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CryptarithmeticMultiplicationProblemswithSolutions
ManyAspirantsfindthecryptarithmeticproblemsinelitmusatoughnuttocrack.Keepingthisinmind,we
byletters(orsymbols).Eachletterrepresentsauniquedigit.Thegoalistofindthedigitssuchthata
givenmathematicalequationisverified.

RulesForSolvingCryptarithmeticProblems
EachLetterorSymbolrepresentsonlyonedigitthroughouttheproblem
Whenlettersarereplacedbytheirdigits,theresultantarithmeticaloperationmustbecorrect.
Ouraimistofindthevalueofeachletter.
Notwolettersrepresentthesamedigit(IfA=2,Bcannotbe2andsoon).
Numbercantbeginwith0
Rulesare:
1.0*n=0
2.1*n=n
3.5*oddnumber=x5
like5*1=05(x=0)
5*3=15(x=1)
5*7=35(x=3)
5*9=45(x=4)4.5*evennumber=always0like5*2=0
5*4=0
5*6=0
5*8=0
5..evennumber*6=(x)(evennumber)wherexcanbe1/2/4
like2*6=12(x=1)
4*6=24(x=2)
8*6=35(x=4)

CryptarithmeticMultiplicationProblem1
Thistypeofproblemscanbesolvedbybacktrackingtechniqueafterfindingoneletter(number).

Approach(Method):
ThebestmethodwhichIfollowisfrombottomtotopmultiplication(Youcandoinviceverse),butIfound
itwaseasy.
Ifyouseethequestion,startfrombottomtotoplikeD*(ABC)andE*(ABC)
ItisgiventhatE*C=Cthishappensonlywithnumbersof5&6letsseehow?

Explanation:
1*5=5
3*5=_5(Actually15butconcentrateonlastdigit)
weshouldnotrepeat.
9*5=_5(45)so,fromthisdontconcludeC=5&E=(1,3,7,9).
BecausethereisanothernumberwiththesepropertiesEx:number
(6)
6*2=_2(12)
6*4=_4(24)
6*8=_8(48)
FromthisdontconcludeE=6&C=(2,4,8).
Let,noteallthepossiblecasesandtry.ForExampletakeC=5andE=oddnumber(1,3,7,9)
NowReplaceCwith5andredrawthefollowingtable.
A B C AndalsoplaceEasoddnumber(3,7,9)Ididntwrite1herebecauseitsnotgoingto
be1LetstakefirstE=3andfillthetable.
D E
Ifyouseethecoloredportionthensum3+5=B(8)letsassign8to
A B 5 B
F E C
Andredrawthetable,ifuputB=8,letscheckfromfirst
D 3 3*5=5(carry1)
D E C
3*8=24+1=5(carry2)butinthetableitisshowing3itis
H G B C
SoNextIwilltakeE=7andagainfillthetable.
D 3 5
Ifyouseetheredcolorportion
A B 5
A 2 5 Sumof7+5=2(carry1)so
H G B 5
wegotB=2.
D 7
D 7 AssignB=2andfillthetable.
NowseetherowwhichI
F 7 5
F 7 5 highlightedandthinkwhat
valuewecankeepforDafter
D 7 5
D 7 5
clearObservationwecangetD
H G B 5 H G 2 5 =3satisfythegivencondition
andputD=3.
Toget375in
A 2 5 secondrow
thevalueofA
3 7 is
A=1soput
F 7 5 valueofAin
table
3 7 5
IfyoukeepA
H G 2 5 =1itsvery
simple
F=8,G=6,
H=4.
1 2 5

7 CryptarithmeticMultiplicationProblem2

Whenyouseesecondmultiple(WHY)*U=(OYPY)
So,ThenumberforU=6andYis(2,4)Letstakethevalueof
Yis4andreplaceitinfigure.
W

Yes,thisissometypicalquestionweneedmoretriestoreach
solution.
ClearlyifyouseetheyellowportionO+6=Nandthereisnocarrytothenextdigitsowecanconfirm
thatNissingledigitnumber.IfNissingledigitnumberOshouldbelessthan(O<3)
LetstakeO=1andredrawthetable
W

SoreplaceN=7andredrawthetable.
W

Takethethirdmultiple(WH4)*7=16HAfromthiswegetA=8,andifyoureplacetheHwith3and
w=2thentheequationsatisfies.
Like(234)*7=1638soredrawthetablewithparticularvalues.
2

Theremainingnumbersare(0,5,9)Itissimpletoanalysewecantget5inplaceofpbecausewhenyou
multiplywith4wecannotgetthelastdigitas5.
SoT=5,P=0,E=9
Afterredrawthetable.
2

CryptarithmeticMultiplicationProblem3

Thistypeofproblemscanbesolvedbybacktrackingtechniqueafterfindingoneletter(number).

Approach(Method):
ThebestmethodwhichIfollowisfrombottomtotopmultiplication(Youcandoinviceverse),butIfound
itwaseasy.

Explanation:

E Y

HerewecannotapplythelogicB*B=B(5*5=_5)or(6*6=_6)Soalternativeb=(2,3,4,7,8,9)
FromthesecondlineBOB*O=MILOO*B=OSo,O=5andBisanOddnumberi.eB=(3,7,9)
ReplaceO=5andB=3andredrawthetable
3

B=3O=5Y=9E=0M=1L=6R=4A=2I=7

CryptarithmeticMultiplicationProblem4
A

Solution:
Firstifyousee(DEC)*Cfromthiswecanconfirmthattwo
possibilities:
1)E=(3,7,9)andC=5
2)E=6andC=(2,4,8)
SonowyouareinlittlebitconfusionwhichpossibilityIshouldproceed.
Ifyouarenotchoosingthecorrectpossibilitytimewillbekilledoffcoursetimeisveryverypreciousin
eLitmusexam.
So,betterstepforwardtoestimatethecorrectpossibility)

Ifyouseelastmultiple(DEC)*C=EifyouassumeC=5andE=(3,7,9)theonlypossiblevalues
Soitisveryclearthatfirstpossibilitiesiswrongthengowiththesecondpossibilitymeans
E=6andC=(2,4,8)LetstakeC=2Thenthetablechangesas:
A

ClearlyfromthetableH=4andG=0(becauseG+2=2meansG=0),andF=3(C+carry=F).
Afterfillingthisvaluesletstake(AB2)*2=304.IthappensonlywhenB=5andA=1
Replacethevaluesandredrawthetable.
1

Fromthetable(152)*D=1216ItwillhappenonlywhenD=8andfromtheline(I+1+carry=1)so
fromthatwecansayI=9.
Replaceallthevalues,
1

CryptarithmeticMultiplicationProblem5
Thistypeofproblemscanbesolvedbybacktrackingtechniqueafterfindingoneletter(number).

Approach(Method):
ThebestmethodwhichIfollowisfrombottomtotopmultiplication
(Youcandoinviceverse),butIfounditwaseasy.

Explanation:
M

fromthesecondmultipleD*B=E=>1soonlyoptionsis7*3=_1
3*7=_1
LetstakeB=3andD=7andE=1redrawthetable.
M

M+A=MthenwecanunderstandthatthevalueofAwillbe9because(9+carry)=10
Now,A=9.
M

carry(one)]
SoR=8.M97
*31
891TogetR=8,Mshouldbeequalto2(M=2)

Finally:M=2
A=9
D=7
B=3
E=1
I=0
R=8

CryptarithmeticMultiplicationProblem6
Approach(Method):
S

O
O

Clearlyifweseethefirstmultiple(SEE)*O=EMOO
FromthatwecangeteasilyE=1.
So,replaceEwith(1)andredrawthetable.
S

O
O

(Iexplainedinpreviousexample).
SoreplaceS=9andredrawthetable.
9

O
O

Bythesecondmultiple(911)*9=(M199)=(8199)
thevaluesofMandOandredrawthetable.
9

2
2

AfterreplacingMandOvaluethevalueofI=3.

CryptarithmeticMultiplicationProblem7
Approach(Method):
A

D
D

ClearlyifyouseeD*D=Dthenumberswhichsatisfytheconditionis5&6only,
Letsseehow5*5=_5(25)and6*6=_6(36).
SotakeD=5andrearrangethetable.

Explanation:
A

Why9?BecausecarrywillcomefromA+5=_E
I+carry=10sowearetakingI=9.
IfwetakeI=9thenthevalueofAwillbe:
(A95)*5=R975
SoA=7keepthevalueofIandAandredrawthetable.
7

5
5

Sononeedoffindingthevaluesbyprocedurejustbymultiplying795*75
Thenwewillgetallvalues.
7

5
5

CryptarithmeticMultiplicationProblem8
H

Thistypeofproblemscantbesolvedbytrackingtechnique.

APPROACH:
ThisisthetoughestproblemwhichIeverfacedbecausethereisnorepeatedwordsinthemultiplication

table.
Andtheprocedureweshouldfollowisfromeachandeverynumberweshouldcheck,Thereisno
particularmethodtosolvethis
H=1
E=8
I=3
S=9
U=6
B=2
O=5
F=4
L=7
A=0

CryptarithmeticMultiplicationProblem9
Approach(Method):
C

T
T

IfyouseethelastmultipleT*T=Tthisoperationwillbedoneonlywiththenumbersof5&6.
LetstakeT=5andredrawthetable.
C

5
5

Twocases:IfS+5=_E(ifcarrycomesthenvalueofUwillbe9)
S+5=E(NoCarrythenthevalueofUwillbe0)
LetstakethevalueofUwillbe0andredrawthetable.
C

And(C05)*5=B025So,thevalueof(S=2),Observethelastmultiple
(C05)*I=5NN5meansthevalueofIisodd(3,7,9)anditisgreaterthan5000sotakevalueofIis
greatestodddigit=9andredrawthetable.
C

5
5

ThevalueofN=4andredrawthetable.
C

5
5

TogetB+4=7thevalueofB=3andtoget(C05)*5=3025thevalueofcshouldbeequalto6and
redrawthetable.
6

5
5

CryptarithmeticMultiplicationProblem10
A

Solution:
Letsseeclearly(TO)*K=Kfromthistherewillbetwopossibilities
1)T=(3,7,9)andK=5
2)T=6andK=(2,4,8)
Andthereisnoothercluetoestimatewhichpossibilityisbettertoapproachfirst.
LetstrywiththefirstpossibilitytakeT=3andK=5anddrawthetable
A

O
L

Nexttheonlywaytoapproachis5*O=LthevalueforO=(2,4,6,8)ifwekeepO=2thenatlast
SotakevalueofO=6anddrawthetable.
A

6
L

Fromthetableitisclearthat5*6=L(5*6=0)L=0andT=7,R+5=6so,R=1.
A

6
0

(AS5)*6=5A10itwillhappenonlywhenS=8andA=9andfromthetable
5+S=Y(5+8+carry=4),Y=4letsreplacethetablewithallvalues.

6
0

CryptarithmeticMultiplicationProblem11
Approach(Method):
R

S
S

Ifyouseethelastmultiple(D*S)=SclearlywecanconcludethatDisanoddnumber(3,7,9)andS=
5,and(RED)*A=(RED)So,A=1.
Fillthevaluesintheabovetable.
R

5
5

Ifyousee(RED)*5=1RC5seethemostsignificantbitis1thenthevalueofRmustbe(2,3).Ifyou
1+R=C=>1+2=3soreplacethevaluesofRandCintheabovetable.
2

5
5

Toget(2ED)*5=1235thevaluesofEandDisE=4andD=7ifyoureplacethevaluesofEandD
wewillgetthevalueofT=10.
2

5
5