Work study and job design

Submitted to: Prof. Bhavanarayana

Submitted by: Harsh Jain PGDM, SEC- µC¶ SEM 2nd

Work study
It is a systematic and analytical study of work process and work methods with the objective of increasing efficiency and reducing costs. Work study helps to reduce waste through standardization of qualitative and quantitative element of job.

Objectives 
Provide more and improved physical means to motivate the workers.  Improve the basic process by research and development.  Improve the methods of operation.  Improve manpower efficiency at all levels.

Procedure
1. SELECT: The job or the process or the operation to be studied.

2. RECORD: All relevant facts about the job or process or operation using suitable charting techniques. 3. EXAMINE: Critically all the recorded facts, questioning the purpose, place, sequence, person and the means of doing the operation. 4.DEVELOP:The new method for the operation 5.MEASURE:The work content and establish the standard time using an appropriate work measurement technique. 6. DEFINE:The new method for the operation. 7. INSTALL:The new method as standard practice. 8. MAINTAIN:The new method for the operation

Benefits: 
Increased productivity and operational efficiency.  Reduced manufacturing costs.  Improved work place layout.  Better manpower planning and capacity planning.  Fair wages to employees.  Improved work flow.  Basis for sound incentive schemes.

Techniques:
Method Study : 
Select  Record  Examine  Develop  Install  Maintain

Work measurement: 
Select  Record  Analyse  Measure  Compile  Define

Method study:
It may be understood as the systematic recording and critical examination of existing and proposed ways of doing working, as a means of developing and applying easier and more effective method and reducing costs.

Objectives: 
To study the existing/proposed method of doing any operation.  To develop an improved method to improve productivity and to
reduce operating costs. 

To reduce excessive materials h andling or movement and thereby
reduce fatigue of workmen. 

To improve utilization of resources.

Procedure:
1. SELECT: The job or the process or the operation to be studied and define the objectives to be achieved by method study. 2. RECORD: All relevant facts about to the existing method using suitable techniques. 3. EXAMINE: Critically all the recorded facts, questioning the purpose, place, sequence, person and the means of doing the operation. 4. DEVELOP: The improved method by generating several alternati ves and selecting the best method. 5. INSTALL: The improved new method in three phases planning, arranging & implementing phases. 6. MAINTAIN: The new method by ensuring that the installed method is functioning well.

BENEFITS Improved layout of office, working area or factory.  Improved use of material, plant, equipment & manpower.  Most effective handling of material.  Improved safety standards.  Better working conditions.  Improved flow of work.

WORK MEASUREMENT
The application of techniques designed to establish the time for a qualified worker to carry out a specified job at a defined level of performance.

OBJECTIVES To determine the standard cost and as an aid in preparing budgets.  To balance the crew activities of those jobs requiring several
workers. 

To determine schedule and planning work.  To determine the effectiveness of machine.  To make cost estimates of new products.  To balance production lines for new products.  To determine time standards.  To establish supervisory objectives.

PROCEDUREI. II. III. IV. Break the job into elements. Record the observed time for each element by time study. Establish elemental time values. Assess relaxation allowance for personal needs and mental fatigue and physical. V. Add the relaxation allowance time to the normal time for each element.

BENEFITS It serves as a basis for methods analysis by comparing the efficiency
of alternative work methods. 

It is helpful in balancing the work of different workers.  It provides information on the basis of which estimates for tenders,
selling prices and delivery schedules may be prepared.

Job design:
Job design has emerged as an important area of job analysis. It is based on growing conceptual and empirical base and has command research attention and is being widely applied to actual practice of management.

Various aspects of a job to be analyzed: 
Duties and tasks    
Environment Tools and equipment Relationship Requirements

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