You are on page 1of 115

Guide for Design of Substation Structures

Prepared by

Substation Structure Design Guide Subcommittee,


of the Committee on Electrical Transmission
Structures (CETS)

DEFINITION
INSIDE THE FENCE

OUTSIDE
THE FENCE

Leon Kempner, Jr., Chair


George T. Watson, Co-chair

Wendelin H. Meuller, Secretary

Reyes M. Barraza
Martin L. de la Rosa
Rulon Fronk
Rodney N. Hutcherson
Massoud Khavari
Paul M. Legrand II
William L. Magee
Jean-Robert Pierre
Wayne P. Schumm
Albert J. Tharnish

Terry G. Burley
Harry V. Durden Jr.
James M. Hogan
Gary A. Johnston
Steve M. Krohn
Denis R. Lemelin
Kenneth C. Malten
Craig H. Riker
David Tennent
Chung J. Wong

DOCUMENT HISTORY:
Started in 1991
First Draft 1994
Projected Completion 2006 (Oct. 30 2006)
The Committee Membership Represented

Utilities
Manufacturers
Consulting firms
Academic Institution
Research Institutions
General interest Individuals

PAST COMMITTEE MEMBERS AND OTHERS


Richard X. Byrne

Michael F. Banat

Steven Groom

Don G. Heald

Donald Laird

Warren Crossman

James T. Kennedy

M. Kescharvarzian

Jerry Tang

Bing C. Chan

(Trudy) P. Germann

David Insinger

Husein Hasan

Peter Moskal

Don Lott

William J. Hamilton

Joe Shepherd

Jean-Bernard Dastous

M.P. Singh

Alain Peyrot

Brian C. Koch

Gary C. Violette

Alan J. King

Mircea Iordanescu

Tom Teevin

M. E. Kozlowski

Gary Engmann

Alan B. Peabody

Don Lott

Elwood Treadwell

Jake M. Kramer

Surrendar Menrai

M. R. Kazemi

TS Spangenberg, Jr

David Ackermann

Hank Page

Subir Roy

Brad Kemp

Dale Beason

OTHERS

Rapheal O. Peters

Gino Stagliano

Clayton L. Clem

Magdi F. Ishac

Long Shan

F.C. Shainauskas

Brian Goplen

Patrick A. Calizar

Lon C. Spencer

Jean-Robert Pierre

Dick Standford

J. R. Clayton

Curt Hinkel

Dan McIntyre

Herman Kwan

Carl Johnson

BACKGROUND INFORMATION:
9

Comprehensive document for the design of


outdoor Electrical Substation Structures

Specific guidelines for 4-kV and above

Reference Existing Design Codes and Standards

Companion Documents:
z

IEEE 693 Recommended Practice for Seismic Design of


Substations, 1997
IEEE 693 addresses electrical equipment and its "first
support requirements. First support could be a pedestal
for a current transformer (CT) or a support beam for a
capacitor bank. The Substation Structure Design Guide
will reference IEEE 693 and provide seismic requirements
for structures not covered by IEEE 693.

IEEE 605, Rigid Bus Structures, Latest Edition Draft 8

Existing Industry Design Guides:


- RUS/REA Bulletin 65-1, Rural Substations
- Western Area Power Admin., Draft Doc. 1984
- NEMA SG6, Section 36, Outdoor Substations,
(Structures, Pole-top Frames and Other Parameters)
- Company Design Guides

STATUS:
Completed PEER Review
Committee:
Chair: Henry W. Ho
Hanna Essa Abdallah,
Duane R. Alston
Michael Brown
Kamran Khan
Otto J. Lynch
William B. Mills
Jerry Tang,
Hay Yin Yu.

Level 1 comment: Represents a


reviewers request to change the
document per the reviewers
submitted change (221/108)
Level 2 is a reviewers general
comment for the Substation
Structure Design Guide
subcommittee consideration
(60/14)

STATUS:
Complete Editorial Review
Complete a companion Document Coordination
Review (IEEE 693 and IEEE 605)
Ready for submittal to ASCE for publication
Should be available early next year, 2007, or
sooner

CONTENTS:
1. INTRODUCTION
2. ELECTRICAL EQUIPMENT & STRUCTURE TYPES
3. LOADING CRITERIA FOR SUBSTATION
STRUCTURES
4. DEFLECTION CRITERIA
5. METHOD OF ANALYSIS

6. DESIGN (ASD and USD)


STEEL
WOOD
CONCRETE
ALUMINUM
SEISMIC
BASEPLATE
RIGID BUS DESIGN
SPECIAL DESIGN CONSIDERATIONS

7. CONNECTIONS TO FOUNDATIONS
(NOT FOUNDATION DESIGN)
Foundations in substations should be designed
according to accepted practice, the same as foundations
designed for other structures.
IEEE 691, Guide for Transmission Structure Foundation
Design and Testing, is one source of information regarding the
design of utility type structure foundations.
8. QUALITY CONTROL AND QUALITY ASSURANCE
9. TESTING
10. CONSTRUCTION AND MAINTENANCE

WORKSHOP SCHEDULE:
Three Sections with short breaks in between
Session 1: Introduction, Chapters 1 (Into.) and
2 (Structure/Equipment Types)
Session 2: Chapters 3 (Loading), 4 (Deflections),
and 5 (Analysis)
Session 3: Chapters 6 (Design), 7 (Connections
to Foundations), 8 (Quality Control/Assurance,
9 (Testing), and 10 (Construction and
Maintenance)

1. INTRODUCTION

PARTS OF A SUBSTATION
Parts of a substation can be grouped into several categories:
(a) Site Related Facilities
(b) Bus & Equipment Outdoor
(c) Relay, Control, Metering, and Communications
(d) Control House
In general, in substations there is a site on which is located the
major circuit bus and equipment as well as a control house. The
control house contains protection, control, metering, and
communication equipment as well as equipment related to the
ancillary power systems (station service, 125vdc, etc.)

BUS AND EQUIPMENT - OUTDOOR


The typical switchyard or substation contains the following components:
(a) Bus
(b) Outdoor Equipment
Switching
Power Transformers
Instrument Transformers
Reactive Power Compensation
Lightning and Surge Protection
(c) Grounding Grid
(d) Conduit and/or Trench
(e) Lighting, power distribution, and yard phone
(f) Support Structures

yard phone booth

SUBSTATIONS
The three functions of a transmission network are fulfilled through the different
types of substations shown below. A single substation may perform more than
one of these functions:

Types of Substations:
- Substations Attach to Power Stations
- Interconnect substations
- Step-down (EHV/HV, EHV/MV, HV/MV) substations

Basic Structure of a Substation:


- Substation Bus
- Switchgear
- Power Transformer
- Control Protection and Monitoring Equipment
- Communications Equipment

SUBSTATIONS
IEEE DEFINITION
(1) An area or group of equipment containing switches, circuit
breakers, buses, and transformers for switching power circuits
and to transform power from one voltage to another or to one
system to another (ac/dc)
(2) An assemblage of equipment for the purposes other than generation
or utilization, through which electric energy in bulk is passed for the
purpose of switching or modifying its characteristics. (A substation is of
such size or complexity that it incorporates one or more buses, a
multiplicity of circuit breakers, and usually is either the sole receiving
point of commonly for more than one supply circuit, or it sectionalizes
the transmission circuits passing through it by means of circuit
breakers.)

2. ELECTRICAL EQUIPMENT & STRUCTURE TYPES

PURPOSE
DEFINITIONS
ELECTRICAL EQUIPMENT AND SUPPORTS
PHOTOGRAPHS

SUBSTATION DESIGN
SUPPORT STRUCTURES
Switchyard Support Structures: Switchyard supports provide support for the switchyard
equipment and bus at the elevations needed to provide adequate electrical clearance from
finish grade to the bus or equipment live parts.
Supports are also used to terminate outgoing transmission or distribution line conductors
within the switchyard.
The structures include the various stands for disconnect switches, instrument
transformers, bus support insulators, surge arresters, and termination structures for
overhead or underground transmission and distribution lines. The foundations for the
structures are included with the supports.

Typical Substation Structure Material Types


LATTICE STEEL

WOOD

CONCRETE

ALUMINUM

STEEL TUBE

BOX STRUCTURE TYPE OF CONSTRUCTION

Box Structure: The box


structure is generally
applied at 138 kV and
below.
It requires the least
amount of land area
and utilizes layers of
bus, disconnect switches
and related equipment,
one above the other,
connected with vertical
bus runs, and supported
on a common structure.

GAS INSULATED SUBSTATION CONSTRUCTION


Gas Insulated: Gas insulated construction consists of completely enclosed buses and
equipment insulated with SF6 gas.
Because of the excellent insulating
properties of this gas, very compact
phase spacing.
Gas insulated substations are generally
installed for one or more of the following
reasons:
1. Land area for the substation is extremely limited.
2. Environmental contamination is severe.
3. Site Environment, such as deep snow, etc.
Since gas-insulated substations are shipped as factoryassembled units or modules, field erection time and cost
are minimized.

Disconnect Sw.

Current Transf.

SUBSTATION

Dead Tank PBC

EQUIP.

Live Tank PBC


Rigid Bus
Bushing
Wave Trap

Power Transf.

OUTDOOR EQUIPMENT

Lightning
Arrester

Instrument Transf. PT

SUBSTATION DESIGN
OUTDOOR EQUIPMENT
S w itch ing E qu ip m e nt-T he fu nct io n o f sw itc hing equ ip m e nt is to co nnect and d isco n nect
e le m e nts o f the substatio n o r utilit y syste m fro m the rest o f the su bstatio n o r utilit y
syste m .
S o m e eq u ip m e nt used, such as the c ircu it breaker, are capable o f interru pting
(d isco nne cting) the very large qu a nt it ies o f cu rrent asso c iated w ith fau lts.
C ertain equ ip m e nt can sw itc h (co nnect o r disco n ne ct) norm a l le ve ls o f lo ad current
w herea s other equ ip m e nt can o n ly be o perated if little o r no current is flo w ing.
E q uip m e nt can be o perated electrica lly fro m a re m o te lo catio n o r can o nly be o perated
m a nua lly at the equ ip m e nt lo catio n

SUBSTATION DESIGN
BUS

Bus: The function of bus is to interconnect the high voltage portions of the various
components of the switchyard to form the required bus configuration for the
substation.
The parts of a bus layout includes rigid or strain bus conductors, the fittings used to
connect the bus conductors to the switchyard equipment, and the insulators that
support the bus conductors.
RIGID BUS

FLEXIBLE BUS

Strain bus

SUBSTATION DESIGN
OUTDOOR EQUIPMENT

DISCONNECT SWITCH

SUBSTATION DESIGN
OUTDOOR EQUIPMENT

CIRCUIT BREAKER

SUBSTATION DESIGN
OUTDOOR EQUIPMENT

CIRCUIT SWITCHER

SUBSTATION DESIGN
POWER TRANSFORMATION EQUIPMENT

500/230KV XFMR - SINGLE PHASE UNITS WITH SPARE

SUBSTATION DESIGN
INSTRUMENT TRANSFORMERS
CURRENT TRANSFORMER (CT)

POTENTIAL TRANSFORMER (PT)

SUBSTATION DESIGN
INSTRUMENTATION TRANSFORMERS
Instrument Transformers: The functions of instrument transformers is to provide
low voltage or low current inputs that can be used with protective relays and
metering equipment.
These inputs are proportional to the voltage or current which exist in the substation
buses or equipment.
The equipment can include potential transformers (PTs), coupling capacitor voltage
transformers (CCVTs), current transformers (CTs), and bushing current
transformers (BCTs).

SUBSTATION DESIGN
POWER SYSTEM CONTROL: REACTIVE POWER EQUIPMENT
SHUNT CAPACITOR BANK

SHUNT REACTOR BANK

SUBSTATION DESIGN
REACTIVE POWER EQUIPMENT
Reactive Power Compensation Equipment: Large quantities of capacitive or reactive
power are used for power factor improvement or voltage control.
They limit fault current on buses or distribution lines, and supply low impedance tuned
paths to ground for harmonic voltages (which are nuisance voltages occurring at
frequencies above 60 hertz).
The typical equipment used for reactive power compensation includes capacitor banks
and reactors, installed individually or in combinations.

Series Capacitors
9Used (typically at 230kV
and above) to improve
power transfer
capability by
compensating for
voltage drop along a
transmission line.
9If desired, load
distribution between
lines can be enhanced.
9Series capacitors can
also force more power to
flow over the line with
larger conductors when
parallel lines have
different conductor
sizes.

SUBSTATION DESIGN
LIGHTNING AND SURGE PROTECTION
ROD GAPS

LIGHTNING ARRESTOR

SUBSTATION DESIGN
LIGHTNING AND SURGE PROTECTION
Lightning and Surge Protection: The purpose of lightning and surge protection
equipment is to protect the switchyard and control building from being struck by
lightning, and to protect the insulation system of the switchyard equipment from
transient, high voltages entering the substation from the transmission or distribution
systems.
These transient voltage waves can be caused by lightning strikes to the transmission or
distribution lines, or from switching of the transmission system.
The equipment for lightning and surge protection include the shielding masts and wires
installed within the switchyard, rod gaps, and the surge arresters installed within the
switchyard.

TYPICAL SUBSTATION LAYOUT

SUBSTATION LAYOUT
DIAGRAMS

SUBSTATION LAYOUT
DIAGRAMS
THREE PHASE ACTUAL ARRANGEMENT

EQUIVALENT SINGLE LINE DIAGRAM

SUBSTATIONS

TYPES OF SUBSTATIONS

SUBSTATIONS:

Substation Types

- Generating Station to transform generating voltage to network voltage

SUBSTATIONS:

Substation Types

- Transmission Switching Station to switch interconnect portions of the utility system

SUBSTATIONS:

Substation Types

- Transmission Substation which can step-down or step-up voltage to interconnect the network

SUBSTATIONS:

Substation Types

- Distribution Substation to step-down voltage to the distribution level

SUBSTATIONS:

Substation Functions

- Isolate a faulted line or other component from the rest of the utility system

SUBSTATIONS: Substation Functions


- To step-up or step-down voltage levels

SUBSTATIONS: Substation Functions


- To allow for maintenance of line or equipment

SUBSTATIONS:

Substation Functions

- To allow for the addition of capacitors or reactors for electrical system control

SUBSTATIONS: Substation Functions


- To allow for operational voltage, current, power and frequency measurements

SUBSTATIONS: Substation Functions


- To allow control of power flows by switching lines in and out

SESSION 2:
Chapter 3, Loading
Chapter 4, Deflections
Chapter 5, Analysis

3. LOADING CRITERIA FOR SUBSTATION STRUCTURES


INTRODUCTION
BASIC LOADING CONDITIONS
Dead Loads
Equipment Operating Loads
Wire Tension Loads
Extreme Wind Loads
Combined Ice and Wind Loads
Earthquake Loads
Short Circuit Loads
Construction and Maintenance Loads
Wind Induced Oscillations
Deflection Loads
NESC Loads
State and Local Regulatory Loads
APPLICATION OF LOADS
LOAD FACTORS AND COMBINATIONS
ALTERNATE DESIGN LOADS AND LOAD FACTORS
SERVICEABILITY CONSIDERATIONS
EXAMPLES

Wind
Wind Maps
Maps
ASCE 7-05

3 Second Gust

F = Q kz V2 IFW GRF Cf A
Where:
F = Wind force in the direction of wind, pounds, (Newtons).
Q = Air Density Factor, default value = 0.00256, (0.613 SI), defined in
Section 3.2.5.1.
kz = Terrain Exposure Coefficient, defined in Section 3.2.5.2.
V = Basic Wind Speed, 3-second gust wind speed, mph, (m/s)
defined Section 3.2.5.3.
IFW = Importance Factor, defined in Section 3.2.5.4.
GRF= Gust Response Factor (Structure and Wire), defined in
Section 3.2.5.5.
Cf = Force Coefficient, defined in Section 3.2.5.6.
A = Projected wind surface area normal to the direction of wind, square
feet (square meters).

G SRF = 1 + 3 .6 ( ) E S (B S )

0 .5

)/ k

(Eq. 3-3)
Where:
= 0.75 Wire Supporting Structures (Dead-end and Line Termination)

= 1.00 Flexible Non-Wire Supporting Structures, < 1 Hertz


For Rigid, Non-supporting Wire Structures, GSRF = 0.85

Table 3-4a Structure Response Factor, GSRF, Wire Supporting Structures, = 0.75
Height, h (ft)

Exposure B

Exposure C

Exposure D

33

1.17

0.96

0.85

> 33 to 40

1.15

0.95

0.84

> 40 to 50

1.12

0.94

0.84

> 50 to 60

1.08

0.92

0.83

> 60 to 70

1.06

0.91

0.82

> 70 to 80

1.03

0.89

0.81

> 80 to 90

1.01

0.88

0.81

> 90 to 100

1.00

0.88

0.80

Table 3-4b GSRF, Flexible Non-wire Supporting Structures, < 1Hertz, = 1.0
Height, h (ft)

Exposure B

Exposure C

Exposure D

15

1.59

1.20

1.02

> 15 to 33

1.48

1.15

0.99

> 33 to 40

1.37

1.11

0.96

> 40 to 50

1.33

1.08

0.95

> 50 to 60

1.28

1.06

0.94

> 60 to 70

1.25

1.05

0.93

> 70 to 80

1.22

1.03

0.92

> 80 to 90

1.19

1.02

0.91

> 90 to 100

1.17

1.00

0.90

Ice
Ice Maps
Maps

ASCE 7-05

Ice-Sensitive Substation Structures


Not all structures or structural components have to
consider ice loads in design. Consideration should be given
to only ice-sensitive structures. In addition, ice loads may be
applied to only selected components in ice-sensitive
structures. For example, in dead end structure design, the
ice load on the conductor is included in design, but the ice
load on the structure is often neglected. Ice-sensitive
structures are structures for which the load effects from
atmospheric icing control the design of part or all of the
structural system. Typically in a substation ice-sensitive
structures include equipment, and rigid bus.

Seismic
Seismic Maps
Maps

Relative Seismic Hazard Map (USGS)

NEHRP - 2003

Maximum Considered Earthquake Ground Motion


(1) The spectral response acceleration obtained from the 0.2 second map,
Ss (short periods) and the 1.0 second map S1
(2) Acceleration-based Site Coefficient Fa (at 0.2 second period) and
velocity-based Site Coefficient Fv (at 1.0 second period)

SDS = (2/3) (Fa) (Ss)


SD1 = (2/3) (Fv) (S1)
Sa = SDS
For substation structure periods T > (SD1/SDS) use,
Sa = SD1/T

Structure Seismic Design Force:

Sa
FE =
W IFE
R
Where:
FE
R
IFE

= Seismic Design Force, Lateral Force applied at the Center of


Gravity of the structure/component
= Structure Response Modification Factor

= Importance Factor, Earthquake Loads


= Dead Load (Including all rigidly attached equipment or conductor

Sa

Flexible attachments, such as conductors, need not be included)


= Design Spectral Response Acceleration

Structure-Response Modification Factor, R


Structure/Component Type
Moment-Resisting Steel Frame
Trussed Tower
Cantilever Support Structures
Tubular Pole
Steel and Aluminum Bus Supports
Station Post Insulators
Rigid Bus (Aluminum and Copper)
Structures with Natural Frequency
Great Than 25Hz

USD
4.5
3.0
2.0
1.5
2.0
1.0
2.0
1.3

ASD
6.0
4.0
2.7
2.0
2.7
1.3
2.7
1.7

The Importance Factors, IFE


Structures and Equipment Essential to Operation

1.25

Anchorage for Structures and equipment


Essential to operation

2.0

All other structures (or equipment)

1.0

The selection of the appropriate Importance Factor (IFE) is the


responsibility of the design engineer. The Importance Factors, IFE,
specified in this section are the recommended valves for Ip used in
IEEE 693 for foundation analysis.

TWO EXAMPLES IN THE DOCUMENT FOR DETERMINING STRUCTURE LOADS


LINE TERMINATION STRUCTURE

69 KV DISCONNECT SWITCH SUPPORT

FIRST SUPPORT

EXAMPLES OF FIRST SUPPORT

Deflection Loads
Where the structural designer has not developed specific loading
conditions for deflection analysis, the following minimum load
conditions may be used as a basis for deflection analysis. A load
factor of 1.0, applied to the dead weight, is used with the deflection
load cases.

Wind Load for Deflection Calculations


Wind Deflection Load Conversion Factors
5-year mean recurrence
Wind Deflection Load Conversion Factor

0.78

Ice and Wind Combined Load for Deflection Calculations


Ice Thickness Deflection Conversion Factors
5-year mean recurrence
Ice Thickness Deflection Conversion Factor
Wind Deflection Load Conversion Factor

0.50
0.50

Other Deflection Considerations


If the electrical equipment is expected to operate during extreme winds,
then the unfactored extreme wind should be used for deflection
calculations. If the electrical equipment is expected to operate during
extreme icing, then unfactored extreme icing loads should be used for
deflection calculations.
Loads resulting from bus short circuit and earthquake events should not
be considered in deflection analysis.

RIGID
BUS
DESIGN
Bus Loading - Horizontal Bus Forces
Fault Force on a cylindrical surface:(IEEE 605 formula)
The magnetic fields produced by fault currents cause forces on the bus
conductor. The bus conductor and its supports must be strong enough to
withstand these forces.
Decrement Factor Formula:

Fsc

C (Df 2Isc )2
(D)

C = 5.4 X 10-7 for English units


Fsc = short circuit current unit force lbf/ft
Isc = Symmetrical short circuit current
D = conductor spacing center to center
= constant based on type of short circuit and conductor location
Df = decrement factor

Structure/Equipment
Structure/Equipment Support
Support Loads
Loads

Loading Conditions

Wire
Loaded
Structures

Switch and
Other
Interruption Rigid Bus Equipment
Supports
Supports Supports

NESC*

Extreme Wind/Hurricane

Extreme Ice and Wind

Seismic

Short Circuit

N **

Construction & Maintenance

Operational

Deflection

* Other Codes

** Design Should Consider if significant (rigid bus connected equipment)

APPLICATION OF LOADS
The following loading conditions should be considered for checking substation structure
stresses:
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

NESC (other State or Local Regulatory Codes), Sections 3.2.12 and 3.2.13
Extreme Wind, Section 3.2.5
Combined Ice and Wind, Section 3.2.6
Earthquake, Section 3.2.7
Short Circuit (combined with other load conditions when considered appropriate),
Section 3.2.8
6. Construction and Maintenance, Section 3.2.9
7. Equipment Operational Loads, Section 3.2.2
The following loading conditions should be considered for checking substation structure
deflections:
1. Wind, Section 3.2.11.1
2. Combined Ice and/or Wind (Operational), Section 3.2.11.2
3. Equipment Operation Loads, Section 3.2.2.2

Ultimate Strength Design Cases and Load Factors


LOAD CASES

LOAD FACTORS AND COMBINATIONS

Case 1

1.1 D + 1.2 W IFW + 0.75 SC + 1.1 TW

Case 2

1.1 D + 1.2 IWIFI+ 1.2 WI(1.0)+ 0.75 SC + 1.1 TW

Case 3

1.1 D + 1.0 SC + 1.1 TW

Case 4

1.1 D + 1.25 E (or EFS)IFE + 0.75 SC + 1.1 TW

D = Structure and Wire Dead Load;


W = Extreme Wind Load;
WI = Wind Load in combination with Ice;
Iw = Ice Load in combination with Wind;
E = Earthquake;
EFS = Reactions from First Support;
Tw = Horizontal Wire Tension for the appropriate load condition;
SC = Short Circuit;
IF = Importance Factors (IFW, IFI, IFWI, and IFE).

Allowable Stress Design


9Load Factors should be 1.0
Load Combinations
A particular structure may not have all the individual load
components listed in the load combination equations. It is the
responsibility of the design engineer to determine whether a load
case and/or load combination is appropriate. The combining of short
circuit loads with other loads (wind, ice, and earthquake) should be
considered and the level of short circuit load used in combination
with other loads determined by the owner. These load combinations
do not imply that only these four loads cases are adequate for the
design of a substation structure. Variations of these or other loads
cases may be required to account for conditions, i.e., wind direction,
short circuit fault location, etc., applicable to the Utilities service
region.

4. DEFLECTION CRITERIA
Class A structures: support equipment with mechanical mechanisms
where structure deflection could impair or prevent proper
operation. Examples are group operated switches, vertical reach
switches, ground switches, circuit breaker supports, and circuit
interrupting devices.

4. DEFLECTION CRITERIA
Class B structures: Support equipment without mechanical
mechanisms, but where excessive deflection could result in
compromised phase-to-phase or phase-to-ground clearances,
unpredicted stresses in equipment,
fittings, or bus. Examples
are support structures for rigid
bus, surge arresters, metering
devices (such as CTs, PTs, and
CCVTs), station power
transformers, hot-stick
switches/fuses, and wave traps.

4. DEFLECTION CRITERIA
Class C structures: Support equipment relatively insensitive to
deflection, or are stand-alone structures that do not support any
equipment. Examples are support
structures for flexible
(stranded conductor) bus, masts
for lightning shielding, and
dead-end structures for incoming
transmission lines. Deflection
limitations for these structures are
intended to limit "P-delta" stresses,
wind-induced vibrations, and
visual impact. (Not in SG6).

SUMMARY OF STRUCTURE DEFLECTION LIMITATIONS


Maximum Structure Deflection as a Ratio of Span Length, L (3)
Member
Type

Deflection
Direction

Structure Classes
Class A

Class B

Class C**

Horizontal (1)

Vertical

L/200

L/200

L/100

Horizontal (1)

Horizontal

L/200

L/100

L/100

Vertical (2)

Horizontal

L/100

L/100*

L/50

* NEMA SG6, SECTION 36, 2000 1/50


** NEMA SG6, SECTION 36, NO CLASS C REQUIREMENT
(1) Spans for horizontal members shall be the clear span between vertical supports, or for cantilever members,
the distance to the nearest vertical support. Deflection shall be the net displacement, horizontal or vertical,
relative to the member support points.
(2) Spans for vertical members shall be the vertical distance from the foundation connection to the point of
investigation. Deflection shall be the gross, horizontal displacement relative to the foundation support.
(3) Loading Criteria for deflection Limitations, Section 3.2.1

SPAN LENGTH DEFINITIONS


HORIZONTAL
MEMBER
SPAN

VERTICAL
MEMBER
SPAN

CLASS A STRUCTURES
1/100 OF THE
VERTICAL SPAN

EXAMPLES
Group Operated Switches
Vertical Reach Switches
Ground Switches
Breaker Supports
Circuit Interrupting Devices.

1/200 OF THE
HORIZONTAL SPAN
(ANY DIRECTION)

CLASS B STRUCTURE

EXAMPLES
Support structures for rigid bus
Lighting/surge arresters
Metering devices
(such as CTs, PTs, and CVTs)
Station power transformers
Hookstick switches/fuses
Line/wave traps

1/100 OF THE
VERTICAL SPAN
(ANY DIRECTION)

1/200 OF THE
HORIZONTAL SPAN
(VERTICAL DIRECTION)
1/100 OF THE
HORIZONTAL SPAN
(HORIZONTAL DIRECTION)

CLASS C STRUCTURES
1/50 OF THE
VERTICAL SPAN

EXAMPLES
Support structures for flexible
(stranded conductor) bus
Masts for lightning shielding
Dead-end structures for
incoming transmission lines.

1/100 OF THE
HORIZONTAL SPAN
(ANY DIRECTION)

MULIPLE CLASS STRUCTURE

LIN E
END

CLASS
DEFLEC TIO N C

SW ITC H
CLASS
DEFLEC TIO N A

Rotational limitations
Some equipment and rigid bus designs may be sensitive to rotation of supporting
members in addition to the deflection of the member. Equipment manufacturers should
be consulted as to any rotational limits which may be necessary to ensure reliable
operation.
Lightning masts and other tall, slender structures
In certain cases the structure type, design loads, and the lower deflection limits for Class
C structures can result in a flexible (low stiffness) structure. These structures can be
subject to potentially damaging wind-induced oscillations. Such structures can be
susceptible to fatigue cracking and failure.
Rigid Bus Conductor Deflection Criteria
In order to obtain an acceptable appearance, it is recommended that the vertical
deflection of rigid bus conductors (aluminum or copper tubing or shapes) be limited to
L/200 of the span length. This criterion should be applied with the dead weight of the
rigid bus, with dampers and no ice.

5. METHOD OF ANALYSIS
STRESS CRITERION VS. DEFLECTION CRITERION
MODEL
Truss and Frame Models
Finite Element Model
STATIC ANALYSIS METHOD - OVERVIEW
Approximate Analysis
First Order and Second Order Elastic Analysis
First Order Inelastic Analysis
DYNAMIC ANALYSIS METHOD - OVERVIEW
Steady State Analysis
Eigenvalue Analysis - Natural Frequencies and Normal Modes
Response Spectrum Analysis
ANALYSIS METHOD - RECOMMENDATION
Static Analysis
Earthquake Analysis
Dynamic Analysis of Short Circuit Events

Session 3:
Chapter 6, Design
Chapter 7, Connections to Foundations
Chapter 8, Quality Control and Quality Assurance
Chapter 9, Testing
Chapter 10, Construction and Maintenance

6. DESIGN

GENERAL

STEEL

CONCRETE

ALUMINUM

WOOD

SEISMIC

BASEPLATE

RIGID BUS DESIGN

SPECIAL DESIGN CONSIDERATIONS

6. DESIGN: GENERAL
9 Specific guidelines for member design and fabrication are not
included in this guide. This guide refers to other documents for
design guidelines and will note any exceptions.
9 Ultimate Strength Design (USD) and Allowable Stress Design
(ASD), Ultimate strength design is recommended.
9 Ultimate Strength Design (USD): Factored design loads with
stress levels up to yield strength or buckling capacity of the
material and strength resistance factors, also referred to as LRFD.
9 Allowable Stress Design (ASD): Unfactored design loads and
limits stress levels to a value which is less than the yield strength
of the material. The 1/3 increase in the allowable stress for short
duration loads, such as wind and seismic events, is not
recommended for substation structures.

6. DESIGN: STEEL
9 ANSI/ASCE (1997) Standard 10, Design
Transmission Structures (ASCE Standard 10)

of

Latticed

Steel

9 The American Institute of Steel Construction Load and Resistance


Factor Design (LRFD) Manual , 2005 Edition
9 The ASCE/SEI Standard 48 (2005) , Design of Steel Transmission
Pole Structures

6. DESIGN: CONCRETE
9 Reinforced Concrete Structures
ACI 318 Building Code Requirements of Reinforced Concrete
9 Prestressed Concrete Structures
PCI Design Handbook, Precast and Prestressed Concrete by
the Prestressed Concrete Institute
9 Prestressed Concrete Poles
ASCE Guideline for the Design and Use of Prestressed
Concrete Poles

6. DESIGN: ALUMINUM
9 Aluminum structures should be designed and fabricated in
accordance with the Aluminum Association Specifications for
Aluminum Structures, using stresses for building type structures.

6. DESIGN: WOOD
Ultimate Strength Design
9 IEEE Standard 751, Design Guide for Wood Transmission Structures
9 National Electric Safety Code (NESC)
9 National Standard ANSI O5.1 can be used for wood pole stresses with
the NESC 0.65 reduction factor (Grade B Construction, Table 253-1)
Allowable Stress Design
9 International Building Code (IBC), 2003

6. DESIGN: SEISMIC
A structure defined by IEEE 693 as a first support is the single
structural element upon which the equipment is supported. The first
support can be a steel pedestal supporting a cantilever type piece of
equipment, such as a surge arrester. The first support can also be a
structural member (component) within a support structure.

6. DESIGN: SEISMIC
9 Allowable Stress Design
The 1/3 increase in allowable stress for seismic loads is not
recommended for substation structures.

6. DESIGN: BASE PLATE DESIGN


2

3
2

1
3

3
(a)

3
(b)

2 1
1

2
1
3

3
(c)

(d)

tmin

6
=
b F or F
eff y
b

(BL c + BL c +...+BL c )
1 1
2 2
k k

ASCE Standard 48, Design of


Steel Transmission Pole
Structures

6. DESIGN: RIGID BUS DESIGN


9 Rigid bus design should be approached as a system

requiring both an electrical and design engineer


9 Ultimate Strength Design (LRFD) of rigid bus design
systems.
9 Short Circuit Load Obtained From IEEE 605
9 Design guidance per IEEE 605, but with ASCE Substation
Document Loading, Load Factors, etc.
9 Seismic design per ASCE Substation Document

6. DESIGN: SPECIAL DESIGN CONSIDERATIONS

Structures for Air Core Reactors


Wind Induced Vortex Shedding

Galvanizing Steel Considerations

Painted or Metallized Steel


Considerations

Member Connection Design

Bolted Connections in Steel

Welded Connections in Steel


Welded Connections In
Aluminum
Concrete Structure Connections
Connections in Wood
Structures
Weathering Steel Structures
Bolted Connections in
Weathering Steel
Guyed Substation Structures

7. CONNECTIONS TO FOUNDATIONS

INTRODUCTION

ANCHOR MATERIALS

ANCHOR ARRANGEMENTS

ANCHORS CAST-IN PLACE

DRILLED CONCRETE ANCHORS INSTALLED IN EXISTING


CONCRETE

EXAMPLES

7. CONNECTIONS TO FOUNDATIONS
9 Anchor Bolt Design (Headed Anchors or Straight Length Deformed
Reinforcing Bars)
9 Ultimate Strength Design approach to calculate the required cross
sectional area of an anchor bolt is based on: ACI 349 Code
Requirements for Nuclear Safety , ASCE 10 "Design of Latticed Steel
Transmission Structures," and Shipp, J.G, Haninger, Design of Headed
Anchor Bolts, Engineering Journal, American Institute of Steel
Construction. 1983. Also references ACI 355.
9 Cast-in-place headed bolts are the recommended anchor bolt type
9 Design Considerations Concrete: ACI 318 Appendix D
9 Stub angle and direct embedded structures can also be used
in substations. These types of anchorage are covered by
ASCE 10 (Latticed Steel Structures) and ASCE 48 (Tubular
Pole Structures)

ANCHOR MATERIALS
ASTM F1554, and bolts manufactured from ASTM A36 Steel

Straight Deformed Reinforcing Bars, ASTM A615 or A706


In seismically active regions recommend ductile bolts
Minimum bolt size is 0.75 in. diameter
When smaller bolt sizes are used, it is recommended that
the allowable bolt stresses exceed the applied stresses by not
less than a factor of two (2)

ANCHOR ARRANGEMENTS

Base Plate Supported by Anchor


Bolts with Leveling Nuts

Anchor Bolts with Base Plate on


Concrete or Grout

Allows for adjustment of the base


plate during erection

Large Shear Transfer Applications

9 Base Plate Supported By Anchor Bolts With Leveling Nuts


If the clearance between the
base plate and concrete exceeds
two times the bolt diameter, then
a bending stress analysis of the
bolts is required (ASCE
Standard 48, Design of Steel
Transmission Pole Structures).

ANCHORS CAST-IN PLACE

Smooth bar hook bolts are not recommended because of


less predictable behavior in tension tests

EXAMPLE OF A HOOK BOLT PULL-OUT FAILURE

DESIGN CONSIDERATIONS
9 Anchor Bolts With Base Plate on Concrete Or Grout
TENSION AREA

Pu
Aa =
fdt

As = Aa + Av

SHEAR AREA FOR COMPRESSION

Av =

Vu - ( )(Pcm)
[( )(fy )]

SHEAR AREA FOR UPLIFT

Vu
Av =
[( )(fy )]

REQIURED DIAMETER

d =

( 2)

1
s 2
+

0.974

DESIGN CONSIDERATIONS
9 Base Plate Supported By Anchor Bolts With Leveling Nuts

As = Aa + Ab + Av

Mu

Ab

5
= ( h)(Vu )
8
1

2 3

5hVu
=

2
f

Av = Vu

[()( f )]
y

REQUIRED DIAMETER

d =

( 2)

As 1 2
0.974
+

ANCHORAGE DESIGN CONSIDERATIONS - CONCRETE


9 Tensile Capacity Of Concrete (ACI 318)
9 Design Of Side Cover Distance For Tension (ACI 318)
9 Design Of Side Cover Distance For Shear (ACI 318)
9 Anchor Bolt Embedment Length (ACI 318)

ANCHORAGE DESIGN CONSIDERATIONS - CONCRETE

Localized Bearing Failure


ASCE Wind Loads and Anchor Bolt Design for
Petrochemical Facilities
Bearing Plate Requirements

fy

Aplate = Abolt + As (0.11)


f 'c
If the calculated value for Aplate is smaller than the area of
the nut or bolt head, then a bearing plate is not required.

EXAMPLES
1.

BASE PLATE ON CONCRETE

2. BASE PLATE ON LEVELING NUTS


3. BASE PLATE ON LEVELING NUTS IN A DRILLED PIER

8. QUALITY CONTROL AND QUALITY ASSURANCE

GENERAL
QC = Fabricator, QA = Purchaser

STEEL STRUCTURES

ALUMINUM STRUCTURES

CONCRETE STRUCTURES

WOOD STRUCTURES

SHIPPING

HANDLING AND STORAGE

General Topics
Materials
Welding
Fabrication Inspection
Visual Inspection
Specific Inspection Methods Of Welds
Test Assembly
Structure Coating
Wood Treatment

9. TESTING

Full-scale structural proof tests are rarely performed on substation


structures.
Full-scale testing should be considered when a standard and/or large
quantities, or if it is a unique structural system.
Component testing (a section of the tower, connections, etc.) may be
cost effective for substation structures.
Structural testing guidance can be found in the following documents:
(1) ASCE Standard, ANSI/ASCE 10, "Design of Latticed Steel
Transmission Structures" (1997).
(2) ASCE Standard 48, "Design of Steel Transmission Pole
Structures" (2005).
(3) ASCE "Guide for the Design and Use of Concrete Poles" (1987).
Seismic response (dynamic loading) requires that the support
structure and equipment be seismically tested/evaluated as a system.
Seismic tests are performed in accordance with IEEE 693, 2005.

10. CONSTRUCTION AND MAINTENANCE

CONSTRUCTION
Engineer(s) should anticipate
construction loads imposed on
the structure.

MAINTENANCE
Engineer(s) should consider
accessibility of equipment for
maintenance and/or operation.

WORKER SAFETY
All structures and equipment inaccessible with bucket trucks or small ladders,
should be considered for climbing with a fall protection device. IEEE-1307,
Trial Use Guide for Fall Protection of the Utility Industry, is one source of
information for worker safety during climbing of utility structures.

THE END