You are on page 1of 12

04.05.

2009 10:07

Mk222

MUKAVEMET-II
BLM

10

F.D. BEER, E.R. JOHNSTON, De WOLF


ve R.C. HIBBELER in Mechanics of Materials
kitaplarndan

BURKULMA
Dzenleyen:
Dr. Nusret MEYDANLIK
Trakya niversitesi
2007-08 EDRNE

(Buckling of
columns)

pipeline

200
20088 NM
NM,, All
All rights
rights reserved
reserved to
to bana.
bana.

04.05.2009
04.05.2009 10:07
10:07

08. B
B
L.
L.
08.

BURKULMA
BURKULMA

Muk
Muk..--IIII 08
08--09
09

STABLTE
Yk tayan yap ve makine elemanlarnn
tasarmnda aslnda parametre nemli rol oynar.

- strength (mukavemet),
- stiffness (rijidlik) and
- stability (dengenin kararll).
Bu derste bugne kadar kararl denge durumunda
gerilme ve deformasyon analizi yapmay rendik.
Fakat; basma yk etkisinde kalan uzun ve narin
yapl elemanlar (kolon) yk nedeniyle eni
dorultusunda
kebilir,
bu
deformasyona
BURKULMA diyoruz . Ki buda yapnn tamamnn
kmesine neden olacak byk hasarlara yol
aabilir. Yapnn gerilme asndan msaade edilen
snrlar iinde olmas onun mutlaka dengede olduu
anlamna gelmez.

200
20088 NM
NM,, All
All rights
rights reserved
reserved to
to bana.
bana.

11 - 2

04.05.2009
04.05.2009 10:07
10:07

08. B
B
L.
L.
08.

BURKULMA
BURKULMA

Muk
Muk..--IIII 08
08--09
09

200
20088 NM
NM,, All
All rights
rights reserved
reserved to
to bana.
bana.

04.05.2009
04.05.2009 10:07
10:07

08. B
B
L.
L.
08.

BURKULMA
BURKULMA

Muk
Muk..--IIII 08
08--09
09

11 - 3

Cortlandt Street station in ew York destroyed


on 11 September 2001

200
20088 NM
NM,, All
All rights
rights reserved
reserved to
to bana.
bana.

11 - 4

04.05.2009
04.05.2009 10:07
10:07

Burkulma Tipleri :

08. B
B
L.
L.
08.

BURKULMA
BURKULMA

Muk
Muk..--IIII 08
08--09
09

Dar kirilerin enine burkulmas

nce cidarl
Silindirik
elemanda
burulma yk
nedeniyle
burkulma

200
20088 NM
NM,, All
All rights
rights reserved
reserved to
to bana.
bana.

11 - 5

04.05.2009
04.05.2009 10:07
10:07

08. B
B
L.
L.
08.

BURKULMA
BURKULMA

Muk
Muk..--IIII 08
08--09
09

nce cidarl
Silindirik elemanda
Basma yk
nedeniyle burkulma

nce cdarl basma yk


altnda

200
20088 NM
NM,, All
All rights
rights reserved
reserved to
to bana.
bana.

nce cdarl burulma yk


altnda
11 - 6

04.05.2009
04.05.2009 10:07
10:07

zellikle teknolojideki son gelimeler,ince-narin


kesitlerin dahi yk tama kabiliyeti asndan byk
gelimelere neden olmutur. Dolaysyla bu da
stabilite problemlerinin nemini arttrmtr.

08. B
B
L.
L.
08.

BURKULMA
BURKULMA

Muk
Muk..--IIII 08
08--09
09

Kararsz denge

Kararsz denge

Ntr denge
Ntr denge
Kararl denge

Kararl denge

200
20088 NM
NM,, All
All rights
rights reserved
reserved to
to bana.
bana.

08. B
B
L.
L.
08.

BURKULMA
BURKULMA

Muk
Muk..--IIII 08
08--09
09

11 - 7

04.05.2009
04.05.2009 10:07
10:07

Burkulma bir stabilite problemidir ve

basmaya alan tayc elemanlarda


karmza kar ve en kk atalet
momentine sahip kesitin asal eksenine
gre burkulur.
Bu derste sadece doru eksenli elastik
ubuklar ele alnacaktr.

200
20088 NM
NM,, All
All rights
rights reserved
reserved to
to bana.
bana.

11 - 8

04.05.2009
04.05.2009 10:07
10:07

Stability of Structures
In the design of columns, crosssectional area is selected such that

08. B
B
L.
L.
08.

BURKULMA
BURKULMA

Muk
Muk..--IIII 08
08--09
09

- Gerilme kontrol,

P
= em .
A
- deformasyon kontrol,

PL
em .
AE

Gerilme ve deformasyon hesaplarndan


sonra kolonda burkulma yaratacak yk
bulunmaldr.

200
20088 NM
NM,, All
All rights
rights reserved
reserved to
to bana.
bana.

Muk
Muk..--IIII 08
08--09
09

11 - 9

04.05.2009
04.05.2009 10:07
10:07

08. B
B
L.
L.
08.

BURKULMA
BURKULMA

railbuckle

200
20088 NM
NM,, All
All rights
rights reserved
reserved to
to bana.
bana.

11 - 10

04.05.2009
04.05.2009 10:07
10:07

Muk
Muk..--IIII 08
08--09
09

08. B
B
L.
L.
08.

BURKULMA
BURKULMA

Eksenel olarak yklenmi bir kirii gz


nne alalm, ama yanal kmeyi yaratan
yk bulmak. Bunun iin yanal kme an
yk kritik yk kabul edilir ve kme
ifadesi yazlrsa ,

d2y M
P
=
=

y
dx 2 EI
EI
d2y P
+
y =0
dx 2 EI
y + 2 y = 0 , ( 2 =
2. dereceden sabit katsayl homojen
lineer diff. denklem,zm

P=n

y( x ) = A sin( x ) + B cos( x )
eklindedir. A ve B sabitleri snr
koullarndan bulunabilir.Ve kritik yk

2 EI

elde edilir.

n=1,2,. iin hesaplanan P


deerleri kritik Euler ykleridir.

200
20088 NM
NM,, All
All rights
rights reserved
reserved to
to bana.
bana.

11 - 11

04.05.2009
04.05.2009 10:07
10:07

Muk
Muk..--IIII 08
08--09
09

Eulers Formula for iki ucu Pimle bal kiriler:


Teknik olarak anlam olan durum n=1 iin en
kk kritik yk ve ona karlk gelen gerilme
Bir yap
yap eli
elii (A36) i
iin rnek

P > Pcr =

08. B
B
L.
L.
08.

BURKULMA
BURKULMA

P
)
EI

2 EI

(kararsz denge)

P
P
> cr = cr
A
A
I
2 E Ar 2
2
)
(
r
=
cr =
2
A
LA
(atalet yarap)
2E
= critical stress
cr =
(L r )2
L
= narinlik oran =
r

( )

aslnda herhangi bir kr. iin kr. akma


dayanmndan daha kktr

200
20088 NM
NM,, All
All rights
rights reserved
reserved to
to bana.
bana.

Yukardaki ifade iki ucu pimli eksenel


basmaya alan ubuklar iin elde
edilmitir.
11 - 12

04.05.2009
04.05.2009 10:07
10:07

08. B
B
L.
L.
08.

BURKULMA
BURKULMA

Muk
Muk..--IIII 08
08--09
09

rnek 1:
2 m uz. ki ucu pimli kare kesitli bir ubuun E=12.5 GPa
ve
ak.=12 MPa. Eksenel basma etkisinde emniyet
katsays s=2.5 olacak ekilde kritik Euler burkulma
yk a) 100 kN ve b) 200 kN iin kesit hesaplaynz.
ZM:
Pkr.=2.5(100)=250 k', L=2m, E=12.5 GPa
Kritik Euler yk I iin zlmeli

I=

Pkr . L2

2 E

= 8.106 *10

a4
I=
a = 99.3 mm 100 mm
12

P 100000
=
= 10 MPa 12 MPa ok .
A 100 *100

200 k' iin


deerinden)

a=129.1 mm ~130 mm. elde edilir. (akma gerilmesi

200
20088 NM
NM,, All
All rights
rights reserved
reserved to
to bana.
bana.

11 - 13

04.05.2009
04.05.2009 10:07
10:07

Extension of Eulers Formula


A column with one fixed and one free
end, will behave as the upper-half of a
pin-connected column.

08. B
B
L.
L.
08.

BURKULMA
BURKULMA

Muk
Muk..--IIII 08
08--09
09

The critical loading is calculated from


Eulers formula,

Pcr =

cr =

2 EI
L2e

2E

(Le r )2

Le = 2 L = effektif uzunluk

r ; en kk atalet yarap
r=

200
20088 NM
NM,, All
All rights
rights reserved
reserved to
to bana.
bana.

I min .
A
11 - 14

04.05.2009
04.05.2009 10:07
10:07

Bir ucu sabit,


bir ucu serbest

Her iki ucu


pimli

Bir ucu sabit,


bir ucu pimli

Her iki ucu


sabit

08. B
B
L.
L.
08.

BURKULMA
BURKULMA

Muk
Muk..--IIII 08
08--09
09

200
20088 NM
NM,, All
All rights
rights reserved
reserved to
to bana.
bana.

04.05.2009
04.05.2009 10:07
10:07

08. B
B
L.
L.
08.

BURKULMA
BURKULMA

Muk
Muk..--IIII 08
08--09
09

11 - 15

200
20088 NM
NM,, All
All rights
rights reserved
reserved to
to bana.
bana.

11 - 16

04.05.2009
04.05.2009 10:07
10:07

BURKULMA
BURKULMA

Muk
Muk..--IIII 08
08--09
09

08. B
B
L.
L.
08.

(K=1 dir)

200
20088 NM
NM,, All
All rights
rights reserved
reserved to
to bana.
bana.

11 - 17

04.05.2009
04.05.2009 10:07
10:07

08. B
B
L.
L.
08.

BURKULMA
BURKULMA

Muk
Muk..--IIII 08
08--09
09

I=

200
20088 NM
NM,, All
All rights
rights reserved
reserved to
to bana.
bana.

Le
r

11 - 18

04.05.2009
04.05.2009 10:07
10:07

Sample Problem 10.1

Dikdrtgen kesitli L uzunluunda aluminum


ubuk B de ankastre olarak mesnetlenmitir. A
da ise simetri dzleminin bir tarafna doru (y
ekseni
dorultusunda)
hareket
ilave
elemanlarla engellenmi fakat dier dzlemde
harekete engel yoktur.

08. B
B
L.
L.
08.

BURKULMA
BURKULMA

Muk
Muk..--IIII 08
08--09
09

a) Her iki dzlemde burkulma probleminin


ayn anda ortaya kmas iin kesitin a/b
oran ne olmaldr.
b) a ve b ne olmaldr ?.

L = 500 mm
E = 70 GPa
P = 20 kN
s= 2.5
ak.=200 MPa

200
20088 NM
NM,, All
All rights
rights reserved
reserved to
to bana.
bana.

11 - 19

04.05.2009
04.05.2009 10:07
10:07

08. B
B
L.
L.
08.

BURKULMA
BURKULMA

Muk
Muk..--IIII 08
08--09
09

Sample Problem 10.1


SOLUTION:
Burkulmaya gre optimum tasarm her iki
dzlemde de burkulmaya gre diren eit
olduunda olur. Bunun iin de narinlik oranlarnn
eit olmas gerekir.
Buckling in xy Plane:
3
1
a2
2 I z 12 ba
=
rz = =

Le, z
rz

ab

12

rz =

a
12

0.7 L
a 12

Most efficient design:


Le, z
rz

Buckling in xz Plane:
ry2

Le, y
ry

Iy
A
=

1 ab3
12

ab

b2
=
12

2L
b / 12

200
20088 NM
NM,, All
All rights
rights reserved
reserved to
to bana.
bana.

ry =

b
12

Le, y
ry

0.7 L
2L
=
a 12 b / 12
a 0.7
=
b
2

a
= 0.35
b
11 - 20

04.05.2009
04.05.2009 10:07
10:07

Sample Problem 10.1

Design:

Le
2L
2(0.5 m ) 3.464
=
=
=
ry b 12
b
b 12

08. B
B
L.
L.
08.

BURKULMA
BURKULMA

Muk
Muk..--IIII 08
08--09
09

Pcr = (FS )P = (2.5)(20 k- ) = 50 k-

cr =
cr =
L = 500 mm
E = 70 GPa
P = 20 kN
s= 2.5
a/b = 0.35

Pcr
50 k=
A (0.35b )b

2E
2

(Le r )

2 (70 109 GPa )

(3.464 b )2

50000 - 2 70 109
=
(0.35b )b (3.464 b )2

b = 39.7 mm.
a = 0.35b = 13.9 mm..

200
20088 NM
NM,, All
All rights
rights reserved
reserved to
to bana.
bana.

11 - 21

04.05.2009
04.05.2009 10:07
10:07

Kontrol :
50 kN
= 90.6 MPa < 200 MPa
13.9*39.7

08. B
B
L.
L.
08.

BURKULMA
BURKULMA

Muk
Muk..--IIII 08
08--09
09

50 kN

50 kN
15 mm x 40 mm

200
20088 NM
NM,, All
All rights
rights reserved
reserved to
to bana.
bana.

11 - 22

04.05.2009
04.05.2009 10:07
10:07

08. B
B
L.
L.
08.

BURKULMA
BURKULMA

Muk
Muk..--IIII 08
08--09
09

END OF THE
LECTURES
-It was a pleasure having you
in my class.
-eehaa . . .but I dont want
to see youu again next sesion
-.. hard study and pass
FNALDE BAARILAR
20082008-09 II. Yar
YarYl

200
20088 NM
NM,, All
All rights
rights reserved
reserved to
to bana.
bana.

11 - 23