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ng sut v bin dng hn

1. Ngun nhit v nh hng ca


n n kim loi vt hn.
1.1. Yu cu vi ngun nhit hn.

Khi thc hin qu trnh hn ta ch t nng


cc b mp hn ti trng thi hn.

Cc phng php hn khc nhau th hiu


sut s dng nhit cng khc nhau.
Qc

Qtb

1.2. nh hng ca ngun nhit hn n


kim loi vt hn.

Khi hn, ngun nhit hn s nung nng chy


mt khi lng kim loi ti v tr hn v nhit
c truyn ra cc vng ln cn mi hn.

Di tc dng ca ngun nhit kim loi s b


gin n, co ngt. S tc dng ca ngun nhit
c th hin qua s thay i cc ch tiu c
tnh ca kim loi c bn.

Vng nhit

Kim loi c bn
(thp thng)
Mi hn

Hnh 1. Phn b nhit mi hn

b,ch

N/cm

E (N/cm)
2,2.10
2,0.10
1,8.10

7.10

Moduyn n hi E

1,6.10
7

1,4.10

6.10

1,2.10
7

1,0.10

5.10
4

4.10

60

Gii hn chy

ch

2.10

30
20

3.10

50
40

Gii hn bn

1.10

H s gin n nhit
gin di tng i

020 100

200

300

400

500

600 C

Hnh 2. C tnh thp ph thuc vo nhit

2. S to thnh ng sut v bin


dng khi hn.
2.1. Khi nim.

Khi hn, chi tit c nung nng khng ng


u, do s gin n nhit cc vng khc
nhau l khc nhau, v to trng thi ng sut
d (ng sut nhit).

ng sut v bin dng hn l trng thi ng


sut v bin dng do qu trnh hn gy ra v
tn ti trong kt cu sau khi hn n c nh
hng rt ln n kt cu hn.

2.2. S to thnh ng sut v bin dng.


Khi thc hin qu trnh hn mp hn c t
nng cc b. Do tc dng ca ngun nhit
hn v thuc tnh kim loi v vy chng to ra
ng sut v bin dng.

Cc nguyn nhn chnh gy ng sut v


bin dng hn

Nung nng khng ng u kim loi vt hn.

co ngt kim loi lng sau khi kt tinh.

S thay i t chc kim loi ln cn mi hn.

a) Nung nng khng ng u cc b kim


loi vt hn. Cc vng xa ngun nhit
khng hoc t b bin dng nhit, chng s
cn tr li s bin dng vng ln cn mi
hn. Do vy xut hin ng sut trong mi
hn v vng ln cn n. Trng ng sut
vn tn ti k c sau khi kt thc qu trnh
hn v vt hn tr v nhit ban u

V d 1. hnh 3.
Chiu di ban u
200mm.
Khi nung nng n
4000c vt gin ra 1
mm.
Sau ngui v
nhit thng vt
th tr v hnh dng
v kch thc ban u

Cha nung
nng

Nung n
4000c

ngui
v nhit
ban u

Hnh 3. Vt 1 u t do

V d 2. hnh 4.
Thanh 1 u ngm
cng, u kia ta ln
vch cng.
Nung nng thanh s
vng ln, do ta vo
vch cng.
Khi ngui thanh
s co li .

Cha nung
nng
Nung n
4000C
ngui v
nhit ban
u

Hnh 4. Vt 1 u ngm cng,


1 u ta vch cng

V d 3. hnh 5.
Thanh 2 u ngm
cng.

Cha nung
nng

Nung nng thanh s


vng ln, do hai u
ngm cng.

Nung n
4000C

Khi ngui thanh


s co li, nhng do b
ngm cng s tn ti
ni lc trong thanh.

ngui
v nhit
ban u

Hnh 5. Vt 2 u ngm cng.

T5
T4
T3

Kho st mi hn gip mi.


L

T2
T1

Nn

Ko

T1
T2
T3
T4
T5

(a)

Ko

Nn

(b)

(c)

Hnh 6
a) Phn b nhit v gin n.
b) Phn b ng sut khi nung
nng.
c) Phn b ng sut khi ngui.

Khi hn mp hn c t nng cc b. Do
ngun nhit dch chuyn, mt phn vt liu
c t nng, phn khc ngui i. S phn b
nhit theo tit din ngang s khng u lm
cho s gin n ca kim loi cng khng ng
u, ng sut bn trong khi nung nng v lm
ngui cng khc nhau.

Gi thit

Tm c bin dng t do.

Cc th dc song song trc hn c lp nhau.

Cc th ngang lun vung gc vi trc hn

S gin n ca cc di kim loi ca tm l t do


v khng nh hng ln nhau th gin n t
do ca mi mt di s l:
li = . Ti . L (mm)

: H s gin n nhit ca kim loi (1 / 0C).

Ti: Nhit trung bnh ca di ta xt (0C).

L: Chiu di ca di (chiu di tm) ang xt (mm).

Cc lp cng gn trc hn nhit cng ln,


nhng lp xa nhit s gim.

gin di cc lp t l thun vi nhit . Lp


c nhit cao gin di s ln.

4.3.3 Nn nng (ho cng).

L bin php c dng rng ri v n n


gin v kinh t nht. Ngi ta tin hnh nung
nng kt cu b bin dng qu mc bng
ngn la kh hoc bng in nhm t c
hnh dng thit k yu cu ca kt cu.

Chn khu vc nung v ch nung khng


hp l c th li lm cho bin dng thm
phc tp.

C s l thuyt ca nn nng:

Xc nh mt phng un v m men un gy
ra do ni lc tc dng.

Xc nh tit din, khi lng v hnh dng


hp l ca vng ng sut tc dng khu vc
nung nng, bo m to ra ni ng lc lm
bin dng kt cu theo hng ngc li.

Chn ch nung hp l.

a. Nhng kin thc ho cng c bn.


1. iu chnh v t ngn la ca m t.
2. c tnh ca ngn la ho cng.
3. Kt qu ph thuc vo tay ngh iu chnh
ngn la ti v tr ho cng.
4. Vic nn phng cc kt cu khc phc bin
dng cc b kt cu hn.
5. Cc yu cu nn phng p dng thc t theo
dung sai ch tov nghim thu cc phn on
v b mt v tu.

6. Vic nn phng trc khi lp rp c tin


hnh sau khi hn xong phn kt cu c th
(chi tit, cm chi tit). Nu l cc phn on
nh th thc hin sau khi hn xong phn
on. Ngoi l cng c th nn phng cc chi
tit kt cu b bin dng qu mc trc khi
hn ch to phn on. Nguyn nhn gy ra
bin dng cc chi tit, cm chi tit c th
trong qu trnh ch to, vn chuyn.

7. Cng vic nn phng trn tu phi tin hnh tt


cng phi hp vi vic lp rp v phi ch
n cc nguyn tc sau.
7.1. Ti khu vc nn phng phi hn xong cc
chi tit kt cu.
7.2. Cc kt cu c nn phng khng nm
trong khu vc phi hn, khng c kh nng
nhit lng do hn trong khu vc ln cn
khng nh hng n cc kt cu ti khu vc
nn phng
7.3. Ho cng nn phng phi c thc hin
trc khi th kn, kim tra, nghim thu kt
cu hn.

8. K thut

Vi cng ngh nn nng, c bn mu gia nhit


c p dng nn kt cu hn. Tu theo kt
cu m ta s dng ring r hay kt hp 4 mu
gia nhit ny.

Gia nhit im.


Gia nhit theo ng
Gia nhit theo hnh ch V
Gia nhit hnh khi.

Ch : Ch t
ngm chiu dy

b. Cc nguyn tc ha cng.
1. t c kt qu tt , vic ho cng nn
phng phi bt u t cc chi tit kt cu c
cng ln nht.
2. Trnh t nn phng phn on.

Nn thng cc kt cu gia cng.


Nn bin dng tn ti khu vc kt cu gia cng.
Nn bin dng ca cc tm khu vc hn gip mi.
Sa cha nhng ch tn bao gia cc kt cu gia
cng, b li lm, mt n inh.
Nn phng cc mp t do ca tn, v cc bin dng
quanh l khot.

3
1

Th t nn thng phn on.

1. Nn thng cc
kt cu gia
cng.
2. Nn thng bin
dng cc mi
hn gc.
3. Nn thng bin
dng mi hn
ni tn.
4. Nn phng khu
vc gia c cu
gia cng.
5. Nn thng mp
t do tn bao.

3. Nn phng cc phn on khi thng tng.


Nn phng boong v tip theo l cc vch pha
di.
Nn phng boong thng tng bt u t boong
thp nht n boong cao nht.

Th t nn phng phn on khi thng tng

4. Nn phng tng on.


1. Boong, sn.
2. Vch, mn, vch lng
(chiu dy ln).
3. Vch mng (t c cu
gia cng).

Th t nn phng tng on

5. Nn phng cc chi tit b bin dng nhiu,


bin dng su, rng khc nhau th bt u nn
sa t bin dng trung bnh

C. Thao tc trc khi ho cng nn phng.


1. Xc nh di, kch thc v loi bin dng.
2. Xc nh phng php nn phng, loi m t
v cc dng c khc.
3. Xc nh v tr v trnh t t, nh du tuyn,
tm tuyn m t lm vic ( loi m t
nhiu u t).
4. Ch dn th ho cng, nhng lu khi thc.
5. Xc nh cch thc t v lm mt.

Ch

Nhng ch gy ln ca mi hn gc, t tn dc
theo khong cch 2 gia cng t 1. Sau khi ngng
t, ch ngui, t tip nhng v tr tn cha t
dc theo cc c cu gia cng.

Trong trng hp gy khc, phi tin hnh t


ngay nhng vng gia cc gia cng. Nu mp ca
cc kt cu cn phi nn thng c c nh
( th d vch c hn vi boong, mn, y) th
phi ngng t khong cch mp 300mm.

D. Nhng phng php nn phng.


1. Nn thng cc chi tit kt cu gia cng bng
cch t theo cc di ngang trn cnh mp cn
phn hn vi tn th t theo hnh tam gic
(hnh khi). Khong cch gia ca cc di t
khong 400-600mm. Nu cha t kt qu th
t cc di tip theo ti nhng v tr gin tip,
chiu rng ca cc di t trn cnh mp 2030mm. t cc cnh hn vi tn hnh tam gic
bng chiu cao 1/3-1/2 chiu cao ca mp hnh
. Phng php t cc loi thp hnh c,
hoc thp hnh hn ch to

Thp c ch U

Thp hn ch T

Nn thp hnh

2. Vic loi b cc bin dng vng hn c cu gia


cng
t theo di dc trc ca c cu gia cng ny.

Di t c th lin tc hoc t on tu theo


cong vnh.

Nn phng bao gi cng c thc hin nhng


ch li, pha i din vi cc ng hn c cu.

i vi tn mng th khong cch gia cc di


t vi trc tm c cu gia cng nh hn so vi
tn dy. Trong khong 300mm t mp tn khng
thc hin t.

a: Chiu dy tn

Nn thng bin dng khu vc kt cu gia cng.

3. Bin dng do mi hn ni tm phng

Nn thng bng t cc di song song vi mi


hn. Cc di t ny c th thc hin lin tc
khi bin dng ln, hay t tng on vi bin
dng nh. t c thc hin pha li vi
nhit khong 6500C.

Ch : Khi ho cng khu vc mi hn ni tm


phng, khng c lm mt bng nc, bng
kh nn di tn dc mi hn khng b ti
luyn (mt c tnh) b gin.

Loi b bin dng do hn gip mi .

4. Nn mp t do tn bao.

Nn thng cc mp t do ca tn, bng cch s


dng m t, t tng on hoc theo ng.

Trng hp chiu di mp ca tn bao ln, khi


t lun bt u t mp tm theo hng kt cu
gia cng n tm ca tm tn .
t theo tuyn

t tng on

200

5. Nn phng nhng ni c li nh v hp.

Cn phi t 2 hoc 3 di trn vng bin dng


(cng on 1). Nhng di t u tin phi i
qua tm im li.

Sau khi nhng ni t ngui, th thc hin


cc di khc ni tip (cng on 2).
Nu cc di t trung tm vn cha sa c
cc bin dng trn th t thm cc di khc
bn cnh ch li (cng on 3, cng on 4).

Cng on 1, 2.

Cng on 3,4.

Nn tn c li nh v hp.

6. Nu phn li tm ln, th phi t cc di


cnh, gia cc di trung tm nh cng on 2.
7. Nn phng nhng vng c li lm ln v
rng.
Bt u t nhng di dc theo kt cu gia
cng (cng on 1, 2).
Nhng ch cong ln, sau cng on 1 v 2,
t thay i cc di vi chiu rng ca ngn la
theo hng tm ca phn li (cng on 3, v
4).

gia cng khng b bin dng cn t cc


di t on ( khng lin tc).

Nn tn c li, lm ln.