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: Raymond Thomas

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: 6 December

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TABLE OF CONTENTS Title 1 2 3 Page numbers Abstract 1 Introduction 2-3 Theory - 4 5 6 7 8 4-8 Methodology 9-13 Results 14-17 Discussion 18-20 Conclusion 21 References 22-23 III .

Electronic scale used to find the mass of the metal pieces while calorimeter and a thermometer to find the temperature changes and specific heat of the metal pieces.Abstract This experiment is about to find the specific heat of two different metals. 1 .the results did not match with the physical properties of the metal pieces so the hypothesis was not supported and the data was not supporting it to get the actual specific heat of the metals in this experiment. The meaning of specific heat is the heat amount required by a 1kg substance to increase its temperature by one degree celcius.which are aluminium and copper. In the end. The higher the conductivity of a substance .the lower if capacity will be.

Introduction The term ‘Specific Heat’ is defined by amount of heat required by a 1kg substance to increase its temperature by one degree celcius.the 2 .(K) Note that. This is because. during the phase changing.where the value is approx 4200 J kg-1 K-1 which the value is higher than any other common substance.there is no heat changes in temperature due to the a substance change phase in the same temperature. As a result.(J) m = Mass of the substance.The relationship between heat and changes in temperature can be expressed as shown in Below:- Q = mc∆T Q = Heat energy.(kg) c = Capacity of the substance. this expression is cannot be used when the substance is undergoing phase changing. The most common specific heat is water.(oJ kg-1 K-1) ∆T = Change is temperature.Heat capacity is also a synonym term for specific heat.

where the specific heat values were to far different than the actual value. Copper is metal from group 11 in periodic table while aluminium is a metal group 13.discussion .results and others about this experiment has been stated in this report.In this report. There were some errors during the experiment which led us to get the wrong value. the methods used to carry out this experiment. 3 . The errors were listed down in the log book as well shown in the report in coming pages.The total energy of a substance depends on its mass and temperature.conductors have the lower heat capacity value than the insulators.The methods used were technically correct after approved by the PGTA. The aim of the experiment is about to determine the specific heats of copper and aluminium. There are some important sections such as errors. apparatus .

Identifying specific heat of a substance cannot be done by these theories such as : Q = mc∆T  Specific heat ≠ Latent heat  Thermodynamic relations Q = mc∆T This theory is very commonly used to find the value of specific heat capacity for a particular substance.he derived and created the concept of specific heat.the temperature and the amount of heat. Specific heat ≠ Latent heat Specific heat is not the same as latent heat. He discovered about the difference between intensity of heat . This theory is already explained in the introduction. this theory was founded by William Cleghorn. Where the expression for the latent heat known as :- Q = mƪ 4 . For further information.Theory There were few theories that helped to conduct this experiment. From there.

(J kg-1 ) Specific heat capacity is defined as amount of heat required by a 1kg substance to increase its temperature by one degree celcius. 5 .There is a graph shown below about the transformation of a substance under latent heat.(J) m = Mass of the substance.(kg) ƪ = Latent heat.while latent heat is defined the amount of energy released or absorbed by a chemical substance during a change of state that occurs without changing its temperature.Q = Heat energy .

The substance still in the form of solid when it reaches at B. the heat energy increase the temperature from A to its melting point at B.which known as melting.the energy source goes into breaking the bonds holding the atoms in place without changing the temperature (occurs in the same temperature but take times to break the bond).This process takes place from B to C.0 : Latent Heat graph Start at A. The temperature rise again from C to 6 . As it is heated further.Figure 1. the substance is in solid state.

Thermodynamic relations To get the exact values of specific heat for copper and aluminium from the experiment. further heating the gas may increase the temperature. From the graph above. latent heat cannot be used to calculate the specific heat of a substance since specific heat needs changes in temperature for its calculation. this theory was very useful since there were energy lost from some apparatus to another.when two or more different materials with different temperature in contact. 7 .the heat move from warmer to cooler place(the heat transfer occurs) until these substance are at the same temperature.Beyond E.D. Vapourisation occurs to break the bond in liquid and change its phase to gas form.the substance will still in form of liquid. This phenomena happens because. There are no changes in temperature too (same as BC). When it reaches D.where the substance changed its phase to liquid from solid during the previous BC melting process.which known as vapourisation. There is a process occurs from D to E.

transmission and absorption. the total energy of sun is equals to the energy gained by reflection.1: solar gain The above figure shows a solar gain. there are three different phenomena happen which are reflection. From the figure. :- Total energy from Sun = Ir+It+Ia Ir = Reflected energy It = Transmitted energy 8 .some energy is absorbed by the glass and some energy pass through the glass via transmission. Some of the energy reflected on the glass surface. Where. When the radiation energy hit the surface of the glass.Figure 1.absorption and transmission. sun light release heat energy to the earth surface via radiation.

Ia = Absorbed energy There are many difference among these 3 theories : Q = mc∆T  Specific heat ≠ Latent heat  Heat loss = Heat gain But these theories has been used in different angle to determine the specific heat value of were Aluminium and Copper. Methodology 9 .

Variables From the experiment.the control variable was specific heat of substance. 10 . Specific heat will be the same even the the temperature is different. While.Because. Temperature affect the heat energy because.Aim : To determine the specific heats of copper and aluminium experimentally.0:Specific heat experiment The dependent variable was the heat energy gain or loss by the experiment. Specific heat of a body depends on its physical surface and properties. Temperature was not constant since transfer of heat occurred when calculating the specific capacity of the metal pieces as shown in figure below.the independent variable was temperature. Because.when there was a changes in temperature. The list of apparatus used : Apparatus Insulated calorimeter Function To measure the physical changes in chemical reaction. Figure 2.the heat energy change too.

To measure the volume of the hot water before Tongs Sieve pour into the calorimeter. To stir the mixtures in the calorimeter. To carry the hot beaker. Data There were some important data given which known as constants. The method used to get the value of specific heats were:- Mathematics expressions Simultaneous equation is the common mathematics expression used in various experiment to get the actual values.Hot water Metal pieces(copper As an initial temperature for the experiment. To find the specific heat of aluminium and and aluminium) Thermometer Stirrer Gloves copper. In this experiment. To hold the metal pieces. This simultaneous equation was so important because this expression needed to solve during the thermodynamic relations where to find the specific heat of copper and aluminium. Substitutions and elimination are the most basic skills needed to solve simultaneous equation. Such as :- 11 . To measure the changes in temperature. To avoid hot water pour on the surface of Beaker hands.

Quickly but carefully. Repeat the same experiment by using the aluminium piece and calculate the specific 12 . The value of heat capacity of calorimeter : 904 J kg-1 K-1. The value of heat capacity of water : 4200 J kg-1 K-1.Take the temperature of the water.and note the temperature.Take the temperature of the water in the calorimeter with the thermometer provided.Then.1. 2. These value were used during the calculation part. the important part is to record the temperature when it stabilise.pour off the boiling water through the sieve and drop the copper pieces into the water in the calorimeter. Insert the calorimeter and water into insulation. Finally. Procedure of the experiment Figure 2.Stir.Calculate the specific heat capacity of copper with the information gained from the procedure. Weigh the calorimeter and half fill it with cold water and weight again.Put them into a beaker and add boiling water into the beaker then stir.1 : sample of second procedure.Weigh the copper piece.

When other metals drop into the beaker. Do not stand near with other group during the experiment. Thermometer is a fragile apparatus. Stir using the stirrer provided not the may break and the mercury will flow out from the thermometer. Do not drop the any other metal into glass beaker. It may injure the researcher’s hand if the precaution is not taken so serious due to the hot water in the beaker. Be aware of other hot apparatus in neighbourhood.heat capacity of aluminium. 3. 13 . 4. Mercury is a poisonous liquid which can harm to human skin. Precaution 1. Wear gloves when handling the hot beaker and metal piece. 2.the value of specific heat of the metal pieces may go wrong and wasting the time spent on this experiment.

Mass of aluminium : 4 gram Metals Copper Data 14 Aluminium .Mass of copper : 3 gram 2.Results The mass of copper piece and aluminium piece were gained by weighing on the weighing machine where the values were:1.

calculate the specific heat of the aluminium piece and copper piece Calculations 15 . we did the same experiment twice for aluminium piece and copper piece.Mass of calorimeter Water (112g) 26 gram 112 gram 26 gram 118 gram 28oC 28oC 80oC 80oC 29oC 28.5oC Initial temperature of water Initial temperature of hot water Stabilised temperature of system There was a difference between in the mass of water for copper and aluminium because. Analysis questions 1.Determine the changes in temperature of water (∆Twater) and of the metal pieces (∆T aluminium piece and copper peices). 2. There was a small difference in the volume of water between two metal pieces experiment.Remember that the heat gained by the water is equal to the heat lost by the copper and aluminium pieces. 3. Calculate the heat lost by water in each experiment.

)] x (29-28) = (0.844 J = 0.086kg)(4190 J kg-1 K-1) + (0.844 J 0.153 C = 2508. Heat loss by water and calorimeter = heat gained by copper piece [(Masswater)(Heat capacityWater) + (MassCalorimeter)(Heat capacityCalorimter)] x (∆T) = (Masscopper)(Heat capacitycopper)(∆T) [(0.153C C = 383.28oC =1OC To find the specific heat capacity of copper.78 J kg-1 K-1 16 .29oC =51OC =∆Twater =29oC .Experiment 1 : Specific heat of copper =∆Tcopper peices = 80oC .003kg)(C)(80-29) 383.026)(904 J kg-1 K-1.

Experiment 2 : Specific heat of aluminium =∆T aluminium piece =80oC .78 J kg-1 K-1 from the calculation above.026)(904 J kg-1 K-1.5oC . Heat loss by water and calorimeter = heat gained by aluminium piece [(Masswater)(Heat capacityWater) + (MassCalorimeter)(Heat capacityCalorimter)] x (∆T) = (Massaluminium)(Heat capacityaluminium)(∆T) [(0.004kg)(C)(0.The specific heat of copper is 2508.The same formula need to use again to gain the specific heat of aluminium piece.086kg)(4190 J kg-1 K-1) + (0.5oC) 17 .28.5oC =52oC =∆Twater =28.5oC To find the specific heat capacity of aluminium.)] x (29-28) = (0.28oC =0.

the same experiment needed to do again for copper after the first result did not satisfied the value of specific heat.After the was a mistake. Errors 18 .492 J = 0.492 J 0. The errors occurred during this experiment has been written down in the below.Then. Discussion The reading of temperature went wrong due to the scale.38 J / kg K. The same calculation and method as copper above to get the values of heat specific of aluminium. the experiment carry out for aluminium to get the specific heat of aluminium.206 C C = 204.204.38 J / kg K The specific heat of aluminium is 992.The calculation went wrong and the actual value of specific heat did not match the actual value of specific heat in this experiment.206 C C = 992.

be read the temperature of heat The outcome result transfer in water. Increased the volume should be constant for took for second of water took for experiment 1 and experiment was too second experiment. experiment 2. It suppose to right position.Experimental error The reading of the Why? The thermometer was Solutions/ fixes Replaced the temperature was not in contact with metal thermometer in the accurate. piece. The calculation went Did the calculation far different than wrong. little. expected result. The volume of water scale. eyes were not with the eyes perpendicular to the perpendicular to the The mass of water reading scale. Calculation of percentage error. Actual values :Heat specific of copper: 385 J / kg K Heat specific of Aluminium: 901 J / kg K 19 . Wrong value in The position of the Read the scale again temperature changes. again.

To prevent this problems occur again.The value get from the experiment:Experimental heat specific of copper: 2508.901 J / kg K)(100%) 901 J / kg K Aluminium = 10.15% The percentage value of copper is far different from its actual value.Put full concentration when conducting an experiment to see the every part of changes and record the changes in proper 20 .38 J / kg K .Get the amount of materials and apparatus correctly according to the guide given in the procedure to avoid errors in results.38 J / kg K Percentage error= experimental value .there are few steps need to take to improve the method of investigation:- The reading of values should be fast and accurate to avoid wasting the time.385 J / kg K )( 100%) 385 J / kg K Copper = 551.63% Aluminium = (992.actual value x 100% Actual value Copper = (2508.78 J /kg K Experimental heat specific of Aluminium: 992.78 J /kg K .

There was no conflict among group members . the experiment should conduct in proper way to avoid careless mistakes and must use the correct amount of materials and that the needed value from the experiment can be write down easily in the logbook. To get the actual values of the results. It is possible to get the actual value of specific heat of the metals if the data collected during the experiment were correct. 21 . Conclusion In conclusion the group performance during the experiment went well.The difficulty in this report was obtaining the background information on the subject of specific heat.Tabulation of data must be perfect for the experiment.

United States. Available from http://study.phy-astr. Available from https://www.Canada.References  NAVE.(2015) Specific Heat and Heat Capacity [online] Boston.(2015) How to Calculate Specific Heat Capacity [online] York.html [Accessed 1 December 2015]  BOUNDLESS.R.html [Accessed 1 December 2015]  SIMMONS.United States. Available from Specific heat [online] 22 .

com/search? q=specific+heat+experiment&biw=1242&bih=566&source=lnms&tbm=isch&sa=X&sqi =2&ved=0ahUKEwjSz8ixqcvJAhXIOhoKHZlaCL8Q_AUIBygC#tbm=isch&q=heat+los s+%3D+heat+gain&imgdii=Qg5PqckprRZomM%3A%3BQg5PqckprRZomM%3A %3Bl1kA7fsnzYagFM%3A&imgrc=Qg5PqckprRZomM%3A Figure2.pdf [Accessed 4 December 2015] Image source .google.1: https://www. Available from http://people. [Accessed 3 December 2015]  q=specific+heat+experiment&biw=1242&bih=566&source=lnms&tbm=isch&sa=X&sqi =2&ved=0ahUKEwjSz8ixqcvJAhXIOhoKHZlaCL8Q_AUIBygC#tbm=isch&q=laten+he at+&imgrc=zfKwielMcMrl_M%3A Figure 1.0: q=specific+heat+experiment&biw=602&bih=527&source=lnms&tbm=isch&sa=X&sqi= 2&ved=0ahUKEwjOguPQqMvJAhWJ0hoKHUyhDUkQ_AUIBygC#imgrc=0igqEUA9b 23 .(2010 )Theoretical calculation of the heat capacity[online] University of Virginia.L.

-rW7M%3A Figure q=specific+heat+capacity+of+water&biw=1242&bih=606&source=lnms&tbm=isch&sa= X&sqi=2&ved=0ahUKEwiU5rrQxcvJAhWDqxoKHS65BNoQ_AUIBigB#tbm=isch&q= specific+heat+capacity+of+metal+diagram&imgrc=6oI3fo0N6QS49M%3A 24 .google.1: https://www.