You are on page 1of 29

Methods Schemata

Blanca Serrano
ENG 457

Method

1. The GrammarTranslation Method

Main
principles

Pros and why


Cons and
they are pros why they are
cons

My notes
and ideas

Main purpose is
to be able to
read literature
written in the
target language
by learning
grammar rules
and vocabulary
through the use
of translation

Although it is
important to
move from
native language
to target
language with
ease, there is
little to no
attention to
spoken
language. Social
learning is also
not mentioned
and it is
important to
learn a language
as part of a
whole. The
target language
needs to be
practiced
verbally so that
students may
make real-world
connections and
experiences.

Translate
readings help
learn aspects of
culture for the
target language
community.
Memorize
equivalent
target language
vocabulary
words so they
are able to move
back and forth
through both
languages.
Reading and
writing are
emphasized.
It is important to
provide accurate
and precise
answers so there
is little to no
errors. The
teacher will
supply

The teacher is

the authority
figure and
students learn
what she/he
knows.
Most of the
interaction is
teacher-student
and there is little
social (studentstudent) learning
taking place.
Little attention is
paid to spoken
language
because literacy
is viewed as
superior.
Pronunciation
receives little to
no attention.
Instruction and
translation into
the native
language allows

Methods Schemata
Blanca Serrano
ENG 457

2. The Direct
Method

Main purpose is
to effectively
communicate in
the target
language by
associating
meaning in the
target language.
There is no
translation and
native language
should not be
used.

corrections when
needed.
Evaluation is
done through
written or
translated
works. The
students must
show use of
grammar and
content when
doing this.
Meaning is not

lost through
translation so
the students end
up
understanding
the idea behind
a concept
through the
culture of the
target language.
The student
makes a direct

association
between the
target language
form and
meaning

for ease of
understanding
and helps make
connection to
the target
language.

The teacher and


student only use
the target
language,
therefore, the
native language
is viewed as less
important or
does not get
developed and
may be replaced
by the target
language.
The student
must use only
the target
language. As a
beginner, this

I like this method


because it makes
the student a more
active participant in
their learning. It
also allows for reallife scenarios to be
played out in the
classroom. The
students are
allowed to socialize
within their class
and ask questions.
However, for a
beginner, this
method seems
overwhelming and
may hinder the

Methods Schemata
Blanca Serrano
ENG 457

because the
teacher
demonstrates
meaning.
Vocabulary is
acquired
naturally, using
it in complete
sentences
instead of
memorization.
Students are
taught to
pronunciation
from the
beginning, finetuning their
articulation
skills.
The teacher
allows for selfcorrecting which
in turn lets the
student selfregulate their
communication.
Writing,
listening,
speaking and
reading are all

method is hard
to implement
and hard for the
student to carry
out.
The students
feelings are not
dealt with,
leaving the
students
emotional
development at
bay. They may
feel isolated
since they may
not always know
how to
communicate if
they are taught
not to use their
native language
and have yet to
acquire enough
language skills
in the target
language.
Grammar is
taught
inductively,
meaning the

students
motivation to learn.
It teaches to
suppress your
native language.
Furthermore, the
students emotional
needs are not being
addressed. Overall,
this method would
be great for
students who are
intermediate in
their target
language. I like the
use of images
because it helps to
make a connection
between the
concept and the
meaning.

Methods Schemata
Blanca Serrano
ENG 457

enhanced
through verbal
communication.
The lesson is
centered on
conversation
topics and
vocabulary
rather than
linguistic
structure.
Grammar is
taught
inductively so
that they match
the correct
grammar
without knowing
the grammar
rule.
Because this
method uses
conversation as
the main focus,
the students are
more engage
and participate
more with the
teacher and
each other.

student will not


understand the
meaning behind
why grammar
works.

Methods Schemata
Blanca Serrano
ENG 457

3. The AudioLingual Method

Based on a
behaviorist
approach, this
method uses
drills or
conditioning to
overcome the
habits of their
native language
and form the
new habits for
their target
language, using
only their target
language.
It mostly drills
students in
grammatical
sentence
patterns orally
and has a
limited writing
component
based on these
drills.

Language
learned occurs in
a more natural
context. The
students learn to
self-correct what
does not sound
right. They form
habits.
The teacher
uses realia to
make meaning
out of the target
language
vocabulary. The
students form a
meaning based
only on this and
not their native
language.
The teacher
provides an
accurate model
for the target
language,
allowing the
students to see
what proper
pronunciation
sounds like.

Because
vocabulary is
limited, the
students must
rely on the
teacher for the
substitution
words.
The teacher is
always in control
and there is little
to no free will to
use the target
language based
on their own
thoughts and
ideas.
There is little to
no social
interaction
among students.
Most of the
lesson is
memorization or
drill.
The native
language is not
used, therefore,
students are not
developing dual

Although this
method does
highlight dialogue
and emphasizes
communication
through using the
target language, I
feel that students
get a basic
learning. That is,
they are almost like
robots that repeat
and memorize,
making little
connection with the
higher order
thinking skills
needed for the
academic aspect of
language.
However, this is a
great place to start
for beginners and
they would benefit
from the accurate
modeling that the
teacher provides.
There seems to be
a clear sense of
direction in this

Methods Schemata
Blanca Serrano
ENG 457

The teacher
quickly corrects
any errors so
that they are not
conditioned to
bad habits.
The students are
using the target
language
through the
various drills.
The major goal
is for students to
learn the
structural
patterns;
vocabulary
develop
afterwards.
Students
overlearn the
phrases, making
speaking
automatic.
Culture is
brought in to the
dialogue so the
students are
able to learn not
only the target

language.
The language
acquisition order
is as follows:
listening,
speaking,
reading, and
writing. There is
little attention
paid to the
writing aspect of
language, where
academics and
CALPS take
place.

class and that is


comforting to a new
language learner.

Methods Schemata
Blanca Serrano
ENG 457

4. The Silent Way

The main idea in


this method is
for the learner to
take initiative in
their learning by
becoming
autonomous
from the
teacher, who is

there only to
facilitate
connection from
previous
language to
target language.
This method is

completely
student centered
and the teacher
has minimal

language but
about their
culture as well.
Students
success is
positively
reinforced,
motivating the
student to want
to learn.
The teacher
uses what the
student
previously
knows (native
language) to
form new
meaning to
target language.
Tapping out the
sounds makes
the students in
control of their
pronunciation
and learning.
The teacher
provides
minimal support,
leaving the
student to use

The teacher
provides
minimal
direction,
causing some
students to be
confused.
If the student
does not
understand
instruction
through the
silent way, the
student is lost
and may not be
able to produce
language
development.
Because there
are no formal

This method is very


hard to accept
because it leaves
the student to selfdiscovery with
minimal guidance.
A beginner would
have trouble
getting to
understand
instruction if the
teacher is not
scaffolding along
the way. However,
there are parts of
the method that
would work well
integrated with
other methods.
The student should

Methods Schemata
Blanca Serrano
ENG 457

participation in
teaching and
correcting. The
student learns to
regulate their
target language
with little to no
aid from the
instructor.

the language
and derive at
meaning and
sound.
This method
encourages selfcorrection by
allowing the
students to trust
their
development in
the oral target
language.
Students are
allowed and
encouraged to
help one
another,
learning socially.
Reading is
worked on from
the start. The
students apply
what sounds
they already
know to the
sounds of their
target language.
Learning takes
place at different

test, assessing
the child is
completely left
to the teachers
observations.
This may negate
a student with a
learning disorder
who may need
differentiated
instruction.

be allowed to
explore language
and make errors,
but most
importantly, the
student should be
able to become
autonomous and
self-correct. In
doing so, they are
learning to regulate
the systematic form
that language
consists of. The
child is always
thought of first and
foremost. It is
about the childs
needs and how to
set up an
environment that
will foster success
in language
development.

Methods Schemata
Blanca Serrano
ENG 457

5. Desuggestopedia

The main idea is


to use mental
powers to
desuggest
psychological

rates and times,


therefore,
perfection is not
emphasized,
rather
progression.
Reading,
speaking and
writing are
reinforced and
build on one
another.
Students are
free to explore
language and
learn it naturally.
The students are
allowed to give
feedback at the
end of the
session and their
emotional state
is considered
throughout the
learning process.
The students are
the focus of the
lesson plan.
This method is
student-

Students may or
may not retain
the information
from the
peripheral

This method is
questionable
because there is
too much control
left to the teacher.

Methods Schemata
Blanca Serrano
ENG 457

barriers that
learners might
have.

centered.
The environment
is fun, relaxed,
friendly, and
made
comfortable so
that it is
conducive for
learning.
The teacher is
friendly, trustful,
and not
intimidating.
She sets a
positive tone for
the classroom.
Role playing,
dramatization,
fantasy, music,
and the arts are
all used. This
aesthetic
experience is
used to enhance
the left and right
hemisphere of
the brain.
Meaning is
acquired through
acting and

learning posters.
Grammar is
taught but not
enforced. It is
focused on the
dialogue and use
of language.
This may not be
appropriate for
CALP. The
method focuses
less on linguistic
form.
All evaluation in
class is not done
through any
formal
assessment.
The subjectivity
leaves the
teacher as the
only method of
assessment.
The Receptive
phase may not
be as effective.
Target language
development is
viewed as
effortlessly,

The student is the


center of the lesson
plan which allows
for instruction to be
planned in an
efficient way;
however, the
teacher controls
evaluation and the
way the
environment is set
up. The idea that
language develops
effortlessly is not
realistic and
although it helps to
provide a relaxed
atmosphere, the
student is left with
the choice to do the
work of learning
or not. Sitting back
and taking a
receptive role in
teaching is
encouraged and
there is some
initiative reinforced
but not fully
enforced. The

Methods Schemata
Blanca Serrano
ENG 457

translation.
Native language
is used to
positively
encourage
language
acquisition.
Teacher helps
activate
material through
question and
answer,
repetition, and
translation.
Infantilization
helps students
learn like a child
through
childrens songs.
This method
reinforces unity
between
subconscious
and conscious,
focusing the
lesson on the
learner.
Errors are
corrected in a
nice and gentle

which is not
realistic.

positive
atmosphere is great
for developing a
community and
environment in
which students may
learn best.
Learning by making
connections
between native
language and
target language is
encouraged. The
aesthetic
experiences make
the connection
meaningful and
memorable.
Infantilization is
great for a younger
audience but may
be repetitive for an
older-age class,
who would be more
focused on
grammar and
linguistic form.

Methods Schemata
Blanca Serrano
ENG 457

6. Community
Language Learning

This method uses a


whole-person
learning approach
in which the
students feelings,
physical reactions,
and instinctive
protective
reactions, and
desire to learn are
emphasized

way.
Active phase
allows students
to participate in
the dialogue and
language.
Students
emotion is the
highlight of this
method.
Success is
viewed as
attainable, which
enhances selfconfidence.
Students are not
stressed by
formal
assessments.
The teacher is a
language
counselor,
meaning that he
or she is
someone who
understands the
struggles that
students face

when learning
another

The teacher
stands behind
the student.
This can make it
difficult to read
pronunciation
when students
are trying to
sound out words.
The students are
not pressured to

This method is very


unique in that it
take into account
the students
thoughts and
feelings. I like that
the students get to
come up with the
material to base
the lesson plan and
it makes them

Methods Schemata
Blanca Serrano
ENG 457

through a nonthreatening
environment.
There are six
elements:
1. security
2. aggression
(active
engagement)
3. attention
4. reflection
5. retention
6. discrimination

language. This
compassionate
person can help
aid and motivate
the student,
providing a
stress-free
learning
environment.
The teacher
builds a trusting
relationship with
the students by
talking in an
encouraging
manner and
putting the
students first.
Students have a
choice in what
they practice
through the
Human
Computer
activity. They
are in control
and develop a
sense of wisdom
about areas of
improvement.

answer or
volunteer. If
they do not wish
to participate
the teacher does
not insists. This
can hinder the
students if they
are not using the
language that
they are trying
to acquire.
There is no
specific method
of assessment.
If there is an
assessment it
must be one in
which students
must focus one
skill at a time.
This may not
activate critical
thinking skills
needed that are
higher level.

engaged and active


participants in their
learning. I also like
that students are
not stressed into
carrying out
different tasks
rather the pace of
the class goes with
the students wants
and needs.

Methods Schemata
Blanca Serrano
ENG 457

The teacher has


an agenda and
shares it with
the class so that
they are
exposed to the
activities in
which they will
participate.
Nothing is
hidden from the
student.
The method
focuses on
communication,
mostly speaking.
This comes from
conversations
students make
from one
another and is
the basis for all
lessons.
The teacher asks
how they feel
throughout the
learning process.
This helps him
gage instruction
to better

Methods Schemata
Blanca Serrano
ENG 457

accommodate to
the students
needs.
The students
native language
is used, making
connections and
easier to
understand
meaning
through
translation.
As well as
speaking,
students listen
to the tape
several times.
Doing this, they
are
discriminating
the target
language forms.
They are also
allowed plenty of
repetition.
Students only
focus on one
skill set at a
time. This way
they are relaxed

Methods Schemata
Blanca Serrano
ENG 457

7. Total Physical
Response

This method
reasons that the
fastest, least
stressful way to
achieve
understanding of
the target language
is to follow
directions by the
instructor without
native language
translation.

and able to
comprehend.
Group work is
encourage in
which they learn
through
socialization.
This is teacherstudent centered
in which both
work together as
decision makers
in the learning
process.
Meaning is often
understood
through actions.
Both
hemispheres are
activated when
this method is
used.
The students do

not speak until


they are ready
to do so.
Meaning is more
important. They
learn just like an
infant, meaning

The imperative

is used, meaning
that abstract
concepts may be
more difficult to
understand
since they do
not generally
have an action.
This method
may not take
into
consideration
the limitations
on ELLs that are
handicapped or

Although I would
use this method
to teach actions,
there is some
aspects that the
method would
be difficult to
apply. Students
may also have
limited abilities
to carry this
method out, in
which, a
different
approach should
be used.

Methods Schemata
Blanca Serrano
ENG 457

they produce
language last.
The commands
become
automatic. They
are practiced in
chunks and then
repeated.
The teacher
uses the
imperative to
teach, meaning
she is directing
students
constantly.
Students are not
only observing
but carrying out
the actions.
The students are
in a relaxed and
non-threatening
environment.
Although the
actions may
seem like they
are memorized,
the teacher
differentiates
the instructions

have limited
mobility.
This method
does not teach
reading and
writing until
much later,
meaning they
are not
developing
these skills. It
does not specify
the time in
which the
student will
speak the
language. This
may not prepare
them for
contents that
emphasize
reading and
writing.

However,
making learning
fun and tactile is
appealing to
other types of
learners. The
stress-free
environment
helps the learner
concentrate on
meaning. Using
your body to
learn is a great
way to get
students up from
their desk and
engaged in
learning.

Methods Schemata
Blanca Serrano
ENG 457

so that the
students have to
think through
the meaning.
Errors are not
criticized, rather
the teacher
repeats the
actions to clarify
misunderstandin
gs. When a
student makes a
spoken error, the
teacher does not
concentrate on
the fine details,
the main
concern is
proficiency.
The approach is
fun and easy to
carry out.
Spoken
language is
emphasized over
written
language.
Initially, the
teacher is the
director.

Methods Schemata
Blanca Serrano
ENG 457

8. Communicative
Language Teaching

The main purpose


for this method is
to broaden
communicative
competence. This
method is open to
interpretation and
flexible, meaning
there are a wide
means of classroom
practices.

However, once
the students
become familiar
and comfortable
with the tasks,
skits and other
activities are
created where
the student
becomes more
assertive.
Evaluation can
be conducted
through the skits
and the actions
performed.
This method is
flexible and
allows the
teacher and
students to take
different routes
in learning.
Whenever
possible, it uses
authentic
language,
making the
learning
purposeful.

Communication
is a big
emphasis and
the goal is to
comprehend or
look at the
meaning
between
speaker/writer
and
listener/reader.
However, the
method puts off
grammatical

This method is a
wonderful way of
making realworld
connections.
The students
learn that there
is a purpose for
learning a new
language and
they are
constantly
practicing their
language

Methods Schemata
Blanca Serrano
ENG 457

The students
work on finding
out the
speakers or
writers
intentions.
The target
language is used
throughout so
that it is the
focus. However,
their native
language may
be used.
The students
work on
cohesion and
coherence.
The teacher
groups students
so that the
students
practice their
communication
as much as
possible.
The students are
allowed to
express their
opinions and

rules until there


is a firm
foundation in
communication.
Authentic
material may be
harder to
implement with
beginners.

through
cooperative
learning. The
strategies used,
such as games
and role-playing
suits many
different
learning styles
and lets
students learn in
many different
ways.

Methods Schemata
Blanca Serrano
ENG 457

ideas, making
them feel valued
in their learning.
Errors are
tolerated and
seen as natural.
The teacher
notes the errors
and then plans
for a deeper look
in another
lesson.
The teacher
focuses on
establishing
situations in
which
communication
can best be
promoted.
This method
encourages
cooperative
learning and
teaches students
to negotiate
meaning.
Not only are
they learning
what to say but

Methods Schemata
Blanca Serrano
ENG 457

different ways in
which the
statement could
be said.
The strategies
focus on
function,
situational
context, and the
roles of the
interlocutors.
The
opportunities
presented to
work on
language are
authentic forms
of
communication.
They are
coached through
strategies and
comprehension
skills.
Students are
seen as more
responsible for
their own
learning because
this method is

Methods Schemata
Blanca Serrano
ENG 457

9. Content-based
Instruction

The main purpose


for this method is
to teach through
communication
rather than for it. It
teaches an
academic subject

not teachercenteredrather
it is less teacher
dominant.
Listening,
speaking,
talking, and
reading are all
used in this
method. They
all work together
to form the
communication
process.
Problem-solving
tasks are
common in this
method and
allows for
negotiation and
critical thinking
to arrive at a
solution.
There are clear
learning
objectives for
each lesson,
including a
content part as
well as a

Culture is
addressed only
in the context of
the content area
being studied.
This limits the
understanding of

This method is
great for
integrating content
and language at
the same time.
Especially for
subject matter, this

Methods Schemata
Blanca Serrano
ENG 457

while also teaching


the language that is

related to that
content.

language
component.
Both language
and content is
developed
simultaneously.
The teacher
scaffolds and
creates activities
that engage the
student and lets
him or her use
both content
and language.
Teacher uses
authentic
material. This
lets the student
understand the
content and
communicate
with a purpose.
The teacher
guides the
students, who
sometimes work
together to
develop
language and
delivering

culture when
learning a new
language.
It relies on the
student being
well established
in their native
language and
building from
that, meaning
that younger
students may
have more
difficulty if they
have not
developed their
native language
fully yet.

method should be
taught to those who
need explicit
instruction that
develops their
knowledge while at
the same time
developing their
communication
skills about the
content. Students
may find this
method difficult if
they have not yet a
firm foundation in
their native
language.
Therefore, younger
children may find
this method more
difficult.

Methods Schemata
Blanca Serrano
ENG 457

content at the
same time.
Students are
encouraged to
work together
using the
language to
learn the
content.
All four skills,
listening
(dictogloss),
speaking,
reading, and
writing (process
writing, dialogue
journals), are
integrated with
the use of
authentic
contexts.
Vocabulary and
grammar are
developed
through these.
Students are
evaluated on
their knowledge
of the content as
well as their

Methods Schemata
Blanca Serrano
ENG 457

10. Task-based
Language Teaching

The main purpose


for this method is
to provide students
with a clear
outcome through
tasks where they
can determine the
success of

language ability.
Errors are
addressed by
giving the
student the
correct answer
or allowing for
self-correction.
The teacher may
also simply note
the error and
use this in
upcoming
lessons.
Uses graphic
organizers to
develop content
and language. It
helps to map out
the thinking
patterns/content
being studied.
This method is
backed by
second language
acquisition
research that
states that
students learn
when they

Their native
language is not
necessarily
addressed;
therefore, the
dual language
development
may or may not

This method is
great for children
who need a
purpose for
learning. It gives
logic to language
and the students
are engaged in a

Methods Schemata
Blanca Serrano
ENG 457

language through
communication. It
makes learning a
new language
purposeful.

induce linguistic
information from
language
samples and
acquire
language items
when they are
ready to do so.
The interaction
and checking
during the
completion of a

task is thought
to facilitate
language
acquisition.
It allows for
higher order
thinking skills
that are used for
problem solving.
Language is
acquired through
use.
Although
grammar is not
explicitly taught,
the TBT or Tasksupported
teaching does

be present.
The student may
need to be
taught grammar
explicitly. They
may need to
practice a
certain skill and
may need the
grammar rules
to understand it
better.
Adults would
have a hard time
following the
target language
through
inductive
methods. They
may want to
know the
grammar rules
rather than
coming to a
general
conclusion or
understanding.

goal that can help


strengthen
classroom
community. Not
only are they using
the language for a
purpose, but they
are learning to
interact with one
another to achieve
a specific goal.
Ultimately, the end
product reflects the
capacity to which
the students were
able to carry this
method out.

Methods Schemata
Blanca Serrano
ENG 457

include grammar
in teaching
through
internalized
ways, such as a
brief
explanation,
modeling, etc.
However, it does
not teach
grammar
through drills
and repetition.
Pre-task allows
the student to
see what they
are being asked
to do. It has a
clear
purpose/logic.
Teacher scaffolds
or breaks down
the steps into
smaller steps.
The activity
should be just
above their level
at which
learners can do
without help.

Methods Schemata
Blanca Serrano
ENG 457

The teacher is
flexible in
making
adjustments
where needed.
Teacher
sometimes
supplies correct
form from
students
responses.
The teacher
notes errors but
never interrupts.
These errors are
addressed later
through recasts,
modeling, or a
subsequent
lesson.
Students have a
say in how they
are going to
complete a task.