You are on page 1of 7

Pie Chart of Skittles Colors And # of Candy For Entire Class

Entire Class # of Skittles


Candy Pareto

I actually expected to see these results. I assumed that because these candies get
sorted by machines, that the color distribution in each bag would come out closely
even to each other. However, in my own bag, I had slightly more red candies than
all of the other colors. I did have the lowest number of candies in the yellow color,
which seems consistent with the rest of the class and their candy counts.

My bag of Skittles Candy Count

Comparison to the entire class # of Skittles candy count

*The top pareto chart is my bag of candy, and the second chart is the entire class of
candy.

Frequency Histogram

Boxplot

Standard Deviation: 2
Min: 54
Q1:58
Med: 59
Q3: 60
Max: 62

Mean: 59

Categorical data can be put into a countable number of categories or different


groups, and it may not have logical order. Quantitative data can be ordered and
measured.
For categorical data, it seems like pie charts would do well to show this data, and for
quantitative data, histograms might be the best option to organize this data.
Calculations for categorical data makes sense as in payment method, or product
types. Quantitative data makes sense as in fill weight of a cereal box, or number of
customer complaints. The boxplot shows the data in a 5-number summary.

A confidence interval is used to express the degree of


certainty associated with a sample within statistics. It is
an interval estimate combined with a probability
statement.
95% confidence interval results:
p : Proportion of successes
Method: Standard-Wald
Proportio
n

Count

Total

310

1536

Sample
Prop.
0.20182292

Std. Err.

L. Limit

U. Limit

0.01024092
7

0.1817510
7

0.2218947
6

99% confidence interval results:


: Mean of variable
Variable
var1

Sample Mean
59.076923

Std. Err.
0.37178603

DF
25

L. Limit

U. Limit

58.040593

60.113253

98% confidence interval results:


2 : Variance of variable
Variable
var1
Lower Limit
1.423898

Sample Var.
3.5938462
Upper Limit
2.792213

DF
25

L. Limit

U. Limit

2.0274843

7.7964549

Hypothesis tests is a way that uses sample data to


evaluate the credibility of a hypothesis about a
population. You should state a hypothesis, define the
decision method, gather data, and finally make a decision.
Hypothesis is that 20% of candies are green.
Hypothesis test results:
p : Proportion of successes
H0 : p = 0.2
HA : p 0.2
Proportion
p

Count
311

Total
1536

Sample Prop.
0.20247396

Std. Err.
0.010206207

Z-Stat

P-value

0.24239742

0.8085

Hypothesis test is that the mean of each bag is 56.


Hypothesis test results:
: Mean of variable
H0 : = 56
HA : 56
Variable
var1

Sample Mean
59.076923

Std. Err.
0.37178603

DF
25

T-Stat
8.2760589

P-value
<0.0001

The conditions for doing interval estimates and hypothesis tests for population
proportions include, both samples being simple random samples, and the samples
being independent. Confidence intervals are used to show the uncertainty of an
estimate.
The conditions were met of the intervals for the purple candies proportion from the
bag. The sample proportion states .20 or %20 which is approximately correct for the
proportions of all colors of candies in the bag. The conditions were also met for the
hypothesis test for the green candies. The hypothesis being that the green candies
are .20 which is in fact, true.
The conditions for doing interval estimates and hypothesis tests for population
means include, that the samples are collected from simple random sampling, and
that the sample distribution is approximately normal distributed. It is also important
to know the variability of the sample mean, and have to find the standard deviation
beforehand.
These conditions have been met.
The conditions for doing interval estimates for population standard deviations
include, knowing that the sample is numerical. If the sample is less than 30 then
one must check whether that sample comes from a normal distribution.

I believe that my sample meets the conditions for the confidence interval because
the sample is much larger than 30.
The major errors that can be made include, not having the correct data to calculate.
Other errors include not using the right method of proving the confidence levels.
The sampling method could be improved by using half of the class, instead of 26
separate individuals, with 5 different colored candies to calculate, it introduces too
many variables that can be easily misunderstood. I have drawn the conclusion that
half of my research proved to meet the conditions which have been stated, and the
other half may have not met the conditions.

Reflection
During this semester, I have learned and used many different
applications to use in the real world for problem solving. Many of these
methods proved to be very effective in solving problems, and I can apply
these methods to everyday living.
I really liked learning about graphs, and how they can show amounts of
data in an organized, methodical presentation. My favorite was the pie
graphs, and the histogram. It is such a clean, very easy to read way to
present data to a reader. When looking at many number all at once, it can
get confusing about which numbers data is actually important. Putting all of
the information into one beautiful chart can strengthen an argument in your
favor. Another application that I really like is the boxplot, it is so organized on
showing a 5-number summary. This type of method is very useful when
applying to things like marathon finishing times, etc.
There are some methods that I have learned such as probability, zscores, and hypothesis testing that have very important, and real
applications in the real world. I however, am not in a place in my life yet,

where these applications need to be applied outside of a Statistics


classroom. I am sure that later in my life, that I may need to use these
methods to organize data, and put together reports that have real life
representation.
This class has been very challenging this semester, but it has also
been rewarding in certain ways. I can see that I am getting stronger in
critical analysis thinking and am able to see where using statistics would
help. I am happy that I decided to tackle this study, it is a very important
one. I know that later on into my career as a Physician Assistant, I will need
to use analysis skills, and will very glad that I took this class and learned how
to apply it into the real world.