Biology

Autotrophs are organisms that can synthesise food from simple inorganic substances. Heterotrophs are organisms that cannot synthesise their own food.Hence,they have to depend on other organisms for their food. There are there types of heterotrophic nutrition: holozoic nutrition, saprophytism and parasitism. A balanced diet contains all the nutrients required by the body in the correct proportion. AOne calorie or 4.2 joules is the quantity of heat required to raise the temperature of 1 gram of water by 1 c. The energy value in acertain food can be determined by using the following formila :

The factor affecting the daily energy requirements of the body are age,sex,body weight and occupation. Vitamins are organic compounds required by the body in small quantities to help in cell metabolism and to maintain the health of the body. Minerals are inorganic substances required by the body in small quantities to maintain body health. Roughage or dietary fibre which consists of cellulose cannot be digested in the human body.Roughage is necessary in the diet to stimulate the action of peristalsis and to prevent constipation. Water functions as a solvent and a medium for chemical reactions in the body.Water is also involved in transporting digested food,waste products,hormones ,heat and reapiratory gases via the blood circulatory system. Deficiency of proteins,vitamins and minerals result in malnutrition which can cause certain diseases. Digestion is the process of breaking down large complex molecules of food into simple food molecules that can be absorbed by body cells.Digestion involves both physical and chemical processes. Only carbohydrates,proteins and lipids are digested to become simple molecules.

Biology

The end products of the digestion of carbohydrates are simple sugars (glucose, fructose and galactose). The end product of the digestion of proteins is amino acid and that of lipids are glycerol and fatty acids. The small intestine is adapted to carry out digestion and absorption. It secretes enzymes to complete the process of digestion.It has many villi and microvilli to inctease the surface area for optimal absorption. The stomach of ruminants such as cows consists of four chambers: rumen,reticulum, omasum and abomasum. The digestion of cellulose in ruminants occurs in the stomach. Rodents such as rabbits digest cellulose in their large caecum. Simple sugars, amino acids,vitamins B and C, and minerals are absorbed into the blood capillaries of the villi.Glycerol,fatty acids,and vitamins A,D,E and K are absorbed into the lacteal of the villus. The nutrients absorbed into the lacteal of the villi are carried out of the small intestine by the thoracic duct ( lymphatic vessel ) to the left subclavian vein where the nutrients in the lymphatic system are transported back into the blood circulatory system. The nutrients absorbed by the villi are carried by the blood circulatory system for assimilation. Glucose is used for repiration,amino acids are used to synthesise various types of proteins and lipids are used to build plasma membrane. Bad eating habits can cause health problems such as gastritis, obesity,anorexia nervosa and bulimia. In light reaction, photolysis of water occurs while in dark reaction, the reduction of carbon dioxide by hydrogen occurs. Macronutrients are elements required by the plants in large quantities. Micronutrients are elements required by the plant as trace elements in small quantities.

Biology

The functions and the effects of deficiency of macronutrients and micronutrients in plants. Photosynthesis involves light reaction and dark reaction. Glucose is converted into starch, cellulose other sugars (surrose) and lipids.When combined with nitrogen, glucose is converted to protien. The overall process of photosynthesis can be represented in the following equation:

Biology

The cross-section of a leaf consists of the following parts Technology is used in food production to improve the quality and quantity of food by the following methods: - Direct seeding of rice - Hydroponics and aeroponics - Selective breeding - Tissue culture - Genetic engineering - Soil management - Biological control Technology is used in food processing to preserve food and to prevent spoilage of food, using various method: - Cooking - Using salt, sugar and vinegar - Fermentation - Drying - Pasteurisation - Canning - Refrigeration

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