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MeasurementsofStrain

VisualizingStrain
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MeasurementsofStrain
Inordertomeasuretheamountofstrainthathastakenplaceinarockbodyonemustknowthe
configurationofthebodypriortothestrainevent.Materiallinesareimaginarylinesthatcanbe
thoughtofasconnectingmaterialpoints(vanderPluijmandMarshak,1997).Forexample,material
linesmayconnectthecentersofanarrayofgrainsinasandstoneorplutonicrock.
Foranygivenmateriallinestructuralgeologistscanmeasurechangesinitslengthandchangesinits
position.Themeasureofthechangeinthelengthsofmateriallinesistermedelongation(e),stretch(s),
andquadraticelongation().Rotationsthataccompanysimplesheararemeasuredasangularstrain
(),whilemagnitudesareexpressedasshearstrain().Equationsforthesedifferentmeasuresofstrain
areprovidedinTables2and3.KeyparametersareillustratedinFigures38and39.

Figure38.Anarrayofgrainswithmateriallines(blue)subjectedtopureshear.
Elongation(e)
(86)
Quadraticelongation()
(87)
Stretch(s)

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MeasurementsofStrain

(88)

*SeeFigure38forillustrativedefinitionoflfandlo.

Table2.Equationsfore,,ands.

Figure39.Anarrayofgrainswithmateriallines(blue)subjectedtosimpleshear.
Angularshear()
(89)
(90)

(91)

(92)
ShearStrain()
(93)
*SeeFigure39forillustrativedefinitionsof
Table3.Equationsforand

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