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Libby Welch

WINTER 2016
DMGT 732
PROJECT

Regina Rowland, Ph.D.


Facilitating Creative Thinking
Increasing Participation/Volunteerism

Figure 1. Photo of Idea Capture Grid from Visual Storytelling Activity. Authors image.

There comes a time when one cannot proceed further


without restructuring the patternwithout breaking up
the old pattern, which has been so useful, and arranging
the old information in a new way (de Bono, 1990, p. 35).

Part 1: Project Overview



Project Goal................................................................................................................. 6

Expected Outcome...................................................................................................... 6

The Entity.................................................................................................................... 7

The Location................................................................................................................ 7

The Participants........................................................................................................... 8

Contents

Part 2: Project Activity Plan



Activity Overview...................................................................................................... 12

Methodology............................................................................................................. 13

Warm-Up Activity...................................................................................................... 14

Visual Storytelling Activity......................................................................................... 16
Part 3: Warm-Up Activity

Overview................................................................................................................... 20

Activity in Progress.................................................................................................... 20

Results....................................................................................................................... 22
Part 4: Visual Storytelling Activity

Overview................................................................................................................... 30

Activity in Progress.................................................................................................... 30

Results....................................................................................................................... 31
Part 5: Project Analysis

Assessment................................................................................................................ 40

Participant Feedback: Warm-Up............................................................................... 41

Participant Feedback: Visual Storytelling.................................................................. 42

Video Presentation.................................................................................................... 43
Appendices

Appendix A: Detailed Activity Plan: Warm-Up.......................................................... 46

Appendix B: Detailed Activity Plan: Visual Storytelling............................................. 47

Appendix C: Obtaining Permission............................................................................ 48

Appendix D: Lateral Thinking Exercise: Sequential Information................................ 50

Appendix E: Game Board and Cards.......................................................................... 52

Appendix F: Six Thinking Hats Reference Page.......................................................... 54

Appendix G: List of Figures........................................................................................ 55

Appendix H: List of Tables.......................................................................................... 60

Appendix I: References.............................................................................................. 61

Figure 2. Photo of supplies before the Warm-Up. Authors image.

Part 1

Project Overview

project overview

The Objective

There are those who believe that creativity is not for them but for
artists, designers and inventors. This is a dangerous and limiting
attitude. Just as the ability to use the reverse shift is part of every
drivers driving ability, the ability to use creative thinking should be
part of every thinkers thinking skill (de Bono, n.d.).

project goal
This project is an opportunity to help an organization learn to apply lateral thinking as a
problem-solving tool. Lateral thinking is closely related to insight and creativity (de Bono,
1990). It is a deliberate process that engages logical thinking in a different manner.
It differs from vertical thinking because it does not move along a specified path reaching
predetermined milestones, but draws from ideas across multiple disciplines, generating
new ideas and increasing creativity.
Through the implementation of de Bonos Six Thinking Hats methodology, the selected
group will be led through a series of activities to show them how to break old patterns
of thinking and replace them with new ones.

the expected outcome


A group of individuals will develop teamwork, listening skills, and explore new ways of
thinking. The experience will provide a framework to approach future problems. The
experience will be hands-on and use a variety of materials and techniques. The group
will reconnect with a playful, open style of interacting. An environment of playfulness
and humor affords people freedom to make new connections (Prather, 2010), which is
what makes innovation possible.

the entity
project overview

The Selection Process

The group selected for these workshops consists of parents whose children attend Eastover
Elementary School in Bloomfield Hills, Michigan. Eastover houses kindergarten through 4th grade.
The current enrollment is 495 children. The township of Bloomfield Hills has a wide socioeconomic
range, with some extremely affluent areas and pockets of lower-income families. Eastover has a
diverse populationracially, ethnically, physically able/disabled and a significant deaf/hard-ofhearing program. Eastover is a Title 1 School, which means it receives additional federal funding
to address the achievement gap related to income discrepancies (United States Department of
Education, 2004). The Bloomfield Hills school district is among the top performing school districts
in the state and Eastover Elementary was recognized as a 2015 National Blue Ribbon School by the
United States Department of Education (Bloomfield Hills School District, 2015).

the location
Both sessions were conducted in a conference room at a nearby law firm. It is a conveniently
located, well-lit, welcoming environment with plenty of space for the workshop activities.

Figure 3. Photo of conference room at the Paletz Law Firm. Authors image.

participants
project overview

The Group

There are eight people participating. They are all parents who have children attending
Eastover Elementary School. Some are members of the Parent-Teacher Organization (PTO),
some are not. The group includes men and women in order to gain multiple perspectives.
The group varies in three specific ways:
1. Some participants have other children besides elementary ageolder and younger
2. Some work full-time, some part-time, and some are at-home parents
3. Some volunteer regularly and some do not

Figure 4. Photo of Rachel.


Authors image.

Figure 5. Photo of Stephanie.


Authors image.

Figure 6. Photo of Lydia.


Authors image.

Figure 7. Photo of Jennifer.


Authors image.

Rachel A.

Stephanie C.

Lydia F.

Jennifer F.

PTO president

Past PTO president

Past PTO president

Active PTO member

Figure 8. Photo of Rob.


Authors image.

Figure 9. Photo of Fozia.


Authors image.

Figure 10. Photo of Allen.


Authors image.

Figure 11. Photo of Libby.


Authors image.

Rob D.

Fozia R.

Allen K.

Libby W.

Occasional
involvement

Doesnt usually
volunteer

Doesnt usually
volunteer

Facilitator

Figure 12. Photo of Rob and Rachel during the Warm-Up introductions. Authors image.

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Figure 13. Photo of Stephanie and Jennifer during the Warm-Up introductions. Authors image.

Part 2

Project Activity Plan

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project activity plan

the defined problem

Activity Overview

The problem being explored is how to get more parents involved with school
activitiescoming to PTO meetings, volunteering, and actively engaging with the school
community. As with most organizations of this nature, it is the same core group of
parents coordinating and volunteering most of the time.

why parents dont volunteer


There are several reasons why volunteerism and parental involvement is low. The most
common reason parents give is not having enough time. Another one is that they work,
have many other responsibilities, or even that they are not comfortable, especially when
working on a new project (ODonnell, n.d.).

why parents should volunteer


According to research by Henderson (2002) for her book, A New Wave of Evidence: The
Impact of School, Family, and Community Connections on Student Achievement, parent
involvement is linked to higher rates of school attendance, graduation, and pursuit of
higher education (Leaver, n.d.). Other important outcomes of parent volunteerism are:

More access to teachers and staff


More awareness of opportunities
An understanding of school culture
Being better positioned to advocate for a child should the need arise
Parent sends a clear message that education and community matter
Parents show they are invested in their childs success

When parents are involved in their childrens education at home,


they do better in school. And when parents are involved in school,
children go farther in school and the schools they go to are better
(Leaver, n.d.).

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project activity plan

the six thinking hats

Methodology

The Six Thinking Hats methodology was developed by de Bono in the 1980s (de Bono,
n.d.). Its goal is to help teams become creatively engaged and more productive while
problem solving. It works with six metaphorical hats. The hats are color-coded and each
one represents a specific mode of thinking. Participants can metaphorically put on a
particular hat and add to the conversation from the viewpoint of that thinking modality.
Then s/he can switch hats and look at the same issue from a different perspective.

white hat
Facts, figures and dataunderstanding the information that is already known. It is here
that items are defined, clarified and knowledge gaps can be identified.

black hat
Judgment and cautionpointing out why a suggestion does not fit the facts, the
available experience, the system in use, or the policy currently in place. It is an essential
part of this process and must always be logical.

red hat
Intuition, feelings and emotionsallows the speaker to add a feeling or intuition
without having to justify it. Concerns can be raised without supporting logic or fear of
retribution.

yellow hat
Positive aspects and potential benefitsfinding value in actions being proposed and/or
something that has already happened.

green hat
Creativity and innovationproposing new ideas, alternatives, provocations and/or
changes.

blue hat
Overview, process control and meta-cognitionlooking not at the subject, but at how
the subject is being approached. Used to move the conversation forward. For example,
a proposal from the blue hat perspective could be to do more green hat thinking.

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project activity plan

goals & expected outcomes

Warm-Up

To introduce the group members to each other


To loosen them up a little/get them to have fun with the process
To begin the process of lateral thinking/breaking up old patterns of thinking
To begin addressing the issue of increasing volunteerism
To give the group a sense of the activities planned for the next session
To introduce them to de Bonos Six Thinking Hats methodology

activity overview
activity
The group members are introduced each other and begin the conversation about
volunteerism. Each participant molds an item out of Play-Doh and introduces him/
herself to a partner. Then as a group, they create a story about the experience of
volunteering, incorporating each item. Play-Doh is a non-threatening material that
encourages participant creativity.

cool down
De Bonos Six Thinking Hats methodology is introduced as each participant reads a
description aloud. Next, they draw symbols to represent a hat. These symbols and
modes of thinking will be used in the next session.

debriefing
The participants pass a hat and take turns reflecting on the session, sharing their
experiences.

feedback
The participants give feedback through a brief written survey.

closure
The participants draw a symbol representing how they feel at the end of the session.

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Table 1. Warm-Up Activity Schedule

project activity plan

Warm-Up Schedule

resources

stage

time

description

Welcome

Before the
session begins,
as participants
arrive

Photograph each participant.

Introductions/Icebreaker

8 mins.

Participants receive Play-Doh and mold items, introduce


themselves to partners, and explain their object.

Warm-Up Activity

10 mins.

As a group, they invent a story about their experiences


volunteering. The story involves each item. The items can
be used in any orderthe group decides that as part of
the activitybut every item must be included.

for the group

Name tags
Consent forms
Play-Doh (1 can per person)
Large paper for writing the story
Markers/pens
Cards with hat explanations
Blank cards
A hat
Debriefing questions

The story is written on a large piece of paper so everyone


can see the finished product.
Cool Down

3 mins.

Camera
Video camera
Tripod
An assistant/photographer

Introduce de Bonos Six Thinking Hats by having them read


the descriptions. Each person has a different hat.
Participants draw a symbol for the hat on his/her card.

for the facilitator

Complete consent forms.

Debriefing

5 mins.

Pass around an actual hat. Each participant pulls out a


question and answers it. The questions address how they
feel about the experience and what they learned.

Feedback

2 mins.

Participants give feedback through a brief survey.

Closure

2 mins.

Participants draw something which represents how they


feel at the end of this session.

30 mins.

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goals & expected outcomes


project activity plan

Visual Storytelling

To reacquaint group with de Bonos Six Thinking Hats methodology


To explore the main issue (increasing parent participation/volunteerism)
To increase the participants abilities to think laterally

activity overview
warm-up
The Warm-Up demonstrates the human tendency to use familiar patterns of thinking, then
challenges the participants to break that pattern and see how it affects the result. This is done
with a shape-sorting activitythe sequence of arrival of information (de Bono, 1990).

main activity
The Main Activity uses de Bonos Six Thinking Hats methodology. The symbols drawn at the
earlier session are printed on color-coded playing cards. Participants write thoughts about the
defined problem on corresponding colored cards. The black cards are collected and affixed to
a game board to serve as obstacles. Collaboratively, the group moves along the path playing
cards on each color. The participants create a visual story, are encouraged to build on each
others thoughts, and tackle each obstacle as a team.

cool down
A ball is tossed around and each participant answers questions such as, What did you learn
from todays session? and Which hat did you find the easiest? the hardest?

debriefing
The Debrief is a critical component of the Visual Storytelling Activity. It is necessary to ensure
the group understands the progress made during the session. The group completes an Idea
Capture Grid where they use Post-it notes to place comments, critiques, ideas, and questions
into the corresponding quadrant on a large piece of paper.

feedback
Feedback is collected through informal interviews on camera.

closure
Each participant assembles a kit containing a summary of the Six Thinking Hats methodology.
The kit provides tangible materials to remember the experience, and encourages them to use
this technique with other groups in the future.

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Table 2. Visual Storytelling Activity Schedule

project activity plan

Visual Storytelling
Schedule

stage

time

description

Welcome

As participants
arrive

Snacks/chatting/getting reacquainted.

Warm-Up

10 mins.

Participants are led through a shape sorting exercise


dealing with the sequence of arrival of information.

resources

They are given pieces one at a time, and the order


they are given affects how they are organized.

for the group

Name tags
Game board
Game cards
Tape to affix black cards
Game piece (1)
A squishy ball
Large pad of paper
Markers/pens
Paper
Post-it notes
Take-home kits

Main Activity

40 mins.

Participants write thoughts about the problem, one


thought per card, using as many cards as they need;
the thought should correspond with the cards color.
People play appropriate cards, add new ones, or pass as
the group progresses along the path.

Cool Down

5 mins.

A ball is tossed around so that each person has an


opportunity to share his/her reactions and answer
questions about the activity and the Six Thinking Hats.

Debriefing

10 mins.

Participants reflect on the purpose of the activity and


complete an Idea Capture Grid exercise.

Feedback

10 mins.

Participant feedback is collected through on-camera


interviews.

Closure

5 mins.

Participants assemble a take-home kit with reference and


reminder materials.

for the facilitator

Camera
Video camera
Tripod
An assistant/photographer

Color-coded cards are dealt, corresponding to the hats.

80 mins.

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Figure 14. Photo of Allen and Lydia during the Warm-Up. Authors image.

Part 3

Warm-Up Activity

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overview
warm-up activity

Documentation

As described in the Project Activity Plan, the Warm-Up is an opportunity to introduce


group members to each other and to the concept of lateral thinking. In this session,
participants work in two-member partnerships and as a whole team. The activities are
designed to be engaging and fun. This session also sets the stage for the forthcoming
Visual Storytelling Activity.

activity rationale
The activities designed for this group utilized humor, play, and participation. The group was
put into a creative mindset with Play-Doh. Next, they introduced themselves to a partner,
before coming together as a team to write a collaborative story. They read descriptions
of de Bonos (1990) Six Thinking Hats and drew symbols to engage directly with the new
concepts. Simple materials like Play-Doh and markers helped break down barriers to
creativity.
Interestingly, most of the participants continued to play with the Play-Doh throughout the
entire session, asked for more of it in the next session on their feedback surveys, and even
took some home with them.

outcomes

The participants bonded successfully as a group


The Play-Doh had the intended effect of bringing out a playful side of the participants
De Bonos (1990) Six Thinking Hats methodology was successfully introduced
The experience laid the groundwork for the Visual Storytelling Activity

activity in progress
The Warm-Up went very well. The group bonded quickly and easily over the collaborative
story activity. Group members enjoyed incorporating all of the objects and understood
that the exercise represented working together and utilizing everyones individual talents.
These opinions were expressed during the Debrief. The group members listened to each
other intently during the partner exercise and revealed in the feedback at the end that it
had been a favorite part of the day.

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Figure 15. Photo of Libby handing out Play-Doh to each participant. Authors image.

Figure 17. Photo of Allen and Lydia. Authors image.

Figure 18. Photo of Fozia. Authors image.

Figure 16. Photo of group working in partnerships, explaining the object they modeled. Authors image.

Figure 19. Photo of Stephanie talking to Jennifer. Authors image.

Figure 20. Photo of Stephanie, Jennifer, Rob and Rachel. Authors image.

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results
warm-up activity

Documentation

The Warm-Up Activity produced great results. Each person participated


thoroughly, and group members listened to each other. The room was filled
with productive chatter, often laughter, and great enthusiasm for the process.

introduction: descriptive objects

RachelBrain
StephanieHeart
LydiaAirplane
JenniferCamera

RobVolleyball
FoziaTwo hearts
AllenHammer and nail
LibbyBook

Figure 21. Photo of some of the objects participants created during the Warm-Up.
Clockwise from top left: volleyball (Rob), camera (Jennifer), brain (Rachel), and heart
(Fozia). Authors image.

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main activity: a collaborative story


warm-up activity

The group created a story about volunteering. They were asked to use
all of the objects made by the participants. Here is the result:

Documentation

Figure 22. Photo of the story written during the session. Authors image.

(We are a volleyball team with lots of heart. We are on an airplane on a surprise
trip to go volunteer building homes. Were going to use our brains to create a
book filled with photographs. When we get home, we will show our book to
others to inspire them and sell copies to raise funds to build more homes.)

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warm-up activity

cool down: drawing symbols for each hat

Documentation

De Bonos (1990) Six Thinking Hats methodology was introduced during the Cool
Down. Each participant read a description of a hat and drew a symbol representing that
thinking modality. The symbols were used later in the Visual Storytelling Activity. It was
interesting to see that two of the symbols createdthe red and the greenare almost
identical even though they represent different ways of thinking.

Figure 23. Photo of Rob drawing a symbol to represent one of de Bonos hats. Authors image.

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Figure 24. Photo of white hat card with description


and drawing by Jennifer. Authors image.

Figure 25. Photo of black hat card with description


and drawing by Rob. Authors image.

Figure 26. Photo of red hat card with description


and drawing by Rachel. Authors image.

Figure 27. Photo of yellow hat card with description


and drawing by Allen. Authors image.

Figure 28. Photo of green hat card with description


and drawing by Lydia. Authors image.

Figure 29. Photo of blue hat card with description


and drawing by Fozia. Authors image.

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debrief: pulling questions from a hat


warm-up activity

Documentation

For the Debrief, a hat was passed around containing folded pieces of paper with different
questions on them. Each participant blindly chose a question, then answered that question
aloud. Some of the questions were, What was the point of making up a story? and How
can you apply what you learned?

feedback: survey / interviews


The participants gave feedback through on-camera interviews and a three-question written
survey, answering these questions: What was your favorite part of todays session? What
would you like to do more of in the future? and Other comments/suggestions?

closure: draw how you feel right now


The feeling in the room at the end of the session was light-hearted. The consensus was that
getting this group together to do this type of workshop was extremely beneficial. Many
participants stayed after the session ended to keep talking with each other. There was a
sense that they did not want it to end.

Figure 30. Photo of drawing created during the


Closure exercise by individual group member.
Authors image.

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Figure 31. Photo of drawing created during the


Closure exercise by individual group member.
Authors image.

Figure 32. Photo of drawing created during the


Closure exercise by individual group member.
Authors image.

Figure 33. Photo of drawing created during the


Closure exercise by individual group member.
Authors image.

Figure 34. Photo of Rob discussing what he learned during the Debriefing. Authors image.

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Figure 35. Photo of the Visual Storytelling Activity. Authors image.

Part 4

Visual Storytelling Activity

29

overview
visual storytelling activity

Documentation

During the Visual Storytelling Activity, the group addressed a multi-faceted problem in
an organized way. De Bonos (1990) Six Thinking Hats was the structure that helped the
group delve into the issue of increasing volunteerism. This session included a lateral
thinking exercise and a board game activity, along with various feedback opportunities.

activity rationale
It is a complex problem being addressed. The facilitator provided a framework for
discussing various approaches and generating possible solutions. Each group member
had opportunities to add input. The board game and playing cards were effective,
allowing each person to contribute while progressing around the table.

outcomes

The activities created a climate of collaboration


Participants began to employ lateral thinking strategies
New possibilities were generated, which, in turn, inspired further ideation
This group of non-designers became comfortable with design thinking strategies

activity in progress
The excellent response to the earlier session provided a foundation for the success
of this second session. The group members felt comfortable immediately, which set a
positive tone. They were fully engaged in all of the activities and were able to employ the
Six Thinking Hats methodology effectively. In fact, so much productive discussion was
generated that the Main Activity had to be truncated to keep within the allotted time.
The Debrief, Feedback, and Closure each went smoothly.

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results
visual storytelling activity

Documentation

More ideas than expected were generated during the Visual Storytelling Activity. The group
would like to continue meeting and working on this topic. The members have also expressed
interest in widening the number of people being introduced to these techniques and approaches.
One of the participants would like to discuss the possibility of creating workshops at a district
level, not just one school. It was an encouraging outcome.

warm-up: shape-sorting exercise ( appendix d)


Four sets of shapes were distributed to the group members in a specific order. At each step they
were instructed to combine the shapes and create one shape that was easy to describe. As new
shapes were given, the group was told to add the newly received shapes to the previous ones
and still maintain a shape that was easy to describe. At the last step, they were given a shape
that did not easily fit into the most common solution up to that point. The exercise demonstrated
that even though they had been correct at each step along the way, they reached a point where
they could not go on unless they took apart everything they had done previously and rearranged
all the pieces. They could not simply add the new of information. This was a hands-on way of
explaining that the sequence of the arrival of information (de Bono, 1990) plays a large role in
understanding and solving problems.

Figure 36. Photo of Lydia doing the shape-sorting. Authors image.

Figure 37. Photo of Rob doing the shape-sorting. Authors image.

Figure 38. Photo of Libby re-capping the exercise. Authors image.

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visual storytelling activity

main activity: playing the board game ( appendix e)

Documentation

The Six Thinking Hats methodology was fully utilized. Each participant was given blank
color-coded playing cards. White hat cards were prepared ahead of time with facts and
known data, such as the number of families at the school, the number of families who
are members of the Parent-Teacher Organization, etc.
The participants began by writing the reasons why they think people do not volunteer
on the black hat cards. These were read aloud, the three most common were selected to
serve as obstacles on the path, and those cards were affixed to the game board.
Then the group did some brainstorming using each hat in turn: red, green, yellow, and
blue. Participants wrote ideas on colored cards and played those cards as the discussion
moved around the table. Notes were taken and added to the game board. A pawn was
used as a marker to keep the group on track and show the progress being made.

Figure 39. Photo of Libby explaining the Visual Storytelling Activity. Authors image.

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Figure 40. Photo of Allen, Lydia and Rachel writing their cards during the Visual Storytelling Activity. Authors image.

Figure 41. Photo of Stephanie, Jennifer and Rob writing their cards during the Visual Storytelling Activity. Authors image.

Figure 42. Photo of entire group during the Visual Storytelling Activity. Authors image.

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visual storytelling activity

Documentation

Figure 43. Photo of Libby tossing the ball to Rob. Authors image.

Figure 45. Photo of Stephanie tossing the ball to Allen. Authors image.

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cool down: tossing a ball


After sitting during the Warm-Up and the Main Activity, it was important to do
something with a physical component. A soft, squishy ball was used, and in turn,
each participant caught the ball, shared his/her response to the board game
activity, and then threw the ball to another participant. The ball toss was an
effective vehicle for transitioning to the Debrief.

Figure 44. Photo of Rob saying his response to the Visual Storytelling Activity. Authors image.

Figure 46. Photo of Lydia catching the ball. Authors image.

visual storytelling activity

debrief: idea capture grid

Documentation

The technique chosen for the Debrief was to create an Idea Capture Grid. Each
participant received a pad of Post-it notes and was asked to write comments for four
specific areas:
1. Things you liked or found notable (plus sign in upper left)
2. Constructive criticism (minus sign in upper right)
3. Questions that were raised (question mark in lower left)
4. Ideas to explore further (light bulb in lower right)
The group was instructed to place the notes in the corresponding quadrant on the grid.

Figure 47. Photo of Idea Capture Grid before the Debrief. Authors image.

Figure 48. Photo of Allen, Lydia and Rachel writing notes for the Debrief. Authors image.

Figure 49. Photo of Idea Capture Grid after the Debrief. Authors image.

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visual storytelling activity

feedback: on-camera interviews

Documentation

The participants gave feedback through on-camera interviews. They were asked to discuss
their experience of the session, general thoughts about the new processes they learned,
such as lateral thinking, and how they might apply these techniques in the future.

closure: making take-home kits


At the end of the session, each participant assembled a take-home kit consisting of the
following items:
1. A folder for keeping all materials.
2. A reference page that explains de Bonos (1990) Six Thinking Hats methodology and
describes the thinking modality that corresponds to each hat.
3. A two-page handout with detailed step-by-step instructions and explanations of the
lateral thinking exercise.
4. A set of shapes used in the shape-sorting exercise.
5. A small envelope for the loose shape-sorting pieces.
Extra copies of each item were available if a participant chose to make a kit for someone
who had not been present. The group members appreciated having these materials.

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Figure 50. Photo of all the items for the take-home kit. Authors image.

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Figure 51. Photo of Idea Capture Grid. Authors image.

Part 5

Project Analysis

39

project analysis

At first, the specific techniques and even the six hats system seem strange

Assessment

and artificialthat is an important part of their value. Creative thinking is


different from normal thinking...Once the methods are used, then the
switch to the different mode of thinking takes place (de Bono, n.d.).

lessons learned
Overall, both sessions went very well. There was a tremendous amount of planning
that went into making them successful, and it paid off.
However, as a novice facilitator, there were some important lessons learned. The first
one was that it is easy to underestimate the amount of time each activity will take.
Therefore, the activities need to be short and to the point, allowing for time to process
and close the sessions without running over.
A second lesson learned is that it is important to be flexible. Planning a time for this
group to meet for the first session was extremely difficult. The specifics changed several
times, including changing the date and even switching the time on the evening before
the event. Communication was key to making sure everyone got the message about the
time change. There was anxiety about someone missing the session and arriving after it
was over, but fortunately, that did not happen. Planning the second session was much
easier, although one group member was not able to attend both sessions.
A third lesson to take away from this experience is to continually gauge your audience
and adjust when necessary. It became evident during the Visual Storytelling Activity
that the discussion for the first obstacle was going well, time was running short, and
most likely the group would not make it to the other two obstacles. The decision was
made by the facilitator to end the activity early, while the groups energy was still high,
rather than exceed the time and allow the groups energy to fade. It was more important
to be successful on the first obstacle and leave the rest for another day, than to push
through and ultimately end up with a poor impression of the entire session.

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project analysis

participant feedback: warm-up activity

Feedback

The participants were asked a three-question survey at the end of the first session.
Following are the questions and some of their responses.

What was your favorite part of todays session?


Getting to know/engage with other parents from Eastover. Using Play-Doh. Allen K.
My favorite part was creating the story together as a team... Rachel A.
Reflecting on one symbol to describe myself and listening to my partners reason for
creating her own symbol. Stephanie C.
The Play-Doh exercise was a lot of fun! And a great way to get people talking. I was
impressed with how quickly we made a story. Lydia F.

What would you like to do more of in the future?


More Play-Doh time!!! Getting to know more of each volunteer. Rob D.
Hear more reflectionsinner thoughts shared in the larger group. Brainstorming with
fun activities to solve real-world problems. Stephanie C.
Id like to learn a little more about each person in the group; their strengths...what
brought every busy person into the group? Fozia R.
One on one time with others. Creating the story. Allen K.

Other comments/suggestions?
Like to have a little clearer idea of what to expect today. Jennifer F.
This is awesome and should be used at Eastover! Stephanie C.
This was fun! Looking forward to the next session. Lydia F.
Thank you, Libby. Kudos for making this so interesting and fun. Fozia R.

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project analysis

participant feedback: visual storytelling activity

Feedback

The participants created an Idea Capture Grid at the end of the second session.
Following are the categories from each quadrant and some of their responses.

What was something you liked or was notable today?


Game board was extremely helpful. Its nice to have a tangible piece. Rob D.
The six hats broke things down into manageable parts. Very positive yet honest
environment. Varied input. Everyone contributed. Lydia F.
The sessions were well planned and very logical. Stephanie C.

Please give some constructive criticism.


Not enough time. Rob D.
Include the voice of those who are part of the problem. Stephanie C.
Maybe have everyone only give 2 suggestions per category. Jennifer F.
More sessions. There are things to think about for next sessions. Rachel A.

What questions were raised for you?


What is the next step with all these ideas? Jennifer F.
Where do we go from here? Next meeting date? Involve more people? Allen K.
How do we get others to buy-in now to the refreshing ideas? Stephanie C.

What are some ideas for further exploration?


A team like this should be instituted at Eastover Lydia F.
Make this a yearly project. Continue having parents communicate. Allen K.
More time. Back-to-back sessions, maybe a half-day retreat. Stephanie C.

42

project analysis

the experience

Video Presentation

A video was created to reflect the creative activities, group participation,


and post-activity interviews from both workshops. The video complements
the process book documentation. The video can be accessed at:
https://youtu.be/K6Wv1U_fjUY

Figure 52. Screen capture from presentation video. Authors image.

43

44

Figure 53. Photo of cards generated by participants during the Visual Storytelling Activity. Authors image.

Part 6

Appendices

45

appendix a: detailed activity plan

Warm-Up Schedule
Table A1. Detailed Warm-Up Activity Schedule

time

steps

purpose

materials

set-up

Date:
02.07.16

Welcome

Ask participants for permission to be photographed.


Give each participant a consent form to read/sign.
Give each participant a name tag to fill out.

Orient participants
Photograph participants
Complete consent forms
Answer initial questions

Camera
Consent forms
Pens
Name tags

Have consent forms, pens,


name tags, and markers on table.

2:00-2:08pm
(8 mins.)

Introductions/Icebreaker

Give participants a can of Play-Doh and ask them


to mold an item.
Split group into two-person teams.
Have participants introduce themselves to their
partners and explain their objects.

Introduces participants to
each other
Begins to build rapport
Creates environment for
Warm-Up Activity

Play-Doh

Have individual cans of


Play-Doh ready to distribute
to participants.

2:08-2:18pm
(10 mins.)

Warm-Up Activity

Ask them as a group to invent a story about their


experiences volunteering. Explain that the story
must use each item, but the items can be used in any
order; it is up to them to decide as part of the activity.
Ask one participant to write the story on a large piece
of paper so everyone can see the finished product.

Builds teamwork
Group builds associations
between themselves and the
experience of volunteering
Group visually sees progress

Large pad of paper


Markers

Have a large pad of paper where


everyone can see it. Ensure
markers are on the table within
reach.

2:18-2:21pm
(3 mins.)

Cool Down

Introduce de Bonos Six Thinking Hats by having


them read the descriptions.
Each person reads a different hat.
Ask participants to draw a symbol for the hat
on his/her card.

De Bonos methodology is
explained
Drawing a symbol gets the group
to engage directly with the new
information

Cards with de Bonos Six


Thinking Hats descriptions
Markers

Have cards with a hat


descriptions ready to be
distributed. Make sure
markers are on the table.

2:21-2:26pm
(5 mins.)

Debriefing

Pass around an actual hat and in turn, each


participant pulls a question out of the hat and shares
their answer with the group. The questions all deal
with how they are feeling about the experience and
what they learned.

Sets the stage for the Visual


Storytelling Activity
Ensures group reflects on and
processes the information from
the session

Hat with questions

Bring out the hat with questions


that were prepared ahead of
time.

2:26-2:28pm
(2 mins.)

Feedback

Participants give feedback through a brief survey


and on camera.

Feedback for the facilitator


is collected
Experience of the group is noted
and can be used to tweak plans
for next session

Feedback survey forms


Pens

Have feedback survey forms and


pens ready. Remove camera from
tripod to conduct on-camera
interviews.

2:28-2:30pm
(2 mins.)

Closure

Ask participants to draw something which represents


how they feel at the end of this session.
Thank everyone and show enthusiasm for the
next session.

Closes the session


Leaves participants feeling that
the session is complete

Blank card
Markers/colored pencils

Have blank cards, markers,


and colored pencils ready to
distribute.

30 mins.

46

stage

appendix b: detailed activity plan

Visual Storytelling Schedule


Table B1. Detailed Visual Storytelling Activity Schedule

time

stage

steps

purpose

materials

set-up

Date:
02.21.16

Welcome

Let participants chat and offer them snacks/drinks.


Give each participant a name tag.

Lets participants get


reacquainted

Name tags
Snacks/drinks

Have name tags, pens, markers,


snacks and drinks on table.

1:00-1:10pm
(10 mins.)

Warm-Up Activity

Participants are led through a shape sorting exercise


dealing with the sequence of arrival of information.
They are given shapes one at a time, and asked to
arrange them in a particular way.
The order in which the pieces are given affects
how they can be arranged.

Hands-on demonstration of
thinking patterns
Visually demonstrates how it is
sometimes necessary to re-think
an old issue in a way

Shape-sorting piece sets (8)


Explanatory diagrams

Have the shapes divided into sets


that are easily distributed. Have a
printed page for each participant
with explanatory diagrams for the
end of the sorting exercise.

1:10-1:50pm
(40 mins.)

Visual Storytelling Activity

Color-coded cards are dealt, corresponding to hats.


Group discusses the issue: increasing volunteerism.
Participants write thoughts about the problem, one
thought per card, using as many cards as they need;
the thought should correspond with the cards color.
Board game is shown and explained.
Play appropriate cards, add new ones, or pass.

Lateral thinking activity


Search for new solutions for
the groups main issue
Teaches a system the group
can use again in the future

Game board
Game cards
Pens/markers
Tacky dots to affix cards
to board

Have the white hat cards already


completed and on the game board.
Pass out the color-coded cards and
pens/markers.

1:50-1:55pm
(5 mins.)

Cool Down

A ball is tossed around so that each person has an


opportunity to share his/her responses to the activity
and the Six Thinking Hats.

Transitions from the Visual


Storytelling Activity to the
Debrief
Adds more physical activity

A squishy ball

The group stands up, backs away


from the table, and moves the
chairs out of the way. Have the ball
ready to throw to the first person.

1:55-2:05pm
(10 mins.)

Debriefing

Participants reflect on the purpose of the activity and


complete an Idea Capture Grid exercise.

Ensures group reflects on and


processes the information

Large pad of paper


Pens/markers
Post-it note pads (7)

Give each participant a pad of


Post-it notes and a pen.

2:05-2:15pm
(10 mins.)

Feedback

Participant feedback is collected through on-camera


interviews. (This will overlap the Debriefindividual
interviews will be conducted while people are writing
comments/placing them on the grid.)

Feedback for the facilitator


is collected

Video camera

Remove camera from tripod to


conduct on-camera interviews.

2:15-2:20pm
(5 mins.)

Closure

Participants assemble a take-home kit with reference


and reminder materials.
Thank everyone.

Closes the session


Leaves participants feeling that
the session is complete
Gives participants tangible tools
for the future

Pages for the kit


Folders
Extra kits

Lay out all the kit materials.

80 mins.

47

appendix c

Informed Consent


Informed Consent Form

obtaining permission
After reviewing the project description,
an informed consent form was
distributed. All participants were required
to sign the consent form to reflect their
willingness to partake in the recorded
activities for both the Warm-Up and
Visual Storytelling Activity sessions.

I voluntarily agree to participate in a multi-part workshop performed by a graduate student at the Savannah College
of Art and Design. I understand that a warm-up activity, a visual storytelling activity, and post interviews are being
conducted by Elizabeth Welch, in order to fullfill the required coursework for Facilitating Creative Thinking. The
purpose of the activities and post interview is to explore lateral thinking strategies to suggest new approaches for
how to increase participation/volunteerism at Eastover Elementary School.

I understand that the documentation methods may include:


1. Recorded (audio, video and/or photography) observations;
2. My participation in a warm-up activity, a visual storytelling activity, and post interviews;
3. My completion of debriefing and feedback-eliciting activities.
I grant permission for the process to be recorded and transcribed, and to be used by Elizabeth Welch for analysis of
data. I grant permission for this datagenerated from the above methodsto be used in an educational setting.
I understand that any identifiable information in regard to my name and/or company name will be removed from any
material that is made available to those not directly involved in this study, however, the documentation materials will
remain in the public domain.

Printed Name

Signature

Date

Informed Consent Form

Figure C1. The informed consent form required to be signed by all participants prior to conducting the workshop.
Sample supplied by Professor Regina Rowland, Ph.D.

48

appendix c

Informed Consent
obtaining permission
Prior to beginning the Warm-Up and Visual
Storytelling Activities, all participants were
required to sign an informed consent form.
The images depicted represent the full
collection of signed forms.

Figure C5. Jennifers signed consent form.

Figure C2. Rachels signed consent form.

Figure C3. Stephanies signed consent form.

Figure C4. Lydias signed consent form.

Figure C6. Robs signed consent form.

Figure C7. Fozias signed consent form.

Figure C8. Allens signed consent form.

49

appendix d: lateral thinking exercise

Sequential Arrival of Information, part 1


Lateral Thinking Exercise: Sequence of Arrival of Information part 1
1. Shapes 1 & 2 are given to someone who is then
instructed to arrange them together in a shape
that would be easy to describe. The two pieces
are usually arranged in a square as shown.

2. Shape 3 is given with the same instructions.


Usually, it is added to the existing square to
make a rectangle.

3. Shapes 4 & 5 are given at the same time,


again with the same instructions. Usually they
are combined to create a slab, added to the
rectangle and it becomes a square again.

4. Finally, Shape 6 is given, but it doesnt fit.


Although the person has been right at every
step along the way, they are stuck now and
cannot proceed. The new piece cannot be
fitted into the existing pattern.

2
4

2
4

3
5

Source: Lateral Thinking: Creativity Step by Step. Edward de Bono, 1990, pgs. 3235.

1
Figure D1. A step-by-step detailed description of the Warm-Up exercise for the Visual Storytelling Activity. This handout was given to each participant at the end of the session as part of their take-home kit.
Original exercise by Edward de Bono, 1990, pgs. 3235. Handout designed by Author.

50

appendix d: lateral thinking exercise

Sequential Arrival of Information, part 2

Lateral Thinking Exercise: Sequence of Arrival of Information part 2


On this page, a different way of solving the same
problem is shown. With this arrangement, the
person can fit all the pieces together, including
the final one. But it is much less likely to be tried
first. A square is much more obvious than a
parallelogram.

If you started off with the square, you would have


to go back and rearrange the pieces at some stage
to create a parallelogram before you could proceed.

So, even though you were correct at each stage,


you would still have to restructure the situation
before being able to move forward. You would
have to break the old pattern and rearrange the
old information again in a different, new way.
This is an example of how our brains work. They
are a self-maximizing system, which means that
information available at any moment is always
arranged in the best way. As more information
arrives, it is added to the existing arrangement.
It is difficult to un-arrange information that has
already been added to a structure; to see it in a
new way once it has been processed and stored.

1
4

6
Source: Lateral Thinking: Creativity Step by Step. Edward de Bono, 1990, pgs. 3235.

2
Figure D2. A step-by-step detailed description of the Warm-Up exercise for the Visual Storytelling Activity. This handout was given to each participant at the end of the session as part of their take-home kit.
Original exercise by Edward de Bono, 1990, pgs. 3235. Handout designed by Author.

51

appendix e

Game Board and Game Cards

Figure E1. Photo of the game board designed by the author before the Visual Storytelling Activity. Authors image.

Figure E2. Photo of the game board designed by the author after the Visual Storytelling Activity. Authors image.

52

the
thewhite
whitehat
hat

the red hat


Intuition, Feelings and Emotions allows the
speaker to add a feeling or intuition without having to
justify it. Concerns can be raised without supporting
logic or fear of retribution.

Facts,
Facts,
Figures
Figures
and
and
Data
Data

understanding
understanding
thethe
information
information
that
that
is already
is already
known.
known.
This
This
is where
is where
the
blue hat
items
items
areare
defined,
defined,
clarified,
clarified,
andand
knowledge
knowledge
gaps
gaps
Overview,
Process
Control and Meta-Cognition
cancan
bebe
identified.
identified.
looking not at the subject, but at how the subject is
being approached. Moves the conversation forward.
Example: a proposal from the blue hat perspective
could be to do more green hat thinking.

the
theblack
blackhat
hat

the red hat

the blue hat

Judgment
Judgment
and
and
Caution
Caution

pointing
pointing
outout
why
why
a a
suggestion
suggestion
doesnt
doesnt
fit fit
thethe
facts,
facts,
available
available
experience,
experience,
thein use,
red
hat
system
system
in use,
or or
policy
policy
currently
currently
in place.
in place.
AnAn
essential
essential
part
part
of this
of this
process,
process,
it must
it must
always
always
bebe
logical.
logical.the
Intuition,
Feelings
and
Emotions

allows
speaker to add a feeling or intuition without having to
justify it. Concerns can be raised without supporting
logic or fear of retribution.

Intuition, Feelings and Emotions allows the


speaker
to addhat
a feeling or intuition without having to
the
blue
justify it. Concerns can be raised without supporting
Overview,
Process
Control and Meta-Cognition
logic or fear
of retribution.

Overview, Process Control and Meta-Cognition


looking not at the subject, but at how the subject is
being approached. Moves the conversation forward.
Example: a proposal from the blue hat perspective
could be to do more green hat thinking.

the yellow hat

the green hat

the
red hat
the
yellow
hat

Positive Aspects and Potential Benefits finding


value in actions being proposed and/or something
that has already happened.

Creativity and Innovation proposing new ideas,


alternatives, provocations and/or changes.

Intuition,
Feelings
Emotions
allows
the
Positive
Aspects
and and
Potential
Benefits
finding
speaker
to add
a feeling
or intuition
having to
value
in actions
being
proposed
and/orwithout
something
it. Concerns
can be raised without supporting
thatjustify
has already
happened.
logic or fear of retribution.

Figure E3. The game board cards by the author after the Visual Storytelling Activity. Authors image.
the yellow hat
Positive Aspects and Potential Benefits finding
value in actions being proposed and/or something
that has already happened.

looking not at the subject, but at how the subject is


being approached. Moves the conversation forward.
Example: a proposal from the blue hat perspective
could be to do more green hat thinking.

the yellow hat

the green hat

Positive Aspects and Potential Benefits finding

Creativity and Innovation proposing new ideas,


alternatives, provocations and/or changes.

value
in actions
being
the
bluehat
hatproposed and/or something
the
green
that has already happened.

Overview,
Process Control
and Meta-Cognition

Creativity
and Innovation
proposing
new ideas,
looking not
at the subject,
but atchanges.
how the subject is
alternatives,
provocations
and/or

being approached. Moves the conversation forward.


Example: a proposal from the blue hat perspective
could be to do more green hat thinking.

the green hat


Creativity and Innovation proposing new ideas,
alternatives, provocations and/or changes.

53

appendix f

Six Thinking Hats


Reference Page

the six thinking hats


The Six Thinking Hats methodology was developed by Edward de Bono in the 1980s. Its goal is to
help teams become creatively engaged and more productive while problem solving. It works with six
metaphorical hats. The hats are color-coded and each one represents a specific mode of thinking.
Participants can put on a particular hat and add to the conversation from the viewpoint of that
thinking modality. Then s/he can switch hats and look at the same issue from a different perspective.

the white hat


Facts, Figures and Data understanding the information that is already known. This is where
items are defined, clarified, and knowledge gaps can be identified.

the black hat


Judgment and Caution pointing out why a suggestion does not fit the facts, the available
experience, the system in use, or the policy currently in place. It is an essential part of this
process and must always be logical.

the red hat


Intuition, Feelings and Emotions allows the speaker to add a feeling or intuition without having
to justify it. Concerns can be raised without supporting logic or fear of retribution.

the yellow hat


Positive Aspects and Potential Benets finding value in actions being proposed and/or
something that has already happened.

the green hat


Creativity and Innovation proposing new ideas, alternatives, provocations and/or changes.

the blue hat


Overview, Process Control and Meta-Cognition looking not at the subject, but at how the
subject is being approached. Used to move the conversation forward. For example, a proposal
from the blue hat perspective could be to do more green hat thinking.

Figure F1. A reference sheet with descriptions of de Bonos (1990) Six Thinking Hats methodology.
This was given to each participant at the end of the session as part of their take-home kit. Handout designed by Author.

54

Figure 1
Photo of Idea Capture Grid from Visual Storytelling Activity.............................................. 1

appendix g

List of Figures

Figure 2
Photo of supplies before the Warm-Up.............................................................................. 4
Figure 3
Photo of conference room at the Paletz Law Firm.............................................................. 7
Figure 4
Photo of Rachel................................................................................................................... 8
Figure 5
Photo of Stephanie.............................................................................................................. 8
Figure 6
Photo of Lydia...................................................................................................................... 8
Figure 7
Photo of Jennifer................................................................................................................. 8
Figure 8
Photo of Rob........................................................................................................................ 8
Figure 9
Photo of Fozia...................................................................................................................... 8
Figure 10
Photo of Allen...................................................................................................................... 8
Figure 11
Photo of Libby..................................................................................................................... 8
Figure 12
Photo of Rob and Rachel during the Warm-Up introductions............................................. 9
Figure 13
Photo of Stephanie and Jennifer during the Warm-Up introductions............................... 10
Figure 14
Photo of Allen and Lydia during the Warm-Up.................................................................. 18

55

Figure 15
Photo of Libby handing out Play-Doh to each participant............................................... 21

appendix g

List of Figures

Figure 16
Photo of group working in partnerships, explaining the object they modeled................. 21
Figure 17
Photo of Allen and Lydia.................................................................................................... 21
Figure 18
Photo of Fozia.................................................................................................................... 21
Figure 19
Photo of Stephanie talking to Jennifer.............................................................................. 21
Figure 20
Photo of Stephanie, Jennifer, Rob and Rachel................................................................... 21
Figure 21
Photo of some of the objects participants created during the Warm-Up......................... 22
Figure 22
Photo of the story written during the session................................................................... 23
Figure 23
Photo of Rob drawing a symbol to represent one of de Bonos hats................................ 24
Figure 24
Photo of white hat card with description and drawing by Jennifer................................... 25
Figure 25
Photo of black hat card with description and drawing by Rob.......................................... 25
Figure 26
Photo of red hat card with description and drawing by Rachel........................................ 25
Figure 27
Photo of yellow hat card with description and drawing by Allen...................................... 25
Figure 28
Photo of green hat card with description and drawing by Lydia....................................... 25

56

Figure 29
Photo of blue hat card with description and drawing by Fozia......................................... 25

appendix g

List of Figures

Figure 30
Photo of drawing created during the Closure exercise by individual group member....... 26
Figure 31
Photo of drawing created during the Closure exercise by individual group member....... 26
Figure 32
Photo of drawing created during the Closure exercise by individual group member....... 26
Figure 33
Photo of drawing created during the Closure exercise by individual group member....... 26
Figure 34
Photo of Rob discussing what he learned during the Debriefing...................................... 27
Figure 35
Photo of the Visual Storytelling Activity............................................................................ 28
Figure 36
Photo of Lydia doing the shape-sorting............................................................................. 31
Figure 37
Photo of Rob doing the shape-sorting............................................................................... 31
Figure 38
Photo of Libby re-capping the exercise............................................................................. 31
Figure 39
Photo of Libby explaining the Visual Storytelling Activity................................................. 32
Figure 40
Photo of Allen, Lydia and Rachel writing cards for the Visual Storytelling Activity........... 33
Figure 41
Photo of Stephanie, Jennifer and Rob writing cards for the Visual Storytelling Activity... 33
Figure 42
Photo of entire group during the Visual Storytelling Activity............................................ 33

57

Figure 43
Photo of Libby tossing the ball to Rob............................................................................... 34

appendix g

List of Figures

Figure 44
Photo of Rob saying his response to the Visual Storytelling Activity................................. 34
Figure 45
Photo of Stephanie tossing the ball to Allen..................................................................... 34
Figure 46
Photo of Lydia catching the ball........................................................................................ 34
Figure 47
Photo of Idea Capture Grid before the Debrief................................................................. 35
Figure 48
Photo of Allen, Lydia and Rachel writing notes for the Debrief........................................ 35
Figure 49
Photo of Idea Capture Grid after the Debrief.................................................................... 35
Figure 50
Photo of all the items for the take-home kit..................................................................... 37
Figure 51
Photo of Idea Capture Grid............................................................................................... 38
Figure 52
Screen capture from presentation video........................................................................... 43
Figure 53
Photo of cards generated by participants during the Visual Storytelling Activity............. 44
Figure C1
The informed consent form signed by all participants prior to the workshop.................. 48
Figure C2
Rachels signed consent form............................................................................................ 49
Figure C3
Stephanies signed consent form...................................................................................... 49

58

Figure C4
Lydias signed consent form.............................................................................................. 49

appendix g

List of Figures

Figure C5
Jennifers signed consent form.......................................................................................... 49
Figure C6
Robs signed consent form................................................................................................ 49
Figure C7
Fozias signed consent form.............................................................................................. 49
Figure C8
Allens signed consent form.............................................................................................. 49
Figure D1
A step-by-step description of the Warm-Up for the Visual Storytelling Activity............... 50
Figure D2
A step-by-step description of the Warm-Up for the Visual Storytelling Activity............... 51
Figure E1
Photo of game board before the Visual Storytelling Activity............................................ 52
Figure E2
Photo of game board after the Visual Storytelling Activity............................................... 52
Figure E3
Photo of game cards used in the Visual Storytelling Activity............................................ 53
Figure F1
A reference sheet for the Six Thinking Hats methodology................................................ 54

59

appendix h

List of Tables

Table 1
Warm-Up Activity Schedule............................................................................................... 15
Table 2
Visual Storytelling Activity Schedule.................................................................................. 17
Table A1
Detailed Warm-Up Activity Schedule................................................................................. 42
Table B1
Detailed Visual Storytelling Activity Schedule................................................................... 43

60

appendix i

References

Bloomfield Hills School District. (2014). Mission statement and strategic goals. Retrieved from
https://www.bloomfield.org/uploaded/Board_of_Education/Mission_Goals_and_Values_
February_2014.pdf.
Bloomfield Hills School District. (2015). National blue ribbon school. Retrieved from https://www.
bloomfield.org/schools/eastover-elementary-school/national-blue-ribbon-school/.
De Bono, E. (1990). Lateral thinking: Creativity step by step. New York, NY: Harper Perennial.
De Bono, E. (n.d.). Serious creativity. Retrieved from http://www.debonogroup.com/serious_
creativity.php/.
Henderson, A. (2002). A new wave of evidence: The impact of school, family, and community
connections on student achievement. National Center for Family & Community
Connections with Schools.
Leaver, E. (n.d.). PTO today: Make the case for parent involvement. Retrieved from http://www.
ptotoday.com/pto-today-articles/article/1323-make-the-case-for-parent-involvement/.
ODonnell, L. (n.d.). PTO today: How to respond to common excuses. Retrieved from http://www.
ptotoday.com/pto-today-articles/article/1283-how-to-respond-to-common-excuses/.
Prather, C. (2010). Managers guide to fostering innovation and creativity in teams. New York, NY:
The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
United States Department of Education. (2004). Title 1: Improving the academic achievement of the
disadvantaged. Retrieved from http://www2.ed.gov/policy/elsec/leg/esea02/pg1.html/.

61