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CONTENDING FOR JUSTICE Ideologies and Theologies of Social Justice inthe Old Testament WALTER J. HOUSTON y LIBRARY OF HEBREW BIBLE / OLD TESTAMENT STUDIES 428 mel oun tothe yf he OM Tenaen Spleen Sees recucve ‘Andrew Mein Dvid).A Cin lp RD chad) Cogs. Alen Cope ouaa KGa ok Aah m Comening for Jesice the ‘sts in particle, oe ca dees fromm the Fs tat“ peg i seca 1 ake sar the des ae pai tha they were a0 ney Dai a fly alee poi whic is probaly at Understlement See Mal 38-10 ‘ne icclopal funtion ofthe Torah is this im he authority YEH forthe emind thatthe eommanity of YEIWHs montis shou sopore his cl personne, aswel a the cut ell shoud be Fsmembere in conection wath the support ofthe cl tht parte of te cflrings were consumed by the pest ee tir families: tele any ‘oqement for saa tebe ote nay situate the sme tie ‘etre of super forte pay ease ‘Other interts ave aot bn repped, but they do sera. 10 be sabordinstad. Mest prominent a Destronomy, aid eee ae those fhe peasantry, the mass of the population, whose ving vas aay pe ‘atiouland whe. as we know were a rk of bankrupt fs he a, fd e-bondag ot ast inthis pce (Nehemiah) Tiedt ht ‘ould beth group tat wou be most hel tlc y the deans tae fr the sipprt of tho cule Crean ae argo tat te Torah tevez fom a compromise” or ‘oaiion between the el ptoand land the fie farmera™ His ew has Bern ents,” andi eacely ‘apport by his quotation othe covenant of Neer I fo we ave eh nerf a te items cancer the support ofthe cl nthe peruites ‘fits personnel. Only the comment to observe he ees of deb nthe sevethyear Neh, 1.32 Febre 3) woud bent terest ofthe aes Rather than speak of suppoved negotiations between rcial cles resting he peer orm ofthe Trait woul bebe to cop "swe ave dove at arou polts in this std, hati ote vata ‘ny rlng power lang cats n commit sur for ee of rsovand food order thal esonom ond sci sltioshps ere eceptale {othe bulk ofthe population Tas mans tat they should be preted os jist or safety jit to be asepabl sod wae me aes the “Torah was proba) not eat code the setting ut of tadards of juste inthe coven iBook wuld sere to fe fe ssc tat he leader ofthe community were commited to eich stadands Ts wo inside those mesures apparently aise a recing det und alain poverty ht we ae varios part of the Torah ‘Whit masts ofcourse, i jsce ae perce by the memes of ‘he soc rater than awe might peri "I spose tha some 2B Sop peg BO | 6 etic and he Pople i ‘omsidered that thet ms a fir exchange for spnitaa bene I the lithe and other combations were wel eased a end a a ‘ecotenartl demand ofthe Torah whole would be scp ja vith the social elle provions tend fo prevent the side nt poke {araizaton apd ersaement alsnng the hey demands made forthe sas of the cl, and the wou exoaraged tly the oor with et Inet loans and gs On te ole had te ihe wae sat tsa noel impos veateing he ety ofthe pool peste and ten pent inst hey mpost on a farmer lose to The margin of subst) the presoce of sch pvisons in the Tres the yvohibition af interest on Fea for subsistonce and the remion of Ions in he sth yet wold rot enfce to render the Tovah asa whole aeceptale a pari of es no mater how sony ere promoted lf’ evenn om ‘mimeat Te evden i tht many Je ares didnt aya the, oF {id noe ul To aun, a rs shat Mach oy hat hs bate thy were simply cuss of tir repos day is unvaraned They ma he been unable o py, oF they ay hae conse teat unjust andunacepabi “Thre ths. severe ambiguity abou the Torah. Against its coacern forthe poor mast best the support hat offeror the teri poston the leading groups insole This apie, a we sal snot Oa oe “orahasa whole but the varoasclement ta go fo make top We shall look at vo ofthese, Deattonay athe Holiness Coal wit them ‘he ete they present suggesting eas of aking soca collec. 2h. Deatronony Unt The Cant of Compton ‘We nse to cone the stn ses with egatd to his book a we ave jst done forthe Torah sa whole To nom ei adres by hom nd to what en? Whose interest aredspleed or eotsale within it an what do they ope to petaade the Heres off Thereof cout ack of ents sed to thee questions: the dieu so choos betwee thea” The ‘eesion ofthe works dt, monareie of post-menuehi a igniiane but aot neces dese sue Ic woul! sent fit ight that as be the Key to iceming the book's clos: wether the thors war ‘desing pope whe could determine he own way of eo oe tha ‘asunder te cont of foegners wuld sake al the een to wht a See i ie Da, BE een eee 'sfrm programme for 2 funcotng state or 25a pla for Uap? ‘But tat th ah way of potting the qucsion shuld be ey fo Asse which 5 re Why isi ot Othe on hand he stopian charter fhe ‘cnsittiona” provisions (Dest 1618-1822) is obwun® We ave {hoptnal King wo mths cramands the my nor joes cases the {ssentlFnctios ofthe king inal ancien state: ude whe ation [esidethe elders unclear ertar pre's and chars opt sad 0 indation how any of ts aepped to work asa sytem. Trophont ‘he tex it sty the people who are adds and espected to dst omplexunderakings He these year det release Tne cons- "ution but a eres of eas elated nt by consttuonal praca, bat by ‘ews and moral prsaples And he topan characte at coined thissectio, ao ots een een a ata esl the seen eat deters aly atid tet tobe capable in the wos at ‘cul exists (Deu 511) af makin things wore rather than ster or ‘he por the destrction ofa ete ety fr sporty (Dest 13.12 13) ‘prc theoreti! a0 om. ike the Tort of which fro & pat, Deuteronomy aspirational att thas aconctete programme for rors itshons what cpl tobe done rather than announcing what wil be dane “hist the main eon, ny ves fr earvem reading ae the pene fhe tetom ted in? Kes 281-28. ‘But onthe fhe hand, does at flow fom th woplan share of she text that teapot be ares to the eitzns ofan dependent tte Pits alternative le Teall depends onthe fncton wih we tbe to sucha tet Lie the Mesopotamia law codes stmt wel enter 1o preset at ideal of noe which thos i poiions of respons ‘ho tive wo fu, ater than being mercy theoretic, The ease of ational pide wich fees he fext and ve ae fo be brought down “pep "Do not say to yourmll, “Aly power and the might of ty own and.” Dest. 8.17}—paints sony to the eure independence of te king. The sins of» people detoraied by delet, Esha sd ‘broken mst orien rsopmiin ha the ease of YHWH hs ala oo ‘he io, is confined othe book's marginal scons Which se emery ‘eovglzed as belonging to later rlactione Dest 425-31, 28448 319-28 39 316-21. This tong evidence agains cedactional heres ich bu lage prs ofthe eo of the work Toei and ports “Th colon mt eta hn bock is vopian text esd in the firs plc to chiens of he lat onary with ome ler develope. of 6 Junio and he Pople us ‘our Thay ar encourage to regard thmste a8 the chon and oly eons of YHWH, and to wanton ts soy iat one which beet ‘sits HWE inention fr te it In Manabi’ cas ts lopan Father tan Meola does ot jus the ato go, which mas ute iret, but aims atts tstormaion. Bt ike pian etn ea Sisto represent the interests anl aprons of» pares tin iin sooty ‘Wen shows the influence on it ofthe Astra treats si of wisdom teatons and sug that he ators ex witha! cial es ‘ofthe mpl court" Tere can be ao deat hati the work a = group of inter ly to have teen mainly coguged in the chil svc, bat ‘babi indi ements fhe presto. Wess are hatte book (ot ereiah eas cartes os lls with 3 fon of crow servant and the ets ofthat ook were obvoraly ‘Deueronomit a scan fenton of waters flowing those whe prdend Deweonoy Bt the $Euthors ofthe Dock ai no necesanlyrpresst ony ther av interes “They were engaged insebocuas working on behalf fa ch boner oF ‘ore power grou, Who wosld they have bee? “Thon who ae addeood bythe tet are evil the fice alt male ‘acmry ad ldownes of Iida, wo ae inspendent and poss of some reours, whore ale to give loene ty on ves They do nok Inds the poor "te poor ma someone eae in De. 157-18. These arc the sae he stand before ‘Moss Ande alse ase Bo o hat th positon is surfed by ther lam Crista arb tat ts thse people whose intesis und spsaons ae represent by Deiter ‘onomy" and be Boldly ienies them withthe “ppl of he la ‘cording to2 Kps 21.24 plane eight yee Joa on the thts ard ‘Srough him attempted orale the egiour ti poll eal” "Hones, Crasazann admit the grogp presimahy responsible in reality for te isalation of sah andthe composion ofthe Duro omic programme woud hn See much salle han the moe body fie landholer ceria Fading cements perhaps primary hone ho tad kn up resides lathe capa” -honce he ltt in sertalia tion—working in cone with some sate offs and sine Jee ests Albers sgh diferent, sexs thee rls claw element the 12 nile ao septs pan ele om eer dom pce MiGs nce ak GSSsem 252 nt ty doe Mme ho Ae 198 Cantona for Susie icing ineligee oft moremeat, working though the supreme court ‘of eat 175-15 Datcher Wall, working (rm the Sens of Drea ‘phasis the Fstional character ofthe moveriea I woul vetoed ‘ements of the roel service and he preuhood aad the “people of the Sand br ony some a euch group Tevoud appear tht the ceateabeation of th cult (Desteronomy 12) and ‘of some apes of ull proceedings (Deut 8-13) woul be of great Benue the crown andthe ling lasses inthe capital, th he potential to teing ali ancl tenes Soha mado san age fr ‘aa susicin of the textes at Heogcal polo forasuatagem ofthe Ping latest crease ter poe ad welts ipa a Clabes ‘uggs tha the move, oF on of te motives bind ts mesure ast diet the ithe revenues rm power a intrest (Uh these wee the Lites i more sacle) to the cows. abun es the Doistonens Innovation of allowing personal consumption of he ite (Deut 1423-27) ‘ronmpentten foie onan theexpente td tle of bengng to the etal sunctuar* But as be points ot flowing Eis be roduet and is entourage would arly have Been able to cosine the {kein the cure few oay asthe text purport to rqure® Wha yas ‘ohapgen to th estas no sid, Dut ws athe a. In any ease, stele ne afrration welche prminon ma ctl) plone ‘Thisreftes Crserann’s sumption tat the pemision fs consiton othe tithe repens» nerson of resource awe rom tent” He as ako onlooked tit wouK! normaly have teen calected Toaly etoresentalieton Inline wih se eligious faa napoli dive forthe centration of ths nations he way in hich the socal and poll ssamptions and ‘Retort afte book serve ours ria ca and tional yt ‘blogg in fevour oa dl und atonal, One sig hs the use the language of fray in refrence to the national commun, ich ne wl ook st in connection with Deateceaeny 1S. Along wi ts bs the lave aimportanee of tial division, eriphaszed by Pet though te goes tou lar in ming tat Deaton des et kao of ‘ny division ofthe pop ts fais sod ingen ean urinating ‘xaggration, all the same. Naomi Steinberg arges that Deueronomic Family law cleats the mck fay over th Wado authority of the 6 Juno and the Pople m extends fay and tat ssa matod of extend sate contol Most important of al el cenrakantion iol woud hare at eace ated ths poner offal loyalties and nabed the ate to weld dap lat lings nia snp comment though th emma relisoasporpose™ ‘Thscration of tational comment one of he things tt yo bythe two senso enema making in the ook Tana he objected tht ti nrengiesing of he wy ofthe nation and he power ofthe sats ere compute with the apparent knit nd grudging Way nw Kinship viewed in the ‘onatonl se aight sees the restrictions on kp ay represnting poplar seinen, hil athe sme tne they serve tented ef tc nonce “hctbey a ensue ht they share omer wi the Kingand hs seas “They ae tus “apie example of ow the ew ete could rewre opi value int 4 genera tem of uric ht ight ean ma msm support even though the spac nets ofthe lite ete tery Strepitoul four The deepening of aoa cobeson therfore inthe interest of a brader ce than meey the rye family ot ling ‘ices ofthe capital. Moret, he undemiing of lca ends nd fy {ies wos aleady under wy and war hastened by the socal ad pial {sul ofthe previous funded ure Deueoncey Probl ap much ‘elects as encourages his development ‘The et esl ofthis inguy i that Deteronomy sve idol to storathen rational cohesion he nest of « oad rings pais who eid thi itrests walk the stat athe ae ime es supp to ibe postion ofthe fe landholders ra woe (a we sal ofthe fotingsestions), and shows coneen forthe oor and mars sroups, ‘bie the surfs ntenton ofthe hase wee shot seni Al ee, srl rele” within the ideology a the ook, und the wxton ‘ofthe nation under one God wh he Book sms tex asc by shoming evergone tht i in Shir nerestaor a est ving that Apress, cen i pct we st jus that tat an son 22h Gone Proios DDesteronomy conan a numberof soca provisions minty thre in Det 210-22 forthe bene ofr the magia grpthe strange ‘orphan and widow, and for Deuteronomy ae ths Leite othe ze Forel tbortw o reds oshnery or testa ofa fied worker For the most part ese re ehocations adress to the nda sna ‘ones we hve aea baked at is Chaper dnt to charge net on oan Rea | ™ Contin for Istce (Dex, 2319-20 [etrew 20-210; not 6 act oppresvely in scring ledges against loans no delay paying the hed Wook’ wap ee produce onthe fe for the arial wrovps to glean: to rake ste they EEhe' portion of he sacri fata the eae (Deus). At ‘webu sce for thos exhortation el for geneonyon ts ptf the [Felios employer orlandownr thou sapuaing any permanent chanse in ine reltionshipor aia now conspion of commiy. Thre nehing epan aout tie moral teaching exept perhaps he pohbison of ules, wich i ile o show wan cur Susy “polit, ase shal shi kind f moral apes ein heed sep Ae frum te Deateonomis opts ‘The motvations stashed to seme ‘ofthe esbrttions are paral not only in Exodus 22-29 but ele in Deuteronony 5. The pation i warned tht his cet his ace to os, snd theres is (Det 24.) ocll aaa ine Deut 2419) tho utr’ ghteousest or git Store God isthe hans of his ce. But {Phe ets generously, VHWH wal las in (Deat 1618 2520 [eben 21, 2419 The promise ofbesing stashed specially to those com ‘ands tha ak for seneront othe poor and dpsed cling 0 Deut 1439, 1510, 18 Such generosity ust epear ky whet so any pers tneaten the Indowne’hardwoo prosperity. The Bksing asses ‘im that the iss worth aking This he mdation tha “The other quin motivation asks the patton to ew hse and his ‘elo wih hi ene in the ight of his mao toy Remeber that you wee sein Egypr (Det. 24.18, 2) This eal cus in Deter ‘eno ony Wo support the comand to he generous to marginal people (also im Deut 1515-162: andi he Dealogue at 8.15." The pos ‘mide to unersand Himself a one wh telongs 0 people hat as ‘nce marginal disposed nd opposed. But ts wording ea ‘ntheconet och stich doer ove odo within. Tis eet ‘hat there isa deliberate cho of Dest 15,15, a perhaps of Deut. 5.15 "We fd the eocntil socal senate of Deutronony’s wopi ro frame expres into psp erin he code: the the in Dea 22-29 (compare Deu. 2612-15, nd the fa of det release a Deut |S. 11 These both egie community acon be mppemeated, and both elas ona sgt af in thowgh on een cen each case 23 The Phi Yer Tithe ‘Wehavc already toca on te tithe lava noted Ciabur's understanding ofias means ofineeasing crown revenues The ithe remaas holy (Dea 6 Suto andthe People 1 26.13) and sj to tradona ritual resins (Deut. 26.16: i stil ha to be removed ro he producesboue™ Whe the fit an eon et ‘ites ast ake ote cena sinclar, the thd Jere in Ie bel communi. o be pen othe Levies the strangers ts orphans andthe widows wor, te anlss and sources those ho anak fly Steet nto the agrarian commit. To ge tthe wh ned Jsin isto sancti And te Beng of YIWH il low tne who tin his way. By providing fra sharing of the Beit ins ay abt ‘surg the Famer ofthe divine Hein. appears ha he wees were fuapesting a mode in which he fanears might expense Soliaty wth ‘olan groupe 1H worth esting that it Uely that in early ae soit the stanger uc 36 there were) orphan abd widow, and perhaps also the Lote would have bas provided fr within theestened familys mater of ours Thened fr soh a rovion ahs sagess the ater tombs ‘ler community suctres hd broken down. Tos i et ep towards tbe resetion of emmy. 24 The Roe of Dis ‘This sim ial expres inthe nex pssge, Det, 151-1 Is utopian social vison appears both in the provision foc a even yarly release of ‘eis ani the ehtone which support, which canbe ses as another fstempt io receate a sense of community. The aw on dae rks in De. 1512"I8ean be dea with nthe sae conneton tease dog ical {or ial rater ha sommaity Seton, enveloped a these thetone Wit widly cepted tht Det 15.111 based on ot a in Det 1532 Wend formulation i the hd pes whch mek of rm he ‘form seco parson aroun! ie "Every cer shal emit ws he has Tent is aghtou or "the lege he ha apn is chou bt) he sal ot pres his gout his bother. base YEW eon has bee proce The Deateroome asthor himself wold trl 5 Stee he up tee en arcs | mest Dee 132 (eg SB ips 99929) Bhs yet epee te ‘eine gto ‘Sete owt alec, a Seat 130 Condi fer Ise have si, You shall emit. ou sal not pres in Det 15.12, where theword mater inet ad brausethermaster shins ing dred Uhrouphost. Someta is hese being quoted i doce regis ‘Gedions toe debs and considering our Gacwson a telat haper Sal ot bs to fara to soacude tat is the worsing of ara Uhre compar othe dares of nan sl ran sud the abylonian Kings" Axe be san, such datos could he oeesionaly thet iss by Davide kings Tir wren omewr ass the dona soning cal orsometing ute direst nt an ocasional,butareplar ‘se of debi ery sven Jars a permanent ston Iwan fg est hat iad t rnsorming economies and preventing {ose burned by debt om sig int a permanent wees” "Whether this so cepends on wat meant by season (he er St andthe noun Fit) Teta one year Supesion of the creator ht 0 ‘payment of the eancdaton of he debe" Deuteronomy 150 presumes ‘hat eer by be pt of by the prac ofthe year of ls, and this Scams mote bial) f something ore than mere sispenson is met Foweer the wept ofthis comsieration depends on the usual etm of loans of the hind. I asses tly, repent wold normaly be ‘xpd win the your, bythe ext arent em even a eas suspension Sou bea enous detent to en, hough 01s eious ab aca Tow.” A futher tgunent for asuming canetinon that wee ety ‘Sf compicative mater reuing the cancaltion of Jet,” byt one ‘tdhining «temporary suspension. Tive al the examples of debt ‘ancliton we know of ae irepsar events a he wea f «regular, eoiccandlaon as unctsmpled as tat ofa suspension But if ware ‘Shnect insu tht an oer dares taken pin Dea 182i kly torhae oopnaly refered tos cancion, aa io uly Co have De {uke up ina dient ens, The decaeagsen that eve alan Ins alwys ee to fer to cael: apd das causonat with the tone ofthe passage which expounds the peosay coins of 2 jst acy aad no spy what canbe prety eked In Jush around segeny aa iw re wth woe ne ad he a ifn Serb oie eh Seder en yo eo 6 dtc and he Pope i "he tam ofthe era though the iw was etna nor mas deprived felt bye device thepresbl(Msnah, Seb 103) T nou tg then tht what we have heer no mere modest mas of role consoqsnt onthe obervance of the fk yea” at protoundy ‘altarian measure calli foatotal erdering of eonomic atonships, hich when pt int eft woul iewtahly be evaded by Theme wh Inerese wore aed by i This role ie ecognied ad adres in writ But Before we reach tat pit, thee ar other important observations. Ay nw 2 ei the word “ae “i rhe ral he shal no ‘rs i sighbour an hs roe" ™ The acon nous lis the Bes. ‘Neighbour ra) scm ob the sandr egal ter for he perso ih ‘wom th addesse bast do: usd inthe Conan Code a in fe Dvaloge and with ote ems in the Holiness Code Isto large extent seplce jour Behr a the Deteonar code Here's the = teed alongside becuse the wee eng sn older txt orally we find he eco petion singular sti, ow robe’ This the it place whee it ecu and ram ms pout ot i is used repeated spall ‘Seiji contents fn Deuteroony 15 appease v2, 37,3, 12 Thee mes (Deu. 33,1715 232021) ont he face vl the Free: nother pices a 157-11, the is a posse cash [totes wath another lel, and calling him jour brother daw "tention o what the adeeb in common with tha person ‘Wat dss this ese ply? Brith they are Flow meer of ‘ommunity whic he ate encouraged to understand a fail wich ‘heya inked by kinship Lothar Perit hs eve an aril tis sage ‘Deuteronomy ad ch fh lloming indeed 1" Fit, awe have not before in oerconaecins the we of thi won pie he tex only has males nd the akg f the ‘xpeson i. 12, erly, our brohe,a Hebrew ora Hebre woman Shes rom th xcptonal nn erp hat thew apis equally men and women v.17) ‘Sconly, does 3 ply that only the tueborn Irate is worthy of | Jost ueamnent as opposed Co the forgue? Theresa cout wih the Sigel Scat 2 Concniing for sce Foreign, but 1 3 chawinsic one the contrast swith nok the focaner auch, ot with go, thers len and ually thou at the ‘Soop ie intoded to eal corner ous om th opera of the aw The ger has the sane aim on the Teale’ conco the “probe as Devt 24.4 shows Pit agus hat the ce pssst contrat he "other with the foreigner belong oa later satu Tne ‘a te wage ent buted on teen ofthe Hood lation of he Imenibes of te people whieh Ge sys) as no imerest for Dewey: hors tan extension ofthe older cular idea! of responsi whi the ‘Nendo clan He lasses instead on the wor's emotional colowig, which merges swcy svongy init coetaraion ia Deut 167-11 The colouring 0 ‘xc stonge an tha of neighbour, and this makes appropiate to ese (tha soo abil pel to be made tops prot the nots “The (ational) community of botber aes ou ofthe ea on he ind ‘ea esl ve and rst his nih as rts Te mone {oional and indeed a mre sligios way of sing You neighbour 8 ‘vay which appeals more depy to the heart: way o expresing th com ‘not Humanity of those who topthr be out ofthe berating Love of {Goo The appeal to broeyod is ae the rest ofthe mtu lato ‘hipaa iter the ration of al raeites a rote br) {he result othe a's appeal to weateac oh ss such, "Bt is Pet sgh im arguing that ii no an extension ofthe ober altura ideal f respon niin the extended fay o a etre {hat Deuteronomy arly eve refer this Deaterooony 136-1 Hebrew 4-12) males it ureompromisigly pain hat the sate hs a higher fy ty con than hat tos med fly od is Hera otha Whereas in Levis 2 the parcalar responsi ofthe lineage olan i prvied foe (Lv. 2525), tee not ue of Deatsonony TS; where seponty i seine ost interme ofthe “beter, meaning the fellowizen feel otal ofthis does ot doe tat Devteonony is ntanding ro epit the rlatonip between meters fhe nana sommes at wre tn exende fay or an nod, iether tds to coaas The txt tes Languge which recalls the soquirenets of clan redenpon (Lev 2525) Taio rsll the pragma nt tat equalities arose thin the lineage Hesse ofthe wy in which thi lastation woke etding 10 ‘nce wealh in the senior banches snd render he nor oes 6, Justice and the Pople 19 dependent on ten Butitexens nd deepens the import ofthe language ‘ot bretherhod nwo waye by ntendg trang the nin svawole, fod by mpbsty pleading that ‘bother whatever the degree of Wood ‘toni shoul urinal ct ie thar ha with nero, Mok ‘ih ardour Teannet, therefor, be slices to define the ses of ou rote in uly emotional and ees ers I does ae erotonl weit and hit {ted to argu or am eal stance, bt it does hat npr case ees the mation inthe msge ofthe Kngroup and, comely redeins expons ity oki as esponsbty fr flow-natnal Thus ede of bother ood sali centl othe chaper eam he seen a the xpos ne consi of very ol ida of community i ich dies the esponsi "yotpeopleto thse who, inthe pal ial vile nhaited by embers font ea fe class would be bok nghtous and aie Is rates {xpesson would in man stations ery simi, ‘Deuteronomy 154 Gaze clo elton ha if eal wore tray obedient measures ike ths would nt be oquted.” These wuld ben poor becuse of YHWH's Mesing—so mos trations and commentators ‘here 2 consensus thatthe Commandment” rte 10 in 3. M8 Isa! mat obey to rain the bsing the Deteonomie code a5 «| whl” Somat llr, Moro ads das rlstion:"heeit ote be poer person amg you" Whichever imerpeation adopted, the contrast with Det 151 the poor wll ever cease out of he ad? (oten sow ofa coaaicoa sharp, an ll comments attempt 1 ‘kal with Many scolae hme atruted the vere to Ir han on Sis gounds” Yer ty do eps the ulopias eb: oft a Wry ‘vel Cri for exmpenterpret this pasa os posit contest tf eact chdience’, wie «11a sore ele ton. v.46 represent the consequence of obedinss ike 0p, whew Tt expres te station that makes he ness Buticis Loti’ view tat of parla insert for ws He igh seesthat the whole pasa partakes of the Uopia’ cancer atte ‘seih6 The wi nhc be itrpes th however ha th at under ‘ands poverty aa vemporry ste ring ite ntoral fom, ss bad 2 Semester EEE en ttn eee a ene i Conmanding for ice ars, which is inant clint ty th generosity of those we he fot brn afced the nme ett a 1 sane poole wll Be fling aco pons ad 4 cane batter wl be 40 eae of poor people’, proved tha th commund of generosity shed Its anata ‘Re ew but it the end I donot had conv. The tensions ithe seg ate more profound. The consent use rough Y.7- ofthe {Sim lyon poor ual ab noun, gg «person wo hs thi co San characerie.To expres he ide in Hebrew of voncone eperaiy fal ito nas srt one would epee a ver, asin Lex. 2538, More ‘vet Dest, 15.2 asuns tat thre wl sil be eone who though poverty Sr going to han to goa ar alin ces into slarey LMS ‘xs Leideus 2° mac bet ase shal “Therefore ses tht there el cotraditon within the pasage ‘Te lop obec of Ihe programe, an undivided soe of eal “oho forever to Bout of reach The et cgnies hk, bul Bes {he ares to constantly act ae tough ere ae the orl spe Oe ‘Fit istased on he petepin ofthe poor man aa Bote ‘The sesopian eto of Dest 1.711 es is ihn in. 9 of the peta nelecivenes ofthe ne Ko choke of eet nthe year ‘orto lending upto tho your of lease The nay the tet dels With te Srobiem i at tp inrodace 4 sefiatent ine the Iw Bu to eal for 8 [teroity gong Beyond the demand of thew and 0 pat conse Sint compasion, Cv lane anyway, water you expect the beck of Stow Te noe your advantage you sete be concemed with bu Jour Trower snes Thre ar ster points t9 uote Ree. i, the rps of our ‘othe more concerted in tis passage thn anywhere ee in Deter ‘num Secon Hanon dea atest tothe opened sae te of ‘Stn’ wosaulay hand and "ner and eye? open your hand, lt therenot es ilsinos thought sour hat, lt ur eye not be ee, This concentration owe for parts oh body css the eatonship innate tems and so intense the emotional power fe tore” “Thi there a elgious appeal of to Kis: he tk andthe carrot the thew and the promi In Det 159 we hate he test of the oor mas ape o God, in Exod. 228 24.29 (Hebe 222,20, Ent Dou, 2415 In De. 1S10 thee isthe promie of lesing i the oman of goneoniy seed hi lr to hs pie commen, alte 5. Thue no queon hr of rule ht en be fled. This sh apeal tight tothe her. Ae Pert yc with ths pasioate Spy nacht man eer Ltbe Bese" 5t gas Tone moving.” The test 6 date and he Pople as presat this a the only way of counteracting the deterrent eit ofthe Bis In quite corey irene grants the pense i Det. 1511 tee ‘Tt isa condition sot merely between and 1, ba within the sat of 711. The tent presumes the convo enistnc of equals 0d ofthc pasos cent elton. There il be poo, an the aes ‘ofthe av the peopl ofthe Land, wl bn a poiion to hp them. The Tada! lation of dependency isnoeakoitd. I bad tempers to recon with su evolution tough Deut 154-6, me ae rp die hued. Yet tis presets ato he et. 7-11 that es uray Insist 0a th tansoemation of reatioastpe between the dependent sd hove on whom they depend As Hanon pete tx lice depend uta te centr a sal tate marie des with he power to fal dowa he wath of God upon the har-herted and lse-led.” Above SL stmakes tem meron of ane fr: No sca revatio eased, tier al, bur tere cl foe a mora evelton, which weld eimiste expan ‘Moveoer although dhe fundamental masse Dest. 151-2 cals for ern ction, indeed must requ the ct of teste coset up Simtlascous emo of dei stomerge tht wl be fo et est the hearts of iil retouched and thle moval conde ngs ‘Whats ufo el fora rae economic ranaformaton chs op a8 moral eshortion of fait spe though exceptionally power m ts "etl appl Te fate of the poor ef as usa inte ands ofthe welsodo, "Asma station emer fom the folloving passg, othe lease of deteainee 2S The Rls of loves ‘Theresa lose reatonhip betwen ths pasage and he previous one since oth ae concerned wih the problem of es. Cries mah ake 2 {aay ember ax sary ate deen ponton of Beet 131-2 il sur that they cans ip them beoad the yea of tease.” But besides {hs debtors ght moo to alam members ito one to ay of debs, The text aceps that, despite the setet-yoareasion this Con tinue” Inview ofthe wae of the ver tri some mre yt De ‘ho stuaoneoviged tha the olin of pesioes pede, though it TC Kye 14590 eterno eee a St ely Scns ie chime ttre ab tao 186 Contig for sie ‘oul also be ceditors who are ewsaged sling fori debtors. es ikl hat Taw sma fo od. 2.16 sere beng mil Like the presous one. this ls Boaght home tothe bearer by personal spyeal 19 Fetng for he brother (or sister). Even st the expense of esac smooth te jour biter added. 12. These’ actualy arate Where Mae brthers there can Be no masters and sins; and tbe Wor nes ‘oldl unt the point whee the an hie woones for Permanent Snr: The contact ns one of slavery but of tho salvo en's labeu or Sd em Deuteronomy 1513-15 may posly puta ok easom into word, bit ‘oul be ened ony bythe pesue of public option, and where tat Fate, by appeal to brother Tosing. ef nt an ener rl, but ‘gine on generosity that goes beyood thelox. Aad ne Dew. 187-1 Ths sesponds toa weaken he lan was not sent to roid for nd en of sevice: frre hondrvans would hate no rsouse Dat toretumto thifamies whieh, with an extra mouth to fed, wo be eft inno bie posto dan before If ey trough il hess subtantal ton othe sours thot might mak al the dileence Here he prime rious appeals ey petnet the maser reminded That hs ow coat prospety is dav vaely tothe divine Bsing. and Farther to"omember hat sou were ive Egypt and YHIWH sour God rodeo you This unde: ht laren these Dat: there ca tne las divstons whee everone ses slave and al owe the Wert and ‘property a God, Te pot ext he sea ih ie gag ‘rotherod, Guy Lasse pins out hat th mee calle on no jak {0 change bs prac, bo Yo redeine isconep of hin of hs prope 20, of is welion ih sles, of is ast and of sft Ao ‘mpi her may be an appeal othe mation of God. The Ged whom the ‘ater server ison who lente seve! How ca he ora th God ‘Swi hs om servant? “Tus ia th ection an een oe marked way than with he year of rlas the institutional stucure of dependency is wind, bat the pectin shat wl be ante by = new andertandng fr ‘eons Thee is agua adden condo the stan ol Spm cnn incu mre, ant tearm eee he ch) Be shih iy ety neo ph 6 ue and he Pope 7 éebondage i not abolished, ye to take the mang of the hetorc Seca tose hat there cant be mit saves Within fam oF brothers 286 Daemon: asd Communi {vis panty nyt dco he eof soil ort in Det ney Thi sol nd moral spins alan oppnteSetons The Sf sa nvations uggs there fovea fe eee tho tid er thes a the eth eae enon debts Th cls Stace of sce ens remsine Mol exortaon ec to scours: pope to et in sosace the feet apn ins ot Sova je. Bat one Goss one? tne” the wel todo sould be oust ono spond osu appa, hat wou three has or {eal novation ands nt, wht te mou thy have eat To on ‘ronal poet) and goed wl me surly fey om pal tse lcs noc eho sac ad ctl soi pane int ispce TB Deters pps nit sy spelt indulgent ity Men hey ae ead monet nese th avapro en a sco of communi The appa Soe peo Bound up wh iheimdegucy eal change to sche change nse ton ‘Sipe Was hs Js faethe spectc menus ray Docs thers eral robin i aching nd rsving Sova as? “Theprebce ths tt el sito hangs cea sonar near not enough by tease They most be acompan Oy he rsp ahd comma Somme to tis ttn ta Bote Sst And tht como Beaches moral edecnio, byte cose ‘aecogucedmora aon Heel nl sgn Mice] Wass theory of mor! wadton® Whatever the ndoquncs of Deuioneny's tnsanal conten sew fh sna communy eel trl soca mations contert rs pnt sotto ttc Kn of Sno easton tht ay soy sing oh ques ad thee ‘ating tobe pct up by enone seal ness toon Dokl ough to ake eo. The eden hat ta ik py {ull by the compe ofthe Helis Cho sour the Be {meth Levon "he ow of st 152 may hae be 0 impact inthe ‘el wot hate laid wor of eer ng and Store sings, al nat cad fy means ote psu the “See toe eit yt et at dela Scant Sint ine leaogy both of Judo a regis communi amo he ly ss Comtoing for Iie Covina smn iclr the New Testament that Christians wee Sino tobe bates al ster ne of note, ad they ca Be sem {Sb mkingponne fuel efoto rceome ch ions tetveen het ember, Usfrtnaty s Marat Daves argue the tie of New Tesament wees f el ob Christan mass to fee er Sie onsen to ado the retons on serve rion fod i DDewtconony and Lait ated th eller? The Soop eae ‘@alarge extensor. The Fen revohion roel a its soa “ther, equity nd Atty Te hoy of elas bude yeas has Ben ae one of fhe promotion by al pif of Hey and squat, rae tends ote rg, yt one might re tha ts the gle Wie Wick fe other mst nevis fl part and appear to beta Taney ‘auc cogentythatin industrial oct greater equality ast mean eter ‘hey forthe mao rather than "ood snot onl coal silrconditons raha nena felow-serans but woud dick ontons mo ere cxpesion. What ccd a sxety where ‘Sn som area we Sher re manera= Buth aadreble ‘Sipesion ofthe eal of ates twas the ea ofthe ea cooperative ‘ovens End td war hed pom kby FD. Masi, who in Bie Tc on tan Socio age that van aay expr ‘Chisnnts" However he eee hai expresa he proper eatonship ‘timer and servant ar thin sang Lethe New Testament Sears he docs not sce to hae aly elicod te implatons of his om Ieotos “Te tor rerio ‘others! ets unusable ody ot oly ‘esti ender, ut ao bcase we have Berm conscious ft fun opprennenc and djutenton of he fil Sada” might tes posable subi. Communi’ has Become sch a wa tee of tron! much a mot of Now Laura is equaly unusable ‘Whatisinaded bythe wor homer emia ali. Eguaiy ost ea fhe mation, not of al Hh Bt of my erty fe dba the ‘Thug mus be conse, sop ellowsiizen a thers tnd stern Comers the cy oie (lo found noe resco ‘the aoa the moment) mist es in tess neat 5 has Tappened ver he st wen de year in Ben ok we depen the Ou le ny a py he ty ini a oid nth say he ton nan he os yh eh Sey Sets (6 utc and he Pople 199 seni of soldi, wich has instead een eroded. Exp in a tatiarin ‘ce depends toa lrgeextet upon conse: therefre ater oF ‘watever we choose Wo ell is apes We ned to lear that we {long tog. We could do worse thas lear fem Deum "Ate same tims, we ano gor the fundamentally elgious character or Deteonons, which i ko eset to our anadern gue. To baleve that jut soit actor ar to cep ht the wei is Serta sch ay hat jst posible aed wil result apples forte ciety tat aly Toes by it Deronony Is more sei: "becawse ff tis YHWH sour God wil Mss you i ll our weeks andi al ou Sede (Deat 1519} This God who seat Go who ainins "he rts of orp and widow, ad who how is ove or arene ‘ving en food and closing” (Deut 101) who dered Tae rom ‘erin Egypt In ur next chapter we sal ned to examine he probs inthis ides ofa just Go. 2c The Lae of bile inthe Holes Coé* ‘The imagination of eal Christian tholgins has bean seit by the {bie the Sambo pr exelenc ofthe scl jst oclted By the ‘Gu Terumo, Ii as general Fetion cater thn sy specie en ‘Levias 25 thats mporan in te choke Gonznge for exp st sume that the restoration ofalcated property mandated bythe jae law oes aay sith poveryallepetier. and he leaps on the nil of abit omnes ih vo ny inal oo the wounds hat ‘he lad belong to God” Th jb set car Han (ote operation ofthe market and ofers the apoclig sion of epee eeu 2 prmine squat cory By ears meping sway the diortions of tua community itodiced ao mulled ener te. 1 oferta the rece of the eth a esha symbolized bythe ound reo ty eas “Thisisone reason why itis appoprae ht oa survey fies of human jst nthe Ola Testament should conioe with Lento 25. There att ‘lets Uabke al ee passa o ie wp tis on expel adress the problem of ld Tose andsopmsts mechani for regu eversing ie ke the thier the std dbt een avs n Deuteronomy stone, {ss 258 10 routes commaity action to bing 4 sate of oa usioe {at being, trough the ube. Batt combination ott 9th the ‘eres lavs forsdnual execaton mn Lev, 25.23 35 reste othe ost