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Jensen Fay
Megan Malcom-Morgan
English 120-019
April 15th, 2016
The Misunderstanding of Hip Hop
An Annotated Bibliography
Tune, Romal J. "What Does Hip Hop Tell Us About Faith and Society." N.p., 2
Nov. 2011. Web.
Rev. Tune addresses the modern moves in hip hop culture which display vulgarity and
violence, and how it impacts the way society views hip hop. He explains how the message is
displayed in violence, anger, and frustration, but is nevertheless an offering from artists to the
people, sharing their views and experiences of their world. Tune makes a very specific point that
society may not hold hip hop artists accountable for their word choice, which is ultimately their
reality, without truly listening to the message they are trying to convey. He explains that if
society is truly concerned with the issue of hip hop vulgarity, then society must also be
concerned with the underlying issues which inspire the music. Tune concludes that a better
approach would be to understand the stories which are being told and to ask ourselves what we
are doing as a community to reach out to those who are hopeless and frustrated. This piece will
be beneficial to the overall research assignment because it acknowledges the true reasoning why
original hip hop is misunderstood, and recognizes that hip hop is an art form and not a genre,
supporting the overall claim of the research assignment.
"Examining Hip Hop Culture." Tavis Smiley, n.d. Web.
This article perfectly highlights the how rap came to be misrepresented. It explains how
gangsta rap emerged and with it emerged a glorification of sex, drugs, and violence. In order to
distinctify the original hip hop artists from newer gangsta rap, rappers were labeled conscious
or underground rappers. While this was embraced for acknowledging socially conscious rap,
rappers explain how perception is key and how hip hop is supposed to be something of
substance, even if it contains cursing, because its an expression rather than a glorification. This
article is beneficial to the research assignment because itll help support the idea that any genre
can be violent and consist of negative aspects, but hip hop truly serves to create a culture full of
expression with art, ethnicity, music, and fashion.
Elkouby, Sebastien. "Is Hip Hop Destroying Black America?" N.p., 8 Oct. 2013. Web.
In his article, Is Hip Hop Destroying Black America? Sebastien Elkouby recognizes hip
hop for its four elements of DJing, rapping, breaking dancing, and graffiti. He describes how
hip hop is an entire culture full of art, and is meant for expression and individuality. Elkouby
addresses the fact that hip hop today is not what true hip hop is, due to the efforts made today to
redefine the art. The degradation of hip hops in its evolution from a beautiful culture into a
simple minded genre is prominent in this article; it explains how todays hip hop is full of
negative aspects such as drugs, sex, and violence, with little to no meaning or depth. This article
is beneficial to the research assignment because it recognizes the misrepresentation of hip hop as
its seen as an entertainment source meant purely for consumption rather than expression and
appreciation, therefore highlighting the general thesis how misrepresentation has degraded the art
of hip hop in societies eyes.

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McWhorter, John. "How Hip Hop Holds Blacks Back." City Journal, n.d. Web.
This article does not agree with the topic of this research assignment, but provides a
perfect example of the lack of understanding in society for hip hop. Here, John McWhorter
argues that rap retards black success because it encourages warfare and promiscuity.
McWhorter fails to acknowledge the hip hop as an outlet and use of expression, but rather
chooses to see hip hop as a hopeless justification of violence. McWhorters claims that hip
hop creates nothing supports this paper in providing an example of a counter argument, as well
as supporting the idea that fully understanding hip hop is necessary in being able to perceive hip
hop for what it truly is.
Barnes, Tom. "The Science of How Hip Hop Combats Poverty." Music.Mic, 13 June 2014.
In his article, "The Science of How Hip Hop Combats Poverty," Barnes explains how hip
hop offers more than just inspiration to people, but how it helps develop important skills that
children need to succeed. He explains that music comprehension is linked to strength of working
memory, speech, and reading comprehension. Barnes states that exercising musical abilities
promotes comprehension and neural activity. He claims that hip hop specifically supports this
because of its complex word play and verbal fluency. Due to the fact that hip hop originated in
high poverty urban communities, hip hop is the perfect vehicle to promote education and
motivation amount children in lower socioeconomic settings, since this is also where hip hop
originated. He concludes by stating that hip hop encourages personal, educational, and economic
empowerment; so for all these reasons it should be taught countrywide, but general stigmas and
stereotyping prevents this opportunity. Barnes' article will be beneficial toward this research
assignment because it addresses the educational aspect of hip hop and how it can positively
counter society's overall negative outlook on the matter.
SIGNIFICANCE OF RAP & HIP-HOP CULTURE. Ethics of Development in a Global
Environment, 16 July 1999. Web. 25 Apr. 2016.