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Candy Pareto

I actually expected to see these results. I assumed that because these candies get

sorted by machines, that the color distribution in each bag would come out closely

even to each other. However, in my own bag, I had slightly more red candies than

all of the other colors. I did have the lowest number of candies in the yellow color,

which seems consistent with the rest of the class and their candy counts.

*The top pareto chart is my bag of candy, and the second chart is the entire class of

candy.

Frequency Histogram

Boxplot

Standard Deviation: 2

Min: 54

Q1:58

Med: 59

Q3: 60

Max: 62

Mean: 59

groups, and it may not have logical order. Quantitative data can be ordered and

measured.

For categorical data, it seems like pie charts would do well to show this data, and for

quantitative data, histograms might be the best option to organize this data.

Calculations for categorical data makes sense as in payment method, or product

types. Quantitative data makes sense as in fill weight of a cereal box, or number of

customer complaints. The boxplot shows the data in a 5-number summary.

certainty associated with a sample within statistics. It is

an interval estimate combined with a probability

statement.

95% confidence interval results:

p : Proportion of successes

Method: Standard-Wald

Proportio

n

Count

Total

310

1536

Sample

Prop.

0.20182292

Std. Err.

L. Limit

U. Limit

0.01024092

7

0.1817510

7

0.2218947

6

: Mean of variable

Variable

var1

Sample Mean

59.076923

Std. Err.

0.37178603

DF

25

L. Limit

U. Limit

58.040593

60.113253

2 : Variance of variable

Variable

var1

Lower Limit

1.423898

Sample Var.

3.5938462

Upper Limit

2.792213

DF

25

L. Limit

U. Limit

2.0274843

7.7964549

evaluate the credibility of a hypothesis about a

population. You should state a hypothesis, define the

decision method, gather data, and finally make a decision.

Hypothesis is that 20% of candies are green.

Hypothesis test results:

p : Proportion of successes

H0 : p = 0.2

HA : p 0.2

Proportion

p

Count

311

Total

1536

Sample Prop.

0.20247396

Std. Err.

0.010206207

Z-Stat

P-value

0.24239742

0.8085

Hypothesis test results:

: Mean of variable

H0 : = 56

HA : 56

Variable

var1

Sample Mean

59.076923

Std. Err.

0.37178603

DF

25

T-Stat

8.2760589

P-value

<0.0001

The conditions for doing interval estimates and hypothesis tests for population

proportions include, both samples being simple random samples, and the samples

being independent. Confidence intervals are used to show the uncertainty of an

estimate.

The conditions were met of the intervals for the purple candies proportion from the

bag. The sample proportion states .20 or %20 which is approximately correct for the

proportions of all colors of candies in the bag. The conditions were also met for the

hypothesis test for the green candies. The hypothesis being that the green candies

are .20 which is in fact, true.

The conditions for doing interval estimates and hypothesis tests for population

means include, that the samples are collected from simple random sampling, and

that the sample distribution is approximately normal distributed. It is also important

to know the variability of the sample mean, and have to find the standard deviation

beforehand.

These conditions have been met.

The conditions for doing interval estimates for population standard deviations

include, knowing that the sample is numerical. If the sample is less than 30 then

one must check whether that sample comes from a normal distribution.

I believe that my sample meets the conditions for the confidence interval because

the sample is much larger than 30.

The major errors that can be made include, not having the correct data to calculate.

Other errors include not using the right method of proving the confidence levels.

The sampling method could be improved by using half of the class, instead of 26

separate individuals, with 5 different colored candies to calculate, it introduces too

many variables that can be easily misunderstood. I have drawn the conclusion that

half of my research proved to meet the conditions which have been stated, and the

other half may have not met the conditions.

Reflection

During this semester, I have learned and used many different

applications to use in the real world for problem solving. Many of these

methods proved to be very effective in solving problems, and I can apply

these methods to everyday living.

I really liked learning about graphs, and how they can show amounts of

data in an organized, methodical presentation. My favorite was the pie

graphs, and the histogram. It is such a clean, very easy to read way to

present data to a reader. When looking at many number all at once, it can

get confusing about which numbers data is actually important. Putting all of

the information into one beautiful chart can strengthen an argument in your

favor. Another application that I really like is the boxplot, it is so organized on

showing a 5-number summary. This type of method is very useful when

applying to things like marathon finishing times, etc.

There are some methods that I have learned such as probability, zscores, and hypothesis testing that have very important, and real

applications in the real world. I however, am not in a place in my life yet,

classroom. I am sure that later in my life, that I may need to use these

methods to organize data, and put together reports that have real life

representation.

This class has been very challenging this semester, but it has also

been rewarding in certain ways. I can see that I am getting stronger in

critical analysis thinking and am able to see where using statistics would

help. I am happy that I decided to tackle this study, it is a very important

one. I know that later on into my career as a Physician Assistant, I will need

to use analysis skills, and will very glad that I took this class and learned how

to apply it into the real world.

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