS quality 8, from Table 5.12.

= 99.47 x 1.045 x 1.2 = 124.74 N-m

0.7(i+
(Jh

where

Yv

62 . 12 mm

l)[M,]

a' b . Inn . Yv

6.46'

We find

zvl

z.
cos f3

Yv

ab

_ 0.7 (3.5 + 1) 124.74 x 103

139.76 x 42 x 3 x 0.402

ab < [a,,].

Thus

20
= cos! J 5

22

55.5 N/mm2

the design is satisfactory.

14. Check for wear strength: We know that the induced contact stress,
.... /;+1

.i+l

ae

\j ib

0.7 ---;;-

I) -------------------------3.5 + 1
.
42 2.15 UP
JOJ

3.5 +

- 0.7 ( 139.76
We find ac < [ ac

J.

x Eeq [M/]

3.5 x

x 124,74

645.8 N/mm2

15. Calculation of basic dimensions of pinion and gear:

~

Normal module: mn = 3 mm

Number of teeth:

ZI = 20;

dI

and Z2 = 70

62.U mm;
mn

Refer Table 6.1.

R X Z,

cos.....

and

3
cos 150. x 70

217..4 mm

Centre distance :

Height factor :

Bottom clearance :

c -

0.25 mn = 0.25 x 3 = 0.75 mm

Tooth depth :

h -

2.25 mn

Tip diameter:

a = 139.76 mm
fo -

dOl

(C~I3+2fo)

225 x 3 = 6.75 mm

m.

- (a:~

50 + 2 x I ) 3 = 68.U mm; and

da2

(c:13

+ 2 f 0 ) m.

- (CO:~50 + 2 XI)

3 = ..l23.41-

Yo

6.47
./

d /1 -

Root diameter:

cos '(3 -

n1n - 2 c

(co~~ S - 2 x I ) 3 - 2 x 0.75

(0::

d f2 -

13 - 2 f

zvl

22;

:\)
"1::"
2 x 0.75

and z

v2
[Example 6.17

IA

54.6 mm; and

209.91 mm

0) ,- 2 c

( cos7015 - 2 x 1 )

./

2f

(~

z2
=
70
cos3 (3
cos! 150 :::::78

helical gear speed up drive is reqllired to drive a centrifugal

compressorrun/ling at 3000 r.p.m. Tile helical gear speed up unit is driven by an electric
motor running at 1000 r.p.m. Tire compressor requires a nominal input power of 12.5 kW.
TIle helix angle of 25 0 may be assumed for the gears. Standard involute profile 200 full
dept" system will he used for the gear teeth. The gear pair is required to last for atleast
10,000 hrs. Design tile gear drive for tilefolio wing gear materia/so
Pillion: Heat treated cast steel.
Given Data: N I = 3000 r.p.m.;

N2

1000 r.p.m.;

P = 12.5 kW;

\$ = 20

13 = 25;

FD; n = 10,000 hours.

Toflnd : Design the hel ical gear drive.
@) Solution : Since the materials of plnlon and gear are different, we have to design the

pinionfirst and the check for gear.

. :
1. Gear ratio

N!

=N
2

3000
1000

2. Selection of material :
Pinion

J. Gear life: Given that n

cycles is given by

10,000 hours. T-hen the gear Iife in terms of number of

N = 10000 x 3000 x 60

We know that,

[ M I]

MI X K x

x,

J:

..

6.48

where
K Kd -

..! (initially assumed'

1.3.

= 39.788

[Mt]

Tofind Eeq : From Table 5.20, for steel pinion and C.l. gear (au> 280 N/mm2),

Eeq

../

= 51.725 N-m

x 1.3

I OCl :

5. Calculation 0/ Eeq, 1000bl and

../

60 x 12.5 x 1()3
27t x 3000
= 39.788 N-m, and

60 x P
27tN

Tofind

I O"b J:

].4
-

11

Kb/

x a_I'

(J

where

Kb/

s 350, N ~

11

a_I

v" Tofind

0.22 (650 + 400) + 50 = 281 N/mm2

].4 x ]
_
2 x 1.5 x 281 - 131.133 N/mm

I ocl : We know
[ae]

where

Then,

- CR x HRC x KcI

CR - 22, for cast iron, from Table 5.18,

HRC - 55 to 63, from Table 5.18, and
KcI

[ae]

r,

for steel, HB

- 22 x 63 x 1

s 350, N ~

1386 N/mm2

(i + I)

where

\V -

b
a

0.3

(0.7

[ae]

2 x

~::~G~~ __6

~~

6.49
.
..

i:.

or
7. As~ume

i:.

z. -

54.23 say a
20.

Zl

ix

(3

I)

( J~'~6)

2 x

3 x 0.3

Then,
8. Calculation
We know that
~

%.I:

60 mm

= 3 x 20 :; 60

ZI

m

2a

+ zV

= {z,

x COS

2; 60

From Table 5.8, the

standa
. 2 mm.
. nearest higher
.
car d norma I module IS
9. Revision

We know that,

(z,

+ ~)

-'!!.!!_ ~
cos J3

2
(20 + 60)
cos 25CJ
2

Face width (b):

./

P'itc h eire
. Ie diiameter 0f prnron
. . (d ):
1

./

Pitch line velocity (v):

./

b
To find 'p: 'p = d,

./

= 88.27 mm

'!P:

b = lV

= 26.48 mm

0.3 x 88.27

1t

d,

d, N,

60

26.48

44.14

mn
=--A

cos .....x

1t

= cos225

Z,

x 20 = 44 14 mm

x 44.14 x 10-3 x 3000

60
= 6.93 m/s

= 0.6

11. Selection of qUlIlity of gear: From Table 5.22, for v upto 8 mis, the IS quality 8 gear
is selected.
12. Revision of design torque

We know that,
where

[ M I]

I MIl:
M I Y. K x Kd

Kd:::

[ M,] ::: 39.788 x 1.03 x 1.3 = 53.275 N-m

13. Check/or bending: We know that the induced bending stress,
0.7 (i

...,=

OL

+ 1) [ M f ]

a' b mn' Yv

Design of Transmission SY!te

6 SO
~.~--------------------------------~~------~

where'

Yv

20

zi

zvl
Yvl

- cos! J3
~

cos

0.43, for

zvl

250 = 26.86 ~ 27

0.7 (3 + 1) 53.275 x 103

ah - 88.27 x 26.48 x 2 x 0.43

...

= 74.21 N/mm2

We find ab < [ ab]. Thus the design is satisfactory.

14. Check for wear strength: We know that the induced contact stress,
Gc

= 0.7

e: -vW
1

U8~2~)

0.7

677.39 N/mm2

x Eeq x[Mtl

We find ac < [ ac]. Thus the design is safe and satisfactory.

15'. Check for wheel: Wheel material
First we have to calculate [ ab
Given that

]wheel

gear life -

and [a c ]wheel
10,000 hrs

Npinion
Nwheel

Tofind

I Oblwheel

180 x 107
3
= 60 x 107 cycles

[ ah ]wheel

where

Kb/

K
nx 0"

-\.[W,

Ka
n
a_I

...
Then,

x a_I

107
60 x 107

= 0.8195

0'_1

[ O'b ]wheel

1.4 x 0.8195
2 x 1.2
x 157.5

.=

75.29 N/mm2

~::../~O~ea_~_~

~~
6.51

./Tojlnd

I "clwhtel:

[ c ]whecl

r:

",
where

eg

ess,

==

en x HB x Kcl

=:

2.3, for C.1. Grade 35, from Table 5.18,

HB = 200 to 260, for CI. Grade 35, from Table 5.18, and

Kc{ =

'J

..

[ crc ]whec:1

107
60 x 107

2.3 x 260 x 0.742

0.742
=

443.62 N/mm2

bending: The induced bending stress for wheel can be calculated using the

reIanon
crbl
where

=
=

Yvl
Yvl

b2Yv2

0.43, for

zvl

= 27,

from Table 5.13.

60

z2

= cos) (3 = cos) 25 ~ 81
Yv2 = 0.499, for zv2 = 8~, from Table 5.13.
crbl = Induced bending stress for the pinion = 74.21
zv2

74.21 x 0.43
or

0b2

We find

0b2

We find

0c wheel>

0b2

x 0.499

63.95 N/mm2

=
=

Since the contact area is same, o c wheel

[crc

N/mm2

= o c pinion = 677.39

N/mm2.

In order to inc~

..

[ crc ]wheel

Now we find

CJ wheel

16. Calculation
v'

< [ 0c ]wheel'

0/ basic dimensions 0/ pinion

Normal module:

mn = 2 mm

v'

Number of teeth :

v'

and gear: Refer Table 6.1.

Zl

= 20;

and

d1

= 44.14

a = 88.27 mm

Zl

.>:

= 60.

mm;

and d2

2
cos 250 x 60

132.4 mm

the

6.52

/0

../

Height factor:

../

Bottom clearance:

../

Tooth depth:

../

Tip diameter :

=1

c = 0.25 mn

= 0.25

x2

= 0.5

= 2.25 mn = 2.25 x 2 = 4.5 mm

do I =

c:~

f3+ 2 f 0 )

mn

= (CO~~50 + 2 Xl)
d 02

,/

Rootdiameter:

mm

dl1

C::

f3+ 2 f 0 )

2 = 48.13 mm;

(CO:~50 + 2 Xl)

(C:~f3-2fo)

136.4 mm

mn-2c

d12 =

../

C::

f3- 2 f

= 27;

0) mn - 2 c

zvl

and

and

zv2

127.4 mm

~1.

Herringbone or double helical gear consists of teeth

having a right and left handed helix cut on tl-e same blank,
as illustrated schematically in Fig.6.13. One of the
disadvantages of the single helical gear is the existence of
axial thrust load. They. are eliminated by the Herringbone
configuration because the thrust force of the right hand is
balanced by that of the left hand helix. Helix angles are
usually greater for Herringbone gears than for single helical
gears because of the absence of the thrust reactions.
Fig. 6.13., Herringbone gear

INote I Though

the terms herringbone and double helical are used interchangeably, when there ~s

no groove in between the gears, is specifically known as herringbone gears (Fig.6.13). When there
groove in between the gears, then it is known as double helical gears.

IS

Helical Gears

6.S3

:...---

6.15.1. Design of Herringbone

Gears

The design formulas, the design procedure and other parameters of Herringbone gears are
exactly the same as that for parallel helix gear. Thus in order to design a Herringbone gear,
one can follow the procedure presented in Sections 6.12 and 6.14, without any modifications.

6.16. CROSSED-HELICAL

OR SPIRAL OR SCREW OR SKEW GEARS

A pair of crossed-helical

gears, also known as spiral gears, are shown in Fig.6.14. Spiral

gears are used to connect and transmit motion between two non-parallel and non-intersecting
shafts. As the contact between the mating teeth is always a point, these gears are suitable only
for transmitting a small amount of power.
In order for two helical gears to operate as crossed-helical gears, they must have the same
normal diametral pitch and normal pressure ~n' But the gears need not to have the same helix
angle or be opposite of hand. In most crossed gear applications, the gears have the same hand.

v"

v"

They can be used at any angles other than 90.

v"

They permit a wide range of speed ratios without change of centre distance or gear
size,

6.16.2. Limitations of Spiral Gears

v"-

They transmit relatively small amounts of power because of point contact between
teeth .

../' They have lower efficiency than that of toothed gears because of sliding action.

6.16.3. Shaft Angle (9)

The shaft angle (9) is defined as the angle through which one of the shafts is rotated so
that it is parallel to the other shaft. Referring to the Fig:6.14,
Shaft angle,

e =

= [31 - [32'
where

Helical (or spiral) angles of gear teeth for pinion and

gear respectively.

6.16.4. Centre Distance for a Pair of Spiral ,Gears

The distance between gear centres is given by the shortest distance between the axes of
rotation.
Let

N I and N2

6.54

--..:::..

Zl and z2
i-Gear

d 1 and d2

ratio

N)
z2
N2 - z 1 '

respectively,

PI)

circular pitch of pinion and

gear respectively,
Pnl and Pn2 = Normal circular pitch of pinion and gear

respectively, and

shaft.
n d,

We know that, PIJ

and P 12 ----

= --

ZJ

1td2
Z2

or
Since the normal pitch is same for both the spiral gears,
therefore
Pn

Pnl

Pn2 = PII

cos 131

Fig. 6.14. Centre distance/or a pail

of spiral gears

or

PII

Pn
d
Pn
cos 131 an Pt2 = cos 132

... Oi)

Substituting equation (ii) in (i), we get

d
I

zl

1t x cos 131

Pn x z2
= ___;;_.:.:...._.......::.-

and d
2

1t x cos

.. , (iii)

132

=l[

dl+d2
2

pnxz1
1t x cos 131
... (6.21(a

e, zl
21t

[I

cos

]
...

... i = zl
z2

J ...

(6.24(b

~::ca~/_G_e_~_~

~~
6.55

d 1 + d2
2

0.5

_! [
- 2

mn
m
xz

cos ~ I

=, [co:'I3,

cos ~2 x z2

... [.: d=

::13 xzJ

co: 13

]
2

... (6.25)

N I _ z2
N2 - zl

d2 cos ~2
dl cos ~I

... (6.26)

6.16.6. Velocity of Sliding between Gears (v )

s
(vs) acts at the pitch point tangentially along the tooth surface is given

by

Vs,.

[vi + v; - 2

VI

V2

cos

e ]112

... (6.27(a

where

and

VI

v2

= Pitch line velocity of pinion and gear respectively, and

e =

Shaft angle.

When the shafts are at right angles (i.e., e = 90), then the sliding velocity will be
V

6.16.5. Efficiency

VI

of Spiral Gears

of spiral gears,

Work output

11 = Work input
and the maximum

efficiency

11max -

an

_ cos (9

- cos (9 - cj) + cos (~-

cj)

cos (9 + CP) + 1
cos (9 - cj) + 1
Shaft angle,

4> -

Angle of friction,

... (6.29)

and

= Helical (or spiral) angles of gears.

A_

P2

).

. I
s in terms of coefficient of friction (J.l
[Note I The efficiency of spira gear
.

11

... (6.28)

J31 + cj)

of spiral gears,

9 -

where

PI

... (6.27(b

cos (32

l+tanJ3lxJ.l

15 given

b
y
... (6.30)

6.56

6.16.6. Force Analysis on Crossed-Helical

Gears

All the expressions derived for parallel helical gears in Section 6.8, is also applicableto
crossed-helical gears. Thus the forces on the crossed-helical gears are

2M

./

Transmitted force:

./

./

01'

F,

F,

tan all
cos \lI

X [

= F, X tan f3

( Example 6.18

1/11

a spiral gear drive connecting two shafts, tile approximate centre

distance is 400 mill and the speed ratio = 3. Tile angle between the two shafts is 500andthe
normal pltcl: is 18 111m.Tile spiral angle for tile driving and driven wheels are equal: Find:
(1) Number of teeth

Oil

each wheel,

(2) Exact centre distance, and

(3) Efficiency of the drive, iffriction lingle
Given Data:

Solution :

= 6~

l3,

Oil

3;

each wheel:

l32 for the driven

wheel. Therefore,

or

l3, + l32

l31

f32 = 2"

25

a = Pn zl

27t
400
or

z,

and

z2

18 x

z)

I +
j
cos l31
cos
[

27t

1+3 ]
cos 25

J_
f32 -

Pn

z)

I+i ]

27t

cos

l3)

A =A2]
[ . 1-')
P

= 12.64 z)

400

= 12.64 = 31.64 or 32 ADS.

= i- zi = 3 x 32 = 96 ADS. "

"

(2) Exact centre distance:

Exact centre distance,

al

)
[ cos

l3) +

cos

l32

]
't

~----___

"

--

~6~.5!_

== 404.5 mm

(3) Efjlt/eney oJ the d,lvI! :

:<'j} (~ ~) cos f3 t

11

CUs (~,
""
JlI -Itll

~
C{)s

cos 132

== COs (f3) + \$)
cos (~_~)

[.:

PI == I3V

(25(' ~~
(25(' - 6(,) == 0.907

90.7%

Example 6.19 ) A pair {)jNrpira/

'
'. . 2
gears c(Jnnects two sh "ts"
,
rauo IS and driver ha 25 t th .r
0.1' inclined at 80 ~ The velocity
.'
ee oJ normal pitc or J 2
the centre distance between the .vhaftv,
'J
mm and spiral angle of 30 ~ Find

Given Data :

e = 8(10.
'
", ,=(iJ2

@ Solution:

(J) J

Shaft angle,

== 2;

= ZJ

= 25

zi

'0'

P n -- 12 mm;

A
....
,

30.

e f3, =

If zJ

25, then Zz = i

zJ =

2 /. 25

We know that ,

dJ

and

d2

= 50.

Pn

xZ1

Pn~
1t

f32

cos

d , + d2

= 203.5 mm

[Example

6.20

IA

12 x 25
= 110 mm
it cos 30

=
1t cos P,

12 x 50
= 297 mm
1t x cos 50

1] 0 + 297

spiral wheel reduction gear, of ratio 3 to 2, is to be used on a

mac/line, with the angle between the shafts 80'! The approximate centre distance between
the shafts is 125 mm. The normal pilch of the teeth is 10 mm and wheel diameters are
equal. Find the number of teeth on each wheel, pitch circle diameter and spiral angles.
Find the efficiency of the drive
Given Data :

if the friction

Zz
3
i = - = 2';

z,

angle is 5 ~
Q

== 80

Generated by CamScanner from intsig.com

= )25

mm;

Pn

= ]0

mm ;

6.58

Design of TransmissionSY.fl

----------------------------------------------~~------

Tofind:

__ .~

e~

1. Number of teeth on each wheel (zi and z2),

2. Pitch circle diameters (d , and d2),

3. Spiral angles (PI and P2), and

4. Efficiency of the drive (11)

d2

We know that,

dl
z2

Given that,

cos

zi

cos

WI

zi

z2

PI
P2
3

(l)2

2 '

cos

= PI + P2 =

80

and d , = d2

PI

2 (cos 80 . cos PI + sin 80 sin PI) = 3 cos PI

or

tan PI = ~:~~~: or

132

and

80 - 53.4

26.6

a

Centre distance,

125

r, zl
21t

5.34

z2

i z)

zi

cos

lOx zi
21t

125 and

[1

[1
cos 53.4
or

zi =

(~) ]
cos 26.6

23.4 say 24

= 2: x 24 =

36 Ans. ~

Circular pitch,

Then,

PCl

dl

d2

11

Pnzi
7t

cos

131

Pn
cos PI
=

10 x 24
1t cos 53.4

d;

cos

(132 +~)

cos PI

cos

(13) - ~)

cos

128 mm

128mm

Ans.1:)'

132

cos (26.6 + 5) cos 53.4

cos (53.4 - 5) cos 26.6

= 0 855 =
.

e-

-101 (;eJlTS_

~-l-e-6.-2-1"')A

6.59 .

angled dr~ve on Ii machine is to be made by two spiral wheels.

fIdls are of equal diameters with a normal pitch of 10 mm and centre distance is
ttl~.;moJely 150 mm: If the speed ratio is 2.5 to 1, find (a) spiral angles of
~b)

",,--

=:

0/

teeth on each wheel, (c) the exact centre distance,

~cy

if the coefficient

~iven

Data:

e Solution:

d1

= 90;

001

= 2
=
(J)

d2;

Pn

2.S;

J.1

a = 150 mrn ;

= 10 rnm ;

0.10S.

(a) Spiral angles of teeth :

d2
z2 cos (31

We know that,

d1 -

Z1 cos (32
(32 == 90 - (31

(31 + (32 = 90 ; or

cos (31
1 == 2.5 cos (90 - (31)

...

cos 90 cos (31 + sin 90 sin (31

sin (31
cos (31

or

tan (31

2.5

and (32

21.8 Ans.1:I

or
== 2.5

(31

68.2

or
IJ.\

'7o.Tumber
of teet /;I on

tUI

J'Y

each wheel:

Pnzl

a = ~

We know that,
ISO
zl

or
z2

:::::

10 Z
__l
21t

E.n ~
>"

21t

154.2

:::::

45 Ans.

~~ [~+
1

[--A

coS ......1

OUD

go]

1 _ + _ 2.~
- 68 2
cos 2 .
cos
.
Ans.1:I

d'stance:
I

17.5 say 18
_25x18=
i x z1 - .

and
(c) Exact centre

i
+ -cos (32

-1-

~
coS

132

.'
.fjiciency:
. (d) TransnllsSIOn eJJ
~.::::
11 ::::: 1 + tall 131 X J.l

1 go x 0.10S
~
1 + tan 68.2 ~

-e

~]

c082\.8

1
6.60

~

...

REVIEW AND SUMMARY

./'

A helical gear has teeth in the form of helix around the gear .

./'

manufacturingfeasibiltty .

./'

./'

Types: 1. Parallel helical gears,' and 2. Crossed-helical (or spiral) gears .

./'

The helical gear nomenclature and its kinematics are presented in the beginning ofthiJ
chapter .

./'

(i)

z,

Pn =

(iii) Axial pitch:

PI
-.!!.E_
Pa = tan B = sin B

Pd -

(v) Relation between fJ, at and an:

./'

xd,

PI = 7r' ml

tan an

PI

7
J.

n1

cos

Pn
cos

f3

= <,
-

7rmn
sin

f3

-7r
Pn

tan a

.
l

cos

f3

An imaginary spur gear considered in the normal plane is called as the virtual or
formative spur gear. The number of teeth on the virtual spur gear in the normal plane is
known as virtual or formative or equivalent number of teeth. It is given by

eq

z
cost

Tooth proportions and basic dimensions of helical and herringbone gears are tabu/aled
in Table 6.1.
Force Qllalysis on helical gears:
Three components of resultant force on the gear tooth are :
(i)

2MI
d

Tangential component:

Fr

(iii) Axial or thrust force component:

v"

F [tan an ]
I
cos P
Fa = F, X tan

Two methods of deSigning a helical gear: 1. Helical gear design using Lewis
Buckingham
equations; and 2. Helical gear design based on gear life.

and

~~e~~=~================~

~~

The step by step procedure for the above

illustrative problems.

sa

id

6.61

wi sufficient

Beam strength,
I

= tr x m

uhi xy

(i)

Fd = F + 21 v (cb .cost f3 + Fl) cos

I
21 v + cb . cos2 f3 + F,

trr

(ii) rr ear toot

-v

__ d J

A
fJ

bx Qx~
cos2 P

.; .Herringbone or double helical gear consists of teeth having a right and left' handed
helix cut on the same blank. Herringbone gears are used to overcome the difficulty of
end thrust in the single helical gear.
Crossed-helical or Spiral gears:
.; For connecting non-parallel and non-intersecting shafts, crossed helical gears are used
.;

Crossed helical gears transmit relatively small amounts of power because of point
contact between teeth

.f

{l)

Shaft angle,

= pI - P- when gears are of opposite hand

(ii) Centre distance (a):

~;

NJ
N2

+ c~2P2 ] =0.5

[c~JpJ
zl
= zl
.

=
=

V.f

m.[

c~JpJ +

CO:

P2 ]

d2 cos P2
d, cos PJ

I

1_

17 =

cos (0 + ) + cos (PI - Pl - tPJ

cos (0- ) + cos (Pl - PI + ;)
l-tanPl

and

17max =

xp

J + Ian PI x u

cos (0+ ;J + J
cos (0- ) + J

where the notations have usual meanings.

liP) MOM

.i"~
Design o/Transmission 8\1

6.62

~~teln3

REVIEW QUESTIONS

1.

2.

difficulty ?

3.

Differentiate the following terms with respect to helical gears:

(i) Transverse circular pitch; (ii) Normal circular pitch; and (iii) Axial pitch.

4.

s.

Differentiate helical and herringbone gears.

6.

What are the components of resultant forces acting on a gear tooth of a helical gear?
Deduce the expressions of it.

7.

Write the expressions for beam strength, dynamic load, and limiting wear load for
helical gears and explain the various terms used in it.

8.

What is a spiral gear? What hands of helix are used?

9.

Why is the crossed helical gear drive not used for power transmission?

10. Deduce the expression for centre distance of spiral gears.

PROBLEMS FOR PRACTICE

Problems on kinematics of parallel helical gears :

I.

A pair of helical gear consists of a 20 teeth pinion meshing with a 70 teeth gear. The
normal module is 3 mm. Find the required value of the helix angle if the centre distance
is exactly 150 mm.
[Ans : 25.84]

2.

A pair of parallel helical gears consists of a 25 teeth pinion and the velocity ratio is
3.5 : I. The helix angle is 20 and the normal module is 5 mm. Calculate: (1) the pitch
circle diameters of the pinion and the gear; and (ii) the centre distance.

[Ails: (i) 133 mm and 465.58 mm; (ii) 299.3 mm]

3.

A pair of parallel helical gears consists of an 20 teeth pinion meshing with 60 teeth ge~.
The normal module is 4 mm. The helix angle is 21 while the normal pressure angle IS
18. Calculate : (i) the transverse module; (ii) the transverse pressure angle; and (iii) the
axial pitch.
[Ans: (i) 4.28 mm; (ii) '19.19; (iii) 35.06 mm]

4.

A pair of parallel helical . gears consists of a 20 teeth pinion meshing with a 40 teeth gear.
. 3
The helix angle is 25 and the normal pressure angle is 20. The normal module IS
mm. Calculate: (i) the transverse module; (ii) the transverse pressure angle; (iii) the
axial pitch; (iv) the pitch circle diameters of the pinion and the gear; (v) the centre
distance; and (vi) the addendum and dedendum circle' diameters of the pinion.

mm; (iv) 66.2.mm and 132.4 mm; (v) 99.3 Jlu ;

tl.

/icalG:,_e_o-rs----

5.

__

---

A stock helical. gear has a n

------6.63
ormal pr
transverse module of 4.25 rn
m, and hesc;ure angle of 141~o a h I'
transverse, the normal , and th e axial
.
.as 18 teeth .: FI'nd" (a) th,e IX angle of 450' ~and a
Cd)the transverse pressure angle.
Circular pitches; (c) the n~~c~
dl~
(b) the

dlametra) pitch; and

6. A parallel.helical

gearset Uses a 1'7-t.44

oot mhrn;'. 13.35 mm; (c) 0 .333 teeth! mm' (d) 20 O'.Fl
right-hand helix angle of 300
Pinion driving a 34-tooth
'
~
pitch 0.2 teeth/mm. Find' Ci),tha normal pressure angle of 200 an~ear. The pini~ has a
.
.
e normal tr
,a
normal diametraJ
transverse diarnetral pitch and th e transverse
,ansverse,
and axial circul at . prtc
' hes:
. ,{ n..-J the
of each gear.
[H'.
pressure angle; and (iii) the itch
.
tnt . Transverse dia
.
.
p
tameter
[Ans: (I) 15.71mm; 18.14mm' 31 41m"
metral pitch = I/transverse module]
' .
m (11) 0 I 73mm' 22 79 (iii)
.,.;
111 98, I Smm; I963mm]
A para..IIe I-s h a ft gearset consists 0 fl'an 8-tooth helical
..
. .
pmion driving a 32-tooth gear.
Th e puuon has a left-hand helix angle of 250
normal module of 3 mm. Find' (a) th
' a normal pressure angIe of 2W, ana 2\
.
e normal transverse and . I'
I
the transverse module and the transv
'
,axta
circu ar pitches; (b)
the two gears.
.
erse pressure angle; and (c) the pitch diameters of
[Ans. (a) 9.42 mm; 10.4 rnrn; 22.3 mm; (b) 3.31 rnrn;. 2L8SC',

d'

7.

Problems on force analysis of parallel helical gears:

8. A pair of parallel helical gears consists of an 22 teeth pinion meshing with a 66 teeth
gear. A 10 kW power at 2200 r.p.m. is supplied to the pinion through its. shaft. The
normal module is 5 mm, while the normal pressure angle is 20. The helix angle is 25
Determine the tangential, radial and axial components of the resultant tooth force
between the meshing teeth.
[Ans: 715.24 N; 287.14 N; 33352 ~1
C

9.

A helical gear of 60 helix angle is required to transmit 10 kW of power at 500 r.p.m,

The pressure angle measured in a transverse plane is 20. Calculate (a) driving force; (b)
radial force acting as bending force on the shaft; and (c) the axial force on the shaft.
The gear meshes with a pinion rotating at a speed of 914.5 r.p.rn. and sum of number of
teeth on pinion and gear is 99. The module of gears in a plane normal to the tooth is 4
mm. Calculate the angle of pressure in a plane normal to the tooth.
[Ans: (a) 12993 N; (b) 473 N; (e) 750 Nand 1151
RH
z=2D

10. A pair of parallel helical gears is shown in Fig.6.15 '. A 5 kW

.'
A th ough Its shaft
power at 720 r.p.m. is supplied to pmron
r
..
. 5 rnrn and the normal pressure angle IS
Th e norma I mo d u Ie IS.
d t th while the gear has left200. The pinion has nght-han . 300
ee ,The arrow .indIcates
.
the
hand teeth. The helix angle IS
from the right-hand side.
direction of rotation when seen th fi
Also draw a free
ts fthe too
orce.
Determine the componen
0
. h
'nion and the gear.
body diagram showing the forces on t e pi
[Ans: 11486., N' 482 .73 N; 663.14 N]

t
LH

Fig. 6./5.

6.64

"--

. 5h own In
. Fig .6 -16_ Pinion A 'ISni!!l.e W-Jl~
I I' I gear .box 15
1 The layout of a double- ie rca
li d to it through ;1:5 shan D .J. ~ llllJnle
I .
d 10 kW power at 720 r.p.m. IS supp ie . ~ 50' z ~ 2{)' and _ ~ [,
""
gear
an
. I
are' Z = 20, -B
~
C
O
f teeth on different helica gears
. A
.
f helical .o:-e.arsA and IR :bf fut:h
. 200 For the pair I(} ...,11::=>
_
_
normal pressure angle for all gears IS "
F the pair C and I), the MIX an e''k> '!5 2::'"
angle is 30, and the normal module IS, :~~ ~~t handed helical teerh, ,,~ pirilD .
and the normal module is 5 mm. Pml~n and B are mounted on shaft no.] i:n ;;ocih > 't'
has a left handed helix. The beanngs
I
. 2
.
B an take hoJ;b "",,,,I... ,~ :a;
I

that bearing B) can on y ta e r

"
f bearinz reactions on
. t Iie magn itude and direction
~
D
RH o

shpn.:J

RH

Fig. 6./6.

[Ails:

FBI
r

= 5044.58

FJ~2 = ) 559.9)

N ; FYBI

N; F~2

= 2'64
.) .);- N

= 592.13

N;

, = 479456 N:
FJ:B_~
FBl

Problems on helical gear.design using Lewis and Buckingham's

~x

equation:

12. A pair of helical gears are used to transmit 5 kW at 720 r. p. m. of the pinion. Gears are ""
C45 steel. The speed reduction ratio is 2. Number of teeth on piniOn is 10. ~,.
pressure angle is 20. Normal module is 5 rnrn. Helix angle is 300. Design the gear drive
13. Design a helical gear to transmit 7.5 kW at 1400 r.p.m, to the fullowing specificsnons:
Speed reduction 3. Pressure angle 20. Helix angle 10. Design surface compressive
stress x 900
2.05
105 N/mm'.
N/mm2. Design bending stress 210 N/mm'. Modulus of elasticity ofmaiem!;
14. A pair of helical gears is to transmit 40 kW at 1800 r.p.m. The speed reduction n:quin><i
is 4 and helix angle is 15'. Design the drive for COntinuous service with moderate sMct
loads. Pressure angle is 20. Assume the suitable materials for the drive.
IS. Design a helical gear drive to transmit 5 kW at 1440 r.p.m. Speed ratio is 2.5. SeI'
suitable material for the gears.

~~~~~~~----------------~
.'
6.65
A helical cast steel with 30 helix an I .
}6.
th determi
gels to transm't 36 kW
bas 24 tee
etermme the necessary modul
.
I.
at 1500 r.p.m. If the gear
depth teeth. The static stress for cast st I~' pitch diameter and face width for 20 full
. h F' d al
ee IS 55 N/mm2 F
.
.
nonnal prtc . in
so the end thrust on the
..
ace Width IS three times the
. fh l'
gear.
17. Design a parr 0 e ical gears to transmit 5 kW
..
transmission ratio is 5. Take minimum
b at a PIllion speed of 1440 r.p.m. Required
gears is C 45 steel. Sketch the arrangem:~
er of teeth as 22. The material of both the

011

gear life:

18. A pair of helical gears subjected to moderate shock loadi'

. .
r.p.m. of the pinion. The speed redu ti
"
ng IS to transmit 30 kW at 1500
c Ion ratio IS4 and the helix
I' 20 Th
.
is continuous and the teeth are 200 FD'
h
ang e IS
. e service
hours, design the gear drive.
~ t e normal plane. For the gear life of 10,000
19. A pair of helical gears with 23 helix angle is t tr
. 2 k
. .
'.
.
0 ansrnit
.5 W at 1000 r.p.m. of the
pmron. The velocity ratio IS 4 : 1. The pinion is t b f
d
I
.
.
o e orge stee and the driven gear IS
to be cast steel. The gears are of 20 full depth involute fiorm d th "
.
h
. th
d .
. an
e pirnon ISto .ave 24
tee th . D esign e gear rive.
20. For the data of problem 19, if the gear is to work 8 hours per day, six days a week and
for 3 years, design the gear drive.
Problems on herringbone gear design :
21. A .power of ~O kW at 1440 r.p.m. is to be transmitted with a gear ratio of 4. Design a
suitable herrmgbone gear drive.
22. Design a herringbone drive, for a 2 kW steam turbine running at 30,000 r.p.m., to reduce
the speed to 2500 r.p.m. The helix angle is 30. Take the gear life as 10,000 hours.
Problems Oil kinematics of crossed-helical (spiral) gears:
23. A pair of spiral gears is required to connect two shafts 175 mm apart, the shaft: angle
being 70. The velocity ratio is to be l.5 to 1, the faster wheel having 80 teeth and a
pitch circle diameter of 100 mm. Find the spiral angles for each wheel.
[Ans: 54.65; 15.35]
24. Two shafts, inclined at an angle of 65 and with a least distance between them of 175 '
mm are to be connected by spiral gears of normal pitch 15 mm to give a reduction ratio
3: 1. Find suitable diameters and number of teeth. Determine also the maximum
efficiency of the spiral gear, if the friction angle is 7.
[Ails: 88.5 mm; 245.7 mm; 15; 45; 85.5%]
25. A drive on a machine tool is to be made by two spiral gear wheels, the spirals of which
are of the same hand and has normal pitch of 12.5 mm. The wheels are of equal diameter
and the centre distance between the axes of the shafts is approximately 134 mm. The
angle between the shafts is 80 and the speed ratio 1.25'. Determine: 1. The spiral angle
of each wheel; 2. the number of teeth on each wheel; 3. the efficiency of the drive; if the
friction angle is 6; and 4. the maximum efficiency.
.
[Ans: 1. 32.46~; 47.54;

2. 30; 24; 3. 83%;

4. 83.8%]

Bevel Gears
"A good scientist is a person with original ideas. A good engineer is a perUJriwh&
makes a design that works with as few original ideas as possible
There are no prima donnas in engineering. .-

- Freeman DyJO"

7.1. INTRODUCTION
(Bevel
gears are used to transmit power
~o
intersecting shafts. Bevel gears are
commonly used in automotive differentials. The
gears are formed by cutting teeth along the
elements of frustum of a cone. That is, the pitch
surface in the bevel gears are truncated cone,
one of which rolls over the other, as shown in
Fig.7.!. When teeth formed on the. cones are
straight, the gears are known as slrlliglzt bev!!j
and when inclined, they are known as spiral or
helical beveL

Fig. 7.1. Bevel gear

Bevel gears are mounted on intersecting shafts at any desired angJe, although 90 shaft
angle is most common. Bevel gears are not interchangeable. Because they are designed and
manufactured in pairs.
The bevel gear teeth can be cast, miJIed, or generated. But the generated teeth is more
accurate than cast and milled teeth.
_.
-

2. TYPES OF BEVEL GEARS

--'
e teet on the bevel gears are parallel to
the lines generating the pitch cones, then they are
called straight bevel gears. As shown in Fig.7 .2, the
teeth are straight, radial to the point of intersection
of the shaft axes and vary in cross-section
throughout their length. Usually, they are used to
connect- shafts at right angles which run at low
speeds.

Fig. 7.2. Stratght bevel gellr

~-~~~=-------~-------------__

_JD~e~s~ign~O~if~Tl~ran~s~m~~~s~ro~n

2.SP~

Jrhell the teeth of a bevel gear are inclined at an

I to the face of the bevel, they are known
.
a"g,e
. .
as spITal
earS ' as shown In Flg.7.3. To reduce th e norse,
.
)eve Ig
beII'cal teeth is.,used on these bevel gears . TIley are

sllloother in action and quieter than straight tooth bevels

stresses.
However, an axial thrust exists in the spiral bevel
geMS, so it requires stronger bearings and supporting
assemblies.These gears are used for the drive to the
differentialof an automobile,

3.Zerol Bevel Gears

Spiral bevel gears with curved teeth but with
a zero degree spiral angle are known as zerol

bevel gears. Refer Fig. 7.4. Their tooth action and

the end thrust are the same as that of straight
bevel gears. Zero I bevel gears are quicker in
actionthan the straight bevel type as the teeth are
curved.
4.~oid

gears :

Hypoid gears are similar in appearance to

spiral-bevel gears. They differ from spiral gears
inthat the axis of pinion is offset from the axis
of the gear, as shown in Fig.7.S. The other
difference is that their pitch surfaces are
hyperboloids rather than cones.
In general, hypoid gears are most desirable
for those applications involving large speed
reduction ratios. They operate more smoothly
andquietly than spiral bevel gears.

7.2.2. Classification Based on tch Angle

. 1. Crown gear: A bevel
ar having a pitch angle of 900 and a plane for its pitch surface
IS

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Bevel Gears
2. Internal bevel gear: When the pitch angle of a bevel gear exceeds 90, it is called
internal bevel gear. Because of the manufacturing difficulties, the internal bevel gears ~
rarely used.

3. Mitre gears: When two meshing bevel gears have a shaft angle of 90 and bave the
same number of teeth, they are called mitre gears. In other words, mitre gears have a speed
ratio of 1. Each of the two gears has a 45 pitch angle.
~ .3. BEVEL GEAR NOMENCLATURE
The geometry of a be~1 gear set is shown in Fig. 7.6. The various terms used in the study
of b~~el gears have been.explained

below.

1. Pilcll cone: It is the cone containing the pitch elements of the teeth.
2. Con~e:
It is the point where the axes of two mating ~ars
other words, it is the apex of the pitch cone.

in~sect_eacl!_ other. In

3. Pitch angle (or semi-cone angle) (8) : It is the angle made by the pitch line of a gear
with the gear axis.
Cone centre

..
,

,/,

\,

Back
cone

""I'

'\JY
I

6\~~

! /

\ I

,.
,

.vO~0~
~~~

Fig. 7.6. Bevel gear nomenclature

4. Cone distance (or pitcll cone radius) (R) : It is the length of the pitch cone
Mathematically,

cone distance (R) is given by

QI~Dleot.

1
I
1
I

,,

Transmission Systems
~---------------------------_Q~~~~~~~~
Design of

R == Pitch radius _ (d 112)

sino
- == (d/2)
sin 0,
sin O2

R
or

d, and d-,

where

z 1 and

=1

>

.;

J.;

111,x zi == 111,x z2
2 sin 1
2 . sin 02

[ .: m, = dlz]

... (7.1)

Pitch circle diamete rs 0f oi

punon and gear respectively
== Number of teeth f . .
'
.
0 pimon and gear respectively,

and 0) == PItch angles of pnuon

. . and gear respectively, and
111, =

Transverse module

_ [(dl)22

(d2)2]~
+"2

R -

For right angle gears, R = 0.5

~
where

111,~

=~ + =~

= 2" ~
=

... (7.2)

d~ + d;

0.5 m, x

z, ...J ;2 + I

... (7.3)

'i
I,
i

= Gear ratio = -I
~ t:-2'

angle (oa) : It is the angle subtended by the addendum of the tooth at the

cone centre. Mathematically,

j
~

= tarr ' (

cone
distance

tan- 1

(ha)R

... (7.4)

6. Dedendum angle (Od) : It is the angle subtended by the dedendum of the tooth at the
cone centre. Mathematically,
Dedendum angle,
'-',

tarr ' ( cone

ded~~d=
IS
ce )

tarr '

(hRf)

. .. (7 .)S"

7. Tip (orfa.cM.~~/e : It is the angle subtended bv the face of the tooth at the cone centre.
Mathematically,~

./
Tip angle

8. Root angle:
Mathematican@_)

= 0 + ea

...

(7.6)

It is the angle subtended by the root of the tooth at the cone centre.
.
Root angle

,I
11

Pitch angle - Dedendum angle

= 8 - e/

... (7.7)

9. Back (or normal) cone: It is an imaginary cone, perpendicular to the pitch cone at the
end of the tooth.
10. Back cone disttmce (or back cone radius) : It is the length ofthe back cone.

:!

!
1

11. Backing (B) : It is the distanc~ of the pitch point from the back of the boss, parallel to
the axis of the gear. "
12. MOUII/ing height : It is the distance of the back of the boss from the cone centre.

~B~ev~e=I~G~e~a~~~

13. Pitch diameter: It is the diameter of the largest pitch circle.

14. Outside or addendum cone diameter: It is the maximum diameter of the teeth of the
gear. It is equal to the diameter of the blank from which the gear can be cut. Mathematically,
Outside diameter -

ha -

where

+ 2 x ha x cos

Pitch diameter

o -

Pitch angle.

,
I

Inside diameter
" where

hi

'" (7.8)

<)

Dedendum

... (7.9)

Angle relationsfor different bevel gears:

1. Acute angle bevel gears: If the shaft angle < 90, then the bevel gears are knownas
acute angle bevel gears. The pitch angles are given by
tan 01 and
where

tan

I and

02

sin

sin
(zI / z2)

e
+ cos

e
e

- Shaft angles =
=

... (7.10)

+
1

tan

02' and

=, ~

zi

= i ; and

1=

90 -

are known as right

...

(7.11)

3. Obtuse (Ingle bevel gears: If shaft angle 8 > 90, then the bevel gears are known as
obtuse angle bevel gears. The pitch angles are given by
sin (1800

8)

and

7.4.

VIRTUAL OR FORMATIVE OR EQIJIVALENT NUMBER OF TEETH FOR

BEVEL GEARS

In order to simplify the design calculation and analysis, bevel gears are replaced by
equivalent spur gears. An imaginary spur gear considered in a plane perpendicular to the
toroth at the larger end, is known as vinuai orformative or equivalent spur:gear. The virtual
spur gear has pitch circle radius equal to the pitch cone radius 'R' of the bevel gear.

...

__

~Design 0/11

."

umber of teeth z on thi

.
ransnwuJlon Systems
The n
v
IS ImagInary
.
b if
.
spur
gear
.
I
equivalent num er 0 teet h. It IS given by
IS ca Jed virtual or /orlllllilve or
z

z
cos 0
where z = Actual number of teeth on th b
e evel gear.
~
The virtual number of teeth is Used f
I .
~
or se ectIngthe cun
v

--

bevelgears.

... (7.13)

ers and

In all

desJgn calculations of

ha - I ml

2. Dedendum,

hf

].2111,

3.

Clearance,

4.

Working depth, hw - 2111,

c - 0.2112,

5. Thickness of tooth
where

- 1.5708 m
l

111, =

7.6. BASIC DIMENSIONS

Transverse module.

OF BEVEL GEARS

The basic dimensions of straight bevel gears are listed in Table 7.1.
Table 7.1. Basic dimensions of bevel gears (from data book, page no. 8.38)
S.No.

Nomenclature

Units

m(

mm

I.

Transverse

2.

Mean module

mm

mm

3.

Normal module

mn

mm

4.

Cone distance

mm

mm

'- 5.

6.

module

Symbol

mm

Tip (or face) diameter

Face width

Formula
b sin 8
m(=mm+-zInm =

dol

do2
b

mm

:::s

mt-

m,(zl

Number
wheel

of teeth on crown

zClV

+2cos81)

0.3 R or 10m" whichever is smaller

2R

8.

b sin 0
z

BB~eevvEe~ll(GIEe~a~rs~

---------------------------------~

Nomenclature

S.No.

avoid
to
pinion
on

9.

Symbol

Units

Zu

Formula
2 X cos

Zu

. ?~
sm-

; (X

I. for ~
l

gears)

undercutting
I

20 usually

degrees

Pm

degrees

P2
tan 02

10.

Pressure angle

11.

12.

degrees

13.

degrees

14.

Dedendum angle

8f

degrees

15.

Height factor

fo

16.

Clearance

17.

Tip angle

degrees

oa -

18.

Root angle

Of

degrees

19.

Tooth height

Ii

mrn

20.

Working depth

hw

mm

hw

21.

ha

mm

ha = mr

22.

Dedendum

hi

mm

hi = 1.1236m1

23.

Virtual number of teeth

-v

I Example

7.1

I A pair

30 to 35;

t , 01

35 preferred
90

= tan 8a2 =

tan 0al

mt

=I
R

= tan /2 =

tan 8/1

/0

= 0.2

0 + Sa

/ - 0 - S/
= Iza + hi

...
-\"

2 mr

-=-. -

. =
= cos 0 . -\' 1m tn

18 for 6. =20"

tile pitch circle diameters of tile pinion and tire gear;

(ii) the pitch angles for tile pillion and gear; and
(iii) tile cone distance.
Give" Data:
To find:
Solution:

zl = 30;

(i) d) and d2;

.

z2

= ~

mtUO+c)

with a 48 teeth gear. Tile gears are mounted on shafts, which are inJersting
angle. Tile module at the large end of the tooth is 4 nun. Calculate:
(i)

(ii) 0) and
48
= 30 = 1.6

e = 900

and (iii) R.

111

n:-

. .IS
...

', .....
, . .. (her
,.j..

HI.

".bh'iQ'W'

;<.

1',."

;1

.' .. ,_j

,!

.-

R = 0.5 m t
=

0.5 x 4

\}

-oJ

z~ + ~
302 + 482

113.21 mm

Ans."

1.7. FORCE ANALYSIS ON BEVEL GEARS

In force analysis of bevel gears, it is assumed that the resultant tooth force between two
~g
gears -"15 concentrated at the midpoint along the face width of the tooth. The forces
anmg at the centre of the tooth are shown in Fig.7.7.
The components of the resultant force are :
L Tangential or useful component (Ft), and
_.

~~.'
J'l.JXU

cuing

c.
force

(F)s:

It

I'S

resolved into two components. They are

(i) Axial force (Fa), and

:
, .' 1

,,

:, ,,/ Fs

"
11

(b)
(a)

Fig. ...7. 7. Gear tooth forces

tf
j

v
-,B~~~\~~/~.!~t~1~~~~

--------------------------------__

2 M,

M,

F~-:.:,

dI

(1\1

'" (1.14)

"",

where

==

using the familiar relationship

60 x P
21tN '

Power transmitted,

d1tll,

1'",

ZI'

(d21 _

Mean radius of the pinion at midpoint along the face width

ilia,

ZI

S~l

0, )

To find F!i: The analysis is similar to that of spur gears and the separating force can be
determined using the relation
Separating force, Fs = F, x tan
where

(l

Tofind F;

(lilt!

(l

... (i)

Pressure angle

Fa : The separating force is further resolved into radial and axial forces,as

shown in Fig.7.7(b).
From the geometry of the Fig. 7.7(b), we can write

= F, x cos

IS

.,. (iiJ)

and

.., (ii)

Substituting equation (i) in the above equations, we get

Radial force, F, = F,' tan
axial force, Fa

and

F,' tan

(l .

cos IS

(7.15)

(l

sin IS

(7.16)

the pinion.

(ii) Components of the tooth force on the gear:

From the Fig. 7.7, the following conclusions can be made for the right angle bevel gears:
./

The radial component on the gear is equal to the axial component on the pini()l1,
but in opposite dlrecuon.
:.

(Fr)gcar

= - ( Fa )plnlon

~----------------------------

~D~~~ign~~of~TJ~~~a~ns~n~u~ss~io~n~~

./ Similarly, the
axial component
on the gear is equal to th e radilaI component on the
.
'"
pinion, but m opposite direction,
.
.. (F a )gear = - (F r )pinion

I A pair

[xample 7.2

80

mm at the large end of the tooth.

A 5 kW power

is

suppliedto the pinion, which rotates at 800 r.p.m: TI,e face width is 40 mm and the
pressure angle is 20 ~ Calculate the tangential, radial and axial components of the
resultallt
toothforce acting on the pillion.

GivenDtua : i=2;

d1=80mm;

To find: FI' Frand

Fa on pinion.

@) Solution:

(1 and

2),

N1=800r.p.m.;

P=5kW;

b=40mm;a=200.

In order to calculate the force components, first let us find pitch angles

Weknow that,

tan 02 -

e = 90.

or

02 -

tarr ' (2)

63.43

and

01 -

90 - 02

90 - 63.43

= 26.57

. of the puuon
. , at rruidnoi
t long the face width is given by,
porn a
d1
b . sin 81
r; = "2"
2
80
- 2

40 x sin 26.57
2

31.054 mrn

(i) Tangential component (Ft) :

We know that,

r, =

2Mt
-d

=-:-1

lav

III

Where

..

60 x p _ 60 x 5 x 10
M, = 27tN1' 27t x 800

F, =

59.68
31.054

= 59.68 N-m

x 10-3

We know that,

F' ::; F, x tan a x cos

r = 1921.91 x tall 20 x cos 26.57

= 625.64

v:
i

Bevel Gears

~~~~----------------------------------~
(iii) Axial component (FoJ :

Fa - F,

We know that,

tan a x sin 0,

I Example

I For the

7.3

= 312.89 N

Ans."

data of above example, calculate the tangential, radilll and

axial components of the resultant tooth force acting on the gear wheel
Given Data: Refer Example 7.2;

To find:

N2

Nl

800

i =2 =

400 r.p.m.

@)Solutio_,,: 0,

= 26.57

and O2 = 63.43 from Example 7.2.

(i) Tangential component (FJ : We know that the tangential force on the pinion and gear
are equal in magnitude and opposite in direction. Therefore,

(Fr)gear

(F,)pinion

INote I The above result can be verified

where (M r)gear =
rm2

60 x P
2n N2

1921.91

Ans."

as below.

60 x 5 x 103

2n x 400

119.366 N-m

= Mean radius of the gear at the midpoint

b sin 02
2

d2
2
==

] 60

[':d2=ixdl=2x80=I60mm]

40 x sin 63.43
2

62.11 mm

) 19.366

.-

We know that ,

(F)r gear = Fr
=

(F)

tan a. x cos O2

gear

N Ans. ~

(F ) __

a ptruon

(iii) Axial component (FJ :

We know that

(F )
a gear = FI x tan a. x sin 0

(F )

a gear

(F) _ _

r Pinion .

-e

~-

7.4) A pair of bevel gears is to be used to transmit 10 kW from a pinion

~20
r.p.m.. ttl a gear mo.u~ted .on a shaft which intersects the pinion shaft q.t an
tatill
rO
700. ,Assunuftg that th~ pinion IS to have an outside pitch diameter of 180 mm, a

!if

angle of 20 ~ a face width of 45 mm, and the gear shaft is to rotate at 140 r.p.m;
presslll'~ (i) the pitch angle for the gears; (ii) tile forces'on the pinion and gear; and
dtltrtnlne ue produced about the shaft axis.
"iI the torq
(iJll
Data. P == 10 kW; N} = 420 r.p.m; e = 70; d} = 180 mm; a. = 20; b = 45 mm;
Given

N2::: 140r.p.m.
d8
(ii) F; F, and Fa on pinion and gear; and (iii) (M,)gear .
Tofind: (i) 8} an 2;
.
N}
420 _ 3 _ z2
i
==
N2
==
140 - zl
@ Soilltion :

IfIIIlt

(i) Pitch angles for the gears (i.e., 81.and 8.) :

sin B
We know that,
...
sin 70
:::' 0.281
3 + cos 70
Ans . ...,
tan~1(0.281) =..15.70

or

We also know that,

or

== &1 + &2

e - 8\

&2 ==

rml

Let us first

d1

b . sin 01

- -2 -

180
-

-2

. d
the pinion,
Torque transffiltte on
. lion .
(a) Forces on the p';.
(i)

Tangentilll force:

F rl

31

Ans ~
dius of the pinion at
f d the mean ra 1
10

-

'. 60 x' 10' x 1Q_3

- 9 x !::::
-:21t x 420
M11 - 21t N1
j.
.

22~7
~.36. n--i __ 2709.62 N.
3
:::: _!l. ::::83.91 X 10-

F ,.

I :::

and the geqr :

(ii) Forces on rile pinIOn
.

We know that,

.
=

. _ 700' _ 15.7 ::::54.3

n..... '.,

midpoint.

Z2
..
e
==
70
;
-Zl
(

J'

rna I

ns,

.'

x cos 8.
.N
.
- 15 70 == 949.43
I
200 x cos .
::: 2709.62 x tan
.

:::: FIx

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tan

0.

Bevel Gears
(iii) Axial force :

Fal

Ftl

x tan ex x sin

8,

~."
4 ....,

(b) Forces on the gear:

(i)

Tangential force :

Fa -

(ii)

Fr2

(iii) Axial force:

Fa2

Ftl = 2709.62 N

Fa x tan ex x cos 82

2709.62 x tan 20 x cos 54.3

- Fa x tan ex x sin
=

575.5 N Ani.."

2709.62 x tan 20 x sin 54.3 = 800.89 N kos. ~

{iii} Torque produced about the shaft axis (i.e., torque on the gear shaft}:
60 x p

Ma = ix Mtl

We know that,

, Exanlple 7.5

I A pair

3 x 227.36

NJ (60 x ')
21tN
=j.<M,!

=N

15 kWat

600 r.p.m: .as ~ho"'nin

Fig.7.8(a). The pressure angle is 200. Determine the components of the resuitantgearJooIlJ
force and draw a free body diagram of forces acting on tire pinion and the gear.

2751.93 N

600 rpm

(a)

torces

Fig. 7.8.

Given Datil: P

IS kW;

N}

d2 = 320 mm;
To find:

I. Components

600 r.p.m. ;

a = 20' ,

d,

200 mrn ;

b = 50 mm.

2. Draw a free body diagram acting on the pinion and gear.

NJ
i = -

@ Solution:
We know that,

tan

N2 -

2 =

z2

- -

ZI

d2
320
- d} - 200 -- I .6

- -

i = 1.6, for shaft angle

e = 90.

Design if n
o 'ansmission Systems

or
Then,
:::::90 - 580

,

II

ron,

-_

:::::

ml

:::::32

60 x P

2;N- :::::~

rl

21t X 600

d
h . sin 0 ]
2 - ..1
2

_10

x Si03~]

1. (i) Force conlponents acti

Ing on the pinion:
Tangential force:

./

FtJ _ _Mil::::
'mJ
Frl

./
..

./

Ans. "
I

acting on the gear:

Tangential force:
./

Axial force :
Fal

== 86.75 rnrn

238.73

Ft2::::
_

Fr2

F'l
F/2

N-m

-l

~ [~
./

== 238.73

Ans, "

:::: 2751.93 N

Axial force :

2. Free body diagram of the forces:

s. "

p' The free body diagram of forces acting on the pinion and the gear are drawn, as shown in

Ig.7.8(b).

7. 6) A he vel pinion shown in Fig. 7. 9 rotates at 600 r.p.m. in the direction

~o,.,n and transmits 3.75 k W. The mounting distances, the location 0/ all bearings, and
[xamele

1. e average pitch

radii of the pinion and gear are shown in Fig.7.9. For simplicity, the
.teetIi /Iave been replaced by the pitcll cones. Bearings A and C shotdd take the radial and
thrllSt10(ltis, while bearings Band D can only take radial loads. Find the bearing forces (or
reacti
ns at the bearings) on the gears/loft.

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~B~ev~e~IG~e~a~~~'------------------------------~
y

160 _-~

1----

7S

-,----"0
65

+J0;-::~-~'"~

)(

92

J__
1_---

225
---

Fig. 7.9.
Given Data : N, = 600 r.p.m;

Fig. 7.J(J. Forces aCliJIC

P = 3.75 kW;

= 75 mm; b = 35 111m;

d,

011 gCI"

shoft

=, = 15; :1::

d2 =225 mm.

Solution

N,

z2

d-,

z, -

= N2
- -- -

d,

...

tan 82

or

82

Then,

81

90 - 82

90 - 71.56

We know that,

1'",

Torque transmitted to the pinion, M'l

Forces acting
../
../

../

011

71.56

18.43

dl

b sin 81

')

7S

35 x sin 18.43

60 x P

= 2rrN,

60 x 3.75 x 103
2rr x 600

31.97 mm

59.68 N-m

tile pinion :
M'l

59.68
= IS66.75N
31.97 x 10-3

Tangential force:

F'I

Axial force:

Fal

rm,

=
=

1866.75 x tan 20 x cos 18.43

644.59 N

218.8 N

45:

,.'hO ~
V

_JD~e~s~i~~o'[_~Til~a
. Systems
I1srmSSlOn

-----------------------

~cti"g 011 tile gear:

forces,
.'
I TangentIal force:
I

Fa - Fit:::: 1866.75 N

I Axial force:

Pr2

Fat::::

F a2

F/') :::: 644.59 N

218.8N

corees acting on the gearshnft : The forces acting on the gearsna1 ft :IS shown In
.. Flg.7.1Q.

I",

Forces ill the xy plane:

ForL x == 0, i.e., considering

equilibrium

FXo + F r2

of forces, we get

pXC

.. ,

(i)

Taking moments of forces about bearing D, we get

F'~ (92 + 65) - F r2 x (1'1/1

)pinion

[.,'

(I'm )gear = i

(rm )pinion = 3

or F~ (92 + 65) - 218.8 - 8 x (31.97 + 65) - 644.59 x 95.91

31.97

==

95.91 mm]

F~

or

== 528.91 N Ans. ~

F~ + 218. 8 - 52

~
For ~y

0 FY
-==

F '" == 644.59 N

'C

-e

az

... (ii)

F~ + F~ == Fa

Taking moments of forces about bearing D, we get

FZ x (92 + 65) - Fax 95.91
c
1866.75 x 95.91 == 1140.38 N Ans. ~
or
FG - - (92 + 65)
Now from equation (ii), we have
1866.75 or F~ == 726.37 N Ans.-J
FZ + 1140.38 ==
D

Resultant bearing force:

Resultant bearing force at bearing C, Fe ==

Bevel Gears

= '.} (F~)2 + (F~)2 + (F~)2

Fo

- -v (310.11)2 + 0 + (726.37)2
I Example 7. 71 For

the data of Example 7.6, determine the bearing forrn

pinion shaft ie., reactions at the bearing A and B. Assume that the bearing A

011

dt

C'tUr ,.

Tofind:

@Solution:

Refer Fig.7.9.

~
z

~I

I \fP
<,~
. I.'".>
a
l.S,;.

./'.:,...--"<,

0""""'-;:
.'"

."'.'"
FI1

",.

",.

->

'>t'"
.',

",.',

FX

F~

81

F~

t~"
'Fz
A

<,

I'

Fr1

Fig. 7.11.

FYA

Frl + FYa

... (.)I

Fal

or

x 31.97 -

Frl

or

F~

1102.15 N

pY

For LX = 0,

FXA

1102.15 - 644.59

= 457.56

= Fal = 218.8 N ADS."

0 .
'.
..
, I.e., ~onsldenng equilibrium of forces, we get

Y1,18-----------------=~--~--------iD~~~i~~O'[-Tl~~~.~.~~
ransmiSSIon Systems
F~ - F 11 + FZB
... (ii)

'og moments of forces about bearing B

'f ale 1
, we get
F/lx[(160-95.91)+751-F~

or

F~

or
NOW

x75 :::: 0

F~ x 7S

pZ
B

pz
A -

r
F,t

3461.95 -1866.75

1595.2 N Ans. ~

1,

Resultant bearing force at bearing A, FA

= \} (218.8)2

+ (1102,15)2 + (3461.95}2

= 3639.74 N Ans."
and

resultant bearing force at bearing B, FB

= \)
=

I Example

7.8

I A differential

(457.56}2 + (1595.2}2

1659.52 N

planetary gear train is shown in Fig.7.12(a). The input

sllaft receives 7.5 kW power at 300 r.p.m. The pitch circle diameters of bevel gears A, B, C
Qlld D at the midpoint along the face width are 200, 100, 200 and 400 mm respectively. The
pitchcircle diameters of spur gears E and Fare 200 and 300 mm respectively. The gears
rotateat constant speed. Determine the various forces acting Oil various gears and the
torqueon each of the two output shafts.

Power at

N1 rpm
Output
shaft 1

I-------I-t---_.__
\
Output shaft-2
(b)

(a) Differential planetary gear system

Fig. 7.12.

Bevel Gears
P = 7.5 kW; N) = 300 r.p.m ; (dm)A = 200 mm', (dm)n;
200 mm ; (dm)D = 400 rnm ; dE = 200 mm ; dF = 300 mm. ;

Given Data:
(dm)c

Tofind :

100 rnrn.

(i) Tangential forces acting on various gears, and

(ii) Torque on each of the two output shafts.

@) Solution : The torque acting on the input shaft is given by

(M),

60 x p
60 x 7.5 x 103
.
21t N 1 21t X 300

1 -

Oil

238.73 N-m

various gears :

Between gears A and B :

2 x 238.73
200 x 10-3 = 2387.32 N

or

(F')AB x (r m)9

(F,)co x (r m )c

2387.82 x (0.1
-2- 00)

(F,)co

(F,)eo

1193.91 N

x (0.200)
-2-

-.

Between spur gears E and F :

or

= (F')EF x (r m )E

(F,)cb x (rl1l)o

We know that,

1193.91x(02.4)

(F')EF

(0.2)
"2

(ii) Torque on each of the two output shafts: The torque on the output shaft 1, referring
Fig.7.12(b), is given by

(M,)

~ 2387.32 x

(Oi2)

tr; )D

+ 1193.91

2387.82 x

3
. ) = 358.17 N-m

Ans."

Ans.'"

I
I.

BEVEL GEAR DESIGN USING LewiS AND BUCKINGHAM'S

(Helical Gear Design Recommended by AGMA)

EQUATlON
.

7.8. BEAM STRENGTH OF BEVEL GEARS (OR LEWIS EQUATION)

Since the tooth thickness varies along its length, a modified Lew IS equation \,1' t"~m
strength is used for bevel g~ars. It is given by
Beam strength,

F,

where

In, = Transverse module,

~~

The factor

(R;b)

1tXIn,xbx[ab]xy'

= 10 In, or OJ R,

'" ~.n

Face ~"i~th

y'

Cone distance =

(R-b)
~

0.5' j
~t

z~ +

~ ....

z;

may be called as be~ljactor.

7.9. DYNAMIC LOAD ON BEVEL GEAR TOOTH (Effective Load on Gear Tooth)

As discussed in Section 6.10, in order to account for dynamic loads, Ole following
methods are used.
1. Calculation of initial dynamic load (FD):

tw,

Approximate value of dynamic load, using

the velocity factor, which is used in the initial stages of design, is given by the relation

F,

where

... ( .1 S)

C

Ko

=
=

3.{;

3.5 +

v

5.{;,
5.6+
v

for generated teeth.

. I d
2. Buckingham's equation for dynamIC oa :
accurate estimation of dynamic load, is given by

0

----_ ...

Generated by CamScanner from intsig.com

_------

y
~B~ev~e~/~G~ea~r!s

---------------------------------~
21 v (be + F()

= F( +

21 v+~

'" (7.19)

bc+F(
p

where

v

c = Deformation or dynamic factor, from Tables 5.7(a) and (b).

7.10. WEAR STRENGTH OF BEVEL GEARS (Wear Tooth Load)
The modified wear strength equation to suit bevel gears is given by
where

cos

ell

=
=

Face width,

Q'

=
=

... (7.20)

2x
zvl

zv2

+ zv2

2x

zv2

zv2 -zvl

= [

f es

X Sill

1.4

f es =

where

=
Eg =
ex.

Ep and

1 =

Surface endurance limit, from Table 5.9,

Pressure angle, and
Young's modulus of pinion and gear respectively.
Pitch cone angle of the pinion.

7.11. DESIGN PROCEDURE

The design procedure for bevel gears are the same as for spur gears.
1. Select the materials.
2. Calculate zl and

z2'

\,

1.22
___

Design o/Transmission Syste~s

3. Calculate
the pitch angles (i e ., 0 1 and ~) and th .

%,,2)using the following relations.

e Virtual number of teeth (i.e., z"l and

Pitch angles:

.f

1

.f

zl

z,,1 ==

02, ~lor right

. angle bevel gears
Z

cos 01

an d zv2 == cos2 O
2

. the relation F

= -PV

X Tl _
""0

5. Calculate the preliminary value of dvnarni

ynamic load usmg the relation Fd

_j .

6. Calculate the beam strength Fs in te rms 0f transverse module using the relation
e"

"

==

1t X

b' x [ a

mt x

Initially assume b = 10 mt

b ]

x y' x (

R; b)

7. Calculate the transverse module m, by equating F, and Fd:

8. Calculate the values of b, d 1 and v using the following relations:
.f

Face width:

.f

.f

= 10 ni,

9. Recalculate the beam strength using the relation

r,

= 1t

x m, x

bx [

O"b ]

x y' x

(R ~ b)

10. Calculate the dynamic load more accurately using Buckingham's equation,
21 v (be + Ft)
Fd = Ft + 21 v +

..J be + F

11. Check for beam strength (or tooth breakage). If Fd ~ FoJ' the gear tooth has adequate
beam strength and will not fail by breakage. Thus the design is satisfactory.
.
.
0.75xd1xbxQ'xl<w
12. Calculate the maximum wear load using the relation Fw =
cos Ul
!:!
13. Check for wear strength. If Fd < Fw' the gear tooth has adequate wear capacity and
will not wear out. Thus the design is safe and satisfactory.
14. Calculate the basic dimensions of pinion and gear using the Table 7.1.

Bevel Gears
7.23

\ Example

7.9

I Design

a pair of bevel gears

Ir"II.\'",11

If)

J(J

kW

a pln;(.m SPetd ..

(1/

1440 r.p.m. Required transmission rutlo ls 4. Malerlallilr

gears ts 15 Ni ler J
.
Tile tootlt profiles of tile gears lire (~l2() cmnpo,\'lIe/i)rm.

III J
mo
SIS Of

ltd.

(J

To find,'

Solution : Since the same material

1. Muterlalfor

3. Calculation

15 N i 2 Cr I Mo 15

geurs:

2. Calculatlon of

und

ZI

ofpltch

Pitch angles:

Z2.'

(I

ASSlIme

To find

ZI

We know that,

and

21/'

(.0(/

=112 :
~

zvl

= COS 01

zI/2

::;

then

cos 02

~ x K

Ko

c:

Oil

60

..

F[

20

i= 6

1.508

alculation of lnltlal
5. C

"

20
14.040

20 61 :::::21, and

HO

c:

329.7() :::::330.

I(J(JIII (PI) :

_1tNI

(In/XZI]

60

1000"

[.. d

. .

x 1.25 -

R2R9.32
.

111,

111[

P,

We knoW that,

Fd == -Cv

where

cv ~

= 80

or 02 = tarr ' (4) = 7~,96

=
I

lln
x ZI andm , isin'n '!

m
I

1440 (1'11,..< 20) = 1.508 m m/s

60
1000
'
1.25, assuming medium shock, from Table 5.6,
10 x 103

:=

of teeth "

1t y,

==

;;

1td,N,

v ==

= i ,.< Z I

cos 75.96

4. Calculation (~ltll,.,gelltillllo{/d

F, == v

z2

- 2

_._;;...__-

L:OS

Z2

where

= 20,

tan 02

()I ~,)

Z,

We know that,

'" (Given)

T1Cn,
I

..!

../

= 20.

CJ.

5.6

S,6+{;

,f~r generated teeth

~-----------~----------------

__ ~D~e~SI~'gn~Of~T~~a~n~sm~l~ss~;~on~~~s~r

5.6
5.6 + ,\(5-

- 0.714, assuming

8289.32)

.'

1
xO.714-

n1,

Fs b

where

1t X

11599.23
117,

mix bx lab]

x x(R;b)
j/

10 m,

= 450

[ CYb ]

mls

(F.J :

~ Calculation
of beam strength
We know that,

v == 5

-

0.154 -

0.912
zvl

, for 20 full depth

0.912
21

0.1106

R - Cone distance

0.5

- 0.154-

- 0.5 x

Fs

202 + 802

117,~

1t X 111, X

nl,

10

n7,

-0 z~ + z~
41.23

117,

41.23177,-10117,)
41.23111,

x 450 x 0.1106 x (

- 1184.38111;
!. Calculation

We know that,

oftransversemodule (mJ :
Fs

1184.38 m~ ~
In, ~

Or

Fd
11599.23
111,

2.14

From Table 5.8, the nearest higher standard transverse module is 3 rnm,
S.Calculation 0/ b, d, and v :
b

-/

Face width:

-/

dI

10m,

= m, x ZI
1t

-/

v::::

10 x 3
::::

3 x 20

d) NI
60::::

1t

30 mrn

= 60 rnm

60

9. Recalculation of beam strength : We know that,

Fs

1184.38

m; ::::1184.38

32

10659 N

rn/3

"

2212.4 + 21 "4.52,,

1()3

8866.S8N
1/, Ch6ck for b6am IlnmBIII (or tooth breakage): We find Fa >
tooth hal adequate beam strength and wHJ not fail by breakage ... ~;u,LIil!
IlIIlIfllCllJry.
/1, Calculallon of mflX/mum wear load (F.,) :
We know that, Fw
where

0.75 x d I x b x Q' x Kw
cos 81
2 x zv2

2 x 330
21 + 330

Q'

Ratio factor

Kw

cos J 4.040
79

Zvt

+ zv2

Ia

I

Now we bave to ~ncrease~~ FAAs

Transmission Systems
F, Fd -

P
v

lOx 103
== 1326.26 N
7.54

1326.26 + 2121 x 7.54 x 1Q3 (50 x 148.25 + 1326.26)

x 7.54 x 103 + -v 50 x 148.25 + 1326.26
10059.9N

r,

_ 0.75 x 100 x 50 x 1.88 x 2.553

cos 14.040

= 18552.89

NoW we find Fw > F,t It means the gear tooth has adequate wear capacity and will
wear out. Thus the design is safe against wearfailure also.

not

14.Calculation of basic dimensions of pinion and gear: Refer Table 7.1.

mt = 5 mm
.; Transverse module:
.;

Number of teeth :

Zl

./

{II

./

Cone distance:

=
=

and

20;

= 80

Z2

R == 0.5

In/ ~

z~ + z;

= 0.5 x 5

-J 20

+ 802

= 206.15 mm

./

Face width:

./

Pitch angles:

./

Tip diameter:

do, -

da2

Height factor:

./

Clearance:

./

tn, (z,

Dedendum angle :

= 109.7 mm ; and

= m, (z2 + 2 cos 02)

= 5 (80 + 2 x cos 75.96) = 402.43 mm,

10

= 1

= 0.2

mt x fo
tan 9al

eal

tan 9a2 ==

0.02425

==

eal

== 1.4

m/Uo +c)
tan ell ==

912 ==

R
0

or

= 75.96

5 (20 + 2 x cos l4.04)

.2 xL;:::

./

50 mm

+ 2 cos 0,)

;::: 206.15
or

lOx 5

01 = 14.04; and ~
=

./

10m /

fl

== 9/2 == .67

5 (1 + O.~ == 0.0291
206.15

Bevel Gears
7
~~~~-------------------------------------~
,/

0a2
./

2+

8 Jl = 0, -

Root angle:

Sa2

Zl'l

= 21;

15.44; and

efl =

0

8/2 = 82 - S/2
,/

0a' = 0, + a, = 14.04 + 1.4

Tip angle:

and

zv2 =

330

\ EXClmpie 7.10 , A pair of 200 full depth involute teeth bevel gears connect two s/uifts
ClI right angles havtng a velocity ratio 3.2:1. The gear is made of cast steel with IlJt
allowable static stress as 72 Nlmm2 and the pinion is made of steel having a static stress oj
100 N/IJIllr2. TILe pinion transmits 40 kW (It 840 r.p.m. Find the module, face width IIIId
pitch diameter from the statui point of beam strength and check the design from the sttmd
point of wear.

e = 90; i = 3.2;

P

40 kW;

Tofind:

NI

[ob2]

72 N/mm2;

= 840 r.p.m.

Module, face width and pitch diameter of the gears.

Solution

: Since the materials of pinion and gear are different, we have tc evaluate

Assume .:,

= 20,

then

22

z,

3.2 x 20

64.

The pitch angles are given by

Then,

tan 82

= 3.2

81

90 - 82

or 82 = tan-I (3.2)

72.64

90 - 72.64 = 17.36

and

2,,1

2v2

ZI

cos
z

cos

=
8,

20
~ 21
cos 17.36

=
82

64
cos 72.64

~ 215

y'l

0.154 - 0.912

0.154 _ 0~~2

zvl

and

y;

0.l54 - 0~:2

0.1497

FI

Ko =

Ft =

p
V ~
1[

Ko

dl Nt
60

1.25, assuming medium ~~'J.l~ll~_~~:~

40 x 1()3
56841
0.879 ml x 1.25 = m,

m, ~ 6.94 mm

b
./

=
= m, x Z 1 = 7 x 20

d1

v2 -

r,

VI

237.62 x

1t d1 N1

60

m;

Calculation of accurate dynamic load (F J

21 V (bc + F/)
F = F +--~==d
I
2 I V + be + Ft

-v

F/

= V

40 x 1()3
6.16

= 6493.5 N

= 140

De.\'

237.62 x m2 = 23762

pt.

F t _ - __ 40 x
v

x 142

Transmission
r::

46573.52 N

103

12.315

3248N

r,

3248+

21 x 12.315 x 103(I40x 296.5+32~

21 x 12.3) 5 x 103 \) 140 x 296,5 + 3248= 47969.4 N

We find F, >. F d' Now the design

. tile tooth failure.
. is safe and satisfacto ry llgmllst
12. CalculatIOn of wear load (Fw) :
0.75 x d1 x b x Q' x K IV

We know that,

FlI' -

where

COS

0,
2 x zv2

1<.,,,

- 0.919

z,,1

zv2

2 x 215
21 + 215

1.822, and

N/mm2,

Table 5.9.

0.75 x 280

Fw =

140 x 1.822 x 0.919

= 51578.25N

cos 17.360

13.Check for wear: We find Fw> Ft/. It means the gear tooth has adequate wear capacity
andwill not wear out. Thus the design is safe against wear failure also.
14.Basic dimensions ofpillion and gear,' Refer Table 7.1 .
./

Module:

./

Face width:

./ 'Pitch diameter:

m, -

14 mm
lOx 14 == 140mm
b - lOxn7{ ::
14 x 20 == 280 mm; and
dl - m, x Zl ==
= 896 mm.
. d - m, x z2 == 14 x 64
2

II. BEVEL GEAR DESIGN BASED ON GEAR LIFE

(Bevel Gear Design using BasiC Equations)
7.12.DESIGN FORMUL~S'FO~

... (7.21)

[M{J '::' M,xKxKd

Where

60 x P

21t N '

_ Transmitted tOFque ==
. f: t from Table 7.2, and
K
." 1 ad factor from Table 5.12.

Kd -

Dyna.n1JC

"'

"

R-Vfl+l

[MIl
(R-o.s b)2 b- m, Yv
R

Cone distance,

N. =
i = Gear ratio = -

N2

z2

z. '

b - Face width,

ml

Transverse module, and

Form factor based on virtual number of ~_ .....

Dea.lgn bending stress I Db J :

Design __
,~ Transmissi
oJ
.
:.==~I~on~Sys~te~1tI6~
(vJ Design cOlltact stress {
CdC
Vi

ere
h

[ <5c]

CB

Uc

J:

HB

c/ or [O"c]
= C
Coefficients
denendi
x HRC x Kcl
.
epending on the Rsurfa
(7.25)
_ Brinell hardness number
ce hardness. from Table 5.18.

B an HBR _

HBC
K

Rockwell

.

Life factor for surface strenzth

. and'
(vi) COile di>'tallce (RJ :
0
trom Table 5.19.
cI

... (7.26)

'V

where

Take

= Ratio of cone distance to face" idth = R

.
'4')' -_. 3 for initial
calculations.

. Ilowing
(vii) Transverse
module
I'
(m ".
1 Th e transverse mod I
to
cone distance
equation
ue
R

0.5 m (\j
-

(m.)

,- ')..,)

, \ 1.-

.. , t":.2S)

or

n1t

0.5

_2 -r_2
-1
-2

-J=~

-l-

=~

1.

Calculate gear ratio and the pitch angles.

5'
SUI
e com matlOn or mal"TID!S or pinion

2.

Select the

3.

.,.

'tab}

bi

fi

ann wheel,

consulrin" Table

If not given, assume gear lift! (say 20.000 hrs).

Calculate the initial design torque

4.

I M,l-

s.

Calculation of El!q' {dbl and I O"cl:

../ Calculate the equivalent Young's m.,dulus. E",. consulting Table 5.20.
../

../ 'To find [ (Jc 1: calculate

Ctdculote tire colle ~

6.

suess [ "b ] using the equation 7.23.

the design contaCt suess [ "c] l)5ingthe equation 725.

b -

'i'y
b sin 51

maY

d laY = maY

Calculate pitch line velocity (v) :

Calculate 'l'y: Use

'l'y = -d

ml

zi

ZI

b
lav

1. Select the suitable quality of gear , consulting Table 5.22.

12; tRevision of design torque I Mt J :
~

Revise K, using '1'.)1 and Table 5.11.

Revise Kcbusing Table 5.12.

1i.ftI1~'fI:K;

d

~~l~q.lcWlatethe induced bending stress using the equation 1..22

;omll8l'ethe induced bending stress with the design ~~If!P.l!g~~i
], then the design is satisfactory.
design is not satisfactory.

of Transmwion

"

c"lell/II/I011 of basic ci,nlensions 01" h

. .
d
.
'J I e gear pai .
of the pll\lOn an gear using the equ a tiIons listed
.
r : Calculate all th bas"
.
in T bl
e
ic dimensions
~
a e7_1.

16.

is for tlte d CSI"n

. at' pi .
=:
mien.
As disc\lssed earlier. if the materials of th "
.'
1t' t IIt! materials of the pi . e plmon and eea
the pillIon.
:: r are same. then desien onlv
.
inIon and !!ear a d'ffi
.
first and check lor both pinion and ae
re I erent, then design the pirnon

~ ar.

Th~ induced bending stress in the ::>zear t C; h'J.) can be determined by using (he relation
O"bl

where

)'\'1

ab2 . J\~

Form factors of pinion and gecr respectively based on the

\ irtual number of teeth .

Since the contact area is same. the induced contact stress is some for both pinion and

.;

TO

per week/or 3 yelLrs. Pressure angle is 200.

Given Data: P = 1875 \V: Nl = 800 r.p.m.:

}..2

= 400 r.p.m.:

u.

10

work/or.:flJ Iuutrs

= :u=_

To [lntl : Design a bevel gear drive.

.
.'
d
e same \\ e hav e
So/Iltioll:
Since the materials ofplnlOIl an gearar:)
.

to

pinion.
I

\. Gear ratio :

Pitch angles :

NI
N,

800

400

""I

For right angle bex el gears. mil O2

==:=

"
== tarr ' (2) == 6 J.-U

,-'0

s::

or

U,

51 -

and
2. Material for

3 . Gear life in

Gear life in
4. Calculation

We know that.

"00

6""

'"'\

~o

--0

== _(J.:-

90 - 5~ == '"I - .).-t...
.
G d "'",near tn:~lte,l
Cast Iron.
J1l e .r ,
pillio/l ant! gear :
~
,-.,bl.,>""
== 350N'JllJl12. trom .. ~-'all
I _
\"lr:-":';
\ cars) ==
(52 wecj-> r-:
.
= (-lO hrs ! \\cek) x
hours
== 29.Q52'- llf c~~ks
_ 6'1-l0 x 800 " 60
cycles, N - I J .
. .' I I" ton torqllt! [ll I
of mu! {eS1z,
_ '[\'1 I x K x Kef (.M/1

.~.

_9 ~

~\J.'~'

107
29.952

107

0.45

CJu'

0'_1

CJb]

0.45 x 350 = 157.5 N/mm2

1.4 x 0.8852
_
2
2 x 1.2
x 157.5 - 81.33 N/mm

of Transmission

'Vy

R/ b -- 3,Initially
. "

assumed.

3rr[~~0.~72~~J~2~~~C-----(3 _ 0.5) 498.08

..

x 1.4 x 10.1

X ~

7.905 x loJ

'

or
7. Assume

R ZI

50.2

51 mm

== 20;

Then

z2 :::;

x Z I :::;

20

ZI

Virtualnumber of teeth :

cos 01
Z2

O2 =

cos

R

20
cos 26.57

~ 23 " and

40
cos 63.430 ~ 90

51

We know that,

40

0.5 ~ 202 + 402

= 2.28 rnrn

From Table 5.8, the nearest higher standard transverse module is 2.5 mrn
9. Revision of cone distance (RJ :
We know that, .

R = 0

10. Calculation of b,
.;

Iflav'

r
.5 mt\J'l z
-

d lay'
R

=-

Average module

Average

b sin 8

pcd of pinion (d1av):

1
/1 I -

==

(l71av ) : may

== 2.083 x 20 == 41.66

may

x ZI

d lay

60

N 1 ==

1.745 m/s
b
./

lav

11 L'C'!.

.
IS

_ ~.61 == 0.447
- 41.66

assume ,

We know that,

[Mt]

== Mt)( K)( Kd

== 2.5 20

zl

2.083 mm

dlay ==

v ==

55.9 mrn

== 18.63 mm

1(

./

\,/.

55.9

==

==

.;

and If'Y :

\lfy

.;

+ z2

1t

r1

x 41.66 x 10-3 x 800

60

...

x 33.24 x 103
18.63 x 2.5 x 0.408

=
e find

0'6> [ 66]'

TriIIl2:
again, we get

Imm2

100.75

R = 0.5

b
m

a.

m, x ~ z~ + z;

67.08

= -'l'y = = m -

1t X d11n'

d11n'

22.36 x sin 26.570

20

.;;..;_;,;;....;;....~=.;;;.;;;;.;.;;..;_

%1 =

2.5 x 20 = SO mm

x Nt

- 7t X SOx 6010-

60

= -

22.36 mm

= 3-

%1

d1tw = min' x

\11

b sin 01

v =

= 0.5 x 3 x \} ~02 + 4~

22.36

=-

SO

= 0447
.

x 800

Transmission

Now~. find

(16

.oJIi

< [ (1b]'

'Jactory.

J' Check/or wear strength:

0.72
(Jc ~

::::

(R - 0.5 b)

We know that th .
e Induced contact str

I
[

+ 15

V (;2

ess,

J1

ix b

x Eeq [M,']

[..J (2 + 1)3

2
.

0.72
(67.08 - 0.5 x 22.36)

2 x 22.36

Wefind

15. Calclliation of basic dimensions

I

Transverse rnodu le :

Number of teeth :

Zl

of pinion and gear: Refer Table 7.1.

3 mm

nIt

20;

Cone distance :

.;

Face width :

.;

Pitch angtes :

.;

d1 -

117t

mt x z2

.;

and Z2 = 40.

zl

3 x 20

67.08 mm

b -

22.36 mm

60 mm ; and

== 3 x 40 == 120 mm.

R -

and 82 == 63.43

26.57;

Tip .diameter :

_ 65.37 mm ; and
-

m, (Z2

+2cosb)

== 3 (40+2

cos 63.43

_ 122.68 mID
.;

Height factor:

.;

Clearance:

.;

10 -

c - 0.2
tan

eal

or
.;

Dedendum angle:

or

./

Tip angle :

eal

tan

ef 1

3 (1 +OY
== - 67.08

./

Root angle:

o fl

- 01 -

efI

0/2

O2-

e/2

./

and

tUld

63.43 - 3.07 = 60.36

zv2

= 90.

IIn""

IExample

7.12 , Design a straight bevel gear drive between two shafts at right
to each other. Speed of the pinion shaft is 360 r.p.m: and 'lie speed of the gear wl'te/ s/,
is 120 r.p.m: Pin;oll is of steel and wheel of cast iron. Eac" gear is expected to HlO'k~
hours I day for 10 years. The drive transmits 9.37 kW.

e = 90

Given Data:
Tofind:

= 360 r.p.m.; N2 =

Nl

0;

120 r.p.m.;

P = 9.37 kW.

Design the bevel gear drive.

Solution:

Since the materials of pinion and gear are different, we have to designIlle

1.

= NI

Gear ratio:

N2

360
120

i = 3 or 82 = tarr ' (3)

71.560

Then,

2.

Pinion - C45 Steel, crll = 700 Nzrnm? and cry = 360 N/m2

Material selection:

3.
..

7300 hours

[M/]

We know that,

I Md :

Mj x Kx K;
60 x p
60 x 9.37 x 103
=
2 1t x 360
= 248.6 N-m, and
21tNJ

where
K . Kd

[ M/]

248.6 x 1.3

323.28 N-m

r

'"

Tofind E~q :

Eeq

1.7

105 Nzrnrn-', from Table 5.20.

Tofind I UbI J: We know that the design bending stress for pinion,
1.4
[ O'bl]

Kbl

n- K

x 0'_1 ,
a

for rotation in one direction

elmo
[ Gel] = CR lIRC x ~

CR

HRC -

23 from Table S.I8,

40 to 55, tiom Table S.I8, aod

Kcl [ ael]

_3 x 50 x I

l150Nfmml

ekno that, R >

\!1) ~

{l

'Vy = R b = 3 initially assumed

3-[---0.n--~]2~1-7--'~~~~

R ~ 3 ~ 32 + I
> 99.36
R = lOOmm.

(3 _ 05) lISO

~WiJjFOJ~.tlRD

toTlple

IMtl :

[M/]

= M/xKx~

Kd

o-v_,..a

We know that the indl~U)(l:DdB:

R ,,;2+ I [Mil
(R-O.S b)2 x b x m, xY;I

= 612.33 N/mm
O'cl < [ act ]. Thus the design Is sotl'sftlc~tomvJM'J1mJ

"",.__ '.,. geat' (1.&, wheel): Gear /II(IIerlal :

c
I~'""",
....
.,....n"I'''' ... to calculate [O'b2] and [C1 2]'
_ N
_PlnlQ!L ==
, N 3

_6.~

107
5.256 x 107

-\j. N:

CI

ta x ;)1,,2

Y"l -

Y,,2

0.520, for

CIb2

77.6 N/mm2

CIb2

Z,,2 =

22,

x 0.520

CIc2
O"a>

[ O"c2

J.

O"cl

612.33 N/mm2

= 2.3 x 360

X 0.758

= 627.62 N/mm2

virtual number oftettlt ofbtv., plr refe" to 7

are the varfou. fore .. lOt Ina on a bev., liar 7

WftlUWW

.1I.'.JlIH

Write the exprellion. for beam .trenath, dynamic lOad, and 11

par. and explain the varlou. term. u.ed in It,
12. Write the .tep by .tlp procedure for the dc.iall of beyel &ea,.,
PROBl

M8 FOR PRACTIC

P'01J161111
on kln6mlllle, ol/JflVtl/lltl(lfN:

1.

A 20 .traight-tooth

beve! pinion haYing J 4 teeth and a tran.Ye....

drive. a 32-tooth gear, The two shafts are at right angle. and In the
the cone di.tance; (ii) the pitch allgle.; (iii) the pitch diameter; and (Iv)
(An,: (i) 69,8S mm; (ii) 23,63; 66.37; (iii)'6 mm; J28

2,

A pair of bevel gears consists of a 24-tceth pinion meshina with a

gear. are mounted on shafts, which arc intersecting at right anal e.,
Jarge end of the tooth i. 3,S mm. Calculate: 0) ihe pitch diametert of
gear; (if) the pitch angle. for the pinion and the gear, and (Hi) the con.

P,oblellll
3.

[AnI: (i) 84 mm ; 2 J 0 mm; (ii) 21,8 ; 68,20 ;

on lorce analya/N (if bl!vl!/lIl!(lrS :

A pair of straight bevel gears h8M a speed ratio of 3, A 7,S kW oower .._
pinion, which rotate. at 1200 r.p.m. 1he pitch circle diameter oid
the large end of the tooth, The face width is 4S mm and the Dr...
Calculate the tangential, radial and axial components of the re.ultant
on the pinion,
[AnI: J391.86N;
5~V""",+I... data of previous problem, calculate the tangential, radial and
JIIiJ.II,nClU
tooth force actina on the gear wheel.
[A",:

13Y,J..JOU .......

~(11ImenS14C)DS of

a pair of bevel
are given in Fig.7.14. The
delivers 5 kW pcwer at 500
to the output shaft. The
A and B are mounted on
.n.. t.......
+ shaft in such a way that
A can only take the radial
Determine the reactions at
bearings.

5kW
8
500 r.p.m.

Fig. 7.14.

= 316N; F~ =

planetary gear train is shown in Fig.7.l2(a). The input shaft ..<>ft~"'''';~::-~

at 500 r.p.m. The pitch circle diameters of bevel gears 'A,
along the face width are 250, 125, 250 and 500 mm resiJeCtiVellvslJAi'e.btl

~llS1tant

...,..,.,IoLI~

: F:W = 1527.89 N; F~D

= 763.95 N; lIfu,

(iiJ Gears are of different materials:

13. A pair of straight bevel gears is to transmit 3.5 kW at 1440 r.p.m.
machine shaft that has to run at 200 r.p.m. The pinion is of cast steel
cast iron. Design the drive.
14. A pair of 20 full depth involute bevel gears connect shafts at ri~
velocity ratio 3 : 1. Gear is made of cast steel having allowable static C!1'..,~nft'tti'
and the pinion is of steel with allowable static stress of 100 N/mm2
transmits 35 kW at 750 r.p.m. Design the drive.
15. A pair of 20 full depth involute teeth bevel gears connect two shafts _......~
having a velocity ratio of 3. The pinion is made of steel with allowable
2
100 N/mm and the gear is made of cast steel with allowable static ln~~'.~',~[JlJHJ
The pinion transmits 40 kW at 750 r.p.m. Determine the module, .ua"'V'<lIr')I,O
pitch circle diameters of the gears. Assume width as one-third the ........
~"!'!,I'{WJ
and tooth form factors as 0.154 - (0.912 I zv) where z" is the virtual

Rroblems on bevel gear design, based on gear life:

(1) Gears are of same material :

16. Design a bevel gear drive to transmit 7.5 kWat 1440 r.p.m. Gear- ratio
gear are made of C45 steel; Life of gears 10000 hrs.
IV.. Design a bevel gear drive to transmit a power of 9 kW at 20 r
ratio is to be 3. Material to be used is C20.
expected gear life as 10000 hours.

CJ

= 500 N/mm2;

Worm Gears
"/"1m II"'y ignore you, then lhey laugh ot you,
IIIe" they fi,g h I you, then you win. "
- Mahatma Gandhi

8.1. GUCTION
(Rte. worm gears ~re used to
tri\l\SRllt
.
. . power between t wo nonmtersectmg, non-parallel shafts, The

angle ~etween the nou-lntersccting

sha~s IS usually, but not necessarily,
a n~ht angle. As discussed in tho
previous chapters, crossed hellcal
and hypoid gears are also used to
connect
non-intersecting
nonparallel shafts. But crossed-helicnl
and bypoid gears are suitable only
for low speed ratios (upto 8) and low
power ratings. Whereas worm gears

can b

df
.
hi g h as
e use
300 :.'01.j.r hlgh speed ratios as

.
GIIU' WhGlll

Fig. 8.1. Worm "lid Wor", gears

The worm
.r drive consists of. worm nt d II worm wheel, as shown in Fig.S.I. If a tooth
of a helical gear makes complete revolUlio s on the pitch cylinder, the resulting gear is
known as a worm: The maling Sear is called w!!!!!!J!."'tr or """", Hlh"!!: The worm in worm
and worm ge;;;: drIve is same as screw In scr~Wand nut pair.
8.1.1.
Qatlons
Worm
gear drives arc wide

used as

1\

machine tools and automobiles.

8.~VANTAGES

.
. 08.
. . r be
used for .peed ratios as high 8S 300: I.
of Worm
Drives
l'he worm gear drIves can

./

The operation

th nnd silent .

IS slllOO

-,,'"

Design of

~.l.

Transmission ~
~

It means that the motion C8nnot

'
.
~
from worm wheel to the worm. Th IS property of Irreversible.

The worm gear drives

are irreversible.

transmitted

~dvantages

~_

IS

_/

'"

'"

'"

Since sliding occurs, the amount of heat generation is quite high.

'"

The power transmitting capacity of worm gear drive is low (upto 100 kW).

rreas

~types

1. Single-envelaping worm drive: If the worm addendum forms a cylindrical surface,and

if the worm-gear teeth are curved, then the drive is called singte-enveloplng.

2. D_ouble-enveloping worm drive: If the worm addendum has an hourglass form,and if

the worm-gear teeth are also curved, then the drive is called double-enveloping.
\ Note \ Worm with one thread is called single threaded worm~~~~~ing

two, three or four

8.4. SPECIFICATION OF A PAIR OF WORM GEARS

.. , (8.1)

where

Zl

z2 =

d }/mx'

d 1 = Pitch circle diameter of the worm, and

mx

Axial module.

For example, a R5/2517/5 worm drive means, a right hand worm of starts 5, mesheswith a
worm wheel of 25 teeth and of diameter quotient 7, and with module 5 mm.
8.5. NOMENCLATURE OF WORM GEARS

The geometry of a worm gear set is shown in Fig.8.2. The various terms used in the stUdY
of worm gears have been explained below.
_,
.,

B.3
(P.J: It is the distance between two consecutive teeth,

~
~"l(U\

worm. In other words, it is the distance between a point on a

throtd and a. CQm!SpOnding point on the adjacent thread measured parallel to the
Px =

~tically~

It)( nix

axis,

..

"Ix - Axial module of the

(B.2)

worm.

l. L811 1.) : It is the distance travelled by a thread when one complete revolution is given
ro ~ worm, Mathematically,

Px X!,

1t X nix

x Z,

'"

(B.3)

- Axial pitch x Number of threads in the worm

Tberefore, fur single start worm, lead is equal to axial pitch; for double start worm
thresd, lead is twice the axial pitch and so on.

It is also clear that the axial pitch of the worm will be equal to the circular pitch of
the worm gear i.e., Px

= Pc =

1t

nix'

Pitch
ciImeter (d,)

Pitch cylinder

I
Fig. 8.2 Nommcla/UTe 0/ a worm gellr set .
.
,
. th e an gle between the tangent to the pitch helix and the plane of
J.. UtuI tIIIgl~ (r) : It IS
~on.
.
To find
When one thread of a wonn IS
developed, it becomes the hypotenuse of ,a
triangle, as shown in Fig.B.3. The base of this
triangle is equal to the circumference of the
Worm., While the altitude is equal to the lead of

r:

thewonn.

--

!8.~4

Design o/Transmission .(\.

------------------~------~~

, ,

sntuting.

d J -- q . mx 10
. the

111,\'

above equation, we get

1t X

tan y =

1t

m.\. x

(q.

ZI

ZI

--

111,)

... (8.4(a))

... (8.4(b))

rarr ' ( ~ )

4. Tooth pressure angle: It is measured in a plane contain ing the axis of the worm and is
equal to one-half the thread profile angle.
5. Helix angle (P) : It is the angle between the tangent to the thread' helix on the pitch
cylinder and the axis of the worm. The worm helix angle is the complement of wonn lead
angle, i.e.,
J3

90 - 'Y

6. Normal pitch: It is the distance measured along the normal to the threads between two

Normal pitch, Pn

J.

cos y

." (8.5)
1t

d1 sin y

... (8.6)

Pn

..
2.

Px

"'"

~ =

- Pcin

dl sin 'Y
zl

d2 . cOS'Y

= -----z2

= PII

." (8.7)

1t

L x cos 'Y

.. ' (8.8)

7. Velocity or gear ratio (i) :

Gear ratio, i = Number of teeth on the worm gear
Number of starts on the Worm
8.6. TOOTH PROPORTIONS OF WORM GEARS

The various proportions of the worm and worrn gears are tabulated in Table 8~I.

.. , (8.9)

..

.:..,..-

./

particulars

Symbol

Unit

ha

rnm

hal-m

mm

h_tt = (2.2 cos y

mm

da

mm

dal

~
~

u- Dcdendum
Clcnt1lI1Ce
.u- outside diameter
~

8.5

.,

Worm

Worm gear

ha2
1) m x

mx(2 cosy

I)

hp - mx (I + 0.2 cos 1)

0.2 mx cos y
d I + 2 hal

mx(q + 2)

4-

da2 -d2+2ha2
mx (z2 + 4 cos y z)

df

5.

mm

"It

dl 2 hj1

d /2

nlx(q +2

4.4 cosy)

= d2 -

2 hfl
2 0.4 cosy)

mx(z2

L--

8.6.1. BasiCDimensions of Worm Gears

Thebasic dimensions of worm and worm gear s are tabulated .In Table 8.2.
Table 8.2. Busic dimensions of worm gea rs ('I;'
- book ,pa ge no.
,. rom data
Symbol

Nomenclature

S.No.

Unit

Worm

8 43~

Worm gear

I.

Centre distance

mm

a = 0.5 mx(q + z2)

2.

Axial module

mx

mm

mx = 2 a I (q + z2)

3.

Number of teeth on

z2

z2 = i xZI

wheel
4.

Diameter factor

= d1/mx

..'(Diameter quotient)

l-

10= 1

10

Height factor

c = 0.2 mx to 0.3 mx

u, Bottom clearance

mm

u,

Pitch diameter

mm

dl =q x mx

d2 =z2 x mx

d
da

mm

Tip diameter (outside

,diameter)

8.

r-~~ot

diameter

[Example' 8.1

I A pair

:,

dl

mm

d11 = d 1- 2j 0 m:2 -c

dj2=(Z2-2f

oJ

mx-2.c

I
.:

of worm gears is designate_das 2154/11015. Calculate: (i) the

~.tre ~ista"ce; (il) the speed reduction; (iii) the dimensions of the worm; and (Iv) the
IntenSion
.1'

S OJ the worm wheel .

. Given Data: (2/54/10/5) = (Zl/z2Iqlmx);
TOfind:

(i)

Q,

@So

W IUllon:

e know that,

.'

zl

= 2;

(ii) i ~ (iii) d-, dol' djl' Px;

il'".
"

z2 = 54 ~ q = 10 ; mx = 5 mm.

and

(i) Centre distance (a) :

Q ==
0.5 mx (q + Z2)
== 0.5)( 5 (10 + 54)

a2

(iv) d2, d , d/

= 160 mm

Ans.1;I

Design o/'Iransmiasloll

8.6

(ii) Speed reduction (i.e; gear ratio) (i) :

gear ratio,

We know that,

(iii) Dimensions

0/ the

./

Pitch diameter:

./

Tip diameter:

dl - q x mx

dOl -

Root diameter:

27

d I + 2 . to' mx
50 + 2 x 1 x 5

SO mm

where

d/I

50 - 2 x 1 x 5 - 2 x 1.25

7t mx

7t X

f 0:= l.

2 .c

mx -

Bottom clearance

Axial pitch :

height factor,

60 mm

..

10 x 5

= d I - 2 to'

dfl

where

./

worm:

=
./

54

Z2
ZI =

i =

0.25 mx

0.25 x 5 = 1.25 mm

37.5 mm

mm

15.71

(iv) Dimensions of worm wheel:

./

Pitch diameter:

./

Tip diameter:

d2

Z2

(54

+2

Root diameter:

d/2

where c = 0.25 mx

= 0.25 x 5 =

IA

xl)

where

f0= 1

5 = 280 mm

2 to) mx - 2 c

= (z2 -

df2

, Example 8.2

54 x 5 = 270 mm

do2 = (z2 + 2 to) mx

-

./

x mx

1.25 mm

(54 - 2 x 1) 5 - 2 x 1.25

257.5 mm

triple-threaded worm, having a lead of 70 mm meshes with a gtll1

having 42 teeth and a normal circular pitch of 22 mm. Find the centre distonCt bt/Wtt1f
the shafts if they are 900 apart
Given Data: zl = 3; L = 70 mm; Z2 = 42; Pn = 22 mm; 9 = 90.
To find:

Centre distance between the shafts (a).

Solution:

We know that,

Axial pitch, Px
and

= Px x Z I =
=

Axial module, mx =

70

= '3

zl

L
1t

x zl

1t X

mx x Z J

= 23.33 mm

70
7t X

7.43 mm

The normal pitch is given by,

Pn = Px
or

cos y

r,

cosy
22
23.33

= 0.943

~~~-=:.::~~~~~-----------ars

'

T
d
1
Lea ang e, y

cos-1 (0.943)

8.7

19;440

=:

.'

y .= tarr+ (~)

aut "

>;

or

tan 19.44

tan Y

=:

8.5

Therefore, the centre distance is given by, .

a = 0.5 mx (q + Z2)

=
AlternateMethod:

0.5 x 7.43 (8.5 + 42) = 187.6 mm

a ::: d 1 + d 2

Centre distance,

Normal module,

mn

:::

Pn
7t

dl
and

centre distance,

7t

d1 x sin Y
:::

1t

Z2

7t

22 x 3
x sin 19.44

7t

22 x 42
= 311.9 mm
X cos 19.44

x sin Y

Pn

d2 cosy

zl

, x zl

:::

d2 =

Therefore,

Ans. "

We know that,

xZ2

x cos Y

= 63.12

mm

63.12 + 31.1.9
= 187.5 mm Ans. "
2

CEXmnDle8.3] A triple-thread worm has a pitch diameter of 125 mm. The hob for
cutting the worm wheel has a normal dlametral pitch equal to O.OBlmm. Find the pitch
diameterof the worm wheel if the reduction is 12 : 1.
GivenData : zl = 3; dl = 125 mm ; Pdn = 0.08/ mm; i= 12.
TOflnd: Pitch diameter of the worm wheel (d2)
@SOlution: We know that, i =
"

z2

i X zl

z2 /

zl
12 x 3

36

is given by,
... (i)

P dn = d 1 sin y

From eq

sin y =
Or

t.

p;'

Zl
X

dl = 0.08 x 125

sin-l 0.3 = 17.46

0.3

8.8
Now again from equation (i), we have
36

Z,

d2

E.:r:ample 8.4

I A triple

Pdn

cutting the worm

has a pitch perpendicular to the teeth of 8 modu/a
diameter of the worm wheel if the reduction is 15: 1.
Given Data : zj=3;
d, = IOOmm;
I1ln=8mm;
i=15.

nun.

Alas. "'t

Tire 1106/"

We know that,

Solution:

We also know that, normal module,

From equation {i), we can write
or
NO\\1

sin y

d2 . cos Y
'" (i)

ZI

x mn

3x 8

= 100 = 0.24

y = sirr ! (0.24)

13.88

again from equation (i), we have

__z2

d
2

d1

I1ln

Sill

= i x z, = 15x3=45

z2

8.5

Example

I A double

I1ln

45 x 8

__

COS Y

cos 13.88

370.84 mm Ans."

threaded worm has a lead of 65 mm: The gear has 411etJII

and is cut witll a hob of module 8 mm perpendicular to the teeth. Find the pitch dillltldtlS
of the worm and gear, and the centre distance of the shafts.
Given Data: zl = 2; L = 65 mm; z2 = 42; I1ln = 8 mm.
To find:

Solution:

We know that,

Axial pitch, Pr

z,

= -

or

X Z

65
_?

32.5 mm

Pn

or

Pr

Normal pitch, Pn
normal pitch Pn

... [From equation (S.7)J

x mn = 1[ x 8
P:r X cos y
1[

Pn 25.13
cosy = - =

',

32.5

= 25.13 nun

= 0.773

.
Pitch angle, y = cos ! (0.773) = 39.350
(i) Pitch diameters of the worm and gear :
zJ x mn
2x8
We' know that,
d) smy
sin 39.35 = 25.24mm
z2 x mn.
42 x 8
d2 and
cosy = cos 39.35 = 434.51 mm

~1,f
\
I

11

&1.1.

GEARING
,

,Components of Resultant Forces, N89~ecting'FriCtion

.

.' ;

'.

..

. u-_..Aearlier, in the force analysis of worm gearing, it is assumed thai the wonn is
AS1SC~.
I
.
d
dri"ingmember, while the worm wheel is the driven member. Fig.8.4 illustrates the three
the nentsof the gear tooth force acting on a worm and worm wheel.
C(lIl1PO F F 1 and F,al = Tangential, radial and axial components of the worm
Let
t1' r
'.
respectively, and
Fa. F r2 and F a2 = Tangential. radial and axial components of the worm wheel
respectively .

._

,~

(b)

:It

F,

I
I

B -.-.- ------.-.-

(e)

.. G

(d)
"

()

.'

Fig,

I
\

I
I

For the shaft angle of 90

, .~ is'o,.

---z

::,.~;:;;

...

(8)

f_..

.,

'_Ing
",0"'" g

ii Force analYS
f F'i .s.4(a), the fo
'" tnetrY 0 g
d frOOl the geo

an

'-

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"owing cooclUS

ionS

Design oI'Transrn,'ss'
",8 10
~.~------------------------------~----~~~~~~
,~~
~
<
.~
./

The forces on a worm wheel are equal in magnitude to that of worqt, but
in direction.
-'
. , : .-, o~Pas~

./

Therefore,

Fa -

-Fa)

Fr2 -

-Frl

= -

Fa2

and

F'l

'" (8:91)

Derivations of F" F, and Fa: The resultant force F acting on the tooth of a Worm'
resolved into three components FI' F rand Fa' as shown in Fig.8.4(b).
IS
a - Normal pressure angle, and

. Let

y -

Resolving the normal reaction F in the plane ABGH, by referring Fig.8.4(c), we get
FN
and

F cos a

'" (i)

Fr = F sin a

... (")
IJ

and

FI = FN sin 'Y

... (iii)

Fa

... (iv)

FN cos y

Substituting equation (i) in (iii), we get

IF

F x cos a . sin y

... (8.l0)

Now substituting equation (i) in (iv), we get

Fa
or
From equation (ii),

I Fa
I Fr

F I / tan y

F x sin a = Fax tan a

cos a . cos y

(8.11)

(8.12)

Thus the equations (S.10), (8.11) and (S.12) are used to determine the components oftbe
resultant tooth force, neglecting friction.
8.7.2. Components

Since the relative motion between the

frictional force is significant in worm gears.

WOIll).

Friction

The resultant friction force, F f = J.l x F

where J.l = coefficient of friction.
Fig.S.4( e) depicts the two components of the frictional force and their directions. 'fhe twO
components are: J.l F cos y and J.l F sin y.
" .
Considering 'frictional forces, the equatioris'(Bvl 0), (S: 1'1) and (S.12) become,

-,

FII
rI

FaJ

JIIIi

Fx

COs Q sin

F (COs

IX.

Y+ Ji F

.)(

SmY+1I

COsy

F COs Q
,. COs y)
COsY-JiF
. Y
_ F
. SIQ
(cos a . COs~
- F sin IX
Y - " sin y)
-

F,I

[.The tangential component (F

.

t')

.-JreJaIIOD
F'I

.. (8.13)

.. (8.14)
(8 )5)
...
itted torque using the

can be detenn.lned from the Iransm

'" (8.16)

M,

Transmitted torque = 60 x P
2

Power transmitted,

NI

d)

2.1be axial force (F.,) in terms oftangeotiaJ force

---;:=- _

tl x

01

_:_(F..::.I)~'

1t N)

worm..
fro=m:..:equatJ~:ODS (8.13) and (8.14), is given as

(cosacosy-J.lsiny)
.-

+".

(cos a sm r
cos 7)
given as
y, the radial force in terms of tan gen tiaI forte (F,).1iom equatioos

I'F 1

die 4. The directi

00 of

II

... (8.17)
(8.14) '"'" (&'15), is

sin a

x (cos a . sin 7 + " . cos 7)

... (&.18)

rotation of the worm wheel can be found by CQIISideriDg the wonn as saew """

of worm and worm whul is ~

lIS

1IS2I1fJ14.

t~O kif' power at 720 r.p.m. is supplied to the worm shtift. TIle coe.IfideJII D/.frit:tiot' is
of~ lind the pressure angle is 20 ~ Calculate the tllllgeJdial, tIJCiII/ IllUi mdittI ~
. resultant gear tooth fora oding on the worm and the worm whL
p~
(2152110/4): (z/z/qlm);
ZI = 2; ~ = 52; q = 10; m" = 4 mm ;

~::"~ata:
, Nt

= 720 r.p.m;

J..L

== 0.04; a == 20.

~TO/illd : Components of the gear tooth force

vSoIUl."IOn:

...

We know that,

-I

Y == tan
-I

Y = tan

(z)q
(1.)
10
_!

== 1131

8.12
d. - "'x x q = 4 x 10 = 40 mm

Transmitted torque, M, 1. Force components

on the worm:
F/I

10-3
T. = 240x x132.63

= 6631.45 N

(cos a . cos Y - Jl . sin y)

- f 11 x (cos a . SID
. Y + J.1 cos Y) ... [From equation (8 .I~

F r1

"

{cos 20 x cos 11.31 - 0.04 x sin 1l.3!.j

6631.45 x (cos 10 x sin 11.31 + 0.04 x cos11.310)

27105.74 N Ans. ~

F 11 x ( cos a . sin
.
'Y + Jl . cos 'Y) ... [From equation (8.18)]

sma

sin 20
6631.45 x (cos 20 x sin 11.31 +0.04 x cos 11.31)

10147.45 N Ans. ~

(i)

Ans . ...,

(ii)

Axial force:

Fa2

Ans. ~

(iii)

Fr2 -

I Example

8.7

Fit = 6631.45 N

Fr}

10147.45 N

Ans ...,

worm drive has an axial pitch of 25 mm and apitd

circle diameter of 70 mm. The torque on the worm gear shaft is 1400 N-m. Thepitch ~
diameter of the worm gear is 250 mm and the tooth pressure angle is. 25~ FiJfJ
-flrcto~
1. Tangential force on the worm gear; 2. Torque on the worm shaft; 3. Separat/lfg 0 (tIi
the worm; and 4. Velocity ratio. Take the coefficient of friction benveen the worliith
and gear teeth as 0.04.
~ 1400 ~-J1I;
Given Data: z} = 2;
Px = 25 mm;
d 1 = 70 nun; (M/)worm gear
d2 = 250 mm; mm; a = 25; J.1 = 0.04.
Tofind:

(iii) Frl

and (iv) i.
_ or 11ft]

Solution:

'

60 x p
60 x 10 x 103
. .t~df~
21t N. 21t x 720
- 132.63 N-rn

2M,

'" [.. III

(i)

Axial module,

mx

1t

Diametral quotient, q

dl
mx

25

7.96 mm

1t

70 = '8.8
7.96

[':Px-"

'[bell,

1Ii1Torqueon t/le
I~

angle,

~l~;.

We mow that,

tan-I (ZI)~

'Y :::;::

Wor", sh .,;

::=:

tan-I

Fa:::;:: F

We alsoknow that,

LCUI

F11:::::

12.810

{I.

~eparatlng fo,ce

Weknow that,

2X

~I

orrn shaft, M

~ie'
orce)

- 89

II

2546.48N

.13N-rn A

the Hlor",(F,.

Oil

1'1 -

v

FQI

'-I)

x tan ex

- 11200 x tan 250

normal module , mn

lIS

,J.

We know that,

12.810

16

254648
_ 2 xM
.
-::;::--1!_
70 x 10-3

Torque on the w

or
"":}

::=:

Fn - F
aJ :::;:: FIJ / tan
- a tan y '" 11200)( :.~ 11200 N

or

,Ulj

(.1.)
8.8

== P i n == P
x
_x
n

== 5222.65 N

cos_y
n

== 7.76 rnrn

7r

We also know that ,

d2 . cos y

normal module , m. n

z2

Or
z2

d2 x cos y

::::

mn

7.76

:::: 31.4 ~ 32

'.

'.
ear ratio,

z2

== -;-

="232

= 16 Ans. ~

8.8JA 2-tooth right-hand worm ;ansmits 0.746 kW at 1200 r.p.m:

j~1e

/0

'Po,,..,, Hlo,,,, gea" as shown in Fig.8.5. The gear has an axial pitch of 13.5 mm: TIle
." as a'pUch diameter
.
lricHof 50 mm. The normal pressure angle is 14-'h'! Coefficient0/
IfIII :::::0.03.
(i)
Fi.
/,.;~ IIId the lead anete the lead the normal pitch and the centre distance.
(~

~.

~'

IlJ.d(he force components on the worm and worm gear.

Q The gea, is supported by bearings A and B, as shown in Fig.8.S. Findthe/orees
. exerted by ti,e bearings againj't the worm-gear shaft, and the outputlorIJU~.
GlVenData: zl = 2; P = 0.746 kW; NJ = 1200 r.p.m.; z2 = 30; Px = 13.5 mm ;
(iii

d,

::=: SO
- nun

rt

= 14 ~o;

#l = 0.03.

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x~~

----------------_D_e_~=gn~of_n_rmu~m~u~~fun&
~

~.14

'"

Worm pitch
cylinder

),,/-

I "

I'"

,/'"

x
Fig. 8.5.

(i) L, P and a,

Tofind :

(ii) Force components on the worm and worm gear, and

(iii) Forces exerted by the bearings and the output torque.

@Solution:

Axial module, mx

. where

=

Nonnalpitch:

L = PxxzI

Pn = Pxx cosy

Centre distance:

13.5x cos 9.750

13.3 mm Ans....

a = 0.5 mx (q + z2,)
-

----

8.15

componen~on the won and

(ill
Wor", gea
force co",ponents on the worm:
.,
:
:1 force

I Tangential component, F II

Mil

where

60 x P
60
2-1[ N == - x 0.7~6 x 1()3
I
27t x 1200 _ 2 x 5.94

tl

F
.'

tl

50 x 10-3
== Ftl x

Fa I

Axial component,

= 5.94 N-m

== 237.46 N Ans.-tJ

(cos
(COS'

cos Y Il sin y)_

-IX Sin Y + Il . cos Y)
IX

_ 237 .46 x (cos 14.5 x cos. 975

. 9.75)
0.03 x Sin
(cos 14.5 . sin 9.75 + 0.03 x cos 9.75)

1164.57 N Ans.

Radial force, Fr 1 _ F II x

'"tI

sm IX
(

cos

= ,237.46

IX .

sin 14.5

x .'

(cos 14.5 x sin 9.75 + 0.03 x cos 9.75'

== 307.23 N Ans. ~

{

F/I

~
~
~

A a~d B 'against the worm gear:

The force~ acting on the worm ge~,and its shaft~are shown in Fig.8.6.
For L Fx::: 0, i.e., consideringthe. ~uilibrj1.!m offorces in x direction, we get
..

.,."

'

.-

.

lakin

.'

. F~ x (37.5

..
: 'pY
,_

= 0

B .

De8ign ofT'OIII~

8.16

Fig. 8.6.

For I Fy = 0, i.e., considering the equilibrium of forces in y direction, we get

FYA + pYB - F

Jt
T,I.

or

= 0

F~ + 263.62 - 307.23 = 0
F~

Taking moments about the y axis, we have

- F~ x (37.S + 62.5) + Fax 37.S or

- F~ x 100 + 1164.5 x 37.5

...

0
0

F~ = 436.686 ~ Au. ~

For I F, = 0, i.e., considering the equilibrium of forces in z directio~ we gef

FZA + FZB
or

Fa = 0

F~ + 436.686 - I I 64.S7

:.

F~
Resultant bearing force at bearing A, FA

== 727.88N

-v

(F~ )2 + (F~ )2
,

= " (43.61~

= 729.18
and resultant bearin, force at ~g

B, FB

-v

= "

Au. ~

+ (727.~a)2

__

(237.46)2 + (263.62)2 + (43~.6861.

- 562.65 N Au. ..

()e_ar~

.~

__

--------

ofIIP

T-

J8~.1~7

=::

11~.57 x :62.5 x 1~0-3:::: 0

OQij>ut touque, T - 7
'~.78SN-Ill Ans. '"tJ

..

'

EfFtC'~NCYOFWO~M GEAR~NG
....,.

fth

.',The efficiencr

. .
gear dri
.Jllv~ '~s
Ig1'V~nby

e worm

Power Qutput
POw~r input

f'I

x VI

anyx(

(cos
(cos

where

~l

and

V2

'(

f/2 x ~2

n-

(co,s a . cos 1 - JJ. sin 1}

,
, cos ~ . sin 'Y + J.1. cos y)

... (8.19(a

a - JJ. . tan y)
a + Ii' coty)

... (S.19(b

fitch line velocity of worm and worm gear respectively.

The coefficient of fr!cHop (J.1) in worm gear drives depends upon the sliding velocity, i.e.,
rubbing speed.
Sliding velocity,

Vs

The variation
of the coefficient
,
Fig.8.?
,
\

Q.

0.12

I 1 1

LL

.s

'L\

II

:::L

..:
c 0.09
.

... (8.20)

sin y

CD

15

"."

"

Steel worm

j
<,

...... ._

I~

-............

~
o 0.06
16

'" Cast Iron worm wheel

BronzeiWOhn.Wheel

r-- k::'
r-..
L
r-- c

e:s

00."

1;5

1.0

'.'.

13

it O.O.~

.r

2.0

..
2.5

3.0 3.5

Sliding velocity. mls

F/~. ~.7.

,.~.1.P,Q'WerLost

in Friction

It is give~ ~y~~Tebltio~
,

~er

,/

'1,10=-.

;-,
,

lost in friction -

(l-J]) x

pJ

... (8.21)

a.is

Design of TrrDU'_i ..'S.

"'''''''otJ, IOI'l.t\.'

':I

~:

,-

8.8.2. Self-locking and Overrunning Drives

Self-locking drive: The drive is calied self-locking if the worm gear cannot dri

worm, It is possible only when friction force exceeds the driving force.

Ve the

In other words, if p ~cos a .tan y, then the drive is self-locking.

Overrunning drive: If the worm gear can act as driver, then it is known as an
overrunning or backdriving gearset
The theoretical criterion for an overrunning wonn drive is
J.l < cos a . tan y

I Example

B.9

I A pair

of worm gears is designated

as 1/52/10/8.

The worm transmits BOOW power at 1000 r.p.m: and-the normal pressure angle Is 20~
Determine the coefficient of friction and the efficiency of the worm gears. Also fllld IlIl
power lost in friction.
Z I = 1, z2 = 52;

Given Data: (I / 52 / 10 / 8) : (z I / z2 / q / mJ;

p = 800 W; Nt = 1000 r.p.m.; a = 20.
To find:

Solution:

10; mx = 8 mm

We know that,
or

- tarr ! (~)

= tarr ! (

I~)

= 5.71

q - dl / mx

d1 = qxmx

10 x 8 = 80 mm

(i) Coefficient of friction of tile worm gears:

Velocity of sliding,

Vs

__ n d , Nl

= ~

cos y
1t X

60 x cos 'Y

80 x 10-3 x 1000
60xcos5.710
= 4.21 mls

. From Fig.8.7, for Vs = 4.21 mls and bronze worm wheel , the coefficient of friction is
Interpreted as 0.027. Ans."
.
(ii) Efficiency of tile Worm gears :
11 = (cos a - J.L tan y)
(cos a + I..L' coty)

(cos 20 - 0.027 x tan 5.71) _

5% Ans.1J.
(cos 20 + 0.027 x cot 5.710) -77.4

(iii) Power lost in friction:

Power lost in friction = (1 - 11)x P
= (1 -

"

11

8.19

~~ae4fS-

A double threaded wo"", drivr is IWfIlilq lor 1'0_ ""-rissio.

"rfll having their axes at right angln to ~ OlItu. 1lre _
..... U %.
tfIO slra IScenJn distance is apProximatdy 200 I11III. If rile axial pitd 01tile _
~ ttttJr. fh~ angle is 23 ~find 1. lead; 2 pbelt clrcIe dUrntetus of ""''''' IIIfII ""'''''
~~J' filii'
IIId /eo I if the worm; and 4. efficiency 01 the ~
if tile IWffIdat of/rit:IiInt
,j. "tli.~ang e 0

tI;j.
":r'"

Data..

zl

= 2' '

GiVt"
Tofidill

'

n
eSDIuJio :

P,

n" -Pilch diameters.

and

4. 11.

30 x 2

Z[

Zl

tan Y =

mx

where

= (d['

xm

tan

centre distance, a

.T

m.

d[
1C

__
=

30 /K

2 x 9.55 = 45 mm

- tan23

9.~) mm

45 +d2
200 =
2
2

d
(iii) Helix angle (/1) :

nI.>

Axial module -- Px /

d,

= __

Zl

q
Z

or

We know that,

,U,

Weknow that,

3.(3;

L = Px x z[

:1

9 = 90"; a = 14 Y, 0; a = 200 mm ; p. = 30 nun;

13 =

355 mm Ans. ~
0 _ 230
90 - 'Y = 90
cos a _ fl' tan 1)

.
~
6'" AIls.

=!

+ fl ' cot y)
(cos a 0 005 x tan 23) = 87.2.h Aas. ~
145 - .
~O)
- {cos 14'50 + 0.05 x cot 23
rile ~
(cos .
. e w"dltu or
.
r-r&anw--t-e-8:""":.l::-:l-"Fo,' the above pro b/~nr, dderllUn

(iv) EffICiency (11) :

n
'I

If'"

is

sdf-

""'king.

10 J.1 = 0.05.
E ample 8. ,
Refer x
If-locking,
di 'on for se
We kIlow that the con IU
a' tan Y
0411
._
0
> cos
23 = ,
. a o~,
J.l.
14,5 x tan
u: lockiJtg. It IS
In this case cos a . tan Y = COS the drive .s, not se1_,-t1
We find ~ < cos a . tan 'Y. Thus

~
~ Solution:

backdriVinggearset.

nning or
-

..tiM',W&t-1'J!'tj

dt N

eft"

Design

8.20

o/Trans",. .

lSSIO"~

DESIGN OF WORM ~R
L-

DRlyE

--------~----~

'~

8.9. MATERIALS FOR WORM AND WORM WH~EL

The following guidelines may be used while selecting the materials for Worm and ""~
wheel. Refer Table 8.3.
Table 8.3. Selection of Mal~r411
Mat~rial
Condition

S.No.

Worm

WormWhed

1.

Steel

2.

Case

. haFdened

steel of

Cast iron

Phosphor bronze

~,

3.

High

speeds,

heavy

shock

with

.Hardened

molybdenum

BHN250

Phosphorbronze(~

conditions

steel

8.10. FAILUREOF WORMGEARING

The different worm gear tooth failure are :

1. Seizure:
./

Since significant sliding occurs between the teeth 'ofthe worm wheel and thread of
the worm, the possibility of seizure is very high in worm gear drive.

./

The seizure has greater probability to occur in the zone where oil has squeezed
out.

2. Pitting and rupture:

./

softer
The worm wheel wears off more than worm. Because the worm whee1 IS
than wonn .

./

8.11. SEI,ECT'PNOF NU'QI;~ OF ~T~TS IN THE WORM (Z1):

Table 8.4 shows the approximate efficiencies for the number of starts in the worm
Table 8.4. Approximat efficiencies In worm g~ar drive (from data book, page no. 8.46)
Number of starts in the worm <2;.)

Efficiency, 11

0.7 to 0.75
1.

3 and 4

0.8 to 0.92

Jfj.

8.21

Table 8.5. Length of the ff1fJnnfll

f"

" v v70m

Number

or"-rts <ZJ>
Jor2

dtzItl boo
t. Pllf~ 110. 8.41

L~(JJ

301"4

~of.ora
+O.06z )m
J

,13.

fACE WIDTH OF THE WHEEL (b)

.
Table 8.6. Face width of whee/., b (fi7om -'_._ boo
'"""

%1

0.75 dl

..

k pag~ no I.48)

de2 ~ dol + 2 mz

2or3

0.75 dJ

O.67dJ

de2 ~ do2 + m;c

8.14.EFFICIENCY
In Section 8.8, we have discussed the efficiency of wonn gears without considering the
klsses in the worm gearing. In actual design practice, losses in the worm gear drive should be
considered.The main losses in the worm gear are
-/ due to friction in sliding (i.e., gearing loss), and
-/

due to the churning and splashing of lubricating oil.

The efficiency of the wonn gearing, considering only the gearing losses
11 where

is given by

tan a
tan (y + p)

.,. (822(a

Coefficient of friction, from graph 8.7.

.'
unt all the losses, is given by
The efficiency of the wonn gearing, taking
into aero
.
J.1 -

T)

tan 'f
= (0.95 - 0.96) tan (y + p)

8.15 TH
GEARING
.
ERMAL RATING OF WORM

heatIn.the Worm gearing, when the

worm gear ~

.. , (822(b

'derable amount of

contInUOUS y, CODSa

.IS generated. This heat generated due to

driv and lubricating oil.
be dlSs'
.'
fthe
e
lpated in order to avoid over heaf1Jlg 0

The

. f the drive is given by

COndition to avoid overbeatiDg 0..
to the atmOSPhere (H~
Heat generated 0Ig) := Heat dJSSlpated

pSi.

_gAP
.~. Li

'"

Design o/Transrnu .

~8.=22~

--------------------~~~~

where

Hg

(1 -11) x Input power,

Hd

K, x A x (to - t a)'

A -

10 =

. a

eel, and

Temperature of the atmospheric air (OC).

K, x A x (to - tal

... (813)

\Note' The power transmitting capacity based on thermal considerations is given by

P

'K,xA(to-tJ
(I-TIl"

...(114)

, Example 8.12 , A worm gear box ;"ith an effective surface area of 0.25 ",z.Afad
mounted on the worm shaft to circulate air over the surface of the fins. The coeffldtnJ~
heal transfer can be taken as 25 Wlm2 C The permissible tempera/we rise of 1M
lubricating oil above the atmospheric temperature is 45 cr:: The coefficient of jridio. i
0.035 and the normal pressure angle is 20'! The pair of worm gears is desig1ulItd IS:
1/40/ 10/4. Calculate the power transmitting capacity based on thermal considofdiDtU.
Given Data: A = 0.25 m2; K, = 25 W/m20C;
zl = 1 ; z2 = 40; q = 10; mx = 4 mm.

to - fa

Tofind: Power transmitting capacity based on thermal considerations.

@Solution:
The power transmitting capacity based on thermal considerations

is given by

K,A (to-ta)
(1-11)

tarr l (~)

tan-I (

1~)

= 5.7'

11 = cos a - J.l tan 1

cos a + f.l cot 'Y
cos 200 - 0.035 x tan 5.71
= cos

Now,

20 + 0.035 x cot 5.710 = 72.5~1o

Power P = 25 x 0.25 x 45
(I - O.n59)
= I026'Y

c~
)~

8.2.3

I~

('P-

,.~

mended by AGMA)

;,

:I ~ ~

equation of beam strength is given by

F, -

1t X

m); -

Axial module ,

b -

ngham's Equation

H(ORlEWI
S EQUATION)

m); x b x [ CI ] x y'
b

... (8.25)

[ crb] -

y' - Form factor for worm wheel, from Table 8.7.

..

TUk &. 7. Form factor for worm wheel (fj10m data b00k, page no 8.' 52)
~angle(a)

y'=-

--

14~0

200

25

30

0.1

0.125

0.15

0.17

Y
1t

Ia wormgear drive, dynamic load is not so severe due to the sliding action between the

gear.
Thus the value of dynamic load, using the velocity factor, which can be used in the initial

Fd
FI

Ft

... (8.26)

= C
v

_ E x~
v

. factor from Table 5.6, and

Shock / Service
'

Ko Cv

_ Velocity factor.
-

6
6 +v

where

l1l

'EAR STRENGTH

lbe li_:..c

QIll{UDg

I'ty
_ p'tch hne ve oct

v -

O"!AGS

(WEAR TO

Of WORM GP"I'
. . en by
) IS gIV

or maximum

F.. = d2 x b x

. mI
of tl]e worm gear 10
s.

.. , (8.27)

l'

I<"
..}i( ..

IUf

8.24
where

d2

:=

Kw -

from Table 8.8.

Table 8.8. Wearfactor /o~ worm gun

.
Worm wheel

Worm

Wear (actor, Nlm.2

Material

S.No.

J4~O

Hardened steel

ChiJIedbronze

0.63

0.88

2.

Hardened steel

Bronze

0.42

0.56

3.

Steel, 250 HB

Bronze

0252

0.35

4.

High te5t CJ

Bronze

0.56

0.805

S.

Steel, 250 HB

Laminated phenolic

038

0.448

8.19. DESIGN PROCEDURE

J Selection of the materials : Select materials for worm and worm wheel.

2. Calculation ofzJ and Z2:

./

Depending upon the efficiency requirement, select the number of starts (zl) in the
worm, -referring Table 8.4 .

./

Then, z2 = i x zi

3. CakuJation of diameter factor (q) and lead angle (,; :

./

Diameter factor, q

./

(zi / q)

= tan-I

J

Cv

6. CalcuJaJion of beam strength

Beam strength, F, =

Ko

P/v x

1t X

{ffin terms of axial module :

mx x b x [CJb] x y'

(mJ :

Calculate axial module by equating F, and Fd:

~uv

~~s __ -------------

~-

Colculati(Jnof b, d 2 and v.

BtC

'S.2S

alculation of beam strength:

Us P' _

e
- 'It X
. ,eetJku/lldon of dynamic load: Usin t~
III. x b x [ a b 1 x y'
IOul te the dynamic load, F d = F / c g_ e calculated pitch Ii
.
~(i
a
I
V'
ne velocity of the wh I
Checkfor beam strength: If Fd ~ F th
. . ee ,
11.
, . . 8' e gear tooth has ade '
'
'dDOlfai! by breakage. Thus the design IS satisfactory.
quate beam strength rnd
9

WI

12. Calcul'.1'
atlOn oJ maximum
Fw = d2 x b x ~

13.Check for wear strengtb : If F d < F W ,the gear

t tl1 has. adequate wear capacity and
,00
\Villnotwear out. Thus the design IS safe and satisfactory.
14.Check for efficiency:

If 11actual >
tbanthe desired, increase lead angle (y).

l'Jdesircd ,

then the design is satisfactory. If it is less

'

15. Calculate the powe~ loss and the area required to dissipate the heat.
16. Calculate the' basic dimensions of the worm and worm wheel using the Table 8.2.

[Example 8.13 I A hardened steel worm rotates at 1440 r.p.m: and transmits 12 kW to
.phosphorbronze gear. The speed of the worm wheel should be 60 :t 3% r.p.m.Designthe
wormgear drive if an efficiency of atleast 82% is desired.
GivenData: Nt = 1440 r.p.m.; P = 12 kW; N2 = 60 3% r.p.m.; 1ldcslred = 82%.
Tofind: Design the worm gear drive.
@ Solution:

_ 146400 30/0

Worm wheel -

For 11 = 85%,

zl ~

.f

Then , z2 = i x

Zt =

3, from Table 8.4 .

24 x 3 == 72.

(assumed)

r!
~

.f

Diameter factor :

... [Gi~~n]

Phosphor bronze

Z2:

.f

.f

24 ' 0.72

Worm - Hardened steel, and

1. Material selection :

2. Selection olz} and

== 11

q ==

"'x

r~

~I(~)

::::tan

-1

(1-)
::::15.25
11

:i

Ii

I
'i

''''W:-'
~

Design o/TrOllS/llissf

'

~:,~

,', (',,/('ul{Itltm tfl'lt,

oj'

/11I(!flll,f

"'x. /

p
'rl\"~~l\tlftll(l~1(I, II', -

\I

7e
II -

KO

60

cI N

1000

_ 1r X 72 x

x 60

226 m mls

60 x 1000

0, -

..

12 )(

1(J3
n1

)( 1,25,:;;

Dynomlc lend, Pd

66371.68
mx

F
..L

ell

where

6+v'
F

...

6
6+5

:;:=

66371.68

rd

;;:;1

mx

0.545
1
x 0.545

be

121681.4

mx

h

where

(ob]

r;;;

I:l

0.75xqmx

= 80 N/mm2,

0.75 x Ilmx

8.25m,l'
c

y' ;:::;O. J 25, assuming a = 20, from Table 8.7.

,
,,

7, Ctl/CII/III/on
We know thnt,

or
01'

F" ;;:

0/ (Lt/t,1 module

1t

x mx x 8.25 mx x 80 x 0.125 = 259.18 m,l'

(mx) :

F,f ~ Fd
2

259.18 mx

12168 ],4

mx ~ 7.77 mm

From Tobie 5.8, the nearest higher 8tand~d axial pitch is 8 mm.

,1,#

db

i .

8.27

!f!r
...,.;#,~

Calc",a"

.~

~/ono/b, d2 and v:

8, I face width (b): b= 8.25 mx = 8.25 x 8 = 66 mm

I Pitch diameter of worm wheel (d2):

d2 =

x mx = 72 x 8 = 576 mm

leu/at/on of beam strength (FJ :

'
Beam strength, F, = 259.18

9, Rtca

10.

z2

m;

= .2~18.(8)2

= 16587.52 N

!/
I

c"
6

6+v

Ft

66371.68
mx

Fd

8296.46
0.768

= 6 + 1.808
=

= 0.768, and

66371.68
8

= 8296.46 N

= 10802.68 N

Fd < FS" It means that the gear tooth has adequate

beam strength and will not fail by breakage. Thus the design.is s.atisfactory.
12, Calculationof maximum wear load (F.J :
II.

Checkfor beam

= -

cv =

where

..

Ft

strength : We fmd

~ar

where
,
"

d2 x b x K,

~v

F 11'

Table 8.8.

576 x 66 x 0.56 = 21288.96 N

13. Check/or wear: We find F d < FW"It means that the gear tooth has adequate wear
C4pacity and will not wear out. Thus the design is safe and satisfactory.
14.Check/or efficlency : We know that,
tany
TJactuaI

Where

= 0.95 tan (1 + p)

p = Friction angle =

..

",!;

TJ -.

find that the actUlll efflciency

rtfletDry.

['.'

tan 15250
0 95 x
')
tan (15.250 +1.70

Is greater

tarr! J.1

,.
.'

'I
=

0.8498 or 84.98%

than the desired efjlcJency. Thus the design

"
.~
D eSlgn of Trafl81f1Lt'K/on

8.28

15. Calculation of basic dimensions of worm and worm gears: Refer Table 8.2.
./

Axial module:

./

Number of starts:

./

./

b = 66 mm

./

Length of worm :

;?:

;?:

(12.5 + 0.09 x 72) 8 = 151.84 mm

~'-'.

mx = 8 mm

./

Centre distance :

./

Height factor:

./

BottQID'clearance :

./

Pitch diameter:

/0

Zl

3
Zl = 72

a = 0.5 mx (q
=

= 332 nun

+ z2) = 0.5 x 8 (J I + 72)

1
c = 0.25 mx =

s=,

d) =

0.25 x 8 = 2 mm
11 x 8 = 88 mm;

and

d2 = z2 x mx = 72 x 8 = 576 mm
./

./

Tip diameter:

Root diameter:

dOl = d 1+ 2 /0 . mx = 88 + 2 x 1 x 8

da2 = (z2+-2/0)mx

dfl

(72+2x

1)8

104mm;aoi
592mm

d 1-_ 2 /0 . mx _ 2 . c

88 _ 2 x 1 x 8 --.2 x 2 = 68 mm ; and

df2 = (z2 _ 2 f 0) mx _ 2 . c
(72 _ 2 x I) 8"'- 2 x 2 .= 556 mm.

Example 8.14 I For the data of above example, determine the required coolingattlf
the ovenall heat transfer coefficient for the housing can be assumed as 15 WI"r C(' tUJ4 tit
temperature rise of the lubricant is restricted to 50 't:

Tofind:

10 W 1m2 C;

At

to =! = 5OOC.

@ Solution:

We know that in 'order to avoid overheating,

Heat generated (i. e., power loss) = Heat emitted into the atmosphere
(J _ 11)x Input power -

(l-O.8498)xI2xl03

...

K, A (to - to)
IOxAx50

l'

8~29
"IJ GEARS

~~~

,
,
I

~.

ONS

1 Design torque (or design load) on GearWh

IJO..

[ M/]

= MI

eel (M,)

K x Kd
... (8.28)

M, -

where

wheel torque = 60 x p
2nN2

Transmitted

K - Load concentration factor ,

- 1, when load is almost constant
- 1, for v2 < -3 m1s
- 1.2, for

8.20.2.Induced Bending

V2

> 3 m1s

Stress in the Wheel (ab)

1.9 [M/]

... (829)

mx3 x q x Z2 xYv
where

n1x

= Axial module,
=

z2 -

.8.20.3.Design Bending

Diameter factor (or diameter quotient),

Number of teeth on wonn wheel, and
Form factor based on virtual number of teeth, from Table 5.13 .
Stress for the Worm Wheel [ ab]

Designbending stresses [ab] for various wonn wheel materials are tabulated in Table 8.9.
Table 8.9. Design bending stress {uJ, N~

r--Wheel
lIlaterial

--Bronze

Method of

au

casting of wheel

N/mml

Sand

>390

Chill

>390

Sand

<390

Chill

<390

Centrifugally cast

<390

(from dalD book,pagt! 110.8.45)

60

GIldc25
~

30

250
350

40

20
27.5

~
~
~

Rotation in both
Rotation in one
directions
direction only
64
78
90
110
35
50
40
55
47

Cast iron

,
.!

8.30
Design ofT'ans",;.~
~--------------------~~~

8.20.4. Induced Contact Stress in the Wonn Wheel (GJ

"

[ (~ I q) + IJ

540
efe

= (z2Iq)

[M,]

10

'--/t..})

,
~

a = Centre distance

8.20.5. Design Contact Stress of the Wonn Wheel [ Gc]

Design contact stresses [

efe ]

for various combination

are ~\.._,

of materials

~n

Table 8.10.
Tabl 8.10. D6ign contaa stress

I ur.J, NhttJn2

(from dIlJa book, JNlK~ no.1.4S)

Slidiag velocity,

Material

v.., .Js

Worm

Wheel

0.25

0.5

Steel

Cast iron

170-140

120

100

70

Bronze

190

18S

176

168

159

U;

8.20.6. Centre Distance (a)

a = [(z21 q) + 1 ]

540

(~I q) [ef

]
e

J[Mtl

.'!-

10

--- OJJ)

8.21. DESIGN PROCEDURE

1.

Select the suitable combination of materials for worm and worm wbeel,
Tables 8.3 and 8.9.

2.

Calculate the initial design torque [ M,]. Use [M,

K Kd = 1.

3.

Selection

0/Z1

1 = M, x K x Kd

coomDn!

InitiallyJ55II!It

and Z2:

'"

Select the number of starts of worm depending on the efficiency ~

consulting Table 8.4 .

./

Then,

z2 = ;

x Zt.

4. Selection 0/10'61 and I O'el:

Select the design bending-stress and design contact stress of the wonn wheel frOID T~
.8.9 and 8.10 respectively. To select [efe], ~1y
take v,r= 3 mls.
S. Calculate the centre distance (a) using the equation 8.31. Choose
factor, q = 11. q can vary from 8 to 13.

initiallY ~

--=~====~~~~--

f~ ~~s
..,,,.tt the axial module (m.J using the rei ti
calc",'"
a 10n m

_!~
8.3]

=2a I( +
6. 'gb r standard axial module from Table 5 8
x
q zx) Then, choose the
bl e,
.
. .
e centre dIStance (a) using the relation a = 0 5
1. BtvlS
mx (q + z2)
a1ld vs :
1.1 ulate d, v,
~. CUle
I Pitch diameter (d) :
qx mx and d2 =z2 x

r' .

_ 7td2N2

I Pitch line velocity (v) :

and v2 -

y = tan-i

Sliding velocity :

60

(~)

= ~

cos y

VS'

using Table 8.10.

10. Revise1(, Kd and [M,l for the actual velocity of the worm wheel (v2)'
11. Checkfor bending:
,

Calculate the induced bending stress using the equation 8.29 .

./ Compare the induced bending stress with the design bending stress .
./ If

<Jb

s [O"b ],

then the design is satisfactory.

12.If crb > [ O"b], then the design is not satisfactory. Then increase the axial module.
13. Check/or wear strength :
.; Calculate the induced contact stress using the equation 8.30 .
.; Compare .the induced contact stress with the design contact stress.
If <Jc s [O'c

"

],

"

If l'Jcalculated

~ TJdesired '

-/' Otherwise increase the lead angle y.

15. Calculate the power loss and the area required to dissipate the heat.

16.. Calculate all tile basic dimensions of the worm and worm wheel using the equations
lSted In Table 8.2.

l7r.~e
8.15 ] A steel worm running at 240 r.p.m: receives 1.5 kW from i~ shaft.
dttt speedredUction is 10 ' 1 Design the drive so as to have an efficiency 0/ 80%. Also
","lie the cool'

".
d. if tI,e temrperature rise is restricted to 4S DC. Take
area requtrea,
eat transfer coefficient as 10 Wlml DC

O)IeraJIh

tng

"

&1n

imt'nuz t

to',

! r :

I xeisr i' Wi.!",

1 '.

6'g .,

;- d'

8.32

l\$)v

Design of Trans",. .

Given Data: Nt = 240 r.p.m.;

K,= 10 W/m2 DC.

~'.

i = 10 ; lldcsired = 80%;

P = 1.5 kW;

t _I
o

o::t 4sec
I

Tofmd:

1. Design the wonn gear drive, and

2. The cooling area required (A).

N2 = Ntl i

@ Solution:

= 240/10

Wheel

24 r.p.m.

- Steel

.. , (Give.j

2. Calculation of initial design wheel torque I Mt 1:

-

We know that,

[ M,] = M, x K x Kd
60 x P

where

M, = Wheel torque = 21t N2 -

K Kd

596.83 N-m

1, assumed initially.

:. Design wheel torque, [ M,] - 596.83 x I

60 x 1.5 x I ()3
2x x 24

596.83 N-m

3. Selection of'l.1and'l.1 :
./'

Forn = 80%,

./'

Then

z2

zl

= 3 or 4, from

zl

= 3 is selected .

= i x zl = 10 x 3 = 30.

./'

I CTcl:

one direction, from Table 8.9 .

./' 'From Table 8.10, [ac]

= 159 N/mm2

is selected, assuming

Vs -=

3 mls.

We know that,
where

...

Q'

[(zfq) + 1 ]

[(30/11)

= 168.6 mm

+ 1]

540

(zfq) [ (Jc]

3 [

540,]

] 2 [M,]

(30/11) 159

10

596.83 x 1~
10

8.33
i

f~

(;4lCJllllli"" 0/ oxiDl module (mx) :

6.

2 a _ 2 x .168.6
(q + z2) - (11 + 30) = 8.22 mm

m =
x

f(Olll 'fable5.8,

,I

BeVision o/centre distance (a) :

1.
a = 0.5 m,x (q + z2) = 0.5 x 10 (11 + 30)

:H
'I

::I

II

= 205 mm

,,
I

8. Calculation of d, v, rand

vs:

Pitch diameters:

= 11 x
= 30 x

dl

d2

q x mx
z2 x mx

1t dIN 1 _ 1t

VI

Pitch line velocity :

il

60

1t

v2

d2 ij2 _
60
-'

1t

Y = tarr! (~)

10 = 110 mm ; and
10

!I
;

300 mm.

60

x 300 x 10-3 x 24 == 0.377 m/s .

60

= tarr" (

:1)

= 15.25'

",
II
)

1.382
cos'Y
cos
15.250 ==. 1 432 mIs
VI

Sliding velocity:

Vs

For

Vs =

1.432

mis,

10. RevisuJII of

"

For

v2

[CJ ]
c

I O'c J :

I u,J,:

<3

mis, Kd

== 1

:. [M ] = M,)( K. Kd = 596.8~)( I x I = 596,83 N-m

,
11. Check for bending: We know that the induced bending IstresS,
1.9 [M/]
mx3

x q x Z2 xYv
Form factor based on virtual number of teeth, from Table 5.13.

where

Yv

30
cos3 'Y == -;s3 15
Z

Zv

==

Y. '"
==

Then,
We find

CJb,
06 <

.250 ~

34

0.452, for z. = 34, from Table 8.7.

_1.9 x ,596.83 x ~~
== 7.6 N/mm2
(10)3 x 11 x 30 x 0:452
0

I Tip diameter:

dal

::::

dQ].

::::

I Root diameter:
::::

d'l

::::

::::

d'2

::::

RevIew AND SUMMARY

parallel "ear
shafts.drives are USed to transmit PO"'e,.b

1U.

I
I
I

worm

'h..

e,."een two nOn-tnlerseClingnon.

"

Types: I. Single-enveloPing;
and 2. DoUhle-enVeloPingWortndrive.
SfwJ:lflcfllion: A pair of Worm gears can he spec!fied hy zJ / z} / q / tn.-

I chapter.
The worm gear nomenclQture

and its lcinenzatics are presented in the beginning of this

8.1 and 8.2. and basic dimensions of Wortn and worm gears ore labulaled in
I Tables
Tooth proportions
,I

F; =

F x cos a x sin

Fr = F x sin a
Fa

cos a

=
X

Fax Ian a

r =

cos

.

F;I

F;IIan

. fiiction

2x~
d,
sin a

Frl

= ~I

x (cos a . sin r+ p .cos JI)

(cos a .cos r-If .sin 12

Fal

WOr",

= ~I

(cosa . sin

. F

"'heel:

= -Fal'

r+ p . cos r)

; and Fa2 = _ F,J

=_F

r2

rl

t2
12
cos Q_ p .tan
" I!JJklency: '1 = tan y x (cos
(cos aa..sin
cosyysm ~"' = cos a + II .col r
+ IIII .cos

.'

" !f "~cos a . tan y, then the drive

. IS. se!f-loo.mg.
" If
, Ii ~ cos a . Ian y,
. ' then the drIVe
. l" oVl!rrllJlnmg.

Hl~
_~.36

------------------_D_e_S~ign~o~if_TJ_ra_n~~m~u~~~
. - ~

./

Materitll: Usually, worm is of steel and worm wheel may be brass or cast iron.......____

./

Two method" of designing a worm and worm gear: 1. Worm gear de.fign UN/nK
l,f'ltll
and Buckingham's equations; and 2. Worm gear design based on basic equal/on.',
The step by step procedure for the above said two methods are presented wllh luflklttt

./

illustrative problems.
Lewis beam strength for worm gears:

F,

./

./

Wear tooth load on worm gear:

./

Thermal rating 0/ worm gearing: The condition to avoid overheating of the "'ire k
given by (l - 7]) x Input power = K/ x A x (t 0 - t oJ

= F/

FlY

= 1! X mx x b x [ O"bi x r'

Cv

= d2 x b x Kw

REVIEW QUESTIONS

1.

2.

3.

4.

5.

6.

Define the following terms used in worm gearing:

angle; and (d) Helix angle.

7.

What are the various forces acting on a worm and worm gear? Deduce the expressions
of them.

8.

Differentiate self-locking and overrunning drives.

9.

Write the expressions for beam strength, dynamic load, and limiting wear load for worm
and worm gears and explain the various terms used in it.

of worm gear drives?

and double-enveloping

worm drives?

(a) Axial pitch;

10. Write an engineering brief about the thermal calculations in worm gearing.
11. Why is the efficiency of a worm gear drive comparatively

low?

1.

10/8.

Calculate:
worm;

(i) the centre distance; (ii) the speed reduction'

(iii) the dimensions oftbe
and (iv) the dimensions of the worm wheel.
'

[An.t'" (i) 160 mm; (ii) 30; (iii) d1 = 80 nun' , dal

240 mm; do2 = 256 mm; dl2 = 220 mm]

= 96

mm : d
,

II

= 62 mm ':

(iv)tiz:::

~~s

~w.

-~-=~~~~~~~ ~~
831

fi

,.
triple-up
. h f 24'
es es with a It-.. L .. '
J.
I circular pitc or
mm. Find the centre di
...
gear Havmg 45 tt.tth and
! ,
stalll:e betw~ the shafl.. if Ihey are
90 . _threaded wonn has a pitch diameter of 115
..
[AIlS: 22(J mm J
J. J. trlrhas a pitch perpendicular to the teeth of)2 :' J~ ~ob for ~ing the worm
wbeegear if the reduction is 12 : 1.
m U es. Find the pitch diamettr c;f
onn
w ble-threaded worm has a lead of 60 mm The j . h
[Alii: 454.36 mm]
A dou
'
gear as 30 teeth and is cut 'Ih
4. b of module 8.5 mm perpendicular to the teeth. Find the itch dis
'.
WI.
a
gear, and the centre distance of the shafts.
P
JamL1ers of the worm

p:~

'.

:d

onforce analysis of worm gears:

!TObie
d
hi'
d .
5 A pair of worm an worm w ee . IS . eSlgnated as 3 / 60 / )0 I 6. The worm is
ttfS

. tranSmitting5 kW power at 1440 r.p.m. to the worm wheel. The coefficient of friction is
O.land the normal pressure angJe is 20. Determine the components of the gt:ar tooth
force acting on the worm and the worm wheel.
[Ans: F/I = Fa2 = 1105.24 N; Frl = Fn = 1('33.35 N; FaJ = Fa = 2632.55 NJ

6. A worm drive transmits 15 kW at 2000 r.p.m. to a machine carriage at 75 r.p.m. The

worm is triple threaded and has 65 mm pitch diameter. The worm gear has 90 teeth of
6 mmmodule. The tooth form is to be 200 full depth involute. The coefficient of friction
is0.1 O. Calculate: 1. tangential force acting on the worm; 2. axial thrust and separating
force on worm; and 3. efficiency of the worm drive.
[Ans: 1. 2203 N; 2. 7953 N; 2895 N; 3. 70.2%J
7. A 5 kW power at 720 r.p.m. is supplied to the worm shaft, as shown in Fig.8.8. The
worm gear drive is designated as 2 / 40 / 10 / 5. The worm has right hand threads and
pressureangle is 200 The worm wheel is mounted between two bearings A and B and it
can be assumed that the bearing B takes the complete thrust load. Determine the
reactionsat the two bearings.
z

. Ans: F~ = 5548.5N ; F~

Flo. 8.8.

= 135.83N;

b'

. y =

Fa = 2653N , Fa

5548.5N;

42858N]
.

8.38

Design ofTraru~
~

8.

1 kW power at 720 r.p.m. is supplied to the worm shaft. The number of

starts for

has 30 Ieetb~
Calculate the efficiency of the Worn. .~
[AIls : 90.12%; 98.1~

of worm are four with a 50 mm pitch circle diameter. The worm wheel
. a 5 mm module. The normal pressure is 200
drive and the power lost in friction.

Problems on worm gear drive design:

9.

Design a worm gear drive to transmit 8 kW at 720 r.p.m. The desired velocity rabo ~

36 : 1.
10. Design a worm drive for a speed reducer to transmit IS kW at 1440 r.p.m, of the "tllI!
shaft. The desired wheel speed is 60 r.p.m. Select suitable worm and wheel materials.
11. Design a worm gear drive to transmit 10 kW at 1440 r.p.m. with a gear ratio of 12 ~
steel worm and cast iron wheel.
12. A hardened steel worm rotates at 1440 r.p.m. and transmits 12 kW to a pbospborbrooze
gear with a gear ratio of 15. Calculate the centre distance and module required for ~
drive.
13. Design a worm gear drive to transmit 15 kW from a worm at 1440 r.p.m. to the worm
wheel. The speed of the worm wheel should be 40 2% r.p.m.
14. Design a worm and worm wheel drive to transmit 50 kW from an electric motor nmning
at 1440 r.p.m. to a rolling mill required to run at 100 r.p.m. Selecting case hardened
alloy steel for the worm and centrifugally cast phosphor bronze for the wheel, design all
the details of the geared set.
If the complete heat generated is dissipated by the housing, what should be the housing
area required? The overall heat transfer coefficient for the housing can be assumed as 15
W/m2 C and the temperature rise of the lubricant is restricted to 50C.

15. Design a worm gear drive to transmit a power of 22.5 kW. The worm speed is 1440
r.p.m. and the speed of the wheel is 60 r.p.m. The drive should have a minimUJP
efficiency of 80% and above. Select suitable materials for the worm and wheel and
decide upon the dimensions of the drive.

Gear Box

"There is sOmethin

If you try t

' 'cully." is inertia

.
pe , 'cultie. yrw, uecay
..I
...

o escao diffi

",

,,1. INTR

UII

ODUCTION

.
.
- He,bllt UwOIl
,11 knOW that machme
tools like lathe, milling
hi
"e
.
mac mes, etc reoui
.
. die speeds. Because a machme tool is adoptabi c:
."
qUire a wide range of
spiO
..
e lor cuttmg diff
. g different properties usmg varying grades of cutti
I
erent types of metals
haV1D

109 too s on work- .
.
J'ameters. Thus the provision of variable spindle speed .
~Ieces of different
ul

he vari
s IS necessary m order to
~jfferent reqUirements. T e varIOUS methods used for obtainin d'ffi
m~t

Co II
.
g I erent speeds of machme
1001 spmdleare as 10 OWS.
(i) By using a gear box mechanism,
(ii) By using a cone pulley arrangement,
(iii) By using a variable speed electric motor, and
(iv) By hydraulic operation.
Among these methods, the gear box method is very popularly used. In this chapter, we
shall discussthe design of gear boxes, in detail, in the following sections.

9.2.REQUIREMENTSOF A SPEED GEAR BOXES

A speedgear box should have the following requirements:
.;

.; It should transmit the required amount of power to the spindle.

.; I
.
f the transmission.
t should provide smooth silent operatIOn a
.; It should have simple construction.
.
th t it is easier to
.;
Id be easily accessible so a
Mechanism of speed gear boxes shou
carry out preventive maintenance.
8.3

ES ARE IN GEOMETRIC

. THe SPEEDS IN MACHINE TOOL GEAR BOX

PROGRE
. (A P) geometric
'l'L
SSION. WHY?
.
. progresSiOn .' :
(L P.).
-ne S
ed in artttuneUc
.
rogresSIOn .
PrOD.
J>eeds in gear boxes can be arrang
d logarithmic P
~essio
.'
. (H P), an
n (G.P.), harmonic
progressIOn
.

~
~9.2

------------

~D~es_:;g~n~O_if_1i~r~Q~ns~m~is_s_iO_"-!SY&lelft.&
---.:..

d i G P it has the following advantages Over the

an .',

other progressions.
1 The speed loss is minimum.
.
.
d Avai lable speed
.t.e., Speed loss = Desired optImum spee 2.
3.

The number of gears to be employed is minimum.

f . die speeds at each step.
G.P. provides a more even range 0 span

4.
5.

The layout is comparatively very compact.

led'
Productivity of a machining operation, i.e., surface area of the meta remov

6.

time, is constant in the whole speed range.

G ..P mac hime tool spindle speeds can be selected .easily from preferred numbers.
Because preferred numbers are in geometric progression.

In unit

1.

2.

9.4.1. Sliding Mesh Gear Box

It is the oldest and simplest form of gear box. Sliding type gear boxes are quite commonly
used in general purpose machine tools. In order to mesh gears on the main shaft with
appropriate gears on the spindle shaft for obtaining different speeds, they are moved to the
right or the left. It derives its name from the fact that the meshing of the gears take place by
sliding of gears on each other.
9.4.2. Constant

Mesh Gear Box

It derives its name from the fact that all the gears whether of the countershaft or the main
shaft are in constant mesh with each other. It is also known as a silent or quite gear box. It
gives a quieter operation and makes gear changing easier by employing helical gears for the
constant mesh. In order to connect the required gear wheel by means of teeth on the side of
the gear wheel, a separate sliding member is employed.
9.5. PREFERRED NUMBERS

Preferred numbers are the conventionally rounded off values derived from geometric
series. There are five basic series, denoted as R 5, RIO, R 20, R 40 and R 80 series. The
symbol 'R' is used as a tribute to French engineer Charles Renard, who introduced the
p~efer:red num~rs first. Preferred numbers assist the designer in avoiding the selection of
sizes m an arbitrary manner.

9.3

ae

'.

'eshas It: own step ratio

ch ser I
68. fable 9.1.

'vell 111

t.e.,

gl

.
senes factor Th'

.
e serres factor for various
series are

liable 9.1. Step ratio sertes tacto (from data book , p age no. 7.19
. '/11
Basic series

Step ratio <cI)

Vw

1.58

RIO

l~

1.26

R20

2~ 10

1.12

R40

4~

1.06

R80

8~

1.03

R5

The series of preferred numbers is obtained by multiplying a step ratio with the first
number to get the second number. The third number is obtained by multiplying a step ratio
wilh the second number. Similarly the procedure is continued until the series is completed.
Table 9.2 shows the basic series of preferred numbers.
Table 9.2. Basic series of preferred numbers (from data book, page no. 7.20)
Preferred numbers

Basic series

R 5 (~= 1.6)

1.00, 1.60, 2.50, 4.00, 6.30, 10.00

R 10 (~= 1.25)

1.00,1.25,1.60,2.00,2.50,3.15,4.00,5.00,6.30,8.00,10.00

R 20 (~= 1.12)

1.00, 1.12, 1.25, 1.40, 1.60, 1.80, 2.00, 2.24, 2.50, 2.80, 3.15,
3.55,4.00,4.50,5.00,5.60,6.30,

R 40 (~ = 1.06)

7.10, 8.00, 9.00, 10.00

1.00,1.06,1.12,1.18,1.25,1.32,1.40,1.50,1.60,1.70,1.80,
1.90, 2.00, 2.12, 2.24, 2.36, 2.50, 2.65, 2.80, 3.00, 3.15, 3.35,
3.55,3.75,4.00,4.25,4.50,4.75,5.00,5.30,5.60,

6.00, 6.30,

6.70, 7.10, 7.50, 8.00, 8.50, 9.00, 9.50,10.00.

I EXample: Machine tool spindle speeds under R 20 series is given by 100, 112, 125, 140,

60, 180 and 200 r.p.m.

9,6,STEP RATIO (OR SERIES RATIO OR PROGRESSION RATIO) (cI)
the

speeds are arranged in geometric progression, then the ratio between

If 0 adjacent Speeds is known as step ratio or progression ratio. It is denoted by ~.
N N
.
. th
I, b N), ...... , N are the spindle speeds arranged in geometric progression,
en
n

N2
~

If' , .

IS

the n

N3
N2

N4
N3

Nn

= ......... Nn - 1

umber of steps of speed, then

= constant = ~

Design O/T"QIU",isSiol1

9.4

= 4n-1 or / -Nmax =

_!!

NJ

I Nou I Permissible

,l.n-I
'f'

L_N~m=m

deviation

/1

". (9.1)

10 (4)> - 1)%.

I Example

9.1 } Find the progression ratio for a 12 speed gear box having 'Ptttls
between 100 and 355 r.p.m. Also find the spindle speeds.
Given Data: n = 12; Nmin = 100 r.p.m.; Nnrax = 355 r.p.m.
To flnd : I. Progression ratio (<1, and 2. Spindle speeds.
@ Solution:

1. Progression ratio (f)): We know that,

Nmax

<t>n-

412- 1 or

:
355
100

or

<t> =

(3.55)1111

1.122 Ans. ~

2. Spindle speeds: Since the calculated <t> (= 1.12) is a standard step ratio for R 20 series.
Therefore the spindle speeds from R 20 series are
100,112,125,140,160,180,200,224,250,280,3]5
and 355 r.p.m. Ans. ~

I Example

9.2 , Select the spindle speeds for the following data: 12 speeds, between50

and 600 r.p.m:

Given Data: n = 12;

Tofind:

= 50 r.p.m.;

Nmax

= 600 r.p.m.

Spindle speeds.

@ Solution:

or

Nmin

We know that
600
50

q,n-1

q,12 -1

or

q, =

1.253

We find the calculated <P is a standard step ratio for R 10 series. So from R 10 series, the
spindle speeds are 50, 63, 80, 100, 125, 160, 200, 250, 315, 400, 500 and 630 r.p.m. ADS. "CJ
It can be seen that the calculated Nmax

630 r.p.rn., which is greater than the required

maximum speed. Therefore we have to check whether the deviation is within the pennissib1e
range or not.
Permissible deviation

Then,

Actual deviation

10 (<I> - 1) %

- 10 (1.253 - 1) %
50
- (630 _..:600) x 600

= 2.53%
=

2.5

Since the actual deviation is less than the permissible deviation, therefore we can accept
the deviation. Ans ..,

I Note I If the actual deviation is more than the permissible deviation, then non-standard speedsmay
be used.

9.S

Select spillllle speeds, for Y lp('ec/ gear box b tw

It 9.3

9' N
pa/(I . n - , "lin

nn'l'._

G~I/"

= 80

N max

r.p.m.;

, e een

=)

80

285 r .p.m.

d' spindle spee s.

foft" .

~ So/pilon.

Nmax

. We know that,

1285
80

~n-I

= ~9 - I

or ~ = 1.415

or

fi d ~::: 1.4 I 5 is not a standard ratio. So let us find out whether multiples of standard
We n 1 06 come close to ).4) 5.
'0
or .
(3n 112
.
Wecanwrite,

So ~ :: 1.12 satisfie.s the requirement.

. . 2 speeds , are giveu by
sklpprng

1.405

Therefore,

'" (skip 2 speeds)

the spindle speeds from R 20 series,

80, 112, 160, 224, 315, 450, 630, 900 and 1250 r.p.m. Ans."
Alternate solution: For the above problem, we can also write

= 1.418

1.06 x (1.06 x 1.06 x 1.06 x 1.06 x 1.06)

So \$ = 1.06 also satisfies the requirement.
sbpping
5 speeds, are given by
80,112,160,224,315,450,630,900

and 1250 r.p.m.

Ans."

IIcan be noted that both R 20 and R 40 series gives the same spindle speeds.

[Example 9.4
GivenData'
Tofind:

Nmm.

= 50

rpm'
. .

.,

Nmax

800 r.p.m. " n = 12.

Spindle speeds.

110
o I
Nmox
tuion : We know that N.

= ~n-I

m1l1

800
50

Or

We find
stand'

J. 'I' -.

I 2866 IS
.

110t

A.12 - I
'I'

or ~

1.2866

of

Ward ratio 1. 12 or 1.06 come close to 1.2 86 .

e can write,
1.12 x 1.12 = 1.2544- and 1.24 x 1.12 x ]. 12 = 1.4
Then I
1 06 1 06 x 1 06 x 1.06 = 1.34
, .06 x 1.06 x 1.06 x 1.06 = 1.26 and 1.06 x.
x.
.
Soboth
.'
t It means 1.286 IS not a
staoda
d ~tandard ratios 1.12 and 1.06 not satisfy the reqUlrem.en .
r raho Th
. dl
dare obtamed as
50
. erefore the non-standard spm e spee s
, 50 x 1 28
3
2
6 rhus the '. 6, 50 x 1.286 , 50 x 1.268 ,
758 226.2, i'90.8, 374,481,
81.5and79~p~ndle speeds are 50, 64.3, 82.7, 106.3, 136.7,]
.,
. rPm. Ans."

9.6

Design Of7"~
~iSlin

9.7. STRUCTURAL FORMULA.

= Number of speeds available at the spindle
Let
n
,
Stage numbers in the gear box, and
PI'P2'P3'
.. .. Characteristic of the stage.
XI'

X2, X3,

......

~\,

n = PI (Xl)

P2 (X2)

2nd stage

1sl stage

x, =

where

1,

X2

= PI;

X3

= Pl'

rd

3 stage
P2;

X4

41h

= Pl'

stage

'"

(~.
,

P2' P3

9.7.1. Preferred Structural Formulas

The Table 9.3 shows the preferred structural formulas for the different
boxes.

sPteds of

Table 9.3. Preferred structural formulas

'.

S.No.
l.

2.

Preferred

Number of speeds
6 speeds

8 speeds

structural formula

(i)

3(1)

(ii)

2 (I) 3 (2)

(i)

2 (I) 2'(~

(ii)

4(1)

2(3)

2 (4)

2(4)

3,

9 speeds

(i)

3(1)3(3)

4,

12 speeds

(i)

3(1)2(3)2(6)

(ii)

(iii)

2(1)2(2)3(4)

(i)

3(1)3(3)2(5)

(ii)

5.

14 speeds

6.

15 speeds

(i)

3(1)3(3)2(6)

7.

16 speeds

(i)

(ii)

(iii)

2(1)2(2)4(4)

(i)

(ii)

3(1)2(3)3(6)

(iii)

8.

18 speeds

----

9.8. KINEMATIC LAYOUT (OR KINEMATIC ARRANGEMENT)

Th ki
.
. Fig 9.1.
e mernatic arrangement of a multi-speed gear box is shown In
.

r
[ rfb

pulley

Shan 1 (Driving shaft)

Shaft 2 (I I
'
n ermedaate shaft)

Pulley

Fig. 9.1. Kinematic arrangement of a 9 speed gear box

From the Fig.9.1, it is clear that the kinematic layout shows the arrangement of gears in a
gear box.The kinematic layout provides the following informations required for gear box
design.

The number of speeds available at the spindle, i.e., at the driven shaft.

The number of stages used to achieve the required spindle speeds.

The number of simple gear trains required to obtain the required spindle speeds
and their arrangement.

.; The information required for structural formula and ray diagram.

.
. d fr
driving shaft to driven shaft
fflustra/ion: In Fig.9.1, the power is transmltte
om d h . g I'S obtained using
drro

I
box spee c angm
ugh a intermediate shaft. In this conventlOna gear,
d [J om driving shaft to
Ilid'
h the number of spee s r
Iflg gear mechanism. It can be seen t at
.
h ft is 3 Then the number
intermediate
shaft is 3 and that from intermediate shaft to dnven sa
ofspindlespeeds is equal to 3 x 3 == 9.

Th

~venby
n
where

PI -

gement of gear

PI (XI) .P2 (X2)

3 eeds available)
1 there are sp
3 (i.e., in stage ,
eeds available)
.
2 there are 3 sp
3 (i.e"lOstage
,
1; and X2::::: PI :::::3
I

, Stru

P2

XI

etural formula

~re

== 3 (1) . 3 (3).

'

= Number ofspee
_ PI . P2 == 3 x 3

ds available at
:::::9

y DIAGRAM (OR SPEED DIAGRAM)

9.1. RA
The ray diagram is a graphical representation

of

the drive arrangement in general form. In ot~er words,

the ray diagram is a graphical representatIon of the

Ns
t-----t-~~L__j

structural formula, as shown in Fig.9.2.

It provides the following data on the drive:
./

Ns

r-_____:::~....::::!""4E-~~-.J.

The number of stages (a stage is a set

of gear trains arranged on two

N4
.....

The number of speeds in each stage.

./

Ns

- -

consecutive shafts).
./

N1

~ 1----

~+--~

en

en

N,

the stages .

./

./

The total number of speeds available at the spindle.

9.9.1. Procedure
./

In this diagram, shafts are shown by vertical equidistant and parallel lines .

./

The speeds are plotted vertical on a logarithmic scale with log

./

Transmission

engaged at definite

\$ as

a unit.

and driven shafts are

shown on the diagram by rays connecting the points on the shaft lines representing
these speeds .

./

Fig.9.2 shows the ray diagram for a 9 speed gear box, having the structural
formula, z = 3 (I) 3 (3).

9.10. BASIC RULES FOR OPTIMUM GEAR BOX DESIGN

The basic rules to be followed while designing the gear boxes are as follows:
I. The transmission ratio (I) in a gear box is limited by

4 s
In other words,

i".;n

ilNQX

2. Refer Fig.9.3.

-.,

N;npul

Nmax
N;npul

Ninput

>- -4 and

s2

... (9.3a)

Nmin

.
Fig. 9.3.
2. For stable operation, the speed ratio at any stage should not be greater than 8.
In other words,

Nmax
--

N":'1;"

~ 8

.. , (9.3b

9.9
t

,,90.
Ii

II StBg

es e]{C

.

N.

mput

>N

min'

'.

th of matlOg gears In a given stage must be the sam e.

oftee
e lor same module in
e
J fb s~ gear set.
~, 'dJllg
s sit.
number of teeth on smallest gear in drives should b
th
il1UllUJ11
e greater an or
The t1l
I" al to 17.
eqU .'
01 difference between the number of teeth of adjacent gears must be 4
il1UllU
The rn
. .
ibl
'.
.
D,
I ould be of mrmmum POSSI e size, Both radial as well as axial dimensions
boX s 1
1, Gear
small as possible.
hou1d be as
~
Tile minimum anti maximum speed of a six speed gear box are to he
I~B

J.

J1l

~
I~a"d500 r.p.
~
f"

I1Il'

Construct tile kinematic arrangement and the ray diagram of the gear

.:::: 6' N . == 160 r.p.m.; Nmax == 500 r.p.m.

, nun
truction of the kinematic arrangement and the ray diagram.

enData.
n

Toftnd: CODS
@Solution :

_N"lax

Weknow that,

500 ==
160

= 1.256

",6 - I

or

'I'

~ == 1.256
.

Wecan write,
So

dsrd

llIio

~n- I

Nmin

or

Wefind ~

==

1.12 x 1. f2

= 1.254

~ = 1.12 satisfies the reqlllrement.

. dl
Therefore the spm e sp

... (skip one speed)

eeds from R 20 series,

160,200, 250, 315, 400 and 500 r.p.rn.

I&'.rmula ::::3 (1)
2 (3).
f d structura 10
sl
2nd stage
truetura/formula: For 6 speeds, the pre erre
1 stage

laUd'
'I lagram'

PfOced

idi tant lines to

. caI eqUI

IS

d ew 3 verU
{ S.
. .
atic layout, r
Inee there are 3 shafts In kinem
.
to represent
'd'stant
[ines
represent shafts.
6 horizontal equ1 I . Fig.9.4(a).
{ S'
d draW
shown lfi
d
lnee there are 6 spindle spee s,
.ZO ntallines, as
In the secon
he hort
0 stages.
d (3)
{ s))eeds.Then mark the speeds on t
that there are tw"1 ble in a stage an
F
it is clear
ds aval a
rom the structural formula, I
mber of spee d
sta
ts the nu
spee s.
ge, i.e., in 2 (3), 2 represen
those tWO
UTe :

represent"

thp ctpn,

or intervals

betWeen

o:.!~ __
_2-. J 0

-------------

./

D_es.:...::jg~n.:...o'2._ifTrQ'" . ~
tnlssio

After 3 steps above, locate the secon d point

and B are the two output speeds.
./

11 Sy!/

.
Locate the first point A on the lowest spee d I. e., at 160 rp.m
at

" on the I
These tw aSI8~afJ,

15 r.p.m,

()POintl A

To locate the input speed point from the preceding shaft (i

.
.e., shaft
following requirements should be met. That IS,
2),
I 1
>
- -4 and

nmax

ninput

t1t

nmax
-~2
ninpllt

Locate point C at the input speed of250 r.p.m.

Nmin

At point C, we get

input

]160
1
250 ~ 4 and

Nmax
Ninpl!t

Thus the requirements are satisfied. Note that the above conditions are met for other inp.r
speeds.
'3 (1)

'2 (3)

250

.,...

.,...
.200
/

IV
==
s:

IV
==
s:

CJ)

CJ)

.".

160

IV
==
s:

CJ)

A
(a)

(b)

./

.~
d available III

ed is 81.(.

represents the step between those speeds. The lowestspehOve~

h
i
I
w hIC IS a ready located. Now locate points D and E on t he ZOd shaft, at sta~J ~
.
d . the ftfS
C'
stage and (I)

10

./ I

. . the ratiO

In this case, the point F is located at 500 r.p.m.

./

'

uirettlc#
reQ
t A~~~

peeds a . ~~
I~ t~e second stage, we find input speed at C gives twO output seds. 'fhal \~ ,
SimIlarly, input speeds at D and E should give two output sped aW lioeS
.

. t

point D, draw lines parallel to CA and CB. Then from pom

to CA and CB, as shown in Fig.9.4(b).

'

9.11

-------P1

=3

----

-----.

__

...

--

--

----.

--------------

. Input shaft - 1

Shaft-2

Fig. 9.5. Kinematic arrangement/or 6 speedgearbox

[xample 9.6 , A nine speed gear box, used as a "ead stock gear box of a turret lathe,
is to providea speed range of 180 r.p.m. to 1800 r.p.m: Using standard step ratio, draw the
spttd diagram, and the kinematic

layout. Also find and fIX the number of teeth on all

gtars.

GivenData:

= 9;

Nmin

Tofind: Construction

Nmax

180 r.p.m.;

of speed diagram

1800 r.p.m.

and kinematic layout.

@Solution:
Selectionof ~pin{lle speeds:
We know that ,

Nmax
Nmin
1800

Or

cpn-l

::::

cp9 - 1 or cp

18Q

.Wefind ~

== 1J33

h ther multiples of standard

ratio. So let us find out w e

d 1 12)( 1 12)( 1.12 := 1.405

1 2544 an
.
.
e can write,
1.12 x 1.12::::
.
..' (skip 4 speeds)
l'h
1 338
.
en 1.06 x (1.06 x 1.06 x 1.06 x 1.0.Q)::::
indle speeds from R 40 series,
So ~ :::::.
.
Therefore the sp
s(ip.
1.06 satIsfies the reqUirement.

ratiO

Ping 4 s

1&

0, 236, 31 S, 425, 560, 750, 1000, 1320 an

d 1800 f.pm.

9.12

:3 (3)
3 (1)
....-----,..------.11,

,
,,
,,

Structural formula: For 9 speeds) the prdtn~

structural formula =, 3 (I) 3 (3).
1800

Speed diagram: The speed diagram is dra ~:,

.
shown in Fig.9.6. The procedure is the sarn~ a:.
discussed in the previous problem.

.,_----+-~':._____,. 1320

Stage 2:
Nmin
Ninput

180
= 560
1

= 0.32> 4'
,

.t: I----.t:
IV

s:

en

Nmax

N
ttl

236

-+----

Ninpul

and

1000

= 560

s:

en

= 1.78 < 2
.. Ratio requirements

are satisfied.

Fig. 9.6. Speed diagram for 9 speed gear box

Kinematic arrangement:
shown in Fig.9.7.

Z3

= 29

------------.---

Shaft-1
Zg

= 53
Shaft - 2

Ze

= 48
Z,0

= 30

Z,2

= 63

Fig. 9.7. Kinematic arrangement for 9 speed gear box

------

~------~-----------

------

~9~.13~

NI, N2, N3,

......

Number of teeth ofth

Spe d
e gears 1, 2, 3, ... 12 respectively and
e s of the gears 1 2 3

, , , ...... , 12 respectively.

NI2

Second stage:

a glves the maxi

.
diaoraI1l, we find that the speed is reduc d f
mum speed reduction. From the speed
e
.
e rom 560 r
.
may assume that this speed reduction is achi
d
.~.m. to 180 r.p.m. (Refer Flg.9.6). We
1
ieve by uSing the gears 11 and 12
We know t iat,
zmin ~
17. Therefore assume Z - 20 (dri ) .
II fiver
zll
_ NI2
20
180
z12
Nll or zI2 == 560 ;
or

z12

62.22 ~ 63

Second pair: Now co.nsider the ray that gives the minimum speed reduction from
560 r.p.m. to 425 r.p.m. This can be achieved by using the gears 7 and 8.
Ng

z7

Zg

N7

425
560

or

z7

= 0.76

... (i) .

Zg

We know that the centre distance between the shafts are fixed and same. Therefore, the
sum of number of teeth of mating gears should be equal. So we can write
z7

On solving equations

+ Zg

= zil

... (ii)

+ z12 = 20 + 63 = 83

(i) and (ii), we get

Zg = 47.16 ~ 48 and

z7

= 83 -48

35

Thi dON

.
ider the ray that gives the speed increase from 560 r.p.m. to 1000
ow conSl
r.p.m. This can be achieved by using the gears 9 and 10.
lr

I. I

pazr:

N
_!Q

z9

~
Also,

z9

On solving equations

+ zlO

1000

= -

N9
Z 11

or

First stage:

+Z

12

.
axunum

h
t e m
can be achieved by gears 5 and 6.

Ptrst patr : Consider

o

Assume

..

Scanned by CamScanner

Zs
Zs

z6

= 1.786

spee

- Ns

'... (iv)

20 + 63 == 83

83 _ 30

53

z9

. f
1320 r.p.m. to 560 r.p.m. This
d reductIOn rom

20 (driver)

N6

... (iii)

zlO

560

(iii) and (iv), we get

29.79 ~ 30 and
zlO

z9

J.6Q_ == 0.4242
== 1320

Design a/Transmission

Syste1n3

9.14
Z5

or

0.4242

z6 =

_
20
- 0.4242

47.14 ~ 48.

be

id the speed reduction from 1320 r.p.m. to 750 r.p.m. This can
onsi er
achieved by gears 1 and 2.
750
N2
ZI
... (v)
=or Zt = 0.57 z2
=
..
1320
Nt
z2
.

Second pair:

and

zl

+ z2 = z5 + z6 = 20 + 48 = 68

On solving equations (v) and (vi), we get

Z2 = 43.3 ~ 44 and z,

... (vi)

68 - 44 = 24

Third pair: Finally consider the speed reduction from 1320 r.p.m. to 1000 r.p.m. This can
be achieved by gears 3 and 4.
Z3

..

z4

and

z3

+ z4

N4
N3

z5

+ z6

1000
1320

or z3

20 + 48

'" (vii)

0.76 z4

... (viii)

68

On solving equations (vii) and (viii), we get

z4

I Example

9.7

38.64 ~ 39 and z3

68 - 39

29

of the obtainable speeds from the calculated ones.

Given Data: Refer Example 9.6.
Tofind:

@ SolllJion :

It is understood from the kinematic arrangement (Fig.9.7) that the

combinations of gears I and 2 (in the first stage), gears 7 and 8, gears 9 and 10, and gears 11
and 12 (in the second stage) are to give three output speeds. Then, the combinations of gears
3 and 4 (in the first stage), gears 7 and 8, gears 9 and 10, and gears 11 and 12 (in the second
stage) provide the next three output speeds. Similarly when gears 5 and 6 are engaged, we
obtain three more speeds. Thus we can achieve totally 9 output speeds.

Calculatlon of output speeds: Let N, and No:: Input and output speeds of the gears.
From the ray diagram (Fig.9.6),

No, = Nxt

Z,
z2
z,

z7

x-

Zg

z9

N02 = Nx, %2 xTO

input speed N,

1320 r.p.m.

24
35
1320 x 44 x 48

525 r.p.m.

S3
1320 x 24
x
30
44

1272 r.p.m.

z,
zll
x= 1320
N03 = NxI z2
zl2

24
20
44 x
63

= 228.57 r.p.m.

9.15
==

Nos

Nos

N09

==

z3
zJJ
N,x - xz4
z,2

:::

N06

N07

Z3
z9
N,x - xZ4 zlO

==

1320 x ~
35
39 x 48
]320 x

]320

x~

30

Zs z7
NIx - xz6
Zs

Zs
z9
NIx- xz6
zlO

- ]320

Zs zJJ
N1x- xz6
zl2

1320

== 3]].6 r.p.m.

35
48

20

53

x 48 x

x 48 x 30

1320 x 20 20
48 x 63

Calculated

speed

== 401 r.p.m.

== 971.66 r.p.m.

==

speed

1734 r.p.m.

20

x 39 x -

Calculationof % deviation:

rs.NO. I

==

63

Obtainable

== 715.7 r.p.m.

174.6 r.p.m.

0 I
N

(Nobt' r.p.m.)

(Ncal' r.p.m.)

1.

174.6

180

2.

228.57

236

3.'S

3.

311.6

315

LOS

4,

401

425

5.65

5.

525

560

6.25

----.:.

6,

715.7

750

4.57

_7.

971.66

1000

2.83

t--!.

1272

1320

3.64

9,

1734

/~Ol1X1UnPle

9.81 A gear

cal

x 100

1800

cal

3.66

is J600 r.p.m: Choosing a standard speed

, COllstruCt the
r
.
speed
diagram and the kinematic arrangement.
vtve Data ; n == 12' N . = 160 rpm . N
= 2000 r.p.m, ; N;1rplll
/".

r.

@ofilld:

'mrn'

.,

1600 r.p.m.

max

ConstructlOn
. of the speed diagram and the kmematIc
.'
arrangement .

SOlutio"
Select

10" 01'

..,spindle
speeds:
\Vek
now that ,

Nmax
N

~n-I

min

Scanned by CamScanner

Design a/Transmission

9.16

2000
160

or

= cpl2 - 1 or cp = 1.258

We can write,
1.12 x 1.12 = 1.254
.
'" (skip one speed)
So cp = 1.12 satisfies the requirement. Therefore the spindle speeds from R 20 series
skipping one speed, are given by
,
160, 200, 250, 315, 400, 500, 630, 800, 1000, 1250, 1600 and 2000 r.p.m.
Structural/ormula:

For 12 speeds, the preferred structural formula

= 3 (1)
2 (3)
2 (6)
1st stage 2nd stage 3rd stage

Speed diagram (or Ray diagram) :

Procedure:
../ Since there are 4 shafts, draw 4 vertical equidistant lines to represent shafts .
../

Since there are 12 spindle speeds, draw 12 horizontal equidistant lines .

../

From the structural formula, it is clear that there are three stages. In the third stage,
i.e., in 2 (6), 2 represents the number of speeds available in that stage and (6)
represents the steps or intervals between these two speeds .

../

Locate the first point A on the lowest speed i.e., at 160 r.p.m., on the last shaft. After
6 steps above, locate the second point B at 630 r.p.m. These are the two output
speeds .

../

Locate the input speed at any point on the preceding shaft (i.e., shaft 2), meeting the
ratio requirements. We find, the input speed 400 r.p m. at point C satisfies the ratio
requirements .

./

In the second stage, there are two speeds. Lowest speed is at C, which is already
located. Now locate point D on the 3rd shaft, above point C, in a three step interval.
For these two output speeds in the second stage, the input should be from shaft 2. We
find, the input speed 630 r.p.m. at point E on shaft 2 satisfies the ratio requirements .

../

In the first stage, there are three speeds. Lowest speed is at E, which is already
located. Now locate points F and G on the shaft 2, above point E, in a single step
interval.

./

Input speed can be located anywhere on shaft 1 meeting the ratio requirements. But in
this problem, given that, input speed is at 1600 r.p.m.

,./' In stage 2, we find input speed at E gives two output speeds at C and D. Similarly,
input speeds at F and G, should give' two output speeds. This can be achieved by
drawing lines parallel to EC and ED, from points F and G, as shown in Fig.9.S.
,./' Now for stage 3, to get the output speeds to all the input speeds in shaft 3, draw lines
parallel to CA and CB. Thus we have located all the input and the output speeds. The
completed ray diagram is shown in Fig.9.8.

------

2.-

Njnpu1

160
1
= 400 = 0.4 > -

N;nput

= 630

Nmin

Stagt 3 :

Nmax

Nm;n

Stogt 2:

N;npu'

9.17

and

630

400

3 (1)

= 0.63> 4"
Nmax
N;npu,

and

800
630

= 1.27 < 2.
Nmin

Siage 1:

Nin;UI

630
1600

400

= 0.39 > 4"

Nmax
N;npu'

. 315

and

1000
= 1600

250

;::
nI

;::

s:

.c

III

C')

III

Stage 1

IJ)

Stage 2

c
III
.c
IJ)

C
III

StagB 3

IJ)

160

= 0.625 < 2.
:. Ratio requirements

Kinematic arrangement:
shownin Fig.9.9.

200

.c

are satisfied.

The kinematic arrangement for 12 speed gear box is drawn, as

-------_ .. _-_---_ .. _ ..

Shaft-1

p, = 3

Shaft-2

Shaft - 3

Shaft - 4

-o

-------- ------

xa", Ie 9.9
g'"g fj

'Gil'

j ~4

12 speed gear box

tis with the output speeds

A machine tool gear box

d diaoratnS for 2 x 2 x 3, 3 x

. t have 12 spee ,

IS 0

the spee"

r-p.m: to 2800 r.p.nt. Draw

h' h is better anti why.
Qlld"
h
mes
w IC
)(3 schemes. Among these sc e
rOIn 63

2x2

ueslgn
~~
~.18

oj Transmission SYSI

--------------------------------------~~~------~~

12', N

= 63

'

e~v

r.p.m.;

Nmax = 2800 r.p.m.

ml n
Given Data: n
Tofind: Construction of speed diagrams for various schemes.

Solution:
Selection of spindle speeds:
Nmax

We know that,

= ~n-I

2800

63 = ~ 12 -

or
We can try,

or ~

1.4 12
... (skip 5 speeds).

So ~ = 1.06 satisfies the requirement.

skipping 5 speeds, are given by
63,90,125,180,250,355,500,710,1000,

Therefore

Speed diagrams for various schemes:

(i) 2 x 2 x 3 scheme: Structural formula = 2 (1) 2 (2) 3 (4). Refer Fig.9.1 O.
Nm;n

Stage 3 :

63
1
250 = 0.252> 4 ~ and

1000
= 4> 2
250

input
Nmax
N;npUI

In this stage, it is not possible to satisfy the ratio requirement

case.
2(1)

Stage 2:

Nm;n
Nrnpul

Nmax
N;npul

250
500

1
0.5 >4

500
500

. So treat as an exceptional
2(2)

3(4)

-------.--------~

2800

:
I--------+--------~----~~
2000
:

j--------t--------~--~~:~1400

and

710

1 < 2.
500

Stage 1 :

Nmrn
N;npUf

500
1000

355

2.50

=
Nmax
NrnpUf

O.S > "4

and

180

710
= -1000

125

..,

0.71<2.
Ratio requirements are satisfied.

'i
fA

r-----

c::-t----

~
s:

90

c::

::

"
--------~----~~~~~~~
Stage ,

Stage 2

rJl

Stage J

s:

(fJ

Fig. 9.10. Ray diagram for 2 x 2 x 3 scheme

'I

9.19

_.fBO~
Structural formula = 3 (I) 2 (3) 2 (6). Reter Fig.9.11.
~A'''l
2 x2...scheme:

(ii) 3 x 1'1 .
_.!!!!!!-

3(1)

63
== 0.252 >

1'1",ax

2(6)

== 250

Stllg' 3 . 1'1input

.-:--1'1input

2(3)

4 ; and

500
== -250
== 2~2

N",in

Stage 2:

I).

Ninput

250
-

== 500

- . and
== O .5 > 4'

e\

N",ax

Ninput

710
-

== 500

1.42 < 2
500
1
'
== -1400 = 0.36> -4 ; and ~
rii

==
N",in

Stagel:

N
input
Nmax

....

1---Stage 1

'+--rii Stage
~
~

('I')

......

-+----'
2

'i
~

Stage 3

90

!
(/)

~------_63
A

1400

==

Ninput

3 (1)

4 (3)

.. Ratio requirements are satisfactory.

(iii) 3 x4 Scheme:

Refer Fig.9.12.

Nmin

Stage 2: --

63

==

4.

710 <

and

Ninput
Nmax
Ninput

1400

==

== 1.97 < 2.

710

In this stage, it is not possible to satisfy

the ratio requirements.
exceptionalcase.
Slage 1:

Nmin

==

Ninput

So treat
71 0
2000

= 0.35>

Nmax

tnpu:

as an

and

1400

= 2000
=

0.7 < 2.

., Ratio requirements are satisfied.

Scanned by CamScanner

L_ __ ----~------~63

Fig. 9.12. Ray diagramfor 3 x 4 scheme

9.20

Design o/Trans",.

ISS 1011

IS
:)ISte"",

(iv) 4 xJ Scheme:

Structural formula

4 (I) 3 (4).

Rt:fer Fig.9.13.

4 (1)

Nmin

Stage 2:

NinpU1

63
500
1

- 0.125 < 4'

Nmax

3 (4)

and

1000

- 500

Ninpul

- 2~2
In this stage, it is not possible to satisfy
the ratio requirements.
So treat as an
exceptional case.
Nmin

Stage 1:

Ninpul

500
--

1400
1

- 0.36>4'
Nmax

Ninpul

:. Ratio requirements

1400
1400

and
1<2.

are satisfied.

Conclusion:

Out of the four schemes, 3 x 2 x 2 scheme is better than other schemes.

Because, only 3 x 2 x 2 scheme satisfies the ratio requirements. i.e.,
Nmax

Ninput
in all stages.

Nmin

< 2;

input

compact units.

, Example 9.10

I Sketcb

1
Nmax
> 4- ; and -N

min

8,

gear box for the following data:

Motor speed = 1440 r.p.m; ,. Minimum output speed = 16 r.p.m: ,. Maximum output
speed = 800 r.p.m: ,. Arrangement = 2 x 3 x 3.
List the speeds of all the shafts when the output speed is 16r.p.m:
Given Data:
n = ] 8 ; Ninput = ] 440 r.p.m. ;
Nmin = 16 r.p.m. ;
Nmax =

800 r.p.m. ;

2 x 3 x 3.

To find: Construction of the speed diagram and the kinematic layout.

@Solution:
Selection of spindle speeds :
We know that,

Nmax
Nmin

_ cpn -

800

16 -

9.21
~18-1

Or

~::::

1.258

or

1.12 x 1.12 - 1.254

cafl write,
we
1 12 satisfies the requirement. Therefore

.
the e-
'" (skip one speed)
e sPindle speeds
. from R 20 series,

.1\::;

b
SO
'l1gIf'one speed, are given y

~1Ppl

25 31.5,40, 50, 63, 80, 100, 125, 160,200,250, 315 400 500
'.
.'
,
, 630 and 800 r.p.m.
16, 20,urUl-'fiormula:
Given that, 2 x 3 x 3 (l.e',Pr
P2 .P )
Ilct

St1 (OIo\\' that,

We

where

Structural formula

X::: 1;
I

X2

= PI = 2;

PI (Xl) P2 (X ) P3 (X )
2

X3 = PI . P2

Structural formula

==

2 x 3 ::::6

2 (1) 3 (2) 3 (6)

..ttd diagram: The speed diagram is drawn, as shown in Fig.9.14, using the procedure

51 _All' Example 9.8.

~iSCUSscu JO

(1)

3 (2)

3 (6)

~----------Ir-----------r--------~800
,

,,'

,
,,'

630
500

R:l.;-'!,,;:_--- .... 80
Dr\..-"

.......

". B 63

I" ..
'\.

,,"..
'.

". ".
..

..

'\. \

.,....
I

1..-----

-------~-

~-I-

l....-------.2!

en

50

".

40

"

31.5

'\.

25

~20

_--1------

". ".

"\

16

~
-t-

18 speed gear boX

914. Ray diagram/or
rig. .
6
N .
L
_ m~
- 18
c

Stage 3 :

_ . an
:::
0.2 < 4 '

Ninput
N
-

ma.!.

N input

~
:::

:::3.125

80

t satisfied.
., I .
.
ts are no
n this stage, ratio reqUlremen

Case,

:>

b treated
So it can e

as an

exceptional

1,

_9_.2_2

~D~~~~~n~o~if~mu~~
I,sS;o" 8
Nmin

Siage 2:

Nit;IPUI

Nmax

=
=

250
125

125
500

= 0.25 s 4" ; and

N;nput

Nm;n

Siage 1:

NinpU1

Nmax

:)I"tellt,

80 .
1
125 = 0.64 > 4" ; and
2
1

160
= 500 = 0.32 <2

N;npul

., Ratio requirements are satisfied in stages 2 and 1.

Kinematic layout: The kinematic layout for the 18 speed gear box is d

9 15
.
F Ig..

rawn, as shoUt.. .
"II

....f.--I4..-.

---

--

--

--

--

--

--

--

1
-

III

Shaft - 1

Speeds of all the shafts when'the output speed is 16 r.p.m.:

From the speed diagram (Fig.9.14), speeds of all the shafts when the output speed is 16
r.p.m., are given by
./

Speed of shaft 3

= 80 r.p.m.,

./

Speed of shaft 2

./

Speed of shaft 1

= 500 r.p.m.

9.11. OVERLAPPING

SPEED GEAR BOX

th ear bOX
If the engagement of two different sets of gears provide the same speed, then e g best
is known as overlapping speed gear box. The concept of overlapping of speeds can be
explained by Example 9.11.

9.23
11 A 14 speed gear box is reqUired to turn' "
./lrrfl'_lt__9,
Draw the speed diagram and the kine IS. Olltputspeeds in t"e rang.
\$!;
"tOO
r.p.~
N _ == 250"'0aIle
pl#'> '/I: n - 14'.' N min. = 125 r.p.m.,

r,P.m.arrange",ent
jl,,:.I111'_
trUctlon of the speed diagram and the kinernat'

11'''''",
Cons
Ii" ..,,:
f,r

IC

8lTangement.

~SD/~of spindle speeds :

"J,M'tlO1l

N max

== ~n-l

)f'~"

kOowthat

N min

We

2500
125

== ~14-1

Or ~ ==

1.259

ite
1.12 x 1.12 = 1.254
'" (skip one speed)
1
'"
_
1.
We caJl_ W0 satisfies the requirement.
Therefore the spindle speeds from R 20 series,
So If'
ed are given by
It

one~:

;50, 315, 400, 500, 630, 800, 1000, 1250, 1600, 2000 and 2500 r.p.m.
125,160, . 'mula: For 14 speeds, the preferred structural fonnula
StrJl(/urtdfo~
= 3 (I) 3 (3) 2 (5)

jiflIin8

Speed diagram: The speed diagram is drawn, as shown in Fig.9.16.

min

S1Dgt3 : N;npul

Nmax
N;npul

125
315

3 (1)

'-- _ _':"_~-'
1

04>
-4' . and
.
I

400
- 315

3 (3)
2 (5)

I __
-_-~--:::--:-:-:-1 2500

L--------+-----~~--~-----~~~2000
. ~'" , _.- ..... .....

l_-------+--~-~~~--~'~~~~11600

- 1.27 < 2.
~t2:

Nmin

N;npul

N
~ mat
N;"PUI

'e]..

315
800

0.39>

1250
800

l.56 < 2

==

800
1600

N.
~

N;lIput

N~
~

'npUt

4' ,. and

05>
-4'- . and
.

1250
==
1600

0.78 < 2.

for 14 speeds
ddiagram
.
gspee
fa}6 Over/appm
Fig.
7.

. ents ar e satisfied.
.
requlrem
.. RatiO

Design o/Transmi .
'"
----------------------------~~~-==~~~

9~2~4~

~.

In Fig.9.16, the ticked ( ......

) four speeds are overlapping speeds.

th ..... 9 16 we find that 400 r.p.m. is achieved through two different rout
From Ie rig. . th'at two different sets of gears are used to achieve the same Srll>"~s,1FCa
and IHJB. t means
r""'U.ln til
.
th
d
overlaps
at
speeds
500
630
and
800
r.p.m.
also.
e
same manner e spee
,
Kinematic arrangement: The kinematic arrangement for J 4 speed gear box is draWn

,as

shown in Fig.9.17.
Shaft - 1

-----------------------_.
r-

.-

l-

Shaft - 2
I- -1-1--

t- rf-

Shaft - 3

--------~
'-'-

Spindle (Shaft - 4)

9.12. DESIGN PROCEDURE FOR GEAR BOX

1. Selection of spindle speeds:
,/

Determine the progression ratio (<I using the relation

<l>n-I

,/

Nmax

= --

Nmin

For the calculated <1>, select the standard spindle speeds using the seriesof
preferred numbers, from Table 9.2.

2. Construct the ray diagram, as discussed earlier.

3. Construct the kinematic arrangement for the given gear box, as discussed earlier.
4. Calculation of number of teeth on all gears: Calculate the number of teeth of all the
gears engaged in all stages of the gear box.
5. Select the suitable material, consulting Tables 9.4 and 9.5.
6. Calculation of module:
,/

Calculate the torque for the gear which has the lowest speed using the relation,
T = P x 60

21t N

... (9.4)

rt

001

I ulate the tangential force on the.

.
9.25
I Ca c
gear In term
s of module using th J'
(referfig.9.18), T
2T
e re atJon
F, = -;: = z x m
'" (9.5)

m where

'4'm -

-v F, / '4'm x M

Gear

... (9.6)

Fig. 9.18.

m

M -

'

Material constant, from Table 9.4.

Table 9.4. Materia~constant (M)
Material

Material constant (M)

C45

30

15 Ni 2 Cr I Mo 15

80

40 Ni 2 Cr I Mo 28

100

7. Calculationof centre distance in all stages:

!!age by usingthe relation

a --

zx and zy

where

(Zx2+Zy)

... (9.7)

lOx m

Calculationof distance between the bearings ie., length of shafts :

Cal
.
h f [lowing assumptions, (refer
f' culatethe distance between the bearings by using teo
9.

Ig.9.19) :
-I

-I

d the bearing on both sides.

of gears as 20 mm.
.
~ th e pairs gear group
u as 4h and tor re

OU S

t/

t/

'. Djsta

nee between the bearings is given

L ::::25 + 10 + 4b (or 7 h) + 20

Scanned by CamScanner

+ 7h (or 4h)

10 + 25
+

." (9.8)

---r

20 mm

.1.

Shalt-a

7b

Fig. 9.19.

10. Design of shafts :

(i) Design of_sp~ndle i.e., outpu~ shaft:

Design the ou~put shaft for maximum bend"

moment by considering the shaft as Simply supported on bearmgs (refer Fig.9.20).
tng
L

Shaft - 3

Gear

Fig. 9.20.

./

Calculate the maximum bending moment due to normal load (Fn) using

the

relation
... (9.9)

M=

"

where
./

Fn

F,

cos a.

where

-v M.2 + T2

."

(9.10)

P x 60

1t

./

Teq =

low

I

d,
where

[t

[16

x Teq

1t [

't]

13

[ ..

. ['t]

_ 16 Teq

I
I,

1t

d/

.. ' (9.11)

9.27

'Imml
Shaft material

S.r-Io.
~

\.

2.
3.

25

30

40

55

4.
L--

(ii)

l 't 1. N/mml

Determine

Desig~ of otheTr shaft OS 2: d s3

. th relation

[ 1:

-.

uSing e

~-p-'e-9.-1-~-"'l1Design

... (9.12)

a 12 speed gear box for an all geared headstock of a lathe.

. ..... and minimum speeds are 600 r.p.m: and 25 r.p.m: respectively. Tile drive isfrom
f,{axJnI..,'

",electric nWtor giving 2.25 kW at ]440 r.p.m:

Given Data: n ~ 12; Nmox
Ninpul

= 1440 r.p.m.

Tofind: Design the 12 speed gear box.

@Solution :
1. Selection of spindle speeds :

Nmax
Weknow that

or
or
We can write,

<\>n-

<\>12-1

- Nmin

=
c\> ~

600

2s
1.335

06)
06 x 1 06)( 1.

..' (skip 4 speeds).

:=:

1.338

fr

indle speeds om

.
ent. Therefore the sp
So ~ = 1.06 satisfies the requlrem
~. Plngfour speeds, are given as
450 and 600 r.p- ro .
250 335,
9 21
25, 33.5 45 60 80 106 140, 190,'
h .~t11 in Fig. . .
, ,
,
'
'
d as S OvY
2.
. constructe ,
lay diagram: The ray diagram IS
l

'

.es
R 40 sert ,

Design. (JITrammbsiol1
9.28

3 (1) 2 (3) 2 (6)

Strllctural/orlHula:
Stale J:

Nm1n
N;1ffJII1

2~
80

1
0.31 > 4 and

140
80

2 (3)

3 (1)

2 (8)

eoo
4SO

.......'.'

335

'

250
Nmax

N;1ffJII1

Stage 2:

Nmin
N;npul

140

1.75 < 2

80
140

=
Nmax
N;npul

190

0.57

106
80

60

>4 and

.....

190
140

1i
Stage 1

Nm;n
N1nput

Nmax
N;nput

=
=

1i
.c

IV

Stage 2

CIJ

.c

CIJ

Stage 3

25
A

= 1.36 < 2
Stage 1:

.c

CIJ

45

('oj

12 speed gear box

140
1
450 = 0,311 > 4' and
250 = 0.56 < 2
450

.. Ratio requirements are satisfied.

3. Kinematic arrangement: The kinematic arrangement for the given 12 speed gear box
is constructed, as shown in Fig.9.22.

10mm

7b

20mm

r---------------------- ,,,_,,
Shaft - ..

Z10 ::

35

Fig. 9.22. Kinematic arrangement for 12 speed gear box

-r-:':
lation of number

9.29
of teeth on all gear. . Th

calCu

.
h
l'
e numb
f
below, followmg t e procedure used in E
er 0 teeth on all gears are
IlJ,ted as
xample 9.6.

J.

cJCJ

Slalt) :

if' Consider the ray that gives maxim

";,sf po '.
'Urn
reduction I
Ii
8
f'
The correspondmg gears are 13 and 14 on shaft 4
.e., rom 0 r.p.m, to
15 r p.rn.
7 Th
.
u:We jaJO w that ' zmin ~ 1.
erefore assume Z ::: 20 (d .
13
rIver).
zJ3

NI4

zI4

20

25

z14:::

80 ;

or -

NI3

:.

z14:::

64

Second pair: Consider the other ray that gives speed increase from 80
1
nding gears are 11 and 12.
r.p.m. to 40 r.p.m,
The correspo
140
80

NI2

zll

=-=-

zl2

Nil

orz

-175.

II -

zl2

... (i)

We alsoknow that the sum of number of teeth of mating gears should be equal.
"

+ zl2

zJJ

z13

+ zl4

:::

= 84

20 + 64

... (ii)
II

On solving equations (i) and (ii), we get

= 30.5 ~ 31 and zlJ ::: 84 - 31 = 53

zl2

Stage 2:
Fisf pair : Consider the ray that gives maximum reduction from 140 r.p.m. to 80 r.p.m.
11Jecorresponding
gears are 9 and 1'0. Assume z9 = 20 (driver).

NIO

z9

20

= N9

Z10

or

ZJO

80

140;

:.

zlO -

35

Second pair : Consider the other ray that gives speed increase from 140 r.p.m, to
190rp.m. The corresponding gears are 7 and 8.
'.

and

Ns
190
N7 = 140 or

z7

Zs
Z

+ Zs
7

- ""9 + Z 10
-

z7

20 + 35

=.

1357

... (iii)

Zs
... (iv)

55

Zs

23.3 ~ 24 .an

Sta,e 1 .
Fit.

- 55 -24

Z7 -

== 31

. fr 450 r.p.m. to J 40 r.p.m.

reductJon om
'IleCorre
: Consider the ray that gives maxImum (d'
r)
sponding gears are 5 and 6. Assume Zs == 20 nve

l't

'St Pai,

'.

Zs

z6

N6

= -

Scanned by CamScanner

Ns

20

or -

z6

140

-'
== 450'

..

z6

== ~4.28

= 65.

9.30

Design olTransm/ssl
~

S~colldpair: Consider the ray that gives speed reduction from 450 r.p.m. to 190
The corresponding gears are 3 and 4.
r,pllI.
z3
%4

..

190
450 or

N4

:a::

N3 =

13

= 0.422.%4

'" (\I)

and

'" (vi)

On solving the equations (v) and (vi), we get

%4

="

59.77

!ItS

60 and

.%3 ==

85 - 60 == 25

Thirdpair: Consider the ray that gives speed reduction from 450 r.p.m. to 250 r.p.m. The
corresponding gears are 1 and 2.
%1
N2
250
z2 = Nl = 450

:.

or

%1 == 0.555 Z2

'" (vii)

and

.. (viii)

On solving the equations (vii) and (viii), we get

z2 = \ 54.66 ~ 55 and zl == 85 - 55 == 30

5. Material selection:

C 45

6. Calculation of module:
./

To find torque: In this case, the lowest speed 25 r.p.m. is obtained by meshing
gears 13 and 14. Therefore torque at 25 r.p.m. is given by
T 14

./

'14

= r =

2x

T14

Z14

xm

2 x 859.44 x 103
64xm

We know that,

where

or

2.25 x 103 x 60
2 1t x 25

= 859.44 N-m

Tofind tangentialforce on gear 14 :

F

./

P x 60

= 2 1t N =

26857.5
m

module, m = ~ F, I \JIm
\JIm

X

module, m

(26857.5 1m)
10 x 30

= ~

89.525/ m

4.47 mm

From Table 5.8, the nearest higher standard module is 5 mm.

or m2 == 89.525 I!"

9.3)

1.

cme

1II(11lo0/
n centre dIStance:

at

= (~

;Z2)

In

= (30+55)
2

x 5 = 212.5 mm

a2 = (Z7; Zs)

= (31 +
2

aJ

(Zll;

In

24) x
Z12)

5 = 137.5 mm

In

(53 + 31) 5
2
2
= 10mm

I, Calculationof face width: b = \V x m = lOx 5 = 50 mm

9, Calculationof length of shaft (i.e., distance between the bearings) :
Lengthof shaft,
L = 25 + 10 + 7 b + 20 + 4 b + 20 + 4 b + 10 + 25
= I 10 + (15 x 50) = 860 mm
10, Designof shafts :
~)Designo/spindle i.e., output shaft:
,I Tofind maximum bending moment (M) :
Fn x L

where

Fn

(26857.5/5)
cos 20

cos a.

(26857.5 / m)
cos a.

= 5716.23 N

M =

5716.23 x 860
4
= 12.29 x 105 N-mm

= -VI M2 + r214 = ~

eq

=
0/

F,

T

D~~r

I

= [16

x req

7t(t]

J 3 where

t = 30

0/

IS b

0/

= 110 +

_ [16

7t x 30

1.5 x 1()6J3

oUnded off value of the diameter, using

= 63.38 mm

R 40 series is 67 mm.
,

iO'
~i

9.32

(;i) Design of other shafts:

(a) Diameter ofshaft 1:
Input speed = 450 r.p.m.
p x 60
2.25 x 103 x 60
=
Torque =
27t x 450

47.746 N-m

We know that,

d;l

47.746 x 103

0.2

ds1

or

30

(b) Diameter of shaft 2 :

Minimum speed = 140 r.p.m.
Torque

p x 60
2.25 x 103 x 60
= 153.47 N-m
= 27tN
=
27t x 140

T = 0.2

We know that,

d;

['t]

d;2

153.47 x 103

0.2 x

ds2

or

x 30

(c) Diameter of shaft 3 :

Minimum speed = 80 r.p.m.
Torque

P x 60
2.25 x 103 x 60
=
= 268.57 N-m
27tN
27t x 80

..

ds3

or

I Example

9.13

I Design

= 35.5

d;3

x 30

mm

a gear drive to give 18 speeds for a spindle of a milling

machine. The drive is from an electric motor of 3. 75 k W at 1440 r.p.m: Maximum and
minimum speeds of the spindle are to be around 650 and 35 r.p.m. respectively.
Given Data:

n = 18; P
Nmin =

Tofind:

1440 r.p.m.;

35 r.p.m.

Design the gear box.

@Solution:
1. Selection of spindle speeds :
We know that,
or

4>n-l
4>18-1

=
=

Nmax
Nmin

650
3S

or 4> = 1.1875

Nmax

= 650 r.p.m.;

~-:'-O-6X-(l-'-06--XI.-0-6)-910"

1.191

9.33

.
AI:::; 1.06satIsfiesthe requirem
SO

ent, Therefore the

. ., 2 speeds, are given
by

~PPI~g

.
35. , 42.5, 50, 60, 71, 85, 100, 118, 140 1

d 6705 r.p.m.

.0

, Bay diagram.
i'

Th

e ray

diagram is

35.5

Nm~
N;npul

Nmin
Stage 2:

Ninput

280
- 140

3 (2)

3~

""-~H
_ ""'

....

'.: __.
...

." ,

...

,.."

,....
''(.,'/
'f' ,.....
','

280

"

- 236

236
- 475

280

....
236

....

,: ........
,"

..

140

'II

" ',',",:,

100

" "

' \ " ''-' '' 85

, "
\ ,' ,'
,,"

N;npul

'

...

. , ' , ..

Nm;n

.:

and

- 1.186
Stage 1:

~475

,__
, ,. ....
e
_"_
' .'(.-7
,."
..

D ~':

Nmax
NinpUI

'

400
_------:"...' ........335
_.........
F '..f-:,~...
.._
_
..,,:"
.' ,
.'

.' "

"

G ~.-

0.59>4

......,560
670

,,1'

I"

236

, 475, 560

,:====---t---_::+=~="'
. . l'
-

2 (1)

140

'

, as shown in Fig.9.23.

, 335 400

constructed

= -140
-

s)

s from R 40 series,

'

---Stille 3' N
inpJlI

' 70, 200, 236 280

Nm;n

SPIndle speed

~'

,' ,

71

, '. ' 60
'. '
.... 50

\
1

0.497> 4 and

\\

42.5

~ __S_ta_ge_1~I--S_m~ge_2--~~S=ta~ge~3~\~ 35.5
A

280
475

_ 0.59 < 2

'.
J.

Fig. 9.23. Ray diagram/or 18 speed gear box

Ratio re qUlrements
.
are satisfied.
.
,~draWn
. KlIIelllattc arrangement: The kinematic arrangement for the given 18 speed gear box

, as shown in Fig.9.24.

9.34

T
58

79

4. Calculation of number of teeth on all gears:

Stage 3:
First pair: Consider the ray that gives maximum reduction from 140 r.p.m. to 35.5r.p.m.
The corresponding gears are 15 and 16.
Assume
ZIS = 20 (driver)
20

35.5
--- 140

Second pair: Consider the other ray that gives speed reduction from 140 r.p.m. to
100 r.p.m. The corresponding gears are 11 and 12.

and

ZlI

zll
zI2

NI2
Nll

+ zI2

zI5 +zI6

100

= 140 or
=

= 0.714 z12

zll

20 + 79

99

... (i)
... (ii)

On solving the equations (i) and (ii), we get

zI2 =

57.75 ~ 58 and

Ztt

= 99

- 58 -= 41

Third pair: Consider the other ray that gives speed increase from 140 r.p.m. to 280r.p.ro.
The corresponding gears are 13 and 14.
NI4
280
- NI3 = 140 or

and

zl3

+ zI4

zI5

+ zI6

z13

20 + 79

=2

.. , (iii)
xZl4

= 99

zI4 =

33 and

zI3 =

99 - 33

= 66

. , (iv)

Bo1

siage 1'r: ' Consider

. the ray that giv
tpal '
es rna .
firS p00ding gears are 9 and 10.
Xlrnum reducti
"'~
. on from 236
II'.
e
Z
"'0
rPm. to 140
A~~'"
9
~
(driver)
rp.rn.
z9

zION

20

-lQ

or -

_ 140
--2'

.
, C id tl
h
10
36'"
Z
- 33
lid paIr,' onsi er ue ot er ray tha .
10 .71 ~ 34
secO
di
at gives s
peed reduction from 236 r.p.rn. to 200
r.p.nt. The correspon 109 gears are 5 and 6
.'

Zs

_ N6

z6

Ns

z +z

d
.

an

200
== 236 or

Zs

== 0.847

6 -

...

(v)

Z9+ZIO==20+34=54

On solvmg the equatIOns (v) and (v i), we get

... (v i)

z6 = 29.24 ~ 30 and
,
.
Zs -- 54 - 30 = 24
Third paIT: Consider the other ray that giv es th e speed mcreas
.
f
2
rIm.Thecorresponding gears are 7 and 8.
e rom 36 r.p.m. to 280

Ng

z7

Z7

and

Zg

N7

+ Zg

z9

280
=

236 or

+ zlO

z7 =

1.186

...

z8

( VlIii)

... (viii)

20 + 34 = 54

On solvingthe equations (vii) and (viii), we get

Zg

24.69 ~ 25 and

z7

== 54 - 25 == 29

Slage 1"

First pair,' Consider the ray that gives maximum speed reduction from 475 r.p.m. to
.J~r.p.m.The corresponding
Assume

z3 20 (driver)
Z3

St

N3

z4

N4

_ -

20 _ ~ . :.
or - - 475 '
z4

zl

z2

and
Z1

vn sol'

Vlog

40.25 ~ 41

.Thee orresponding gears are 1 and 2.

I'L

Z4 ==

+ z2

... (ix)

N2 _ ~

:::: -

NJ

:::: z3

- 475

or

::::0.59z2

..' (x)

:::: 20 + 41 ::::61

+ Z4

the equations (ix) and (x), we get

d
z2 :::: 38.37 ~ 39 an

ZI ~

61 - 39 ~ 22

Design o/Trans",is

-~~

------------------------------------~~~--~~1~

~.36

'.

40 N i 2 Cr I Mo 28 (hardened and tempered)

6. Calculalion of module:

./

_
16 has the lowest speed of .;,5.5 r.p.m .

Tofind torque: T he gear

p x 60
=

T 16
./

21t N

3.75 x 10J x 60 _
2
35 5
- 1008.7) N-m

1t x

To find tangential force on gear 16 :

T

F1

16

./

where

\11
Tm

= -m

2 x 1008.73 x 103
79 x m

= ~

We know that, module,

= 10 and

'

(25537.43 1m)
10 x 100

module, m

or

25537.43
m

FI I 'Vm x M

M = Material constant
m

= ~

25.5371m

or m2

= 25.537/ m

2.945 mm

./

./

./

./

a2 =

ZI

+Z2)
2

(Z5 +Z6)
2
(ZII

m =

(22+39)
2
(24 + 30)

= 81

91.5 mm

mm

+2 Z12) m -_ (41 +2 58) ~ _- 148.5mm

= '-V x m = lOx 3 = 30 mm

9. Calculation of length of shaft (i:e., distance between the bearings) :

Length of shaft, L

25 + 10 + 4 b + 20 + 7 b + 20 + 7 b + 10 + 25

110 + 18 x 30 = 650 mm

110 + 18b

r
i

60.1

I~

II O/sha/lS :

~ peS"

4

where F.

lcos a

9058.79 x 650
4

gSS 37.43 I "!l

cos a
_ (25537.43/3}
cos 200
= 9058.79 N

...
,

1.472

106 N-mm

Equivalent torque,
-

ds

= [

161t x[ ~Teq
1 3 where [t

1= 55 N/mm', from Table 9.5.

_16

x 55x 10 J3 = 54.87
x 1t
1.784

mm '" 56 mm (R 40 series)

[
(u) Design 0/ other shafts:
(a) DiamJ!terojshaft

1:

Input speed = 47S r.p.ro. 3

p x 6~ _ ~ 75 x 10 x @ = 75.39 N-m
Torque :::: 21t N 21t x 475
T

::=

0.2 x

d; x [

't ]

Weknow that ,
75.39 x 103 -

ds1

or

0.2 x d~l x S5
19

:::: 18.99 mm ~

(b)Diameter 0/ shaft 2 :
Minimum speed
Torque

Or

da

:::::

Ill
IIl

(R 40 series)

Q~~

D_e_Sl=gn---=of:..__Tr....::.:a..:..:ns~m;ss;O

-------

~.38

(c) Diameter of shaft 3 :

Minimum speed = 140 r.p.m.
3.75 X 103 x 60
p x 60
=
21t x 140
= 255.78 N-m
Torque - 21tN
255.78 x 103
d s3

or

0.2 x

d;3

= 28.54 rnm

x SS

30

mm

(R 40 series)

REVIEW AND SUMMARY

../

Gear boxes are used to obtain different spindle speeds in most of the machine tools.

../

The speeds in machine tool gear boxes are in geometric progression .

../

The concept of preferred numbers and their significance are presented in the beginning

../

of this chapter .
Step ratio (or series ratio or progression ratio) () is given by

t/Jn -

max
N.

where n

= Number

mm

../

Structural formula : n = PI (XI) 'P2 (X2/ 'P3 (X3)

where XI

= J;

X2 = PI" X3 = PI 'P2

../

../

Ray or speed diagram is the graphical representation of the structural formula .

../

Ray diagram serves to determine the specific values of all the transmission ratios and
speeds of all the shafts in the drive .

../

The basic rules to befollowed while designing the gear boxes are also discussed.

../ If the engagement of two different sets of gears provide the same, then the gear box is
known as overlapping speed gear box.
../

The step by step procedure for gear box design is presented at the end of this chapter.
REVIEW QUESTIONS

I.

2.

What are the requirements of a speed gear box?

3.

The speeds in machine tool gear boxes are in geometric progression. Why?

4.

5.

6.

Write an engineering brief on :

(i) Kinematic layout of gear box; and (ii) Ray diagram.

:t

W Ite t

he significance

of structural formul

9.3

a.

r
tiate ray diagram and structural d'
1. Oitferen
lagram.
6.
t the basic rules to be followed for
.
9

~ist 011
Optrmum gear box d .
. the step by step procedure to design th
eSlgn.
W(Ite
e gear box.

/0.

blelflS

0"

layout:
f 1

".utlC

~ . need gear box IS to provIde a speed rang

A SIX Srd h k"
e 0 00 rpm t 100
/.
d diagram an t e rnemanc layout of the gear b
. . . 0
0 r.p.m. Draw the

spec

_'

ox.

minimum and maximum speed of 6 Speed ge bo

d d'
2.
. truct the spee
ragrarn and the kinematic arranar ox are to be 500 and 1600 r.p.m.
Cons
'.
gement of the gear box.
'ne speed gear box IS required to give output spe d
.
, AnI
.
e s rangmg from 100
6
J.
The input power IS 4 kW at 1000 rpm D
h
r.p.m. to 00
r.pm.
f
. . . raw t e structural diauram and th
inematic
arrangement
0
gears.
Also
calculate
the
0-"
e
k
f
percentage
deviation
of
th
obtainablespeeds rom t h e calculated ones.
e
The

w the kinematic
4.. Dra

arrangement and the speed diagram of th h d t k

.'
e ea soc gear box ofa
tuITetlathe having arrangement for 9 spmdle speeds ranging from 50 r.p.m. to 1500
r.p.m.Calculate the number of teeth on each gear if the minimum number of teeth on a
gear is 23.

5. A machine tool gear box is to have 9 speeds. The gear box is driven by an electric motor

whoseshaft rotational speed is 1400 r.p.m. The gear box is connected to the motor by a
belt drive. The maximum and minimum speeds required at the gear box output are 1000
r.p.m.and 200 r.p.m. Suitable speed reduction can also be provided in the belt drive.
Whatis the step ratio and what are the values of 9 speeds? Sketch the arrangement.
Obtainthe number of teeth on each gear and also the actual output speeds.
6. A 12 speed gear box is to provide

a minimum speed of 30 r.p.m. with a step ratio of

l.I2. Using standard step ratios, find the number of teeth on all gears.

7. Draw the speed diagram of a 12 speed gear box to give speeds in the ran~e of 63 to 2800
fp.m. Consider any 4 possible different alternates and indicate the best wIth reasons.
8. A mach'me tool gear box is to provide
. 14 spm. dl e speeds ranging from 20 to 400 r.p.m.
Draw the kinematic
'
arrangement and the ray d'lagram.
9. AI'
of 100 r.p.m. to 560 r.p.m. Sketch
6 speed gear box is to furnish speeds m the range
.
.
the k'
V
t dard progresSIOnrano.
lOematic layout and speed diagram. se san.
.
d
10. A
'.
.
of a milling mach me. Maxlm~m an
.~ear box IS to grve 18 speeds for a spmdle
800 rpm respectively. Fmd the
nlIn
d 16 to
. . .
Imum speeds of the spindle,. are to be aroun
d
the structural diagram and the
:~ ratios which will give the desired speeds and raw
Inemat'
ICarrangement of the drive.

--------------------------_D--eS_ig~n~Of~Tr_a~nr~rn=/~ss~ns

Q~~

!!.40

Problems on design of gear box:

.
.
ed
box with a step ratio of 1.25. The Input IS from a motor ru .
11. D esign a SIX spe gear
f
. 3k
nnlo
.,
m speed is 112 r.p.m. power 0 motor IS
W.
g
at 1440 r.p.m. TIte mmimu
.
12. A six speed gear box is required to provide output spe;d s ~~the ~~~ge of 125 to 400
5
r.p.m., with a step ratio of 1.25 and transmit ~ power 0
at
r.p.m. Draw the
speed diagram and kinematic diagram. Determ.lne the number of teeth, ~odule and face
width of all gears, assuming the suitable materials for the gears. Determine the length of
the gear box along the axis of the gear shaft.
13. Design a headstock gear box of a lathe having nine spindle speeds ranging from 30 to
1000 r.p.m. The power of the machine is 4.5 kW and the speed of the motor is 1440
r.p.m. Minimum number of teeth on the gear is to be 25. Sketch the layout of the gear
box and calculate the number of teeth on the gears.
14. Design a 9 speed gear box to give output speeds between 280 and 1800 r.p.m. The input
power is 5.5 kW at 1400 r.p.m. Draw the kinematic layout diagram and the speed
diagram. Determine the number of teeth on all gears and the length of all the shafts.
15. Design a nine speed gear box with a minimum speed of 200 r.p.m. and speed ratio 1.5.
The input is from a motor of2 kW at 1400 r.p.m.
16. Design a 12 speed gear box for an all geared headstock of a lathe. Maximum and '
minimum speeds are 900 r.p.m. and 23 r.p.m. respectively. The drive is from an electric
motor giving 2.2 kW at 1440 r.p.m.
17. The spindle of a pillar drill is to run at 12 different speeds in the range of 70 r.p.m. and
325 r.p.m. Design a three stage gear box with a standard step ratio. The gear box
receives 4 kW from an electric motor running at 330 r.p.m. Sketch the layout of the gear
box, indicating the number of teeth on each gear. Also sketch the speed diagram.
18. A gear box is to be designed for the following specifications;
Power to be transmitted

Number of speeds

15 kW
18

Minimum speed

16 r.p.m.

Step ratio

1.25

Motor speed

1400 r.p.m .

Arrangement

scheme

2 x 3 x 3

Sketch the speed diagram and the kinematic arrangement.

19. Design the layout of a gear box for a milling machine having an output of speeds
ranging from 180 to 2000 r.p.m. Power is supplied to the gear box by 6 kW induction
motor at 1440 r.p.m. Choose standard step ratio and construct the speed diagram. Decide
upon the various reduction ratios and number of teeth on each gear wheel. Sketch the
arrangement of the gear box.

I.

Clutches
"One Ues ore t ,L'
0'
a t,,/IIgsfro",

/L_
TIe

valley.

I~f.

INTRODUCTION
.

'he clutch
l

- G.K. Cllmenoll

a mechanical device which .

.
IS used to conn t
.
,,~J at the operator s Will. The use of clutch
. .
ec or disconnect the SOurce f
,\1
h .
. .
es IS mostly f d'
0
.i jII~JlI'''Iobile clutc IS a transmiSSion device whiICh IS
. used to
oun In automobile . In an
,nlltl the engine to the rest of the system.
engage and disengage the power
IS

For me above said reason,

the clutch is locat e d im be tween the
.

.
_. When the clutch IS engaged to the engin
.
engme and the transmission
~).
.
e, power IS transm'tt d
JL~aged, the power IS not transmitted to the rest f hie
to the wheels. If it is
J1JIIIIing and hence the vehicle stops. Therefore for co 0 , t thesyste~ even though engine is
1
.
.
.
up mg
e engme smooth I t th
i Q1IISlI1isslon
during starnng from rest and gear shifting , c Iu tCh IS
. used.
y 0 e power
lD.2. FUNCTIONS OF THE CLUTCH

"
"

the shafts at will.

T~ start or stop a machine (or a rotating element) without starting and stoppin the
prime mover.
g

"

To maintain constant

.f

.f

For automatic

disconnect,

'J. PRINCIPLES OF OPERATION OF THE CLUTCH

The clutch works on the principle of friction. When two friction surfaces are brought in
~lact with each other and pressed they are united due to the friction between them. The
~ on between the two surfaces d~pends upon the area of the surfa~es, pres~u~e applied
~~ ~d coefficient of friction of the surface materials. The principle of fnctlOn cl~tch
~;)lOOdwith the help of Fig. I0.1. The two surfaces can be separated and brought .mto
Wh
. .
b and the other as driven
en reqUired. One surface is considered as dnvJng mem er

J1.Q~~

------------------_D_~~ig.~n~of~T~~
.
""33iO

.;

drivi
member is kept rotating.
When the driven
member is brought.
member. Th e
vmg
.
.
th
.
ber it also starts rotating. When the driven member is se
I
to e dri vmg mem ,
. .
..
h'
parated
vmg member Iit does not revolve ThIS ISthe principle be ind the operation 0f the

dri .

Bee
A

Disc

Disc

Driving disc

Driven disc

(b) After engagement

Fig. 10.1.
10.4. CLASSIFICATION

OF CLUTCHES

The clutches are classified in two ways:

1. Based on the engage1lU!ntor actuation method used* :
(a) Mechanical,
tb) Pneumatic,
(c) Hydraulic,
(d) Electrical, and
(e) Automatic.
2. Based on the basic operating principle used** :
(a) Positive contact clutches
./ Square jaw

./

Spiral jaw

./

Toothed

./

Roller
Sprag

./

Wrap-spring

./

Dry fluid
Hydraulic

./

Axial

./

./

Cone

(d) Magnetic clutches

./

Magnetic particles

./

Hysteresis

./

Eddy current

r~

01 Mel/lods :
,co"tr
.
Mechanical control IS achiev db'
I
e y ltnka '
cams or we d ges. Th e actuatinb f
ges at by b

.
'.
e orce can 1.._
ails Or t II
electrtC motor, air cylmder, or hYd .
ue suppli.....
0 trs workinabv
rauhc ra
~ rnanuall
e
er
lectrical
control
of
friction
or
t
h
Ill.
"1
Or
by
solenoid
I E
oot cl h

electrically and releasing it by spr] f utc es ofteh invol

Ing orce
ves engagingth
I Pneumatic or hydraulic Control'
.
e clutch
IS accomplished b
I
y actuating P'iston nd
.
I f
s a
I AutomatIc contro 0 clutches implie th
s at they react to ed
Coupling Methods:
pr eterrnmed conditions.
I

I positive-contact

clutches have interloc k"Ing engaglh

mechanical junction.
I

into firm frictional contact.

J.

g SUnates to

form a rigid

. wo opposingsurfacesate forced

Overrunning
are used when two members are t0 run freeIy relati
. clutches
..
anve to
do

each other

one direction but are to lock in the other.

I Magnetic clutches use magnetic forces to couple the rotating membersor to
provide the actuating force for a friction clutch.
I Fluid couplings make use of a hydraulic oil or a quantity of heat-treatedsteel shot
But from the subject point of view, the five important types of frictionclutchesare :
1.
2.

3.
4.

In

Disc or plate clutches,

(a) Single plate clutches,

(b) Multi-plate clutches

Cone clutches,
Centrifugal clutches,
Internal expanding rim clutches, and

External contracting rim clutches.

.'
l t hts Thecentrifugal.internal
known as axial frictIon cue .
~
The disc and cone clutches are
d
dial/riction clutches.
. . I tches are calle as ra
expanding rim and external contractmg nm c u
IM:::l

5.

10.5.FRICTION MATERIALS

FOR CLUTCHES

d Friction Material
0.5.1. Required Qualities of a Goo
.
ualities :
wtng
the follo
q
A good friction material should have
.'
d tivity.
. t offnctlon.
. ood heat con uc
-/ A high and uniform coefficlen
together Withg
. h temperatures,
0/ The ability to withstand hlg

10.4

u~/f""
----.:::..

~ High resistance to wear. scoring, and galling.

~ Resistance against envlronmenral conditions, such

85

IJ.

~ Adequate mechanical and thermal strengths.

10.5.2. Commonly u d Friction Materlall are
I.

Wood,

2.

Cork,

J.

Leather;

4.
S.

Asbestos based friction materials, and

Powdered metal (or sintered metal) friction materials.

'

Wood, cork and leather are used only for light loads and low speeds. But in
practice, for high speeds and heavy loads, asbestos based materials and powdered
metals are widely used.

10.1.3. Asbestos baled Friction Materlall

The two types of asbestos friction materials used are :
(i) Woven type, and

(ii) Moulded or composite type.

(I) Wov~n type: Woven type friction material is obtained by spinning threads from

asbestos fibres, woven around brass, copper or zinc wires. Then it is impregnated with a
bonding material.
(1/) Moulded or composite type: In mould or composite type, the asbestos fibres in their
natural state are mixed with a bonding material and then moulded in dies under pressure at
high temperature.
10.5.3.1. The bonding materials used are
-/'

-/'

Vegetable gums,

-/'

Rubber, and

-/'

./

Woven material is flexible, while moulded asbestos is rigid.

-/'

Woven material has higher coefficient of friction than the moulded asbestos
material.

-/'

Woven materials wear at a faster rate than the moulded asbestos materials.

-/'

Woven materials are costlier than the moulded asbestos materials.

The main drawback of both the woven and moulded asbestos materials is their inability to
withstand high temperature.

,/~red
(or .Intered)
r Apo"tAI"IIddeer.

metal frlctl
.
on material.
6"
e materials are obtatned from rn
f~'. I fheSlIurgy in the form of 0.25 to 6 0 metallic POwder by th
metS
. rn thick
e proee
steel discs on one or both 8ides
straps. These
55 of POwder
onto

straps can be
twO types of sintered metal frictioh
.
pressed
h
. d
d' .
matenals u
If (i) eBronze-base
,an
(II) Iron-based.
sed are:

1~!I.l. friction materials)
materials(overaSbestosbased
ey have high and un iform coefficient of f " .
I Th
r rlchon.
They can withstand high temperatures.

I
I They are lighter, cheaper and compact in construction.
I They are unaffected

by environmerttal conditions.

;
Table 10 . 1. shows the values of coefficient of friction for diffierentcom b'matlons.
Table /0.1. Coefficient ollrlction
Coefficient of fridlon

Contacting surfaces
Wet

Dry

0.1-0.2

OJ -0.6

0.08-0.12

0.2-0.5

0.05 - 0.1

0.1-0.4

0.05 -0.1

O.I-OJ

10.6.SINGLE PLATE CLUTCH

Fly wheel _---...

Clutch spring

Engine
shaft -_

clUtCh shaft

Fig. /0.2. Single plate clutch

_ Design olTI'QfJ31hL

'0.6

331

0"

S~,fle

r.his type of clutch is mosdy used In ~otor vehicles, It.co~sists of one clutch
~
shaft, dutch spring, pressure plate, friction lining and bearing. The flYWheel. Plate, CI~
the eHgine crankshaft and rotate! with it. The pressure plate is bolted to the fl~hrnounted
~
dutch springs ..The fHttiCU1 I infngs are on both sides of the clutch plate. Fig.I 0.2eelthrOU&h
artltHgement of single plate clutch.
shows the
OpetallOJl: When the clutch is engaged, the clutch plate is gripped between the
and the pressure plates. Due to friction, the clutch plate and shaft revolves. Whe thflY\vheel
pedal is pressed. the pressure plate moves back against the force of the springs, an~ theclutch
plate becomes free between the flywheel and the pressure plate.
e clutch
Thus the flywheel remains rotating as long as the engine is running and the clutch
speed reduces slowly and finaJJy it stops rotating.
shaft
10.8.1. DesIgn of a SIngle Plat. Clutch
(Torque transmitted by the Single Plate Clutch)

Consider two friction surfaces held together by an axial thrust W, as shown in Fig.IO.3(a).
Single disc
OIp1ale

Friction surface

<a)

(b)

Let

T
p

=
=

rl -

r2

Torque transmitted by the clutch,

Intensity of axial pressure acting on contact surfaces,
Internal radius of friction surface, and

J.l = Coefficient of friction.

Consider an elementary ring of radius r and thickness dr, as shown in Fig.l O.3(b).
Area of the elemental ring
Normal or axial force on the ring,

oW

= 21tr dr
=

Pressure x Area

p x 2nr' dr

and the frictional force on the ring acting tangentially at radius r is given by

'"p )(27t/' . d.r

' Fr.'ctiona' torque actmg on the ring , r,.:::: F

"

,.)(r

T ::: ,.
,.

'go of friction clutch is done based on a ::::2n", p r2 dr

tbe des'
ny one of the fOlio '
(i) When there is a uniform pressure, and
Wingassumptions:
(ii) When there is a uniform wear.

1.l

ConslU'e

~ Area 0f the friction

surface, A == n (1'2J

_ 1'

2)
2

VnlJo

W
W
p-------

A -n(r:-r;)

... (10.1)

Totalfrictional torque actin~ ~n the friction surface or on the clutch is obtained by

mtegT8 ting the equation of the ffictlOnal torque on the elementary ring within the limits from
o

'2 to '"

27t Il P r2 dr

27t 11P [ ~ ] :

r2

Substituting the val ue of p from equation (10.1),

W
T = 21t #l x 1t (I'; _

or
where

... (10.2)

R - Mean radius offriction surface

2

3 3]

rJ

... (10.3)

-1'2

R = 2
2
3
r I - r2
"
"ty of pressure varies
"
r
uniform
wear,
the
rntens
. (Ii) Considering uniform wear: Fo
m~ersel '
&'.
Y WIththe distance. ThereJore,

= constant::=

P2' 1'2 =

C or p == I'
C]

108

Design a/Transmissions

where PI and P2 are intensities of pressure at radii rl and r2 respectively.

We know that normal or axial force on the elementary ring,

flW

[ .p

C
~;l

'1

f 21t C dr

= 21t C

[r

(I =

'2

'2

Ie

or

W
'" (l0.4)

T,

= 21tfl pr2 dr = 21tfl

=

x -;: x

r2 . dr

[ ': p

21t fl . C . r . dr

:. Total frictional torque on the friction surface,

T =

= -r ]

2x,,

e .r . dr

= 2x"

e[ ~

'2

'2

T = 1t fl C [r~ - r; ]
Substituting the value ofC from equation (l0.4),

7t

II

r:

(r2

_ r2 )
2

... (10.5)

R = Mean radius of the friction surface

where
or

... (10.6)

INote I
I. In general, totalfrictional torque acting on thefriction sur/ace or on the clutch is given by
T

where n

Number

nJ.lWR

0/pairs

= 2.

C/~fC"es

10.9

. .a the problem, if the word 'new clutch' i

.
'Iesolvmb
S gIVen, then considi
J If'"
Bul if Ihe word old clutch is given, then II I.
er as an uniform prt!\$sur~
, ble""
s an uniform
'
prO hen uniform wear should be considered
w~arprob/~m. If nothing ;s
f

fPted. I

l Intensll)!
S

uf pressure

rfi
'ctionsu ace.
thefr I
roue pressure

'{he {IV e

o:

r a

10,1

.'

IS

]I

1/

or contact suna
'J'

ce IS given by

Total {orce on/ticlion surface

Cross-sectional area 0/'frtctton s.r.
UIjQce =

frlr1 W
_ }
J

r1

...(10.7)

MULTIPLATE OR MULTIPLE DISC CLUTCH

Friction rings (spIined)

Driven aha1!

Engine shaft

Fig. 10.4. Multiplate disc clutch

A multiplate clutch is used when large amount of torque is to be transmitted. In a
~ultiplateclutch, the number of frictional linings and the metal. plates are increased which
1DjCl'easeS the capacity of the clutch to transmit torque, as shown in Fig. 10.4. The multiplate
Cutchw orkS In
. the same way as the single plate clutch by operating
. the clutch pedal. They
are extensive I'y used In motor cars, machine
. tools, etc.

10.7.1 D

. eSignof a Multiplate Clutch

let (Torquetransmitted on Multiplate Clutch)
nl = Number of discs on the driving shaft, and
"2 =

.. Nurnbe

Number of discs on the driven shaft.

= "1+"2-1

'J

--------------------~
10.10

---------------------D--es-l=gn~of~Tr-a-n-s-m~~~s~;n~ns
~

IT

= n'

J.l W . R ]

'" (10.8)

where

~ [r1-rn
3

rl-r2J

rl

+r2

10.8. SERVICE FACTORS

We know that the design of disc clutch requires the calculation of (I) the dimensions of
the disc, (2) the number of discs, and (3) the clamping or engaging force . .It may be noted
that a clutch should have a torque capacity substantially greater than the nominal torque
requirement so that the load can be accelerated without excessive slip. So while designing,
one has to consider service factor which includes driver and driven dynamic characteristic
factors, wear factor and frequency of operation factor. Refer Tables 10.2 to 10.5.
Design torque
[T)

T x ks

... (10.9)

[from Tables 10.2 to 10.5]

where

Table 10.2. Driver dynamic characteristic factor, k J (from data book, page no. 7.9IJ)
Factor
Type of drh'ing system

k)

or when ~ar box is used

Electric motor directly connected
to mains

0.5

0.33

Machines with low starting torque

characteristics, turbines, etc.

0.33

kl

Metal cutting machine tools, wood working machine tools, reciprocating

compressors, centrifugal pumps, etc.
.

1.25

turbo

1.6

compressors, cranes, heavy machinery, piston pumps, heavy drills, etc.

Forging machines, presses,
paper mach'
. wire drawing machines ,mery,

etc.

2.5

t

160

240

~#',

vro", dlltll b

DOt, page
110.

400

7.91)

0.43

Igements in En
~ofeng
~r sbift
~

~
I t h

.
IS

0.2

16

32

0.55

48

0.75

0.9

96

240

480

1.2

1.8

2.00

hi

ems w ich require the calculation of

~ions of the c u c .

~lemson Single Plate Clutch

r:

~le
10.1] An automoti~~ sing~e
cltach consistso/two pairso/contacting
If/acts.The inner and outer radii of 'friction plate are 120 mm and 250 mm respectively.
Ik cot/flCkntof friction is 0.25 and the total axial force is 15 kN. Calculatethepower
_mitting capacity of the clutch plate at 500 r.p.m: using
(i) Uniform wear theory, and
(ii) Uniform pressure theory.
GivenData:
n = 2;
'I = 250 mm

~=

0.25 ;

e Solution:

15 kN

0.25 m;

15 x 103 N ;

IL.

(i) Using uniform wear t"eory .

'2 =

120 mm

0.12 m;

N = 500 r.p.m.
. .
Torque transmitted on clutch IS given by

('I + '2)

T -

nJ.1W

{Q.25 + O.l~
_ 2 x 0.25 x 15 x 10
2
3

.
.
'. Power transmitted
~':I

:.p~

1387.5N-m

21t x 500 x 1387J = 72.65 kW Ans."",

21t NT == 60
.
=
60
lutch is given by
itted on c
Torque transm

T -

n f1 W

3 ]

,31 -'2-

'3 [ ;~

-r~

0.25 _ 0.12 ] ~ 1444.6N-m

x ~ x [ 025 - (0.12i
_ 2 x 0.25 x 15 x 103 3
( .
4 k'W Ans. ~
" .... '>l 500~
:::::75.6
21tNT
== ~

10.12

olT,an.r

Daig,.

IExturtJ!!.r

/0.21

'"Utio"

I~

al1440 r.p.m. It has out~r and Inn~,,1UIU ~ ~

60 ".". raptivdy.
TII~ maximum int~nsity of pressure is Ilmit~d to 10 )( 1()4ao".". '"
CH.ffkU1It of friction is 0.1, d~t~rmin~ :
/V/tttl. 1/,..
(I) Total pnssun

Given Data:

N = 1440 r.p.m.;

n = 2;
'2

60 mm

60 x

10-3 m

Pmax

'1 =

80 mm == 80

10 x 1()4N/m2...

)( 1()-3

,. ==

0.)

Ill;

e Solution:

(i) Total pressure exerted on the plate : Since the intensity f .

(P) is maximum at the inner radius ('2)' therefore for uniform wear
0 PTessurt

= C or C =

Pmax"2

10-3

lOx l()4x60x

6000N/m

We know that the axial thrust,

W = 2lt C ('1 - '2)
= 2lt x 6000 (80 x 10-3 - 60 x 10-3) = 754 N

754 N Ans. ~

{il) Power transmitted:

Torque transmitted, T

('1 + '2)

= nJ.1W,

= 2 x 0.3 x 754 (80 x 10- ;

Power transmitted,

I Example

2lt NT
60

60 x 10-

60

= 31.67 N-m

~

10.3 A single plate clutch transmits 25 kW at 900 r.p.m. The mtJXiIruII

pressure intensity between the plates is 85 kNlntZ. The ratio of radii is 1.25. Both the ~
of the plate are effective and the coefficient of friction is 0.25. Determine (i) the bfM1
diameter of the plate, and (ii) the axial force to engage the clutch. Assumt theory~
uniform wear.
Given Data:
P = 25 kW = 25 x 103 W ;
N = 900 r.p.m.: ,,/'2:::: 1.25;
n

e Solution:
W

2;

Pmax

85 kN/m2

.

21tNT
60

25 x 1f)3 = 21t x 900 x T

60

85 x 103 N/m2;

~ == 0.25.

"

of

e an
'~ce th

T = 265.26 N-rn
tensity of pressure is maximurn at th .

e anne

Pmax . 1'2 = C or C - 85

51

"

d the aX

ial thrust transmitted

W == 21t C (I'.

,JJ

to the frictional

-1'2)

1()3

'2 ,

'2

N/rnrn

..c.

SUI

lace,

= 2n x 85 x 103

'2

(1.25 r

1be me

2'2

an radius for uniform wear is given by

R _

r. +

L25'2 + '2
2 - == 1.1251'2

1'2

T - nIJ.WR
265.26 - 2 x 0.25

Torque transmitted,

x J .335 x

lOs (1'2)2

I.1251'2

= 75.104 x 100,~

or

1'2 -

and

1'1

0.1523 m or 152.3 mm

- 1.25

1'2 =

1.25 x ] 52.3

==

190.375 mm

= 27tC
=

IExample10.4

(I'I - 1'2)

3096.57N Ans."

, Outer and inner diameters of a single plate clutch, having ferodo

fridion linings on both sides are 300 mm and 200 mm respectively. The coefficient of
frrtionbetween the contacting surfaces is 0.35. Assuming uniform rate of wear, determine
~ -imum power tllat can be transmitted by the clutch at 1500 r.p.m: when the
trxUnum pressure is not to exceed 15 x 1fJ4 Nlm2. Also, determine the axial thrust to be
~U~~erinponpn~unpm~
3
Given Data:
d , = 300 mm = 300 x 10-3 m; d2 = 200 mm = 200 x 10- m;
.
= 15 X )04 N/m2,
IJ. = 0.35;
N = ] 500 r.p.m.: Pmax
@ Sol'
.
.
. m at the inner radius ('2)'
~
utlOn: Since the intensity of pressure (p) IS maxunu
fore for 'c
unhOrm wear
0-3 == 15000 N/m
Prnax.r2 = C or C = 15 x l()4x ]OOX ]
A>:iaJ thru
st exerted by the springs is given by
3 100 x 10-3)
150X
10-(
W = 27t C (I'I - 1'2) == 27t x 1500 O x

ro,
qUe

trans

= 4712.39 N Ans. 1)

.
llutted for uniform wear,

_1_O._14

D_a~ign~Ozif~TJ~rQ~~~-.
.
.. ,ISS IOn

T = n- J.I W (";

'2 )

150 x 10-3 + 100 x 10-3)

= 2 x 0.35 x 4712.39 x (
2
= 412.33 N-rn

21t N T

I Example

10.5

60

I Determine

60

64.77 kW Ans. ~

the maximum, minimum and average pressure in

a Pl(lIe

clutch when the axial force is 5000 N. The outer and inner. diameters of the fricr
sUrfaces are 200 mm and 100 mm respectively. Assume uniform wear.
rail
Given Data: W

5000 N ;

dl

200 mm or rl = 100 mm

100 x IO-3m.
,

@ Solution:

(i) Maximum pressure:

Since the intensity of pressure is maximum at the inner radius (r2)' therefore

Pmax x r2

C or C

50 x 10-3 Pmax.

Axial force exerted on the contact surface (W) is given by

W = 21t C (rl - r2)
5000 = 21t x 50 x 10-3 Pmax (100 x 10-3 - 50 x 10-3) = 0.0157 Pmax
Pmax

(ii) Minimum

pressure:

(r1), therefore
Pmin

x rl

C or C

Axial force exerted on the contact surface (W) is given by

W = 21tC (rl - r2) Pmin
5000

or

Pmin -

10-3-50x

10-3)

0.0314Pmin

Pay

Total normal force on contact surfaces

Cross-sectional area of contact surfaces

W
= 1t [r~ - r~ ]

5000
= 1t [(100 x 10-3)2 - (50 x 10-3)2]

Ans. ~

1#

/1

JO.6

u Oil/PilI

00 J1ll_/II. Tile clulcll used is 0"

Of /2 Itw. "'L
, J
':I .Wngle 'l
.
'-M1IS /Ire is nolto exceed 85 kN/nt2.~."
p a/~lyp~Itav;
11IaxJ"'11111
..J":~press.
e exte"
"1 G
.~
P:.

''O'r

,.1

"'-.~.d,lte

{ilrr/')J r!J,ct ~e

""0 ~llv~Ilil/aen.,
diollle/~' ..,

illter"al diameter; Determine I"

.
'II",
.
e d1Illens.
rled by Ihe spnngs. COefficient of.."'
lOllS

,JA!J~

r' palo.

Pmax

6i"

d,
fJ So

I,,~

12 k W == 12

Of lite

'?t '''~
fo"

::: 0.1

fl'lcllon

I ()3

W.

r,

~ - I2

or

d2 -

or -

Given that the torque developed,

== 1 25 .

r2

"

n == 2.

Il == OJ

ssume uniformwear

T == 100 N-m

service factor, Ie == Ie + Ie + 1- + k:

where
From Table 10.2,

k, -

k2

k3 -

0.32

From Table 10.5,

k4 -

0.9

(assuming 48 engagements/shift)

ks

100 x 2.8

0.33

'2

113

(for machines with low start'

109 torquecharacteristics)

= 1.25 (assume)

2.8

280 N-m

Sincethe intensity of pressure is maximum at the inner radius (r2)' therefore

Pmax. x r2

C or C = 85 x 103 x r2 N/m

= 2nC (r, - r2)

= 2n x 85 x 103 r2 (1.25 r2 -r2)

280

and

.'

Or

In~/on
. plll/e is

n- Jl . W

2 x 0.3 x 1.335 x 105 (r2)2 (

1.25

rz

1.335 x 105 r; N

(~+~)
1.25 r2 + r2) = 90124 x 104 (r2J3
2'
.

r2 = 0.1459 m or 145.9 mm ADS.1:l

r,

= 1.25 x 0.1459

0.1823 m or 182.3 mm

'L

Ine

85 kNlm2 == 85 x 103 N'

::: 100 N-m;
1m2 ,
1.25 d2

IO'f/II~

'lCIIIJIIplllle and

0.15

Design o/Transmission S

10.16

(ii) Axial force exerted on the springs:

W = 21tC ('1 - '2)

= 1.335 x lOs

= 1.335 x

lOs ('2)2

(0.1459)2

= 2841.79 N Ans. ~

clutch is used to rotate a machine from a shaft rotatingat Q

uniform speed of 250 r.p.m: The disc type clutch has botll of its sides effective, 'he
coeffICient of friction being 0.3. The outer and inner diameters of the friction plate are200
mm and 120 mm respectively. Assuming uniform wear of the clutch, the intensityOf
pressure is not to exceed 100 kN/mI. 1/ the moment of inertia of the rotating parts Of 'he
machine is 6.5 kg-m1, determine the time to attain the full speed by the machine and'he
energy lost in slipping of the clutch.
What will be the intensity of pressure, if the condition of uniform pressure of the clutch
is considered? Also determine tke ratio of power transmitted with uniform wear to 'hill
with uniform pressure.

N = 250 r.p.m.;

Given Data:

Pmax

n = 2;

J.1 = 0.3 ;

= 100 mm or 0.1 m; d2 = 120 mm or '2 = 60 mm = 60 x 10-3m:,

= 100 kN/m2 = 100 x 103 N/m2; I = 6.5 kg-m-

@Solution:
(i) The time to attain thefull speed by the machine (witll uniform wear) :

Since the intensity of pressure (P) is maximum at the inner radius '2' therefore
Pmax
Axial thrust exerted,

"2

W = 27t x 6000 (100 x 10-3 - 60 x 10-3) = 1507.96N

Torque transmitted, T

n- J! . W (r. ; r

- 2

0.3

1507.96

x (

100

10-]2+ 60

10-]) = 72.38 Nm

We know that the Power transmitted P = 2nNT = 27t x 250 x 72.38 = 1895W
'60
60
Also
T = I a, where a isangular acceleration.
72.38 = 6.5 x a or a = 11.135 rad/secWe also know that,

(J)

= I =

11.135

11.135

..
t

fltLlS

he full speed

oe energy lost

(P) I/J
A

IS

21t X 250
60xt

11.135

==

attained by the.

In slipping

r I::: 2JS

of the I
C utch:

.~

.35 seconds
.

== (1)1 ::: ~

60

==

(1)0 1 + 2"

== 0

sec Ana

machine in 2

10.17

XI:::

60

2.35

a. 12

72.38 x (61.52 - 30.75) ::: 2226 N-m Ans.~

(iii) Intensity of pressure, if the condition is unifior.m pressure :
Intensity of pressure

2W 2

=
1t

(r I - r2)

1507.96
1t [(100 x 10-3)2-(60 x W-3)2]

(iv)Ratio of power transmitted with uniform wear to that withuniform pressure:

Power transmitted with uniform wear == 1895 W [.: already calculated, refer (i)]
Torquetransmitted with uniform pressure == n-

[r: -r~]

J.L

2
W . 3' r: - r~

== 2 x OJ x 1507.96xj'

T
Pow

er transmitted with uniform pressure

IS

. n by

give
2nNl

:::

:::

t9J4

::: 1934 W

_(0.06t]

(0.1)2-(0.06)2

== 73.89 N-m

p == - 60
2n x 25~
~Wer tr~ .
po~ansmitted
with unifonn wear_
er transmitted with unifonn pressure

2 [{g.lf

10.18

Design o/Transmiss;

I Example

10.8

I Determine the time required to accelerate a counter shaft 0/ tottJt;"

mass 500 kg and radius of gyration 200 mm to t~e fuJI speed of 250 r.p.1II./ro", r
through a sillgle dutch of internal and exlernal radII 125 mm and 200 mm, laking
'!It
and the sprillg force as 600 N. Assume Ihat only one side of clutch Is ejJectivt!.
/l a.r O.J
Given Data:

0.125 m;

m = 500 kg;
'2

125 mm

200 mm

0.2 m;

'1

J.l = 0.3 ;

W = 600 N ;

=
n

200 mm

=
=

250 r.p.rn. ;
0.2 m;

I.

T = I a

Torque transmitted is given by,

nJ.lW

('. +'2)

= la

125
I x 0.3 x 600 (0.2 +2. )
or

Angular acceleration,

We know that,

aa

20 xa

Angular speed

Angular acceleration x time

(J)

a t or t

(J)

= -

1.

t = (27tN)
60

= (27t x 250)

xa

1
x 1.4625

60

= 17.9seconds Ans."

Problems on Multiplate Clutch

I Example

10.9 , A multiplate clutch has three pairs of contact sutfaces. The older and

inner radii of the contact sutftices are 100 mm and 50 mm respectively. The axial spring
force is limited to 1kN. Assuming uniform wear, find the power transmitted al1500 r.p.IIL
Take II = 0.35.
Given Data:

n = 3;
W = I kN

e Solution:

'1

100 mm

1000 N;

=
N

0.1 m;

'2

= 50 mm =

1500 r.p.m.;

50 x 10-3 m ;

J.1= 0.35.

T = nJ.1W

('1 + '2)
2

- 3 x 0.35 x 1000 ( 0.1 00 + 0.50)

2

= 78.75 N-m

power transmitted,
1500 x 78.75

~7t X

't

60

10.10 A muJtlplate disc c/~

:: 12.37 kW
Alii. ~

,L

en trans",.
,,1 o//riction f~r the friction sU1:facesis o. tis 55 Ie", of POHle, III 1&
c,e/ftcJe kN/"r. The Internal radius is 80
1. Axial /nleIUJ#o' III
00 '.p.1II.
...Jill 60
mIll and is 0. 7 .
"J
P'esslUe is t
f}P"~_ltLr 0/plates needed to transmit the refJu. d
tlllleslite exte,nal
no. to
,1J1P'., lre, torque.
raulllS.F",d
;t 'h't" Datil:
P = 55 k W = 55 x 1()3 W; NG
p
=) 60 kN/m2
_ 16
- 1800 r.p.m.;
== O.J "
max
0 X J()3 N/m2 ,
,..
,,,I'

II

1'2

80 mm = 80 x 10-3 m .

1'2 == 0.71',

@Solulion:

1'2 = 0.71',

or

r,

"

"

1'2

or -; == 0.7
80 x 10-3
0.7
=0.JJ43m

1'2

= 0.7

'2

or - == 0 7

Assuminguniform wear, axial force exerted is given by

W = 27tC (I', We know that the maximum

..
Then,

1'2)

intensity of pressure (Pmax) is at the inner radius ('2)'

Pmax . r2 = C or C

= 160 x

1()3 x 80 x 10-3

12800 N/m

W = 21tC (I', - r2)

= 21t x 12800 (0.1143 - 0.08)

2758.57 N

Torquetransmitted by a single friction surface is given by

(I', + 1'2)

T=f.LW

_ 0.1 x 2758.57 x

{O.J J 43 + 0.081
2

.:
Torque required per surface, T = 26.8 N-m
The total
I d as given below.
torque required can be calcu ate

2nNl
power, P == - 60

2n x 1800 xl
55 x 103 == -

60

1~~

~~

_!.0.20
or

__

----------------------_D--~~ig~n_O~if_n_r_a_m_m~U~~~funs
~

T -

291.78 N-m

Total torque required

Number of friction surfaces required = Torque required per surface
=

2i~~;8
=

'" (10.10)

10.887 ~ 11

Number of airs of contact surface + 1

'" (10.11)

= 11 + I = 12 surfaces

Hence, there wiD be 12 total plates, in which driving and driven shafts having Jix
plates each. Ans. ~

I Example

10.11

I A multi-disc

clutch has three discs on the driving shaft and two 0"

the driven shaft is to be designed for a machine tool, driven by an electric motor of 22 kW
running at 1440 r.p.m: The inside diameter of the contact surface is 130 nun. The
maximum pressure between the surfaces is limited to 0.1 Nlmm2. Design the dutch. Take
J.l = 0.3 ; n I = 3 ; n2 = 2.
r2

Given Data: P = 22 kW = 22 x ]03 W;

= 65 mm ;Pmax = 0.1 N/mm2 = 0.1 x 106 N/m2

1440 r.p.m.;

d2 = 130 rnrn or

To find: Design the clutch (i.e., determine the outside diameter of disc, total number of
discs, and clamping force).

Solution: Assume uniform wear.

I. Outside ~iameter of disc (d J: We know that the torque transmitted,
T

Design torque, [T]

where Service factor , ks

P x 60
21tN
T x ks

k, +~+~

0.5

From Table 10.2,

From Table 10.3,
From Table 10.4',
From Table 10.5,

k.
~

= 1.25

22 x 103 x 60
2 x 1t x 1440 = 145.89 N-m
+k4

(for electric motor)

(for machine tools)

k3 = 0.38

k4

Ks

(for 1440 r.p.m.)

075
(
.
.
assummg 32 engagements / shift)
0.5 + 1.25 + 0.38 + 0.75 = 2.88

Design torq~e, [T] = 145.89 x 2.88 = 420.16 N-m

We know that maximum intensity of pressure
.
'.
. r _
(Pmax) ISat the Inner radius (,~. Therefore,
max
.
P
2 C or C = 0.1 x 106 x 65 x 10-3 = 6500 N/m
For umform wear, axial force exerted'
.
IS given by
W = 21tC(', - '2)

= 21tx 6500 (,

65
-

x 10-

.. , (i)

r~
~

th t number of pairs of contact suJ'.

'.Iaces ,
o~ a
WeId1
n - n 1 + n2 - 1 == 3 +
.11

2- J

"forque

transmitted, [TJ

n".

W (~

;3) ..

==

420. J 6 = 4 x 0.3 x 40840 7 (

. r - 0.065)
420.16 = 24504.42 (1'2 _ 4 225
,
.
x J 0-3)
= 0.14618 m or 146.18 mm

(I'

_!

+00

65)
2 .

T,

"

l TolOI number of disc:

Total number of disc -

4 + 1 = S ADS. "

J. C/(JIIIjJ;ng force (or axial force exerted) :

substitutingthe value of

T, in equation

(0, we get

3315.45 N

[xample 10.12 , A multiplate clutch consisting of 6 plates, each plate 0/ external

_Ier 150 mm and internal diameter 100 nun, is to transmit 7.5 kWat 900 r.p.m.
Assuming jJ = 0.1, determine the pressure on each qJective pair 0/ sUrfacesin contact.
Given Data : Number of plate, np = 6; d, = 150 mm or

r, = 75 mm =
P = 7.5kW
@Solution:

75 x I cr3 m;

= 7.5

d2 = 100 mm or

JoJ W; N

:. Number of pair of surfaces in contact,

We know that the power transmitted,

'2

= 50 mm = 50 x 10-3m ;

0.1.

n = np - I = 6 - J = 5

21tNT
P = 60

21t x 900 x T
7.5 x J03 =
60
Total 1hctlon
'.
. d, T = 79.57 N-rn
torque to be rransmitte
Smceno assumption is given, we assume UnJifCrrn wear.
+ '2)
T J!' W x
2
(75 x 10-3 + 50 x JO-~
Or

(I',

79.57

O.J x W x

1273J N

10.22

----.;:_

Total axial force or pressure on contact surfaces = W = ]273 I N

]273] - 2~"
But n = 5, so pressure on each effective surface =
5
, Example 10.13 , A muJtiplate clutch has three discs on the driving shaft and two

0"

the driven shaft The outside diameter o/the contact sutfaces is 240 nun and ilUitk
diameter is 120 mm. Assume uniform wear coefficiem offriction as 0.3, find the I1IIVcintIUlr
axial intensity of pressure between the discs/or transmitting 25 kW at 1575 r.p.m.
Given Data:
n, = 3;
n2 = 2;

r,

d, = 240mmor

= J20mm=O.12m;

d2 = 120 mm or r2 = 60 mm = 60 x 10-3 m;

e Solution:

= 0.3;

P = 25 kW = 25 x ] ()3 W;
Number of pairs of contact surfaces,
n = n, + n2 -] = 3 + 2 - 1 = 4
J.L

Power transmitted, P
25

N = J775 r.p.m.

21tNT
60

103 = 21t (1575) T

60
T = 151.6 N-m
For unifonn wear, torque transmitted is given by
T =
151.6 =
or

11

f.I

r' ; J
'2

4xO.1 x Wx (0.12;0.06)
1404 N

W =
or
or

21tC (r, - r2)

W = 21t x Pmax X r (r
2 l
]404

Pmax =

r2)

21t x Pmax x 0.06 (0. ]2 - 0.16)

62.07 x I()3 N/m2

62 kN/m2

Ans. "

In a cone clutch, contact surfaces are in th h

.
e s ape of cones
h
. .
o cones A and B are 10 contact when the cl t h .
' as SOwn rn Fig.l 0.5(a). The
tight with the help of springs. Thus torque]
u c . IS engaged. The contact is complete and
fro .
.' e IS transmitted d .
ictron cones from driving shaft to driven sh ft F
. urmg engagement of clutch through
pulled back by means of a lever system co a . ~r disengaging, the clutch of the cone B is
friction surface in these cone clutches The lo pressmg the springs. There is only one pair of
.
s ope angle a
.
vanes from 80 to ]50.
tw

~-----~::::~~----------------

JI~O~.2~3
Clutch pedal

Driven shaft

SprIngs

'----

Driven

Fig. 10.5. (a) Cone elutel.

10.9. .Design of a Cone Clutch (Torque transmitted on the cone clutch)

consider a pair of friction surface as shown in Fig.l O.S(b). Fig.l O.S(c) shows a small
elementalring of radius r and thickness dr.
Cone surface

dr

(d)

(c)

(b)

Fig. 10.5.

Let

Normal intensity of pressure on friction surface,

.
c.
angle of the cone or the angle of the friction
Semi-angie of cone or lace
surface with the axis of the clutch,

r)

= Outer radius of friction surface,

r2

...:.1~O~.2~4

D__u~~~n_o~if~Tro~mus
-~S}'.Jt

rl

fl

+ r2
2

'

b = Face width of clutch plate.

Let x is length of ring of friction surface. Then from the geometry of Fig. IO.5(d),
dr

sin

or x = dr- cosec a

Ct.

Area of the ring, A =

The design of conical clutch is done based on anyone of the following a.ssumptions.
(i) When there is a uniform pressure, and
(ii) When there is a uniform wear.

(i) Considering uniform pressure:

Normal load on the ring, 'OWn = Normal pressure x Area of ring
'OWn = Pn

27tr dr - cosec a

= 'OWnX sin a
=

Pn

27tPn . r . dr

f'. 27trdrP

W=

'2

W =
or

Pn

[ r2 ] r.
27tPn 2" r2

, [2r.

[y2 _y2 ]
= 27tPn

-r2 2 ]

W
2

7t[r 1

... (10.12)

r2 ]

The frictional force on the ring acting tangentially at radius r,

F, = fl' 'OWn = u- Pn

27tr cosec a dr

., Frictional torque acting on the ring,

T, = F, x r = 21tfl' Pn cosec a r2 dr

102S

'1

..

'

~'

27tJ.l . P

"2

to

~ 2ltll' p.'

" . COsec

a.

coseca[ t

-_ 2 7t1l.p.
,.. "COsec a

[,11-'21]2

. ring the value of Pn from equation (10.12)

~~w

r . dr

3
t~~

[r~~ ri

1 x cosec a

T - ~ J.1 w . cosec a

[r~ - r} ]

T = 2ltll x

It

[ r! ~ ri ]

... (10.13)

rl-'2

or

[
or
where

J..l W . R cosec a

TR

3'

[rI3-r23]rl
rl2 _

I
Mean radius of the friction plate

(ii) Consideringuniform wear: Let us assume p is the intensity of pressure

C
Weknow that
P . r = C = constant or p = -;

at

The normal load acting on the ring = 'OWn

= Normal pressure x Area of ring
'OWn = p,' 21tr' dr- cosec a
'OW == 'OWn' sin a
_ Pr' 21tr . dr . cosec a .sin a

== p, 21U . dr

== C x 2rcr . dr == 21t C . dr
r

[.,' p,

= -;]

f 2ltC . dr
'1

W =

= 2lt C [ r 1'2

w _
or

C ==

The fro .

2tt ('1 - '2)

iven by
Ictaonaiforce acting on the f1ng IS gr'
dr . cosec a
F = 11. IiW. = 11' p.: 2lt
r

.. , (10.14)

.1~O=.2~6

D_u~~~n~o~if~Tr~a~~~m
.

la!la"

J.1x - x 2nr2 dr . cosec a

21tJ.1 . C cosec a x r . dr

C
r

:. Total frictional torque acting on the clutch,

rl

T =

f 21tJ.1 C .

cosec a .r . dr

r2

= 21tJ.1 C . cosec

[ r~-2 r; ]

W

= 21tJ.1 27t (rl

T = 1"

INote)

x cosec a

R =

rl + r2

[r12 -rl]
2

'1;'2 ]

cosec a [

J.1. W . R . cosec a

or
where

_ r2)

'" (10.15)

or

WI!

We

... (10.16)

Wei
01"

Wd

=0

WIt (sin a - II . cos a)

WIt (I - II cot a)

... (10.17)

10.9.2. The Semi<one angle is normally taken as 12.5. Why?

We know that the torque capacity

is inversely proportional

to sin a. The value of a

should be as small as possible. But when a is less than the angle of static friction (+), the

has a tendency to grab, resulting in self-engagement. The self-engagement is not

desirable because the clutch should engage or disengage only at the operator's will.
clutch

To avoid self-engagement

a >

a >

tarr '

(J.1)

J{!

. .

J/'

etlicient of friction as 0.2 w

the cO

, e get
tan-1 (0.2)

a >

f~iflg

~hesemi-cone angle

IS

Or a::> I I 30

as 12

taken

fore, .'
.5 .
1f!ete
/0.14 Determine the axial fi
Ie
orce re .
t.t:d, 25 k1J' ofpower at 750 r-p.m: Average n ~'lIred to ellgage a
:Jf,IIg Ie 100 and coefficient of friction 025.fi ctloll diameter of th
COileclutch
('(Jllt an,
. .
e COileis 400
Data:
P == 25 k W = 25 x 103 W .
mm,

t6iVtll

d == 400 mrn

or

.
power transmitted,

@ solullon :

200

r:::

p:::

N::: 750

'

mm ::: 02

_2nNT'

rPm.;
.

m ; a:::: 100;

J.L ::::

60

0.25.

25 x 103 == 2n x 750 x T
60

T = 3 18.3 I N-m
or
Nonnal load acting on friction surface can be obtained by
T

or

==

J.!' Wn

==

==

11r

318.31

+ J.! cos a) = 6366.2 (sin 10 + 0.25 cos 10)

2672.85 N Ans. -e

We == W n (sin a
==

IExample10.15

, The following data relate to a cone clutch : Minimum and maximum

'llface contact radii are 125 mm and 150 mm respectively; Semi-cone angle = 200;
,Ylo~able normal pressure is 14 x 1(11Nlm2; p = 0.25. Find (a) The axial load, and
~)The powertransmitted, if the speed is 700 r.p.m.
GivenData : r} == ISO mm = 0.15 m ;
r2 == 125 mm = 0.125 m;
a:: 20;

J.!

Pn = 14 x 104 N/m2;

0.25;

==

= 700 r.p.m,

@So/ution:(a) The axial load transmitted to the clutch:

W _
(6) Po

To

rrPn(rl

2)

x 14x 104[(0.150)2-(0.125)2]

==

-r2

3023.78 N Ans.

1t

"'61

wer transmitted:

rque, T == -2
3

II

r-

3
3 ]
'1 -'2

W
[

,2 _,2
1

cosec a.

{9 150)3 - (0
_ .!:.;:.L-

== ~ x 0.25 x 3023.78 [ (0:150)2 - (0.125)2

304.73 N-m

::::

D~u~~~n~O~if~ff~Q~~~m~;.
'

1_O_.2_8

...\$,o" S

Power transmitted,

=
=

27t NT

60

27t x 700

304.73

60

22.34 kW Ans. ~

I A torque of 350 N-m is transmitted through a cone c/Ulchh .

.
mean duuneter of 300 mm and a semi-cone angle of 15~ The maximum normal P'us""
[ Example 10.16

the mean radius is 150 kNI",z. The coefficient of friction is 0.3. Calculate the width lit lit
oJ 'ltf
contact surface. Also find the axial force to engage the clutch.
Given Data:

= 350 N-m;

Pn = ISO kN/m2

a = 15;
@ Solution:

= ISO x

t()3 N/m2;

m .,

f.1 = OJ.

(i) Width of the contact surface:

Torque transmitted,
or

J.l' W n . R

350

Wn

0.3xWnxO.15
7778 N

Let ' b' be the width of the contact surface.

We know that the normal load acting on the friction surface,
W n = Intensity of cross-sectional pressure x Area of frictional surface
Wn=Pnx(2nRxb)

or

7778
Face width, b

=
=

ISO x 103 x 2n x 0.15 x b

0.055 m or 55 mm Ans. ~

(ii) Axial force to engage the clutch:

We = Wn (sin a + J.l cos a) = 7778 (sin 15 + 0.3 cos 15)

I Example

10.17

I A leather faced

= 4.267 kN

Ans."

conical friction clutch has a cone angle of 30 ~ The

intensity of pressure between the contact surface is not to exceed 6 x 1(J4Nlm2 and the
breadth of the conical surface is not to be greater than 113 of the mean radius if p = 0.20
and the clutch transmits 37 kW at 2000 r.p.m: Find the dimensions of contact surface.
Given Data:

Pn = 6 x 104 N/m2

= 30;

b = 3

J.l = 0.2 ;

- 37 kW = 37 x 103 W;

= 2000

r.p.m.
R

P

21tN T
60

37 x 103

21t x 2000 x T
60

@ Solution :Power transmitted,

Fig. 10.6.

T == 176.66 N-m
Assuming servIce factor, ks == 2.5,

of

Design torque, [T1 == 176 .6 6X25. - 441 6

. 5 N-m
srTlitted is also given by, T == 2
,(1Ue tran
1tJ.l P" . R2 . b
rOI'f
== 27t x 0 2

441.65

. x6x l04xR2(E)_

Fsccw

3 - 25132.74 R3
R
m or 259.98 mm
h == - _ ~25998
3 3 -

idth is given by,

== 0.25998

== 0.08666 m or 86.66 mm

==

or

-'2

-'2

== 0.02242

and

sin a
m

... (i)

r +'2
2
= 0.25998 m

r +'2 == 0.5199m

or

... (ii)

Solvingequations (i) and (ii), we get

Outerradius of contact surface, r = 0.2711 m or 271.1 mm and
Inner radius of contact surface, '2 = 0.2487 m or 248.7 mADS. "
[Example10.18 , A cone clutch with a semi-cone angle of 150 transmits 10 kW

01

The normal pressure between the surfaces in contact is not to exceed

1600 iNlm2.The widtll of tile friction surfaces is Iial/ of the mean diameter.Assume p =
Us.Determine:
i80 r.p.m.

(i) The outer and inner diameters of the plate, and

. (ii) The axial force 10 engage tile clutcll.
GIVe" Data: a == 150'
P == 10 k W = lOx J 03 W; N

(ii) Axial force to engage the clutch (We)'

SOllllio

~1Ja1 to th

'

(i) Outer and inner diameters of the plate (d, and d2), and

lO/l"d.,

b - - 2

= 600 r.p.m. ;
= R' Jl = 0.25.

":

(i) Outer and inner diameters o/Ihe p

.'

h t face width b is

late' It IS gIVen t a
.

..

~ekn

Ow that ,

h -

sin a

. s problem]

[Refer prevlOU

Design a/Trans"" ... ~:

.~~
_!OJO

-----------------_;:::.--=::.....::...:...::.:..:::

'1 -'2

So,

sin

'1 + '2

'1 -'2

'1 =

or

to

sin a

and

"Slon

'1 - '2

b =

or

~;

1.296 '2
21tNT
60

P -

21t x 600 x T
60

10 x 103 =

T = 159N-m

or

T x ks

159 x 2.5

397.5 N-m

Assume uniform wear.

Since intensity of pressure is maximum at the inner radius, so

Pmax

'2 =

Torque transmitted, T

= ~W

. cosec

(l

[71 ; 72 ]

Then,

or

or

1 cosec

(l

[71 ; 72 ]

J..L

397.5

0.25 x 1t x 100 x t03 x cosec 15 x '2 [ (1.296 '2)1 - r~]

397.5

2.062 x 105

=
=

0.1244 m or 124.4 mm

=
=

1.296'2

Inner diameter

and

72 (71 - 72)

[T]

'2

or

= ~ [2n Pm ax X

Outer diameter

2)

,~

248.8 mm Ans. '"

=

322.6 mm

1.296 x 0.1244

0.1613 m or 161.3 mm

Ans."

=
=

21t x 100 x 103 x 0.0917 (0.1188 - 0.0917)

= 1561 N

-e

10.19

-,

The semi-cone

angle of

Ie'.
a Cone clutch .
~
",ean diameter of 80 1111n. CO'I"I:
IS 12.\$0 Il d
/laJ'ea
J
e.,JIClento/fi .
II the COlltllCt
jpS
'I! required to proauce slipping of th ,I
I'lction is 0.32, DJ
/orqll<
e c,ulch /01' an'
. "'/rat is tile
.~i1IJJIII .1. is used to connect an electric 1110101' 'h
OXlal/ol'ce0/200 N ?
r e clutell
I
WII. a stalio
tth u..1 to attain the fU,'/ speed and the enel'gy losl '" . naryflY",heel, ",IIat' ,L
etle
.1'

uUl'lngsli" .
IS tne
:.til. !Ie
dthe
moment
oJ
Inertia
of
the
flywheel
is
0.
~
k
.,JPIIIK
r
Motol'SfJeet'.
,.- ",. all
., g_"';'
r
IS

,r

,lAf,p'

". ell /) ta:

GiV
a

12 50.

a -

D - 80

mm or R::::40

mm :::: 40 x 10-3 .
Jl - 0.32;
W = 200 N; N:::: 900
m,
. .
.
r.p.m.; I:::: 0.4 kg-m2

(i)
MInimum
torque
reqUired
to
produce
slippin
fth
10flIId
g 0 e clutch
(ii) Time needed to attain the full speed, and
'
(iii) Energy lost during slipping.

Weknow that the torque required to produce slipping,

Jl . W . R cosec ex

T or

T -

11.828N-m Ans."

We know that,
or

I a

11.828

0.4 x ex

a -

co

= a

I -

or

co _

=~ -

(27rN)
60

21t x 900).
_j_ = 31.187
60
x 29.57

-e

60

Angle t

urned Ly driven shaft, 92 Energy lost in friction

coo' I

I
7 x (3. I 871
1 2 _ 0 + - x 29.5
- al 2
+2

e ) ::::'11.828
T (e, - 2

_ 1777 N-IP

(300.4 _ 150.2)

Design of r,.al7SlI1'

10.32

,
13Sl0'J

10.10. CENTRIFUGAL

CLUTCH

Centrifugal clutch is being increasingly used in automobiles and machines. Ob .

.
carri the sPider
.
VloUsl,
works on the principle of centrifugal
force. T h e drinvmg s h a ft carnes
h ~,n
r
.
II
h
'.
,s oes
springs while the driven shaft IS connected to the pu ey, as s own In Flg.IO.7.
~

Pulley

Brake lining

oriven

'\

Spring

J-------------

--

VI/~

-----J
,
\_

Driven shaft
-Cover
,\\,I:~'1

Fig. 10.7. Centrifugal clutch

The shoes are mounted radially and springs keep them away from inner rim of the pulley,
Shoes have some mass. As the speed of the driving shaft rises, the centrifugal forceonthe
shoes increases causing them to move radially outward within the guides provided.
When the centrifugal force is less than the spring force, brake lining cannot makeany
contact with the pulley rim. But when the centrifugal force is equal to the spring force,the
shoe is just floating. When the centrifugal force just exceeds the spring force, the shoemoves
outward and comes into contact with the driven member and presses against it to transmitthe
torque.
10.10.1. Design of a Centrifugal

Clutch

1. Mass of the shoes:

Let

n = Number of shoes,

=
R =
r =
N =
m

(0

(01

Jl

Mass of each shoe,

Inside radius of the pulley rim,
Distance of centre of gravity of the shoes from the centre of the spider,
Running speed of the pulley,

2:ON,

= Angular speed at which the engagement begins to take place, and

= Coefficient of friction between the shoe and rim.

'1
I

torque transmitted ' T = nXI1(F

= I1(Fc- Fs) R
."d rollli frictional
-F)s R = F
.,
I
C
Icll
torque transmitted' expressIon, the mass ofthn- . R ... (1018)
fJOlll !be tO
.
ona
~~.
e
shoes
(m)
can
be
fr
llll
Fe

Fig. 10.8.

Let

R '" Contact radius of the shoes.

e '" Angle subtended by the shoes at the centre of thespider.and
p '" Intensity of pressure exerted on the shoe.
,., (10.19)

I - R
From Fig.l 0.8 ,
rea of contact of the shoe. A '"
Net force acting on the shoe '"

/. b
Fe - Fs '" A xp lne'" /. b' P

r:=IS
From tho expression, the width of the shoes (b) can be oblll. h d . 11l ricJiDn.1S kg tJIId
~/e
1
I
h eOC hlJ1l g a tJIIISS OJ
"'u,U. 0.20 A centrifugal clldch hUSfour s oes
of thef
.urflJt 411
is
:~...... ;,ntre of gravity at a radiUS of 60"''''' The dwn;tt;:OO r.PO""/)eIe,.",;nethl
10
"" _.. e cllllch is to trans",it 6 kif' pOHIer ttl II speed of",. 11 Is gf{1llUJlity ;ncrt/lS
fro
leh lit
eed of rot...
J~
_'<II
ust be exerted bv each spring. I/ the sp
, rake p'" 0. ,
/11 w6
J
",it torque
at speed will the clutch begins to trll'~

_~~

_!_O.34

Design ofT'a" .........

----------------------------------~=-~~J~~i~~
~
'}}':Ie

Give" Data:'

Toji"d:

_ 5kg

m -

= 4

r = 60mm

60x IO-3m

R = 75 rnm = 75 x 10-3 m;
D = ISO mrn or
p = 6 kW = 6 x 103 W ; N = 1000 r.p.m.;
.) Force exerted by each spring, Fs,

J.l == 0.35

and

(I

(ii) Speed at which transmission begin, N.

@ Solutio,,: (i) Force exerted by each spring:

We know that,

6 x 103

T =

or

2ltN T
60
2lt

1000 x T
60

57.29N-m

T

57.29

. Radial force required at each shoe,

Fe - Fs

Centrifugal force, Fe =

545.67 N

m (1)2 r

5x (

2lt x 1000)2
60

x 60 x 10-3

3289.9 N

Fe - Fs =

Fs

or

545.67

Fe-545.67

= 3289.9-545.67

= 2744.1N Aas.~

is equal to spring force.

When m (2:~

i.e.,

r = Fs = 2744.2

5 x 4 x lt2 x N2 x 60 x 10-3
3600
or

I Example

= 2744.2

N -

10.21

I A centrifugal

913.31 r.p.m,

Ans. ~

clutch is to transmit 15 kW at 900 r.p.m. ThtshotS~

four in number. The speed at which the engagement begins is .yJh of the rU/lnings~
lie
The inside radius of the pulley rim is 150 mm and the centre of gravity of the shoe.
120 mm from the centre 0/ the spider. The shoes are lined with Ferrodo f01

wit,,"

tOf/riction may be taken as 0.25 D

.diclt"
'1.
b '" db'~ the silo
eter",' lire: J t.t
10 3
.A/.jJ'
:f angle su tenae
.5
cr' hotS, ".
es at the c lIss of th
;tS
the slloes IS 0.1 Nlmml.
"'re Oft/'e'
e shoes, a d
fill
sP.der is 600
n 2. Si7,e 'if
t
Data:
P - 15 kW == 15 x 103
and the prus
Give"
W; N
ure
R = 150 mrn == 0.15 m ;
:::: 900 r,p.rn.; n::: 4.

0"

e
roJi"d:

r :::: 12

= 60;

0 rnrn ::: 0.12 rn.'

p :::: 0.1 N/rnrn2 _
'.l'= 0.25 ;
- 0.1 x I06N/m2

(i) Mass of the shoes (rn), and

(ii) Size of the shoes (b),

Angular speed,

(0

= 27tN

==

27t x 900

60

60

== 94.26

Given that the speed at which the engagement b egms

. (co ). :y,th f
I IS 4 - 0 runningspeed ( )
3
3
ro,
(01
== 4" (0 == 4" x 94.26 == 70.7 rad/s

power transmitted,

15 x 103

T =

or

27tNT
60
2x 900 x T
60

159N-m

Fe

(02

m (94.26)2 0.12 = 1066 m N

Springforce on each shoe, i.e., the centrifugal force at the engagementspeed (I)"
Fs

m (O1}2 r

m (70.7)2 0.12

600 m N

Frictionalforce acting tangentially on each shoe,

F

Jl(Fe-F )
s

= 0.25 (1066m-600m)

= 116.5mN

We knowthat the torque transmitted,

T 159 _
Or

m -

nFB

4 x 116.5 m x 0.15 = 70 m
2.27 kg Ans. ~
600 :::: 60 x 180 - 3
. f hoe
db the shoe x
Angle subtende Y
'It
15 :::::0.1571 m
'It

e-

Contact length of shoe

i.e "

I -

e. R ::::3' x o.

------------------------D_u_,~gn~Of~TJ~ra~~..~

II'O~.~36~
-

I.f& 10"

We

Fe - Fs =

know that,

I Example

"""

~Ie~

l- b P

6
1066 m - 600 m = {).1571 x b x 0.1 x 10
466m = 466 }(2.27 = 0.1571 x b
or

0.1

106

10.22 A centrifugal friction clutch has a driving member c .

onsUUn
spider carrying four shoes which are kept from contact wIth the clutch case by , 0/ Q
flat springs until increase of centrifugal force overcomes the resistance of the! ~Q1tt Of
the power is transmitted byfriction between the shoes and the case.
rp"ng, lIIfd
Determine the necessary mass of each shoe if 22.5 kW is to be transmitted
with engagement beginning at 75% of the running speed The inside d!n_-* III 750,.p.""
.
-,ac,e, Of th
IS 300 mm and the radial resistance of the centre of gravity of each shoe from th
e tit".,
is 125 mm. Assume IJ = 0.25.
e ShaftIltir
Given Data:

n = 4;
N

= 750 r.p.m. ;

= 300 mm or

Tofind:

22.5 kW

22.5 x 103 W ,.

N I = 75% N or COl

= 75% co;

R = 150 mm = 0.15 m ,
.

Mass of each shoe (m) :

@Solution :

Given that,

(1)

(1)1

Power transmitted , P
22.5 x 103

= 27tN

60

27t x 750
60

0.75 co = 0.75 x 78.54

= 27tN T
60

= 27t x 750 x T
60

or

286.48 N-m
Centrifugal force acting on each shoe ,
T

Fe =

m co2r

m (78.54)2

0.125

771.06 m N
Spring force on each shoe i e th
.
given by
, . ., e centnfugal force at the engagement speed
=

433.79 m N

-

0.25 (771.06 m - 433.79 m) == 84.317111

.
(I), 15

r
'lfl":,

~I

tsl torq

.
by
ue transm itte d' IS given

8~II~eto

10.37

n- F . R

5.66 kg Ans. ~

or

NAL EXPANDING RIM CLUTCHES

INff~

.
.
implies, the Internal expanding rim clutch tra
.
'(5 name
hown i F'
nsmus
torque due to the
AS I
. t rnal rim, as sown
m Ig.I0.9.
'00 of 10 e

!~f1.

~Sl

ents of internal expanding rim clutches are:

Three ele'" .
. .
I theroating friction surface,

I_
the means of transmitting the torque to and from the surfaces, and
I the actuating mechanism.

From Fig.l0.9, it is unders.tood th~t the enga~ement or disengagement of external and

. al rimsis achieved by usmg a suitable actuatmg mechanism. The outer diameter of the
mtem
I
I'
di
.
.temal rimis slightly lesser t ian t re inner
rarneter of the external rim. As the internal
rim
~tes,it expands. The actuating force is controlled by a suitable actuating mechanism.
Because of this expansion of internal rim, it is engaged with external rim.
Forthe disengagement of the two rims, the actuating force is applied on the internal rim in
~opposite
direction. As the internal rim contracts, it automatically disengages from external
mn.

I acting rim clutch

Fig. J 0.9. An internal expanding centrifuga

Design o/Transm;

_~~

------------------~-.:!.....:...:...::.:.:

_!O.38

.
\$\$10"

,
S

ding rim clutches

. ..
.
mechanism,
Depending upon the operatmg

.
I
the mterna expanding

rim clutche
S

are

classified as
(i) Expanding-ring clutch,
(ii) Centrifugal clutch,
(iii) Magnetic clutch, and
(iv) Hydraulic and pneumatic clutches.
(i) Expanding-ring clutclles :
./ They are mostly used in textile machi~~ry, excavators,
the clutch may be located within the driving pulley .

./

./'

./

./

If no spring is used, the torque transmitted is proportional to the square of the

speed. This is particularly useful for el cctric-motor during starting. Because
without producing shock, the driven machine comes to the driving member.

./

Springs can also. be used to prevent engagement

been reached, but some shock may occur.

./

systems .

./

./'

They use magnetic forces to couple the rotating

actuating force for a friction clutch.

members

or to providethe

./

They are also useful in drives having complex

machinery, or in robots .

./'

In these clutches, the fluid flow can be controlled remotely using solenoid valves.

INo'~lln the arrangement shown in Fig.lO.9, if the external rim is fixed then the devicefunctions
as a internal expanding rim brake. For force analysis and other details, refer Chapter II.

~I'!
CJ~/&

1Z

~~R

ction, arrangement and working f

jD onstfll
d"
0 external
.(he c
. terna) expan 109 rim clutches exc
contracting .
P'
the In
.'
ept that th
run clutch
, 'Ist'to.
external rim instead of expanding int
. e actuating fore'
. es are
SIII1I(ltJ'llctiOg.
ernal nm.
e ISprovIded by
~eco
I contractmg clutch that is engag d b
!J1 e~tdern.~as shown in Fig.I 0.1 O.
e y expanding the flexible tube .
sse arr,
wIth
ll1pre
ca
sists of three elements: the mating fricf
I
IsO COO
c.
rona surface th
It a
and from the surfaces, and the actuating
hani
' e means of transmitt'
rqUe to
mec enism
mg

~w

Classification of Actuating Mechanisms

.
.
Theactuating or operatmg mechanisms are classified as :

10.12.1.

(i) solenoids,
(ii) Levers, linkages, or toggle devices,

(iv) Hydraulic and pneumatic devices.

10.12.2. Working
From Fig.10.10, it is understood that the
externalrim is rigidly bolted with the outer
casing. Whenever the compressed air is fed into
theflexibletube, the external rim contracts (i.e.,
theflexible tube expands internally because it
cannot expand externally). This contraction of
external rim provides the required clamping
force. Thus the driving and driven members are
engaged. In order to disengage these members,
~e pressureof the compressed air is regulated by
asuitable control mechanism.
~
asan ext

Fig. 10.10. An external contracting clutch

In the arrangement shown in Fig.1 0.1 0, if the internal rim is fixed,thenthe devicefunctions
. d h d tails referChapter 11.
emal contracting rim brake. For force analYSISan ot er e ,

\Vh

k done (against frictional forces

n
OpPo .e one solid body slides over another, most of the wor C nsequently the temperature
SlOg th
.
t the interface. 0
h

oftl._

e motion) will be liberated as heat a

even destroy the clute .
rubbin
. .
d
temperature
may
E
g surface will increase. This mcrease
I es of surface temperature
us
ven und
. h .nstantaneo va u
(about 10 er moderate and slow speeds, hig 1
f h two surfaces.
OQoC)
I ontact 0 t e
are reached at points of actua c
'lit

II~O~.4~O
_;:

----------------------------~D~e~s~~nofn
rans ..., ~;
""SS'

/'

/o"S

./
./

:Yll~

Most premature clutch failures can be resulted due to

eXees.
temperature.
Stve s
off
In case of metallic clutch plates, high temperature existing at th
~
may cause the individual plates to be welded together.
e rUbbing int

err~

./

In non-metallic or semi-metallic
excessive wear.

perature

'

can ~St

./

./

./

In case of lubricated clutches, oxidation of oil resulting in the f

deposits on the working surfaces and in grooves.
Onnation Of

The operation of a simple clutch is depicted as a mathematical model of

a
system in Fig. I0.11.
Shaft 1

twO-fOe'
nij

Shaft 2

-6_f_:ngin~-i-LH-~-F~~~+6
.
W1

11

12

(1)2

Clutch

Let

IJ and

wJ

= Moment of inertia and angular velocity of the driving memoo

(engine) respectively,

12 and

and

002 = Moment of inertia and angular velocity of the driven member(103li)

respectively.
We know that when the clutch plates are brought in contact some slippage occursbetw~
them before the speeds of driving and driven shafts become equal. The kinetic energywill~
absorbed in work by friction during the clutching operation. The design of the clutchsyst~m
.

t muchn~

should be such that the energy thus absorbed must dissipate fast so that there IS no .' "
.
fri ti n IImng, tti
m temperature. The uncontrolled rise in temperature may cause damage to nc 10
desired to calculate the total energy which will cause the temperature rise.

oue 10

It is assumed that the two shafts are rigid and that the clutch torque is constant.
clutching operation, the shaft I is decelerated

d28
II . dt2 = - T

[~l

,J)

T'
,

~.

011 the
as

acceleration in sha ft 2 and its

d2

isgi~.o

10.41

.
equatIon of motion

9
12 . dt2

re e :::: Angle displacement in time 'I'

weh
.
.n.e
angular velocity of shaft 1 is determined bY .mtegratin th
1J'
deI
_T
g e equation (i).
2

or

dt2

de,
dl

-1-

-T
I,

'"

(ii)

.t + C

de,

But at

C =

I:::: 0,

del

-dt

dl = co,

-T
-

+ co I

.I

II

... (iii)

de2

... (iv)

dt

Thedifference in velocities (i.e., relative velocity) is given by

del

de
dt

dl - dl

= (~~
=

de2

x 1+

01, - 002-

001) - (~
('III ~ :: )

x I+ ~ )
I

..,(10.20)

. Tillierequired for complete operation {tJ: The clutching operation is completed at the
Instant in w hiich the two angular velocities
~t

Then

COl

and

become equal.

. operation
.
I, = Time required for the entire
0)

= 0 when

(1),

I, .12 (ro, - ro~

t

(1)2

... (10.21)

T (I, + 12)
The abo
. ed . th gagement operation is directly
PrOpo.
ve equation shows that the time reqUlr tor e eo
rtlonal to the velocity difference and inversely proportional to the torque.
,-

IIO~.~42~--------------------------------~D~~~~n~~Q
~

11.tltli!!iO

l ment (8) By integrating the equation (10.20) on

II ~'Ftl
Angular uup ace
.
.
"
, e can ti
.
e d urm. g clutching operation over a time mterva\ of t).
Ind 11.._
displacement
"It ~
..I'

,')

de

T (I + I'
(00)-002)dl-~

~
JI

1)'12

"d,

or
Substituting the value of

I) .
=

we get

I),

12 (00) - (02)2

T(I)+12)

or
'" (10.22)

Energy dissipated during clutching operation (E) :

The work done by torque T or the energy dissipated during clutching operation' .

E
or

IS glven~
.

Te

I) .12
1
2 x

(00) - (02)2

(I) + '2)

'" (\0,23)

The above equation indicates that energy dissipated is independent of clutch torquebm
directly proportional to square of the difference of the angular velocities of drivinganddriven
shafts at the start of clutching.
10.14. TEMPERATURE

RISE

The temperature rise of the clutch can be calculated by using the relation

I aT
where

= {;

.1T = Temperature

.. , (\0.24)

rise in "C,

E = Energy dissipated by the clutch,

C = Specific heat of clutch material,
m = Mass of the clutch.

and
h

hen a clute
The above temperature-rise equation can be used to explain what happens W
vera!
.
'
.
ffi
t due to se
b
k
or ra e rs operated. Yet the actual situation may be very much d) eren
variables being involved.
'~l~,
entl
The clutch heated to a temperature T I cools to an ambient temperature T a expOn
as shown in Fig.l 0.12.

l~'~t

..

T,

. ....
'

AT

1
.
2Te",perature-tlmerelationshipfor
a

--

l.
c utch aJi~r ill h
second clutchmg operation after time I wh
C tc Ing 0P~'1lI1011.I
.
B en I~"'p~ralur~ rtJ
rott1t [11I~ S"OtffJ

(""I 0.1.
f,&'

TIme (I)

.
f I
'
IUIC~d 10 T"
T
this figure, time 0 c utchmg (I) is ve
'
J
'
t
Hrf
A
In
.'
ry small so the tem
.
. ntaneous I.e., at time lA' temperature rises f
T
perature nse is shoUhO>.
instB
rom D. to T .
..."
rature
drops
along
the
curve
ABC
unless
interne
t
d
b
,Instantaneously.
Then
the
pe
tern
"
P e y another clut h'
.
second operation occurs at time I B' then the temperat
'1"
c tng operation. If
a
ure WI nse to T2 as shown in dotted
line.

1D,15.ENERGY DISSIPATION
ONLY IS CONSIDERED

WHEN MOMENT OF INERTIA OF DRIVEN MACHINE

In the preceding section, the energy dissipated from the clutch is calculated by considering
ilie moment of inertias of both driving and driven machines (i.e., I, and '2)' The problem
recomesrelatively simpler if moment of inertia of driving side is not considered. For this
condition,
the following relations can be used.
12 . (1),

Time required
Energy dissipated

for completing

clutching operation,

I, =

. cute
I hi109, E
in the form of heat during

= -2I I2
I

and the angle turned through

I

.,
haft during
by the d nvmg s

2
(1)

.. , (1016)

I
2

(I) I

e = 2 12 . T

." (10.27)

d ;ves a ",achin~IhrouK", a
r;;. at 350 r.p."" r
tis
L!:a"'ple 10.23 An electric motor rotatmg
h is engaged illakes J stcO_n
p/tue l
. Wilen the clute
If 'nerlia 0/ drIven
(. C UlchWhose both sides are effectIve.
The ",olllenl OJ I
Also
,0, th
d of ",olor.
d its power.
e driven mae/line to attain the spee
" d bv Ihe ",olor an
"och'
prouuee ;,
COIc lilt is 4.5 kg-m2. Calculate the torque
llIQ1e
the energy dissipated by the clutell.
21t 1350) _ 36 65 radls; II ::::J sec ;
_~
==~60
- .
Gille" D
ata , N I - 350 r.p.m.; WI - 60
Where

tati

II'

... (10.25)

no ticns have usual mean rngs.

12 -

4.5 kg-m2.

~----------------~--~~
De.rigno/r,UIU'

~44

Tojind:

...,

'"

d by the motor (1'),

(i) Torque Produce
(ii) power developed (P), and
'ssl'pated by the clutch (E).
(iii) Energy d I

@Solulion:
(i) Torque produced by II,e molor ('T) :.
.
.
uired for completmg the clutching Operation (
We know that the time req
COns~.
only 12),
... [using eqUation(I
12 0>1

or

Torque, T

Power, P
We know that

II

0.2~)1,

4.5 x 36.65
3

Tx

(iJ)

0>

We know that

E.

= '2
=

'21

120>.

x 4.5 x (36.65)2 =3022.25 J Ans.,.

I

I Example

Ilf

10.24
in example 10.23, the moment ~/ inertia of electric motor is U
kg-m2, calculate the same quantities, assuming that driving tr'flChine startsfrom mt II'm
clutch is engaged and takes 1.B sec to anain motor speed. Also compare Ihe t~
dissipated in two cases.
Given Data:

II =

1.4 kg-m2; I. = 1.8 sec

@Solution :
(i) Torque produced by the motor (7) : We know that the time required for completi",
the clutching operation (considering both J I and 12),
I = I . 12 (co I - CO2)
.I
T (II + 12)

0>2 =

O.

From example 10.23, .12 = 4.5 kg-m- ; 0>1 = 36.65 rad/s

Substituting these values in 'II' equation, we get

[from equation(IO.211]

T (1.4 + 4.5)

1.8
Torque,

21.74 N-m Ans. ~

T -

rI
r developed (P) :
~) for;t h t
power,
Wekf1

Q1

owt a

= T x (co. - co2)

~ dissipated (EJJ: The energy dissipated is given b

~~~

E2 ~

_! x
2

I. 12 (co. - co2)2
(I. + 12)

..

1.4 x 4.5 (36.65 - 0)2

(1.4 + 4.5)
= 717.14 J Au ...,

(M Comparison:
E.
~

3022.25
= 717.14

= 4.214 Ans . ...,

It shoWSthat the moment of inertia of the driving machine heJps to reduce the energy
dissipation
and hence rise in temperature.
REVIEW AND SUMMARY
I

, Atthe beginning of this chapter, functions and principle of operation of the clutch are
presented
, The threeimportant types offriction clutches i.e., disc or plate clutches, cone clutches
and centrifugal clutches are discussed, in detail.

Single PlateClutch :

{ Torquetransmitted on the single plate clutch is given by

where

T
f.i

f.i.WR

= Coefficient offriction,

W = Axial thrust exerted by the springs,

R = Mean radius offriction surface.

_! [ r/-r/]

- 3 r/-rl
r, + r2

[Considering uniformpressure)
[Considering uniform wear}

2
I ...J,'uso'jriction surface, and
r, - Externa raa. 'J
r 2 = Internal radius offriction sur/ace.

Design o/r,aru",#&
~1~O_'4_6

------------------------------------~

Multiplat~ Clutch:
, ,
./
itted on the multiple plate clutch IS given by
Toi'qtletransmt
T = n- J.l . W ,R
where n = Number of pair of contact surfaces == n +
n I = Number of discs on the driving shaft. ~
"2 - J
n1 = Number of discs on the driven shaft,
./

./

Average pressure on thefriction surface is given by

Total force on/riction swface
p
= Cross-sectional area offriction surface
W
=
n(r/ -ri)
(IV

,
Number offriction surfaces required

Total torque required

Torque required per surface and

Cone Clutch:
./

Torque transmitted on the cone clutch is given by

T = J.l' W . R cosec a
where R = 2
3
=

./

[rl-rl]
r/-ri

('J; '1)

Axial force required at the engagement of clutch is given by

We = Wn (sin a + J.l cos a)
and axialforce required at the disengagement is given by
Wd = Wn (sin a- p. cos a)

Centrifugal Clutch:
Tofind mass of the shoe:
(i)

where F

T == Totalfrictional torque transmitted.

=
=

Number of shoes.
Centrifugal force on each shoe.
Spring force exerted by each spring on theshoe,

I
I

I
I

1 ~:-.-~~----__

II

fO

ft

10,41

--------

Fe - Fs - I b .p

where

1= Contact length of the h

s oes
b - Wi'dh
I t. of the shoes, and
'
p = Intensity of
,
pressure exerted on the shoe
'[he internal expandmg and external contracting rim clutc
.
, c/VJ[lltr.

I dI'-~
7:

"

operation,

'I

1(1/+1,)

E =

1x
2

1x

I
I

,I

fIJi

11 .12((8/ -

((J)/ - (l)J)2

T (II + I:;)

T(II + I:;)

Eatrgy dissipation during clutching (considering I] only) :

. t/
, , limerequiredfior comp I'eting cIutc hitng operouon,

'I

~'

'

I] . (1)/
T
1

1 ,

:/

1/ . I]

'2 I] . T

Energydissipated during clutching operation, E = ~ I] ~

where
1/ and I] = Mass moments of inertia of driving and
driven machines respectively,
(1)/ and (I)] = Angular velocities of driving and driven
machines respectively, and
T = Torque produced.

, I

LJT =-

em

di innted by the clutch,

E = Energy ISSIr'0/, and
C = specific heat 0/ clutch mate" ,

Mass

0/ the clutch.

.iIIi

Design a/T"ans",. .
10.48

!Ie~

REVIEW QUESTIONS
I.

2.

3.

4.

List out the required qualities of a good friction material.

5.

Explain with a neat sketch the working of a single plate clutch. Derive an eq

the torque transmitted by the single plate clute .

6.

uatlon fI
~

Describe with a neat sketch a multiplate clutch and explain how the number of J

P ales art

7.

Which of the two assumptions - uniform intensity of pressure or unifonn rate of w

would you make use of in describing clutch and why?
ear,

8.

Show that the torque transmitted in case of a cone clutch is given by,
T

9.

2
-3 Il W . cosec a

[rI3-r23J
2
2
rl

=r:

with usual notations.

Explain with a neat sketch the working of a centrifugal clutch. Deduce an expressi~n f~
the total torque transmitted.

10. Why service factor must be considered while designing a clutch?

II. The semi-cone angle in cone clutches is normally taken as J 2.5. Why?
J 2. Contrast internal expanding and external contracting

rim clutches.

13. List out the actuating mechanisms used in external contracting

rim clutches.

14. While designing a clutch, energy dissipation during clutching should be considered.
Why?
15. What are the effects of temperature rise in clutches?
16. Deduce an expression for energy dissipated during clutching operation.
17. Write short notes on 'temperature

rise'.

J.

300:

the:~ ;

and 200. mm respectively. The maximum intensity of pressure at any point in

surface IS not. to exceed 0.1 N/mm2. If the coefficient of friction is OJ. dete~9kWl
power transmitted by a clutch at a speed 2500 r.p.m.
[AIlS: 6).

both sides effective

d
1049
.
, an of 300
.
A S,tJD diatTleter transmits power such that the
. mrn Outside di
t ;~side JOO x 1()4 N/m2. Assuming uniform nlllJurnurn pressure ameter and 100 mm
I e%~if1e the maximum power that can be tran:e~ and COetlicien;:;he. Pl~te is not to
1
tfe~
of pressure at the outer radius of the I mltted at 1500 r,p.m AI frlctron of 0.35,
/
;~tenSJtY
.
p ate. fAns : 3438
. so determine the
. Ie plate clutch, effective on both'd'
. 3 kW; 33.3 x 1()4N
A slflg
.
h
Sl es, IS req .
1m2]
').,. r p.m. Determme t e outer and inner radii of . . Ulred to transmit 25
f 3~ ~ is 0.255, the ratio of radii is 1.25 and th frlctl~nal surface if the coeffi ~W at
(rICtlO
determi
he axl
e maxlmu
rcrentof
""!rnm2 Also etermine t e axial thrust to be
m pressure is not t
I 0 II"
.
provided b'
0 exceed
juniform wear.
rA .y springs. Assume the theory
lOt.
ns : 120 mm . 96
'ngle plate clutch with both sides effective t
'.
,mm;
1447 N1
I A 51.
, ransmJSSlon is 10 kW
. rilue developed IS 120 N-m. Axial pressure is not t
. The maximum
0 exceed 100 kNl 2 0
.
I
f frJ'ctionplate IS 1.3 times the inner diameter' De.'
m. uter drameter
0

,ennlne the d'

.
d
axial
force
exerted
by
the
springs.
Assume
unitConn
d,mens,ons
of the plate
an
"ear an Il = 0.25.
I

to.,

".

lOt

frObI- onmultiplate clutch:

5. A multiple disc clutch has five plates having four pairs of active friction surfaces. If the
intensity of pressure is not to exceed 0.127 N/mm2, find the power transmitted at
500i.p.m. The outer and inner radii of friction surfaces are 125 mm and 75 mm
respectively.Assume uniform wear and Il = OJ.
fAns: 18.8 kWJ

~. A multiplate clutch has six plates each of outer and inner diameters of 150 mm and 100
I
mmrespectively. Assuming Jl = 0.3 and uniform intensity of pressure of30 x J()4 N/m2,
determinethe power transmitted at 1200 r.p.m.
fAns: 46.88 kW]

11. A mUltipledisc clutch has 5 plates having four active frictional surfaces. Determine the
axialintensity of pressure between the discs transmitting 37.3 kW at 500 r.p.m. The
I .
...
.
75
d 125 mm respectively. Assu.ne
lOnerand outer radii of friction surface are
mm an
2
unl'~onn
d
rAns: 25.3 x J ()4 N/m ]
,
It
wear an 1.1 = 0.3.
t
r.
.
.
2 kW at 3000 r.p.m. The plates
A multJplate friction clutch is required to transmit 89.5
."
The coefficient of
,I are I
d they run In or .
a temately of steel and phosphor bronze an
. 0 8 times the radius of the
I &icti .
fro ti surface IS
on IS 0.08. The internal radius of the IC on
JI\.f N/m2. If the maximum
e~- I
. I' 't d to 20 x U"
be f
d:'''''na surface. The axial pressure IS nm e
250 mm d.:termine the num r 0
laJneterof the frictional surfaces is not to exceed'
fAns: JOJ
! Plates reqUired.

I'

0" COile

dutch:

.01. The

seOli-cone angle !s
e bearing surface rs

~COni '.
. 90 kW at J500 r.p
200 cal fr,ction clutch is used to transmit th mean diameter of thti d the dimensions
2
3iS and the COefficient of frictic!~ is 0.2. If e eed 0.25 N/mm , '"
QlIn
not to exc
Ofthe
~d the intensity of pressure IS. load required.
785 mm ; 5045 NJ
COnIcal bearing surface and the ax.al
fAns: J 96.5 mm; J

10.50

Design o/TI'QlUI1J'
"'8;011 S
~I~

)O. A leather faced conical clutch has a cone angle of 30. If the intensity f
between the contact surfaces is limited to 0.35 N/mm2 and the breadth 0 Ptes
surface is not to exceed one-third of the mean radius, find the dimensio of the Coo~t
.
ns Ofth ~
surfaces to transmit 22.5 kW at 2000 r.p.m. Assume Uniform rate of w e ~
coefficient of friction as 0.15.
[Ans: 103.27 Inrn~9 8fId take
.
di
, 4.73
II. Power is transmitted by a cone clutch of mean rameter 200 mrn, face width
111m]
clutch angle of 15 (semi-cone angie). The coefficient of friction == 0.25
Illlll, 8IId
2
pressure on the cone is not to exceed 20 x ) ()4 N/m Calculate the In!!!':' e n0llna!
.
h
. I Co

OCJ\lmulll
transmitted at 750 r.p.m. Also determme t e axia rorce required to hold
~er
Assume uniform pressure.
[Ans: 17.15 kW~e CIIitch.
12. A cone clutch with cone angle 20 is to transmit 7.5 kW at 750 r.p.m. Th .78 kN]
intensity of pressure between the contact faces is not to exceed 0.12 Nt e ~onnal
th
coefficient of friction is 0.2. If face width is 1/5 of mean diameter, find (i)~~ . ~
dimensions of the clutch, and (ii) Axial force required while running.
e main
[Ans: b = 46.8 mm ; r, = 125 mm ; r2 = 109 rnm . 139

ri

S N]

Problems on centrifugal clutch:

13. A centrifugal clutch has four shoes with an inside diameter of the drum 300 mm and
radial distance of the centre of gravity of each shoe from the shaft is 120 mm . Assummg
~
J.L = 0.25, determine the necessary mass of the each shoe if 29.42 kW poweris to be
transmitted at 800 r.p.m. with engagement beginning at 75% of the running speed.
[Ans : 1.8 kg]

14. A centrifugal clutch has four shoes which slide radially in a spider keyed to thedriving
shaft and make contact with the internal cylindrical surface of a rim keyed to thedriven
shaft. When the clutch is at rest, each shoe is pulled against a stop by a springso as to
leave a radial clearance of 5 mm between the shoe and the rim. The pull exertedby the
spring is then 500 N. The mass centre of the shoe is 160 mm from the axis of theclutch.
If the internal diameter of the rim is 400 mm, the mass of each shoe is 8 kg, the stiffness
of each spring is 50 N/mm and the J.L is 0.3; then find the power transmitted by theclutch
at 500 r.p.m.
[Ans: 36.1 kW]
Problems on energy dissipation in clutches :
15. An electric motor rotating at 300 r.p.m. drives a machine through a plate whoseboth
sides are effective. When the clutch is engaged it takes 2.6 sec for the driven machi~eto
attain the speed of motor. The moment of inertia of driven machine reduced to dn7n
shaft is 4.78 kg-m-, Calculate the torque produced by the motor and its power.~;
calculate the energy dissipated from the clutch. [Ans: 57.2 N-m; 1797.22 W ; 2334. late
16. If in the previous problem, the moment of inertia of electric motor is 1.2 kg-ro2, calc~ine
the same quantities with same properties of clutch lining, assumin~ that drive~~c.AlS(1
starts from rest when clutch is engaged and takes 1.5 sec to attain motor s~
compare the energy dissipated in two cases.
.
4951
. E /~:: .
fAns: 20.05 N-m; 0.63 kW ; 427 J, ,

..An eye for an eye

nJ
o yends up malring

Brakes
the whole ""'~Id blind. .,

INTRODUCTION
- Mullbltil Ga1UIJU
.
~lte is a mechamcal device by means of which mot'
f
.
Br~
Ion 0 a body IS retarded f I.'
Of to bring it to rest, by applying artificial frictional'
. or S owing
down
.
h b ak
reststance. In this process f
lating the motIOn, t ere
absorbs either kinetic
.
0
regu
.'
f'
energy or potential energy In
omobiles, the kinetic energy 0 the moving vehicle is absorbed by th brak I hoi .
aUt
I
I
.
e
e. n oists and
1 ators the potentia
energy re eased by the obiects
during th e brakimg period
" IS absorbed
elev
,
'J
11.1.

by the brake. ~he energy absorbed

to the surroundmgs.

by the brake is converted into heat energy and dissipated

The capacity of any brake depends upon the unit pressure between the braking surface, the
coefficientof friction between them, velocity of brake drum, heat dissipation capacity of the

brake, etc.
A dynamometer is a brake incorporating a device to measure the frictional resistance
applied. This is used for measuring

the driving force or torque transmitted and hence the

It may work on the principle of absorption or transmission.

11.1.1.Clutch Vs Brake

The functional difference between a clutch and a brake is that a clutch connects two .
movingmembers of a machine whereas a brake connects a moving member to a stationary
member.That is, if any one of the moving member of a clutch is fixed, then the device
becomesa brake.
11.2.CLASSIFICATION OF BRAKES

A classification scheme for brake is presented in Fig.II.I.

F
.
h main types of mechanical brakes:
rom Our subject point of view, the followlOg are t e
I.

2. . Band brake
,

. I b d brake

and (ii) Differentia

an

_j

,!~

_!1.2

---------

D_e_S....;::ign=---O-=-if_1i~,.,=ans=-m.;.:_l.S:::.::.
sian

8)1

\$;L_

Simple
Band
Differential

~
External
Actuation

L-------'

Short shoe
Mechanical
L..--_In_temal
__
Pneumatic &
Hydraulic

....

Trailing shoe

Electrical

shoes

Drum

-0~
~

~
~

Automatic
DuoseNO
Full disk

Caliper disk
Electrically on
Magnetic
Electrically off

3.

4.

S.

The mechanical brakes, according

following two groups :

.t

Examples: Band brakes, block brase., ....ld internal expanding brakes.

(b) Axial b,aIu!s : In axial brakes, the force acts axially on the drum.
Examples : Cone brakes and disc brakes.
11.3. BRAKE LINING MATERIALS

prpkes ~.

11.3

ffi .

I h ability to withstand high temperatures t th

.
.
Ire
'ty
, oge er with high heat dissipation
capac I .
I Adequate mechanical and thermal strengths.
I }-lighresistance to wear.

sistance against environmental conditions such'

.
I Re
.
,
as moisture and OIl.
Types of Brake Linings
11.3.1.
f I' .
basic types 0 nungs are:
Three
1.Organiclinings: Organic linings are generally compounded of six basic ingredients.
(i)

Asbestos: For heat resistance and high coefficient offriction.

(ii)

Friction modifier:

cashew nut shells.

(iii) Fillers: To control noise. Example: Rubber chips
(iv) Curing agents: To produce the desired chemical reactions during manufacture.

(v)

For improved overall braking performance. Example:

Powdered lead, brass chips, and aluminium powders.
Other materials:

(vi) Binders: For holding the ingredients together. Example: Phenolic resins.

2. Semi-metallic linings: These linings substitute iron, steel, and graphite for part of the
asbestos and organic components of an organic lining.
J. Metalliclinings: For further details, refer Chapter 10, Section 10.5.
The Table 11.1 shows the materials commonly used for brake lining and their properties,
Table 11.1. Properties of brake lining materillis

,..._
t--._

Material

WOOdon metal

Metal on metal
leather on metal

Asbe

POWdered
C.
metal lining on
I.IIJOil

J!

Allowable

pressure (P1JUlX> MPa

Max. Temp, -c

0.25

0.48

6S

0.25

1.4

315

0.17

65

0.35
0.40

0.34

0.15

2.8

260
260

114

'. BLOC
I . K ~R SHOE BRAKE

d
inst the rim surface of a
h s are presse agal
Otake d ')'pe of brake, one or more blocks Of s oe . bbe compound, cast iron or of any
rum. Th e blocks are made of wo od,as bestos In ru r

Il thiS

h,

Design

11!1~'4~

O/Tri11ls",..

------------------------------~~~~~~jIOn~~
Tol'e""
j

, I of the block or shoe is softer than that of th

h
itabl metal The materia
&-.
ed
ot er SUI
e
',th'
by the application of a rorce through suitabl I'\JfrI. 'h.
blocks are pressed agamst e ram
e levtra~~
brake hanger,
Or
11.5. SINGLE BLOCK OR SHOE BRAKE

. .

,
h brake is shown in Fig. 11.2, The friction between the bl
A single block or s oe
.
.
Ock :I" ....
he' tarding of the drum, This type of brake IS cOmmonlyu~
..."'the
brake drum causes t ere,"""
on rail
trains and tram cars.
~
b

Drum

Fig. 11.2. Clockwise rotation of brake drum

The block is pressed against the drum by a force (F) applied on one end of a lever. The
other end of the lever is pivoted on a fixed fulcrum 0,
Let

RN
F

=
=
=

Normal reaction of the block,
Force applied at lever end,

J.1 = Coefficient of friction,

J.1 RN - Frictional force, and
TB

Braking torque.

11.6.1. When the Rotation of the Drum Is Clockwise

Fig. I1.2, shows the clockwise rotation of brake drum.
Braking torque on the drum is given by
TB

.. , (i)

= J.1 RN r

F . I + J.1 RN . C
F ' 1- RN . a + J.1 RN . C

RN a
= 0
-

.. , (ii)

F~~

RN :: F
or

-L:
Q-

J.lC

'wting RN value from equation (iv) in

.
SiJbstJ .
equation (i), We have
T8-1l'-

... (iii)
'" (iv)

F./.,.

Q-Ilc

'" (JJ.I)

1.51

If-lOCking Brake

....,uation (iii) the value of F is zero when Q :: If I

III ....,
r- c. t means that
h h
ly the brake is zero, then the brake is applied auto t' II
w en t. e force required

10app

ma lea y Wllell thefiWct. alfi

. ..lrlCielll enough to QPPIythe brake whit no exle,nalfi'
'lOll Of'Ce
ISIllJr
orce, '"ell 'lie b,.aje Is said to be

stI/.JocAbrg bf'{lkL

2. Self-energizlng Brake
From equation (ii), it is observed that the moment of applied force (F .1) and the moment
of the frictional force (Jl RN . c) about 0 are in the same direction. Thus frictional force
~~) helps in applying brake. This type of brake is known as a seJ/-ellergised 1J1'tIke.
'1.5.2.When the Rotation of the Drum Is Antlclockwfse

Consider the anticlock wise rotat ion of brake drum as shown in Fig.llJ.
Normal reacti
and

n f the block, RN

Ta

F ,
a+J.&c

a, F' r
a+J.&c

... (11.2)

Design ofTran

11.6
.

.
Sy!/

INote I

PIIq

I. Pivoted Block or Shoe Bl'tlke (21J> 40? .

.
d th t th nonnal reaction and the frlctional force act at the mid .
It IS assume
a
e
-POintof
Generally angle of contact (29) is small. When the value of angle of Contact is
the ,
(.I. e. w hen 29 > 40) the equivalent coefficient of friction. (u') is used in torque equat'IOnIllOrethan
4J.1 sm9
.
Equivalent coefflcient of friction:
u' = 29 + sin 29
where

fl
29

=
=

Actual coefficient of friction, and

Angle of contact.

4(J<

~-

1 Dimensions ol"the block: The dimensions of the block are determined by the rei .
~
RN = p x b x w

where

RN

Normal reaction

0f

"01.4)

t h e bl oc,k

Breadth of the block (i.e., shoe), and

3. Rate of heat generated during the brakin~ a~tion : The rate of heat generated duringthebra!;"
period is equal to the rate of work done by the frictional force.
Illg
:. Rate of heat generated = Frictional force x Average velocity = fl' RN x \I

I Example

J 1.1

'"

(11

.S)

in Fig. 11.4. The diameterof the drll1ft

is J 80 mm and the angle of contact is 60 ~ If the operating force of 400 N is applitdat IItt
end of a lever and the coefficient of friction between the drum and the lining is 0.30,
determine
(i)
the torque that may be transmitted by the block brake,
(ii)

the rate of heat generated during the braking action,' when the initialbrake spttd
is 300 r.p.m, and

(iii)

the dimensions of the block if the intensity of pressure between the block
brake drum is 1 Nlmm2. Tile breadth of the block is twice its width.
200mm

250mm

,
I

,
I

'160

400N
mm

Fig. 11.4.

QIId

RAIIJ :

~~'

600 == 60

a ~

Z"

" [IJI :
"

J 80 mm or ,. ::: 90

-L

JI.7

~e~

)( 10-,1 rn

7t

x J 800

N::: 300
-

J! ::: 0.30;

by th bl

(i) Torque transmitted

; P ~ 400

r.p,If)' h

=:

2 It'.

e ock shoe
(ii) Rate of heat generated dun b .'
rmg raJung,
(iii) Dimensions of the block.
and

o solution:
a:
~IIIC

Since the augle of contact .

,
ient of friction is given by
IS greater than 400, therefore
Il' =

4J.! s~n 9

ftJn'

== 4 x 0.30 x sin 300

29 + SID 29

7t

0.313

::

3" + sin 60
(0 Torquetransmitted hy the hlock shoe (1) :
Let

RN = Nonnal reaction or force on the block, and

Il' RN = Braking force.

Taking moments about the fulcrum 0, we get

400 (250 + 200) + u' RN x 60

= 200

RN x 200
RN

RN = 993.3 N

or

Braking force == 11' RN

Torque transmitted

... (i)

0.3 J3 x 993.3

Ta = 27.98 N-m
(ii) Rate of

and

VI

V2

We know that

7t toN

vj +
2

V2

= 310.9 N

Il'RN r = 310.9

0.09

o.!~

7t

2.827 + 0
2

1.414 mls

d - Frictional force x Average velocity

== ",RNXV

OJ x 993.3 x 1.414
= 421.36 N-m/s or W Aas."'SJ
(iii) Dilllensions

Let

\II

hand

b
Wet
e know that'

of the hrake shoe:

1_

~urVI~nt

respectively.
h b d h d width of the brake shoe
[From equation (I 1.4)J
e rea t an
bxw
., .
RN == P x
_ 2 w2
xw993.3 == 1 x 2 w

Design ofTrans_"

)) 8
~~,~

----------------------~~~~~"'~slon

~.

Width, W = 22.285 mm and

Breadth, b = 2 W = 2 (22.285) == 44.57 nlln

or

I Example

11.2

I The diameter

Ails

1 m: It sustains 240 N-m of torque at 400 r.p.m. TI,e coefficient o"fi'

. 'g./ I

....,
rICIIO,,
Determine the required force 10 be applied when the rotation of the drum is ,.
1\$
(b) counter clockwise, and the angle of contact (i). 35 ~ and (ii) 100 ~ Gi~e aJ CloCkIV
n Ihal
mm, b = 150 nun and c = 25 mm. Also find the new values of 'c' for self loc . a::::
brake.
Ie'"g Of
a
b

= 800 mm

b= 150mm
c= 25mm

r= 0.5 m

Given Data:

or r

= 0.5 m;

240 N-m " N == 400 r.p.rn ;

11 == 0.32; a == 800 mm == 0.8 m; b == 150 mm == 0 15 .
_
S I,
.
m, C - 25 mm = 0025
0 'utton : Braking torque is given by
. m.
mm

TB ==

!o.o!

TB ==

11 RN r

240 == 0.32 x RN x 0.50

RN == 1500N
(i) When angle of contact, 2 (J == 35 0:
(a) Rotation of drum clockwise:
Taking moments about 0, we get
or

F . a == 11 RN . C + RN . b
F x 0.8 == 0.32 x 1500 x 0.025 + 1500 x 0.15
F == 296.25 N 'Ans ~
(b) Rotation of drum counter clock . .

:.

Taki

or

Wise.

RN x b == F a + 11" RN . C
1500 x 0 15 == F
.F _
x 0.80 + 0.32 x 1500 x 0.025
- 266.25 N Ans. ~

.. , (i)

IIIe 01'
'c' for self-locking of the b k
'J.
ra e :
Ie)fre~
king the externally appl ied force F
I'
If~IOC
'
d
Th
must be
~(l

forse
tion of the
~ise rota

c'f

rum.
us equation (i) c be
zero. This is
.
RN . b == 0 + R an Written as
POssIble for COUnter
. I! N' c
Or bc == b == QJ1
- I!c
I!

"

angle of contact, 2 (}

';1 fhi"

0.32 == 0.469 m

== 469 mm

= 1000.

Ans. "

(II! th angle of contact is more than 400 the c

s'nce e
' rei ore the coeffi .
I
u' = 4 J.l sin 8
IClentof friction

28 + sin 28
4 x 0.32 x sin 500
1t

240 -

Il' RN r

x RN x 0.50

= 1337 N

RN

or

0.359

= 0.359

Takingmoments about fulcrum 8, we get

F . a = RN b + Il' RN . c
F x 0.80 = 1337 x 0.15 + 0.359 x 1337 x 0.025
F = 265.7 N ADS. ~
(6)Rolation of drum counter clockwise:

Takingmoments about fulcrum 0, we get

F . a = RN b - Il' RN c

.., (ii)

"

F = 235.7 N

F(c)New Val Ill! of 'c' fOT self-locking of the brak e :

.
Or self I ki
be
This is possIble for counter
tb:k\y'
OC lng, the externally applied force F must
.zero.
ISerotation of the drum. Thus equation (ii) can be Wiltten as

o =

Or
C

''icrio" 0

It

RN' b - Il' RN C

.j

_...QJl

= J.1'
- -

0359

.1'

116. For a coe/flclellt OJ

The short shoe block brake shown In Fig. b' orbed What ac/ua/jllg
is 10 be a >S

tree it'e ' ~frICtional power of 14. 924 k W at 650 r.p.""

91lired , C
". '6 ,
. an the brake be self-loe"zn" .

......._

.'

---------------!IQ___-----------------------------------D-e-s~ig.~n-O~if~TJ~ra~nsrn
01H ..
ISS1.

_!1I.10

a
d

a = 1.0 m
r = 0.375m
d = 0.375 m
c = 0.05 m

Fig. 11.6.

GivenData:
r

I-l

rn ; a

0.375

Toflnd:

0.3;

14.924

].0 m ;

14.924

m;

kW
0.05

x 10

0.375

W ; N = 650 r.p.m;

m.

(i) Actuating force (F) required, and

(ii) Checking the brake for self-locking.

@) Solution:
Let
RN
Jl RN

(i) Required actuating force:

= Normal force pressing the block against the wheel,

Taking moments about fulcrum 0, we have

= F a + I-l RN . c
= F a

RN . d
or

RN (d - Jl c)

or

RN

F'a
d-I-lc

TB

I-l RN r

TB

0.3 x F x 1.0 x 0.375

0.375 - 0.3 x 0.05

TB

0.3125 F

14.924 x 103

or

..

TB

Jl'

F'a
d-I-lc

." (iJ

.. ' (iiJ

27t N TB
60
27t x 650 x TB
60
219.25 N-m

.. (iii)
'

~!
te~
~

(f
frOtfl

11.11

we get
2 I 9 . 25 --

eqtJ8Uo

OJ125 F
701.6 N Ans."

king condition: In equation (i) if d

fel/'/Oc
. . 0 f self-Iockmg
. distance
'
(til'J1tIS: .IS the condlllon
.
d ='
of

ase
'

~rO' .

IS C
I~th

J..l

OJ 75 m
c = OJO x 0.05

s f.l . c' th en
=

force F will be

negative or

0.0015 m

ppe.

Ans. "tI

pOlJS

BLOCK OR DOUBLE SHOE BRAKE

LE
If,6,If on lone
block is u ed for braking, then there will be SIide thrust on the bean
y.
f h
Tloisdrawback can be removed by providing two blocks on th
.
ng 0 w eel
~aft.
,
TI'
I d bl
.
e two SIdes of the drum
~slt0' !f1 in flg.)t. 7,.' us a so ou es the braking torque . Th e d ou ble shoes on the drum'
~_
~A
the unbalanced force on the shaft, The blocks or shoes are held on the d rum~m~m

ofspring
LeI force.

et the blocks on the drum,

RNI and
RNl

fl

RNI

and fl RN I

f drum,
N rmal reaction and the braking f ret on the left hand side shoe, and

N ron a I react i

lhe drum i r tatin ' in the

I'

and the brak ing f ret on the right hand side shoe.

." (i)

RNI'

i)

[)o

ta

blL silO( brfd.

Fig. II.
M
I runl
\"e get
"I'

ill

1'1
I

ment

::::: R 2' a

", (ii)

Design ojTransmisSio
11.12

ke the braking torque IS given by

In case of double block or s hoe b_r_a
__ , __ -----:::-~:_::=--:-~-;;;_-:-:::_
T
= (u RN 1 + J.l RN2) r - J.l r (RN 1 +

I
.

The values 0 f RN1 an d R N2 can be obtained from equations

substituted in equation (11.6) to get T B'
Let

.....

.. (11.6)

be

IA

2rb sin

'" (11.7)

Ip

". (11.8)

where

INote I

= ~

ET

rotating parts
I

= 2"

2
(VI -

v2)

-4-

2" I w2
'" (11.9)

TB =
where

NI

60 x

E-r

7txNlxt

". (11.10)

I Example

11.4 J TI.e

block

brake

shown ill Fig. 11.8, is set by a spring tlun

produces a force S Oil each arch equal to
3500 N. Tke wheel diameter is 350 mm and
the angle of contact for each block is J 20 ~
Take coefficient of friction as 0.35,
determine (i) the maximum torque that IIIe
brake is capable of absorbing, and (ii) the
width of the brake shoes, if the bearing
pressure on the lining material is not to
exceed 0.3 Nlmml.
Fig. 11.8.

it"" p

= 3500 N;

d = 350 mm

11.13

Or

.1L -

== 17 S

mm ::::0.175 m .
G 200:::: 120 x 180 - 2.094 rad , J.l:::: 0.35 ;
p:::: OJ N/mm2.
'
8~ 1
1
(i) Torque absorbed by the brake
"d:
' and
fD ftI
(ii) Width of the brake shoe .

"olu/IO'

@oJ'

~cient 0

f friction

.'

IS

given

(28) is

,~

,therefore th
'

II'

4g sin 0
20 + sin 20

(0 forq

e equivalent

ue absorbed by tile brake (T sJ :

Consider
the left hand side brake shoe:
raking moments about 02' we get
S (25 + 20) - RN2 x 20 - F2 (17.5 - 4)

45 S -

RN2 x 20 - F., x 135

.

- [0.!~9 -13.5 ] Fl

[.:

F2

== Jl' RN2;

F2
RN2

== Jl' ==

F2

0.409 ]

45 x 3500 = 35.4 F2

F2

or

= 4449.2 N

Consider
right hand side brake shoe :

we get

1,

S (20 + 25) -

45 S

FI -

Braking torque T B is given by, T B

+ Fl (17.5 -4)

= FJ [ 0.!~9 + 13.5]

45 x 3500 Or

RNI x 20

62.39 F)
2524.1 N

(F) + F2) r

(ii) JJlit/1

I.e

Wekn

h of the brake shoe (b) :

. mm
'b
_ Width of the brake shoes m

Ow that projected bearing area for one shoe,

R .
[ .. F 1 = II'
r Nl >

Design ojTransmissi
I]~I.II~4

--------------------~~~--~~
A == 2 r b sin 9

303.11 b mm2

.7

RNI

FI
Il'

2524.1
0.409

=617J.39N

and normal force on the left hand side of the shoe,

F2
RN2

Il'

4449.2 ._
== 0.409
-

10878.24 N

Since the maximum normal force is on the left hand side of the shoe, therefore
.
.
i:
design the shoe for RN2 i.e., the maximum normal rorce.

We

aVe to

RN2

0.3 =
or

A
10878.24
303.116
119.63 mm Ans."

.I

Example J 1.5 , The layout of a double block

brake is shown in Fig.J1.9. The brake is rated at25(J
N-m at 650 r.p.m. TI,e drum diameter is 250 mm.
Assuming coefficient of friction to be 0.3 and for
conditions of service a pv value of J 000 (kPa) m/s
may be assumed Determine:
(a) Spring force'S'
and

Spring force

(b) Width of shoes.

Which shoe will have greater rate of wear and
what will be the ratio of rates of wear of the two
shoes?

Fig. 11.9.

Given Data: TB = 250 N-rn; N = 650 r.p.m; d = 250 rnm or r = 125 rnm ;
1.1 = 0.3 ; pv

1000; 20

= 110

= 110 x ~
180

1 92
.

@ ~olution : Since angle of contact (20) is greater than 400 therefore the equivaJenl
coefficient of friction is given by
,

1.1' =

4 fJ. sin 0
29 + sin 20

4 x 0.3 x sin 550

- 1.92 + sin 1100

= 0.344

lit

,
and side br.
like sltoe,'
.1fore

,=

S (160 + 160)

f~jP8

(RN1 x 160) + FI (125 -60)

160 + 65 ]
. 320 S = F, [ 0.344
'" [..

F, = 0.604 S

RNI -

II,silfer

left hand side brake shoe:

CD. moments about fulcrum 02' we get
rakJ08
S (160 + 160) = (RN2 x 160) - F2 (125 - 60)

= F2

320 S

F2

or

160
]
[ 0.344
- 65

0.8 S

Brakingtorque is given by
TB = (F) + F2) r

250 - (0.604 S + 0.8 S) x 0; 125

Spring force, S - 1424,S N Ans, ~

or

llt

A

... [From equation (11. 7)]

2 r h sin

2 x 125 x h x sin 55

==

204.79 b mm2

.. Normal force on the right hand side of the shoe,

RN J

F)
0.604 S _ 0.604 x 1424.5 == 2501.16N
= Jl' =
Il'
0.344

F2
R
S~ce
~ess
We J,_

N2

lire.

P\QOW

= -,

N2

th

>

RNJ,
.

therefore

Jl

0.8 S
== --;-

==

Il

0.8 x 1424.5
0.344

'JJ bused

RN2 WI

'I
JO

==

3312.79N
,

lating the maximum bearmg

ca cu
.
1

I"
materia ,
at the bearing pressure on the JfiJfig
.
_ 1..6.~ x 106 N/m2
RN2
1312.?2..:= .!..E Nlmml - .b
P - A = 204.79 b
b

"itF ]
I

_!_~ __

-----------

D_eS_;;gn~~Of~Tr_a_n_.Jm..:..:..:=u,::.J;01J
S

_I1.16

0.25 )( 650 := 8.S I mls

60
60
rubbing
velocity,
V ==
and
1.376)( 108 NI
:= 16 18)( 106 x 8.51 :=