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The Human Sundial - Grade 6 ~ Lesson Plans

The Human Sundial - Grade 6 ~ Lesson Plans

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Published by: GalanopoulosApostolo on May 08, 2010
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„e—™her9s gorner vesson

relping „e—™hers —nd ƒtudents w—ke the wost of their yutdoor gl—ssroom
Bringing Nature to our Cities


„he rum—n ƒundi—l

qr—de levelX qr—de TF €rovin™i—l ™urri™ulum linksX ynt—rioF ƒu˜je™tX ƒ™ien™e —nd „e™hnologyF ueywordsX i—rth —nd ƒp—™e ƒystemsD rum—n ƒundi—l €roje™tF

isther deqroot

„he rum—n ƒundi—l €roje™t will provide —n opportunity for students to le—rn how the rel—tionship ˜etween the i—rth —nd the ƒun ™—n ˜e used —s — tool for me—suring timeF pirstD the phenomenon of the i—rth9s simult—neous rot—tion on its —xis —nd revolution —round the ƒun will ˜e introdu™ed —nd expl—inedF „he students will ™ome to underst—nd how these rot—tions —nd revolutions expl—in the p—ss—ge of time E night —nd d—yD the ™y™le of the se—sonsD the ™h—nging of ye—rsF xextD the students will o˜serve how m—rkers pl—™ed outE doors in — ™ert—in ™on(gur—tion ™—st sh—dows in di'erent pl—™es throughout the d—yF prom their o˜serv—tionsD the students will le—rn to ˜uild —n outdoor sundi—l stru™ture —nd to t—ke me—surements of time —t two distin™t times during the d—yF efter ™ompiling d—t— from this ™ontinuous pr—™ti™e of me—E surement —nd ex—min—tionD students will le—rn how to present their (ndings to other studentsD p—rents —nd te—™hersF sn —dditionD the students will h—ve the opportunity to le—rn —˜out greening their s™hool grounds ˜y pl—nting )owers or other pl—nts in —nd —round the sundi—l ˜edF
gurri™ulum pr—mework

ynt—rio gurri™ulumX ƒ™ien™e —nd „e™hnologyX i—rth —nd ƒp—™e ƒystemsX qr—de TX ƒp—™eF hesigned for the s™ien™e ™urri™ulumD the sundi—l proje™t ful(ls most of the expe™t—tions for qr—de TX ƒ™ien™e —nd „e™hX ƒp—™eF rowE everD the proje™t h—s immense potenti—l to ful(l expe™t—tions in other su˜je™t

„he rum—n ƒundi—l


—re—s su™h —s m—th @geometryA —nd visu—l —rts @™olour s™hemesAF „his lesson h—s —n e™—demi™ level fo™usF ƒpe™i(™ vesson qo—lsX fy the end of the vessonD students will ˜e —˜le toX f—si™ gon™eptsX
ˆ des™ri˜e the physi™—l ™h—r—™teristi™s of ™omponents of the sol—r system

E the sunD pl—netsD n—tur—l s—tellitesD ™ometsD —steroidsD —nd meteoroids @eFgFD rel—tive sizeD surf—™e temper—tureAY light @eFgFD moonsD pl—netsAY

ˆ identify the ˜odies in sp—™e th—t emit light @st—rsA —nd those th—t re)e™t ˆ des™ri˜eD using models or simul—tionsD the fe—tures of the moon9s surE

f—™e @eFgFD ™r—tersD m—ri—D rillsAY

ˆ identify ™y™les in n—ture @eFgFD ™y™le of d—y —nd nightD ™y™le of se—sonsA

—nd des™ri˜e the ™h—nges within the ™y™les des™ri˜eD using models or simul—tionsD how the i—rth9s rot—tion ™—uses the ™y™le of d—y —nd nightD —nd how the i—rth9s revolution ™—uses the ™y™le of the se—sonsY tion —nd positions of the i—rthD moonD —nd sun @eFgFD sol—r —nd lun—r e™lipsesD tidesD ph—ses of the moonAY the ƒun dire™tly or through — lens or ™oloured gl—ssY look only —t — proje™tion of the sun9s im—geY do not use — lens or m—gni(er to fo™us the sun9s r—ys to — sm—ll —re—Y exer™ise ™—ution when using mirrors so th—t they do not re)e™t the sun9s im—ge dire™tly into someone9s eyesA ƒkills of snquiryD hesign —nd gommuni™—tionY ™h—ni™—l ™lo™ks were invented @eFgFD sundi—lAY

ˆ des™ri˜eD using models or simul—tionsD the e'e™ts of the rel—tive moE

ˆ follow s—fety pro™edures when o˜serving the ƒun @eFgFD never look —t

ˆ ™onstru™t — devi™e th—t ™ould h—ve ˜een used to tell time ˜efore meE ˆ formul—te questions —˜out —nd identify needs —nd pro˜lems rel—ted to

o˜je™ts —nd events in the environmentD —nd explore possi˜le —nswers —nd solutions @eFgFD use printD medi—D —nd ele™troni™ resour™es to identify —nd investig—te sp—™e te™hnologies —nd to investig—te im—ges of sp—™e —nd identify wh—t they representY use — ™omputer simul—tion progr—m to show the rel—tive size of the pl—nets —nd their dist—n™e from the sunAY ing v—ri—˜les th—t need to ˜e held ™onst—nt to ensure — f—ir test —nd identifying ™riteri— for —ssessing solutionsY

ˆ pl—n investig—tions for some of these —nswers —nd solutionsD identifyE

„e—™her9s gorner " wwwFevergreenF™—

„he rum—n ƒundi—l


ˆ use —ppropri—te vo™—˜ul—ryD in™luding ™orre™t s™ien™e —nd te™hnology

terminologyD in des™ri˜ing their investig—tions —nd o˜serv—tions @eFgFD use terms su™h —s ™onstell—tionsD pl—netsD moonsD ™ometsD —steroidsD —nd meteors to des™ri˜e o˜je™ts in sp—™eAY

ˆ ™ompile d—t— g—thered through investig—tion in order to re™ord —nd

present resultsD using t—lly ™h—rtsD t—˜lesD l—˜elled gr—phsD —nd s™—tE ter plots produ™ed ˜y h—nd or with — ™omputer @eFgFD use print —nd ele™troni™ resour™es to org—nise inform—tion —˜out the sol—r systemAY purposes —nd to spe™i(™ —udien™esD using medi— worksD written notes —nd des™riptionsD ™h—rtsD gr—phsD dr—wingsD —nd or—l present—tions @eFgFD prep—re — multimedi— present—tion showing g—n—d—9s ™ontri˜ution to sp—™e explor—tion presentEd—y ™ontri˜utions of —stronomy to the qu—lity of hum—n life @eFgFD development of the ™—lend—rY predi™tion of events su™h —s e™lipses —nd se—sonsY provision of inform—tion —˜out sp—™e —nd time

ˆ ™ommuni™—te the pro™edures —nd results of investig—tions for spe™i(™

ˆ ƒ™ien™eD „e™hnology —nd the ‡orldX identify —nd des™ri˜e p—st —nd

€rep—r—tion „ime

„his proje™t will require some longEterm rese—r™h —nd pl—nning —s the te—™her will h—ve to —ppro—™h the s™hool reg—rding —n outdoor sp—™e for the sundi—l to ˜e lo™—tedF yn™e — de™ision is m—de —s to the lo™—tionD design l—yout —nd prep—r—tion of the sp—™e will ˜e requiredF st will —lso t—ke some time for the —™tu—l ™re—tion of the sundi—lF €le—se see €ro™edure under ƒe™tion eX „he €l—nning €ro™essF „he te—™her will —lso h—ve to spend — few hours of ™l—ss time prep—ring her students with s™ienti(™ inform—tion —˜out the pl—nets —nd their rot—tionsF
vength of vesson

„he rum—n ƒundi—l €roje™t is —n ongoing pro™ess —nd will provide sever—l hours of lessons for the studentsF „he lessons will in™lude underst—nding the ™on™ept of the sundi—lD sever—l weeks of on™eEweekly o˜serv—tion of the sundi—lD d—t— g—theringD —nd ™ompil—tion of d—t— into — present—tionF

„e—™her9s gorner " wwwFevergreenF™—

„he rum—n ƒundi—l
‚esour™es ‚equired
q—rden ƒundi—l


ˆ m—rkers eFgF ro™ksD sm—ll spru™e trees to represent hours eFgF IPD ID PD


ˆ w—terproof m—rkers for m—rking the —re— of the monthsF ˆ shovel ˆ mul™hB ˆ —nnu—ls —nd other pl—ntsB ˆ ™—mer—B

Boption—l m—teri—ls th—t will enh—n™e the sundi—l proje™t
ƒidew—lk ƒundi—l

ˆ p—int ˆ ˜rushes ˆ p—int thinner ˆ p—inting ™lothes ˆ r—gs ˆ protr—™tors ˆ rulers

eF „he €l—nning €ro™ess @for the „e—™herA

‚ese—r™h historyD theoryD —nd models of ™onstru™tion of —ll sundi—ls fo™using p—rti™ul—rly on the —n—lemm—ti™ sundi—lF pollowing —re key terms to le—rn —nd sh—re with students —˜out —n—lemm—ti™ sundi—lsF

—n—lemm—X e s™—le in the sh—pe of — (gure V representing the ™h—nges in
the sun9s position in rel—tionship to the i—rthF ƒee eppendix sssF

„e—™her9s gorner " wwwFevergreenF™—

„he rum—n ƒundi—l


—n—lemm—ti™ sundi—lX e horizont—l sundi—l in whi™h the gnomon is verE d—te s™—leX the ™entr—l p—rt of the m—rked with the twelve months of the ye—rD on whi™h the gnomon positions herGhisEselfF ellipseX — ™urve or ™oni™ se™tionD essenti—llyD the sh—pe of the di—l of the sundi—lF „he i—rth revolves —round the ƒun on —n ellipti™—l p—thF gnomonX the sh—dowE™—sting o˜je™t used to tell timeF por the ™urrent proje™tD the hum—n student is the gnomonF num˜er m—rkersX the o˜je™ts used to m—rk the num˜ers representing time
of the sundi—lF

ti™—l @in ™ontr—st to tr—dition—l sundi—ls whi™h use — (xed tri—ngul—r wedge —s the gnomonA —nd must ˜e moved @or moves in the ™—se of — hum—nA with the d—teF „he time is re—d from the di—l ˜y noting where the sh—dow of the hum—n isF

€resent — propos—l to the s™hool for pl—ns for the hum—n sundi—l in™luding visu—l —idsD relev—nt rese—r™h in™luding ˜ene(ts to the edu™—tion—l progr—m —nd ˜ene(ts to the s™hool —nd lo™—l ™ommunitiesD proposed siteD required prep—r—tion of siteD ˜udgetF sn ™oll—˜or—tion with st—' de™ide whether you will ™onstru™t — p—intEonEp—vement sundi—l or — g—rden @livingA sundi—lF yne ˜ene(t of ™onstru™ting — living sundi—l is th—t the whole proje™t is less (xed th—n — p—int on ™ement sundi—lD —nd therefore the design —nd the pro™ess of ˜uilding the sundi—l ™ould t—ke pl—™e with — new ™l—ss e—™h ye—rF yn™e the sundi—l p—rt is ™onstru™tedD —nnu—ls ™ould ˜e —dded to the ˜ed —s — visu—l —rts ™omponentF „hese —nnu—ls ™ould ˜e removed in ƒeptem˜er when their se—son is over le—ving the ˜ed empty —nd re—dy for the next ™l—ss of sundi—l designersF „here —re m—ny —ddition—l ˜ene(ts —nd they —lign with the ˜ene(ts of greening — s™hool groundF

€rep—re the lo™—tionF „he site must ˜e )—tD sunnyD —nd free of he—vy tr—0™F e minimum —re— of PP x IS feet is required for the sundi—lF st is essenti—l th—t the sundi—l site is distinguish—˜le from ™ommon greensp—™e or p—vement so th—t students ™—n t—ke —™™ur—te me—surements —nd tr—0™ is minim—lF „he —n—lemm—ti™ sundi—l will t—ke the sh—pe of —n ellipse thus — re™t—ngul—r or ov—lEsh—ped g—rden ˜ed would ˜e — wonderful site —nd ™—n ˜e e—sily ™onE stru™ted using — ™h—lklineD lifting —nd relo™—ting sodF

„e—™her9s gorner " wwwFevergreenF™—

„he rum—n ƒundi—l
€rep with students


€rep—re for ™re—ting sundi—ls with studentsX „he simult—neous rot—tion of the i—rth on its own —xis —nd —round the ƒun —t — (xed —ngle of PQFS degrees from the pl—ne of rot—tion is wh—t m—kes our d—ysGnightsGye—rs interesting —nd wh—t m—kes the sundi—l workF roweverD to m—ke le—rning —™™essi˜le to students —t the qr—de T levelD it is essenti—l th—t they —re provided with the resour™es —nd tools to re™ognize how —nd why — sundi—l worksF por ex—mple the hour m—rkers @ID PD QD RD SD F F IPA ™ould ˜e set in pl—™e prior to introdu™ing students to the site —nd the ™h—llenge for the them ™ould ˜e to (nd out where to st—nd in the sundi—l to —llow their sh—dows to f—ll on the ™orre™t timeF e signi(™—nt ™h—llenge is (nding — w—y for the students to re™ord their position when they h—ve found the right spot to ™orrespond with the hourF „he pro˜lem ™—n ˜e —ddressed ˜y ˜ringing out — re™t—ngul—r pie™e of plywood with e—™h visit to the sundi—l siteD pl—™ing it in — (xed position —nd using m—rkers to m—rk positionsF f—™k in the ™l—ssroomD positions ™ould ˜e reEm—rked on to — pie™e of gr—ph p—per the s—me size —s the plywood re™t—ngleF eltern—tively students ™ould m—rk their positions with l—˜elled wooden st—kes however these would ˜e remov—˜le to the ™urious ˜yp—sser —nd neigh˜ourhood —nim—lsF „e—™her (lls ™l—ssroom with liter—ture —nd visu—l —ids on sp—™e —nd sundi—lsF

—F ƒ—fety pro™edures for o˜serving the ƒun must ˜e dis™ussed —nd reinfor™ed throughout the dur—tion of the sundi—l proje™tF ˜F huring inEs™hool hours @iFeF —side from re™essAD students should —™™omE p—nied ˜y the „e—™her or in — group of sever—l students depending on s™hool poli™yF
ƒe™urity —nd †—nd—lism

†—nd—lism of the site is — potenti—l pro˜lem —nd —™tion steps to —ddress v—nd—lism must ˜e —ddressed ˜y the s™hool grounds ™ommittee prior to the ™onstru™tion of the siteF gommunity involvement —nd ˜uilding —w—reness —˜out the proje™t through posting signs —nd ™ont—™ting lo™—l newsp—per to sh—re the ide— will gre—tly de™re—se thre—ts of v—nd—lismF

„e—™her9s gorner " wwwFevergreenF™—

„he rum—n ƒundi—l


fF „he ƒundi—l €roje™t @S ph—ses of studentEdire™ted —™tivitiesA
ƒtep IX ‡eekly di—gr—mming exer™ise

w—teri—ls requiredX re™t—ngul—r pie™e of plywood or other dur—˜le m—teri—l th—t students ™—n st—nd on —nd write onD sundi—l note˜ooks @one per studentAD writing toolsF feginning with s™hool @in ƒeptem˜erAD students —nd te—™her will go to the sundi—l site twi™e — d—yD eFgFD Wew —nd Q€w one (xed s™hool d—y per weekF huring this timeD the plywood will ˜e positioned in — (xedD predetermined spotD sever—l students will (nd — spot on plywood representing the ™—lend—r th—t ™orresponds to the time @Wew or Q€wAF „hey will then m—ke ™h—lk linesD me—sureD —nd di—gr—m the perimeter of the —re— of the re™t—ngle th—t ™orresponds to the ™urrent monthF ‡hile the (rst group m—ps the month sp—™e the other students work on other miniEproje™ts su™h —sX
ˆ me—suring their sh—dows ˆ dr—wing —ndGor photogr—phing their own sh—dow —ndGor the sh—dows

of other o˜je™ts

ˆ weeding the —re— ˆ t—king —n inventory of the living ™re—tures found in the sundi—l ˜ed
ƒtep PX wodels of underst—ndingF

sde—lly the ™l—ss will spend sever—l months di—gr—mming ˜efore o0™i—lly ˜eginning the qr—de T …nitX i—rth —nd ƒp—™e ƒystemsX ƒp—™eF „hroughout the unitD students will study the ™omponents of the sol—r system —nd use their experien™e —t the sundi—l site to m—ke predi™tions of the positions —nd movement spe™i(™—lly of the ƒun —nd i—rthF f—sed on their predi™tionsD students will ˜uild sol—r system models —nd design experiments using p—perD ™olouring toolsD modelling ™l—yD wireD light sour™eD sh—dowsD p—perEm—™he pl—netsD —nd glo˜es to test their predi™tionsF ƒtudents m—y —lso ™re—te — horizont—l top sundi—l to reinfor™e ™on™epts le—rnedF por ex™ellent instru™tions for the top sundi—lD refer toX „he i—rth is — ƒundi—l ˜y witsum—s— enno @see referen™es ˜elowAF „he ™l—ss ™—n —lso pl—n —n evening visit to the sundi—l site to o˜serve ™onstell—tions —nd the moon —nd di'erenti—te ˜etween modes of light tr—nsmissionF

„e—™her9s gorner " wwwFevergreenF™—

„he rum—n ƒundi—l
ƒtep QX hesign


ƒtudents will org—nise —nd sh—re —ll d—t— ™olle™ted —nd sh—red during weekly trips to the future sundi—l siteF ƒtudents will m—rk on the plywood re™t—ngle the lo™—tion of the monthsF „hey will dis™uss sundi—l design in™luding stylesD m—teri—ls for ™onstru™tionD —nd ™olour s™hemesF ƒtudents should —lso ˜e en™our—ged to ™onsult with lo™—l —rtistsD l—nds™—pe designers —nd —stronomers for —dvi™eF
ƒtep RX gonstru™tion

ƒtudents will ™olle™t m—teri—ls —nd resour™esD invite volunteers to help in ™onE stru™tion in™ludingX p—intingD me—surementD —nd pl—™ement of p—tio stonesD pl—nting )owersF
ƒtep SX €resent—tion

e d—y will ˜e sele™ted when the students will present to — l—rger —udien™e in™luding p—rentsD other ™l—ssesD „he ™eremony will in™ludeX
ˆ the history of sundi—lsX in the form of dr—m— or legends ˆ —n expl—n—tion of how it worksX using modelsD visu—l —ids et™F ˆ — photo of the event ˆ — time for questions ˆ —n invit—tion to the —udien™e to step on —nd try it out

his™ussion —nd uestions

his™ussions should t—ke pl—™e ˜oth with the whole ™l—ss —s well —s in sm—ll groupsF „he ™l—ss ™ould ˜e divided up into groups for the ™re—tion of the sundi—lD for the me—surement of the sh—dows ™—stD @ieF qroup I in the mornE ing of ‡eek ID qroup P in the —fternoon of ‡eek ID qroup Q in the morning of ‡eek PD qroup R in the —fternoon of ‡eek PD et™FA —nd for di'erent —sE pe™ts of the present—tionF „he te—™her should try to ™ir™ul—te to e—™h groupD —sking relev—nt questions to e—™h —™tivityF ƒome ex—mples of questions —re the followingX
ˆ hes™ri˜e ™h—r—™teristi™s —nd ™omponents of the sol—r system ˆ ixpl—in how the rot—tion of the i—rth —round its —xis ™—uses night —nd


„e—™her9s gorner " wwwFevergreenF™—

„he rum—n ƒundi—l
ˆ ixpl—in how the i—rth9s revolution ™—uses the ™y™le of the se—sons


ˆ row does the positioning of the m—rkers —'e™t the w—y the sh—dows

from the sundi—l —re ™—st ity of hum—n life

ˆ hes™ri˜e p—st —nd presentEd—y ™ontri˜utions of —stronomy to the qu—lE

ƒee ƒpe™i(™ vesson qo—ls for ide—s for —ddition—l questions —nd dis™ussion topi™sF
ƒtudent iv—lu—tion

elthough the (n—l proje™t will ˜e impressiveD the pro™ess is of gre—ter v—lue to the le—rning experien™eF ƒtudents ™—n ˜e —ssessed onX
ˆ skills —nd ™on™eptsX through sundi—l note˜ook —nd —ne™dot—l o˜serv—E


ˆ ™ooper—tive skills —nd responsi˜ilityX o˜serv—tion of how students work

together @sh—ring toolsA —nd helping e—™h other underst—nd ™on™eptsF le—rning to the ™ommunity —udien™e during the sundi—l ™eremonyF

ˆ ™ommuni™—tionX o˜serv—tion —nd ru˜ri™ of how well ƒtudents present

inri™hment —nd ixtension e™tivities

smplementing — q—rden ƒundi—l @—s opposed to — ƒidew—lk ƒundi—lA will ™reE —te dire™t links to s™hool ground n—tur—liz—tionF fy involving the students dire™tly in the pro™ess of pl—nningD designing —nd ™re—ting the sundi—l —nd the green sp—™e surrounding itD they will ™ome to underst—nd how to in™orE por—te — green sp—™e into their s™hoolgroundF „hey should ˜e involved in —ll pl—nting of —nnu—ls —nd other pl—nts in —nd —round the sundi—l ˜ed —s well —s ™—ring for these pl—ntsF es the site will ˜e used on — regul—r weekly ˜—sis for me—surementD study —nd explor—tionD the students will ˜e™ome f—mili—r with le—rning —nd experiment—tion in —n outdoor ™l—ssroomF sn —ddition to housing the sundi—l proje™tD the green ˜ed —round the sundi—l would ˜e — perfe™t sp—™e to ex—mine living ™re—tures of —ll sortsF

„he following photos —re ™redited to ƒteve srvine —nd ™—n ˜e found on his ‡e˜ site @wwwFsteveirvineF™omAF wore inform—tion —nd — l—rger sele™tion of

„e—™her9s gorner " wwwFevergreenF™—

„he rum—n ƒundi—l
photos ™—n ˜e found —t this ‡e˜ siteF


pigure IX

ueppel renge E „he en—lemm— €roje™t

pigure PX

ueppel renge E „he en—lemm—ti™ ƒundi—l

ˆ ennoD witsum—s—F IWVSF „he i—rth is — ƒundi—lF „he fodley re—d

vtdFD vondonF

ˆ fuddD gFtF —nd ƒ—ngwinD gFtF PHHPF willennium w—them—ti™s €roje™t

en—lemm—ti™ sundi—lsX row to ˜uild one —nd why they workF

„e—™her9s gorner " wwwFevergreenF™—

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ˆ ueppel rengeF PHHPF httpXGGwwwFsteveirvineF™omGhengeFhtml ˆ „he xeedh—ms ƒ™ien™e genterF



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