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HOW TO DRILL AN ERD WELL


Nurol Azfizah Mohammad Roszaimey
SWEN/04/14/0059
AD Well Engineering
BSP HQ
Technical Wells Planning
Brunei Shell Petroleum

Contents
1.

INTRODUCTION..................................................................................................................1
1.1 Definition of Extended Reach (ERD) Well...........................................................................1
1.2 Objectives of report...............................................................................................................2

2.

PLANNING............................................................................................................................3
2.1 Identify the well delivery opportunity, key value drivers and risk........................................4
2.1.1 Opportunity framing......................................................................................................4
2.1.2 ERD well Risk Identification (HSSE and operation).....................................................4
2.2 Assess options to deliver the opportunity and mitigate risk..................................................4
2.3 Select the most valuable well delivery option.......................................................................8
2.4 Define the selected concept into a detailed solution and robust plan....................................9

3.

EXECUTION..........................................................................................................................9
3.1

Drilling Sequence and procedure......................................................................................9

3.2 Pre-completion / Completion................................................................................................9


3.2.1 Lower Completion.........................................................................................................9
3.2.2 Perform SBT Logging....................................................................................................9
3.2.3 Run Smart Completion.................................................................................................10
3.3 Well Handover to Production..............................................................................................10
4.

EVALUATE..........................................................................................................................10

5.

CONCLUSION.....................................................................................................................10

6.

APPENDIX...........................................................................................................................10

POLITEKNIK BRUNEI
&
BRUNEI SHELL PETROLEUM SDN BHD

HOW TO DRILL A WELL

EXTENDED REACH WELL

1. INTRODUCTION
With the end of the era of easy oil and with major oil fields being situated in deep waters and
difficult terrains, drilling a well becomes a more and more complex matter. Since 1987,
implementation of horizontal well technology and extended reach drilling technology has been
done to produce oil and gas in a field in the most cost effective way. The use of these new
techniques can make old nonprofitable fields profitable, prolong an existing fields economic
life and make new and uncertain field discoveries technically possible.
1.1 Definition of Extended Reach (ERD) Well
Specific definition of an extended reach well is considered as a debatable issue. However, the
current consensus agrees on the following definition - a well is defined as extended reach if it has
a StepOut Ratio of 2 or more. Stepout Ratio is defined as the horizontal displacement (HD)
divided by the true vertical depth (TVD) at total depth. But, for most highly deviated wells in
deepwater environments, this definition clearly does not fit.
Some methods have evolved to categorize wells according to their stepout within different
vertical-depth ranges. ERD wells then can be described conveniently as shallow, intermediate,
deep, and ultradeep. Other variants are associated with operating in deep water and highpressure/high-temperature environments.
The following are other generally accepted definitions of an ERD well:
i.

Wells having horizontal displacements greater than twice the wells true vertical depth,

ii.

yielding inclination angles in excess of 63.4 degrees;


Wells which approach the limits of what has been achieved by the industry in terms of

iii.

horizontal displacement;
Highangle directional wells that approach the capabilities of the contracted rig.

It should be noted that to date, there is still no standard accepted definition for an ERD well.

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HOW TO DRILL A WELL

EXTENDED REACH WELL


1.2 Objectives of report
For the purpose of this report,

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HOW TO DRILL A WELL

EXTENDED REACH WELL

1. IDENTIFYING OPPORTUNITY
The first step prior to drilling any type of well is to firstly find the hydrocarbon reserves.
However, locating these reserves does not necessarily result in drilling a well. Drilling a well
roughly cost averaging from 30 to 40 million dollars, making it high capital intensity. Hence,
prior to initiation, it is highly important for investors to be assured on the economic viability of
the well to be drilled opportunity identification.
For opportunity identification, several factors are to be considered:

Location of hydrocarbon
Volume of hydrocarbon in situ and producible
Rate of hydrocarbon production
Uncertainties in determining the above factors

The oil industry is an industry with high capital intensity and apart from that it is also high risk.
Despite the advancement in technology that has increased the margin of success of drilling an
ERD well or even that of conventional well, the fact still remains that the economic viability
could not be deduced until actual drilling of the well is done.
The stages by which an extended reach well or also known as ERD well undergoes, is the same
to that of a conventional well. However, special consideration to certain aspects within the stages
due to the increase of complexity that heightens some issues pre-existing in any well drilling
project.

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HOW TO DRILL A WELL

EXTENDED REACH WELL


The following diagram shows the key stages of the typical oil and gas project life cycle.

Planning

Drilling

Completion

Production

Abandonm
ent

There are many points in the project life cycle where an oil and gas operating company has to
decide whether operations remain commercially viable. In fact, only 10% of wells are likely to
be successful in frontier offshore exploration areas.
Hence, for operating companies as per mentioned earlier, the commercial viability of a well is
constantly monitored and decisions on its continuity could be done during different intervals. To
ensure maximum value of any well opportunities is achieved, proper planning and project
definition weights as heavily as the execution.

IDENTI
FY

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ASSES
S

SELEC
T

DEFIN
E

Nurol Azfizah Md Roszaimey

EXECU
TE

OPERA
TE

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HOW TO DRILL A WELL

EXTENDED REACH WELL


2.1 Identify the well delivery opportunity, key value drivers and risk
2.1.1 Opportunity framing
2.1.2 ERD well Risk Identification (HSSE and operation)
2.2 Assess options to deliver the opportunity and mitigate risk
2.2.1 Rig Type and Specification
2.2.2 Drill String Design
2.2.3 Casing and Cementing Design
2.2.4 Completion Design
Well Planning and Trajectory Design
In designing any well, extensive planning is required prior to drilling initiation. at yielding an
optimal design which should result in the simplest path while still achieving all geological
targets.
In other to achieve an optimum well path, several factors have to be considered and put into
perspective. Based on reported industry experience gained from earlier wells, and confirmed
during the drilling of more recent wells, the following aspects are considered to be key factors in
well planning:

Well Trajectory

Build Rate

Surveying and Target Sizing

2.1 Well Trajectory


To determine the optimum well trajectory that will achieve directional objectives, the most
critical operations or wellbore characteristics, which are the limiting factors have to be identified.
There are several approaches to trajectory design to achieve long reaches with the fewest

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HOW TO DRILL A WELL

EXTENDED REACH WELL


possible limitations on other downhole operations. Table 3.1 is a general comparison of the
major options while Figure 3.1 is a representation of the various trajectory profiles.

Option

Advantages

Disadvantages

Multiple Build Profile: Rate of Very long reach, low High tangent angle
build increases with depth in torque/drag values,
several discrete steps to tangent low casing wear
angle, hold constant tangent
angle
Build and Hold: Constant build Simple, long reaches Potentially
high
rate to tangent angle, hold achievable,
low contact
force
in
constant tangent angle
tangent angle
build (torque, casing
wear)
Double Build: Buildholdbuild
hold trajectory, can use two
different BURs in the build
sections

Very long reaches


possible with low
contact forces in
upper build

May require deep


steering,
High
second
tangent
angle

UnderSection: Build and hold Reducing


hanging High tangent angle,
with deep KOP
weight below build shorter reach
section,
reduces
contact
force
in
build
Inverted: Tangent angle above Flexibility
for Higher
axial
horizontal so the wellbore enters multiple
targets, (buckling) loads to
the reservoir from underneath
avoids gas cap
push string uphill,
deep
steering
required
3D: Any of the above with
significant azimuth changes

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Flexibility to handle More


curvature
anticollision
and means more torque
multiple
target and
drag,
deep
requirements
steering may be
required,
shorter
reach

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HOW TO DRILL A WELL

EXTENDED REACH WELL

In choosing among these options, a useful concept to keep in mind is the


Critical Tangent Angle. This angle represents the limit beyond which a tool
will not slide downhole under its own weight, meaning that it will have to be
pushed from above. The Critical Tangent Angle is mathematically represented
by:
q Cos = q Sin
Tan = 1 (3.1)
Where:
q = Pipe buoyant weight,
= Friction factor
= Critical tangent inclination angle
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HOW TO DRILL A WELL

EXTENDED REACH WELL


2.2 Build Rate
Build rate may have a marginal effect on torque and drag levels for very high
ratio wells. This is due to the increasing percentage of string weight supported
on the low side of the hole resulting in lower tensile forces at surface. However
contact forces may be sufficient to promote unacceptable casing wear at the
higher build rates, especially when well operations such as extended
backreaming are anticipated due to poor primary hole cleaning. As a guideline,
build rates in excess of 2.5 o /30m may cause concern with respect to high
contact forces. If higher build rates than this are planned, the difficulty of
achieving a smooth build also has to be considered where an increasing
percentage of the build will be performed while sliding and not rotating the
assembly. Some other important things to note about build rate are:

High Reach/TVD ratio wells may tolerate high BUR because the string tension
in the curve is low and may even be in mechanical compression.

Low Reach/TVD ratio wells do not tolerate high BUR since drill string tension
in the curve is higher.

High build rates can cause casing wear problems, especially in high
Reach/TVD ratio wells where there may be high tensile loads through the
build section during trips out of the hole and backreaming.

Low BURs result in lower contact forces. This typically means lower casing
wear.

Low tortuosity is also achievable with low BURs. It tends to be more difficult
to maintain low tortuosity with a high BUR.

Generally, with lower build rate, more can be achieved while rotating the
assembly and thus the chances of achieving the desired smooth build will be
greatest.

2.3 Surveying and Target Sizing

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POLITEKNIK BRUNEI
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HOW TO DRILL A WELL

EXTENDED REACH WELL


Well Design Workflow
Rig Move and Rig Up
Conductor
A collapsed conductor string can have major operational and economic implications. It is
imperative that drive shoes are used during installation because they absorb most of the driving
force, which significantly reduces the risk of conductor collapse. CIS manufactures conductor
drive shoes to suit the installation of any size of conductor. Shoe types include:

standard drive
deviated directional drive
taper-cut directional drive
closed end
deep penetration.

The drive shoes are tailor-made for each application, and are designed according to the soil
formation

and

the required penetration. CIS also supervises the crucial welding of the shoe to the shoe joint.
Nippled up 29 Diverter, 30 Sliplock Riser, overboard lines & 30 Bell Nipple in preparation for top
hole drilling.

2.3 Select the most valuable well delivery option


2.3.1

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HOW TO DRILL A WELL

EXTENDED REACH WELL


2.4 Define the selected concept into a detailed solution and robust plan

2. EXECUTION
2.1 Drilling Sequence and procedure

Drill 8-1/2"
Pilot Hole

Open Pilot
Hole to 24"

Run and
cement 185/8" casing

Drill 16"
hole

12 Hole
Check Trip

SBT/Neutro
n Log Inside
13 3/8
Casing

Drill 12-1/4"
hole section

Run and
Cement 133/8" casing

Run and
Cement 9
5/8 Casing

Drill 8 x
8 hole

Run and
Cement 7
Liner

Drill 6 x 6
Hole

3.2 Pre-completion / Completion

3.2.1 Lower Completion


Sand Control Run 4 Petroguard Advanced Mesh Screens with 9-5/8 WBCU 78

3.2.2 Perform SBT Logging


on 7 liner

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POLITEKNIK BRUNEI
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HOW TO DRILL A WELL

EXTENDED REACH WELL


3.2.3 Run Smart Completion

3.3 Well Handover to Production

3. EVALUATE
4. CONCLUSION
5. APPENDIX

RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

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BRUNEI SHELL PETROLEUM SDN BHD

HOW TO DRILL A WELL

EXTENDED REACH WELL

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HOW TO DRILL A WELL

EXTENDED REACH WELL


CONCLUSION & RECOMMENDATION

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HOW TO DRILL A WELL

EXTENDED REACH WELL

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HOW TO DRILL A WELL

EXTENDED REACH WELL


REFERENCES ALL REFERENCES MUST BE CITED IN TEXT
BIBLIOGRAPHY, USEFUL MATERIAL NOT CITED IN TEXT, IF ANY

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HOW TO DRILL A WELL

EXTENDED REACH WELL


APPENDICES BACKGROUND AND/OR SUPPORTING MATERIAL, IF ANY
GANTT CHART

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