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LILA

I.

MARANGOU

AA/CI^A/TGR^^k
THE

N. P.

ART

GOULANDRIS COLLECTION

N.P. Goulandris Foundation


Athens 1985

LILA

I.

MARANGOU

AA/CI^A/TGR^^kART
THE

N. P.

GOULANDRIS COLLECTION

NICHOLAS

GOULANDRIS
FOUNDATION
P

MUSEUM
OF CYCLADIC
AND ANCIENT

GREEK
ART

Editing

and art-work: Lucy

Braggiotti

Translation and proof-reading:

Colour separation:

K.

Adam.

Printing: Ath. Petroulakis.

WW.

Phelps.

To the memory of
Nicos P. Goulandris

aGXov
KOTO yoiac;,
NiKoXae, ou xotAtTrdv touSe
E'f Ti

yevvaiodcjjpiac;

TiOcTOi

oe TTpcoTO XodsJv.

Contents

Preface

Prologue

11

Colour plates

13-17
18-20
20
21-28

Prehistoric and Protohistoric periods


Pottery (nos. 1-29)
Figurines (nos. 30-47)

31-49
31-43
44-49

Bibliographical abbreviations

Introduction

Abbreviations

I.

II.

50-183
50-143

Historic period

I.Clay

50-123
50-65
66-76
67-68
68-69
70-72
72
73-75
76
77-85
85-90
91-95

Pottery (nos. 48-176)

Protogeometric and Geometric vases from Skyros (nos. 48-77)


Vases from various workshops, 8th to 6th c. B.C. (nos. 78-1 1 4)
Cretan workshop (nos. 82-86)
Theran workshop (nos. 87-91 )
Corinthian workshop (nos. 92-1 00)
Boeotian workshop (nos. 101-102)
Variously shaped small vases from Attic workshops (nos. 103-112)
Exaleiptra (nos. 113-114)
Black-figure vases from Attic workshops (nos. 1 1 5-1 25)
Chalcidian' vases (nos.

26-1 30)

Vases from Boeotian workshops, 6th and 5th

c.

B.C. (nos.

31-1 36)

Boetian kylikes (nos. 1 32-1 36)


White ground vases with painted representations (nos. 1 37-141)
Attic red-figure vases (nos. 1 42-1 52)
Black-painted wares from Attic workshops (nos. 153-163)
Attic vases of different shapes, 4th c. B.C. (nos. 164-171)

"Cabiran" skyphos (no. 172)


South Italian workshops (nos. 1 73-1 75)
Pointed-base amphorae (no. 1 76)

91 -95

95-98
98-1 09

110-113
114-116
117
1 1

7-1 21

21

-1

22

workshops (nos. 1 77-203)


Boeotian plank figurines, 6th c. B.C. (nos. 182-190)
Boeotian figurines, 5th c. B.C. (nos. 1 91 -1 95)
Figurines from Corinthian workshops, 5th c. B.C. (nos. 196-199)
Figurines from island workshops, 5th c. B.C. (nos. 200-201 )
4th c. B.C. figurines (nos. 202-203)
Varia (nos. 204-219)
Lamps (nos. 204-213)
Figurines from various

Loom-weights
2.

(nos. 21 4- 21 9)

30-1 32

132-134
1

34-1 35

35-1 36

137-143
137-141
1 41 -1 43
144-171

Metal objects

Gold

23-1 36
125-130
1

144-149

(nos. 220-234)

Bronze (nos. 235-272)

149-171

Jewellery (nos. 235-249)


Animal figurines (250-253)
Bronze objects from Luristan (nos. 254-255)
Bronze statuette of Asclepius (no. 256)
Bronzes from the Lambros Evtaxias Collection (nos. 256-272)

49-1 55

155-156
1 56-1 58
1

58

59-1 71

3.

Glass vessels (nos. 273-281)

172-175

4.

Stone (nos. 282-291

76-1 82

PREFACE

As

is

well-known, Greece has always been looted by both Creek and foreign "lovers of Creek

art".

When

the Creek

government on the recommendation of the late John Papadimitriou, grandecided to do everything in our power
s permit, my husband and

ted us a private collector'


to

save and protect the antiquities that belonged

The collection which we are presenting today


years of collecting with
repatriated.

they

much

love.

Many

is

to a

Creek

Museum and

our country.

the

fruit

of those labours: the result of 25

of these objects were bought outside Greece,

The majority were bought here. This

now belong

to

is

not important. What

they will remain here

for

is

significant

is

and
that

ever to be enjoyed by

all

same time provide a stimulus for further research and study. We should stop
where these objects would be now, and what private collections and Museums
they would be adorning, if it were not for this private commitment and determination to keep
these treasures on Greek soil.
of

and

us,

at the

to consider

am

deeply obligated to

my dear

friend Lambros Evtaxias, who made this most touching donand other precious objects from his own private collection, which
part of the collection.
want to thank Professor Lila Marangou of the

ation of his superb bronzes

now

enrich the classical

University of loannina for the preparation of a

new updated

catalogue of the collection;

like-

wise the lector of the University of Athens, Lydia Paleokrassa, for her work on the catalogue
entries that bear her signature.
I

would

me

in

also like to thank the

innumerable people, too many

the very arduous task of installing a

to

mention,

who have helped

new Museum.

Dolly N. Goulandris

PROLOGUE

The undertaking of a new catalogue of the Ancient Greek Art


tion
I

due

is

should

express

like to

new

editing of the
lection of

in

the N.P. Goulandris Collec-

to Dolly N. Goulandris.

my warm

thanks to her, not only

catalogue and the

Ancient Gfeek

Art,

final

having entrusted

scholarly publication of

but also for the

stages of writing and printing the

for

book The

many

facilities

all

me

the objects

in

with the
the Col-

she has provided during

relatively short time taken for the

all

the

completion of

book was possible thanks to Dolly Goulandris' s continual personal interest.


owe especial thanks to Lambros Evtaxias, who kindly gave me the permission to publish

the
I

the objects
I

in

his Collection as well as

warmly thank the

ember 1984

to

university lector Lydia Palaiokrassas, with

February 1985 mainly

in

all

valuable information about their provenance.

whom

collaborated from Nov-

updating the bibliography of a considerable

number

of the catalogue entries.

The multifarious assistance of the archaeology graduate Marina Dimolitsa-Plati was once
again especially valuable, particularly

in

classifying the material

and checking the

final bi-

work of Makis Skiadaresis, are more eloquent


than the descriptions and not infrequently show more clearly what did not manage to conbliography. Nearly

all

the photographs, the

vey

words. Stavros Kassandris, experienced conservator at the National Archaeological

in

Museum,

also

gave important assistance. The manuscript was typed by Anna Papadopoulou

of the N.P. Goulandris Foundation;


I

my warmest

received important help from the director,

library of the

S.

thanks to

Miller,

all

and the

of them.
staff

of the always hospitable

Classical Studies. My two month' s visit to the archaeologiMunich and the Archaeological Institute of West Berlin enmyself with the most recent bibliography and to discuss scholarly

American School of

cal libraries of the University of

abled

me

to familiarize

questions with

L.

Beschi, U. FHausmann, D. Heilmeyer,

Martha Ohiy, Ingeborg Scheibler and


Finally,
his

my warmest thanks

comments and

November 1985

to Dr.

P.

W. W.

E.

Kunze, M. Maass, Erika Kunze,

Zanker.
Phelps, not onlv for his translation, but also for

all

help.

LilaMarangou

Bibliographical abbrevations

Periodicals

AA

Archaologischer Anzeiger

AAA

'Apxa/oAoy/KQ AvaAeKra e^ Adqvcjv

AbhHeidelberg

Abhandlungen der Heidelberger Akademie der Wissenschaften

AbhMainz

Abhandlungen der Ceistes- und Sozialwissenschaftlichen Klasse,


Akademie der Wissenschahen und der Literatur in Mainz

AbhMunchen

Bayerische Akademie der Wissenschaften, Philosophisch-historische


Klasse.

Abhandlungen

ActaArch

Acta Archaeologica, Kobenhavn

AE

ApxoioXoyiKri

AIA

American journal of Archaeology

AM

Mitteilungen des Deutschen Archaologischen


Abteilung

AntK

Antike Kunst

Archaeology

Archaeology.

Archaeometry

'Ecpqijepi'c;

A Magazine

Athenische

dealing with world antiquities

Archaeology and the History of

Bulletin of the Research Laboratory for


Art,

Instuts,

Oxford University

ArchDelt.

ApxoioAoyiKov AeArfov

ASAtene

Annuario

della Scuola archeologica di

Atene e delle Missioni

italiane in

Oriente

13

Annual Papers on

BABesch

Bulletin antieke beschaving.

BCH

Bulletin

BCIevMus

The Bulletin of the Cleveland

BdA

Bolletino d' Arte

BjB

Bonner jahrbucher des Rheinischen Landesmuseums


Vereins von Altertumsfreunden im Rheinlande

BMFA

Bulletin.

Museum

BMMA

Bulletin.

The Metropolitan

MBQu

British

BSA

The Annual of the

Classical

Archaeology

de Correspondence Hellenique

Museum

Museum

of Art

of Fine Arts, Boston.

Museum

of Art.

Quarterly
British

School

at

Athens

in

Bonn und des

School

at

Rome

BSR

Papers of the

CIQu

The Classical Quarterly

Gymnasium

Gymnasium.

HambBeitrA

Hamburger

'EWqviKO

'EWqviKO. 0iXo\., 'lOTop. KOI Xaoyp. TrepiodiKOv ouyypaiJ^ja

British

Zeitschrift fur Kultur der

Antike

und humanistische Bildung

Beitrage zur Archaologie


rqc;

'ETaip^iaq 1ttou5(I)v

Hesperia

Herperia. journal of the American School of Classical Studies at Athens.

HASB

Hefte des Archaologischen Seminars der Universitat Bern

HHW

History of the Hellenic World,

jbBerlMus

jahrbuch der Berliner Museen

IbHambKuSamml

lahrbuch der Hamburger Kunstsammlungen

IbMainz

jahrbuch. Akademie der Wissenschaften

IbMunchen

lahrbuch. Bayerische Akademie der Wissenschaften

IbRGZM

jahrbuch des Romisch-Germanischen Zentralmuseums, Mainz

yes

journal of Glass Studies

IHS

journal of Hellenic Studies

MadrMitt

Mitteilungen der deutschen Archaologischen


Abteilung

MarbWPr

Marburger Winckelmann-Programm

MedelhavsMusB

Medelhavsmuseet

MiJIb

Munchner jahrbuch der bildenden Kunst

MusHelv

Museum Helveticum

Ojh

jahreshefte des Osterreichischen Archaologischen Institutes in

HAE

ripoKTiKa

RA

Revue Archeologique

REA

Revue des Etudes Anciennes

REG

Revue des Etudes Grecques

R Louvre

La Revue du Louvre et des

RM

Mitteilungen des Deutschen Archaologischen


Abteilung

SBHeidelberg

Sitzungsberichte der Heidelberger


Ph ilosophisch- h istorische Klasse

Stadeljb

Stadel-Jarhbuch

Transact

Am Ph ilAss

Triq

Transactions

I.

Prehistory

and

Protohistory. Ekdotiki Athinon, 7974.

und der

Literatur

Instituts,

Madriter

Bulletin (Stockholm)

Wien

ev 'Adr]vaiq 'ApxoioXoyi Kqc; 'ETQipeiac;

M usees de

and Proceedings

France
Instituts,

Romische

Akademie der Wissenschaften,

of the

American Philological Association


14

Monographs

etc.

ABV

Beazley, Attic Black-Figure Vase- Painters. Oxford 1956

S.J.

Lucilla Burn, Beazley Addenda; Additional References to ABV, ARV~ and


Paralipomena. Compiled by L. Burn and R. Glynn at the Beazley

Addenda

Archive. Oxford 1982

Agora

The Athenian Agora. Results of Excavations conducted by the American


School of Classical Studies at Athens. Princeton, New Jersey

Allentown Art Mus.

A.

Holdens, Aspects of Ancient Greece, Exhibition Allentown Art

Museum. 1979
Apulian

A.D. Trendall

967

Plain Style

Apulian

l-ll

Apulian, Suppl.

A. Cambitoglou, Apulian Red-figured Vase Painters of the

1961

1.

A.D. Trendall
1978, 1982

A.

Cambitoglou, The Red-Figured Vases of Apulia,

A.D. Trendall

A.

Cambitoglou,

Apulia.

/.

l-ll.

Suppl. to The Red-Figured Vases of

1983

ARV^

S.J.

BepSeArjc;

N. BepSEXfic;, 'O TTpcoToyeajpeTpiKoq puOpdc; rrj^ QeooaAiac;. 1958

BMFA, Bronzes

977

Beazley, Attic Red-Figure Vase- Painters. Oxford 1963

Mary Comstock
the

Museum

- C. Vermeule, Greek, Etruscan


of Fine Arts Boston. 1971

Boardman, ABFV

J.

Brummer

The Ernest Brummer Collection, Ancient

Collection

Boardman, Athenian Black Figure

Vases;

Cook

R.M. Cook, Greek Painted Pottery. 1960

Corinth

Results of Excavations

and Roman Bronzes

in

A Handbook. London 1974

Art,

II.

1979

conducted by the American School of

Classical

Studies at Athens

Coldstream,

GC

j.N.

Coldstream, Geometric Greece. London 1977

Coldstream,

CP

J.N.

Coldstream, Geometric Pottery. London 1968

CVA

Corpus Vasorum Antiquorum

Desborough, PP

V.R.d' A. Desborough, Protogeometric Pottery. 1952

Desborough,

CDA

Diehl, Hydria

V.R.d' A. Desborough, The Greek Dark Ages.

Erika Diehl, Die Hydria: Formegeschichte

Altertums.

Encyclopedia

BAD

Exploration Archeologique de Delos. Paris

Hommes
Octobre

15

et
-

und Verv,endung

in

Kult des

Mainz 1964

EAA

Europalia 1982

London 1972

dell'

Arte Antica

Dieux de

la

Grece antique. Europalia 1982 Hellas-Crece. (ler


1982) Palais des Beaux Arts Bruxelles 1982

2eme Decembre

Fortetsa

J.K.

Froning 1982

Heide Froning, Katalog der griechischen und


Folkwang Essen, 1982

Brock, Fortetsa. Early Greek

Tombs near Knosos. Cambridge 1957


italischen Vasen,

Museum

Furumark,

MP

Cefassdarstellungen

ABL

Furumark, Mycenaean Pottery


Stockholm 1972

I,

Analysis

Haspels, Attic Black-Figured Lekythioi.

Heidelb. Neuerwerb.

R.

Hampe und

1971

Katalog der

BMC

I-II.

Mitarbeiter, Heidelberger

Sammlung

Universitat Heidelberg.
Higgins,

Classification^

H. Cericke, Cefassdarstellungen auf griechiischien Vasen. Berlin 1970


E.

Haspels,

and

Paris

1936

Neuerwerbungen 1957-1970.

antiker Kleinkunst des Archi. Instituts der

Mainz 1971

Higgins, Catalogue of the Terracottas in the British

R.

Musjeum.

I.

1954

Hornbostel 1977

W. Hornbostel u.a., Kunst der Antike. Schatze aus norddeutchem


Privatbesitz. Museum fUr Kunst und Cewerbe Hamburg. Mainz 1977

Hornbostel 1980

W.

Hornbostel, Aus Crabern und Heiligtumern. Die Antikensammlung


W. Kropatscheck. Museum fur Kunst und Cewerbe Hamburg (11 Juli 14 September 1980). Mainz 1980

Kanowski

M.C. Kanowski, Containers of Classical Greece, A Handbook of Shapes.


University of Queensland Press 1984

Kanta 1980

A. Kanta,

and

Museum

Lefkandi

Period

LVIII.

in

Crete;

Survey of

Sites,

Pottery

Goteborg 1980

M. Liepmann, Kestner Museum, Griechische Terrakotten, Bronzen,


Skulpturen. Hannover 1975
Lefkandi

Sackett.

Marangou J1975

MapayKoO

III

SIMA

Kerameikos. Ergebnisse der Ausgrabungen. Berlin

Kerameikos
Kestner

The Late Minoan

their Distribution,

1978

Master Bronzes

L.

I:

The Iron Age, The Settlement; ed. by

MR. Popham

and

H.

London 1980

Marangou, Bijoux en

or.

Collection N.P. Goulandris,

BCH

1975

99,

Xp. Nxouijac; - A. MapayKou, MouoeJo MnevaKq, ZuWoyr) N.FI.


TouXavdpf), 'Apxaia 'EAXqviKri Texvq, KuxAadiKoq FloXiTiopdc;,
loropiKoi Xpovoi. 'louvioq - No|j6pioq 1978. Mepoq II, Texvp)
npcoToiOTOpiKcov Kof 'loTopiKcov Xpovojv. 'A9r|va 1978

D.G. Mitten

S.F.

Doeringer, Master Bronzes from the Classical World.


of St. Louis, The Los Angeles

The Fogg Art Museum, City Art Museum


County Museum of Art. 1968

ML

W.H. Roscher, Lexikon der

griechischen

und romischen Mythologie,

Leipzig

Mollard-Besques,
Catal.

Louvre

S.

Mollard-Besques, Catalogue raisonne des figurines et reliefs en


Musee National du Louvre,

terrecuite grecs, etrusques et romains.

1.

1954
OIBer

Bericht uber die Ausgrabungen in Olympia. Berlin

OlForsch

Olympische Forschungen.

Olynthus

Excavations at Olynthus. Directed and published by


Baltimore, The John Hopkins Press

Paralipomena

S.J.

and

Berlin

DM.

Robinson.

Beazley, Paralipomena. Addition to Attic Black-Figure Vase-Painters


to Attic Red-Figure Vase-Painters (second edition). Oxford 1971

16

riapAaija, iKupoc;

Aidva riapAaija,

RE

Realencyclopadie

Richter-Milne

CM. A.

Richter

Metropolitan

Rumpf
Schelbler

A.

I.

'hi

iKupoq orqv enoxn toO XoAkou. 'ASriva 1984

M.J. Milne, Sliapes

Museum

of Art.

New

and Names of Athenian

Vases.

The

York 1935

Rumpf, Chalkidische Vasen. 1927


Scheibler, Criechisclie Topierkunst; l-ierstellung IHandel

and

Cebrauch der antiken Tongefasse. Mijnchen 1983


Schefold,

K.

Schefold, Meisterwerke, griechischer Kunst. Basel/Stuttgart

1960

Meisterwerke

Simon 1982

Ten Centuries

E. Simon, Okayama. The Kurashiki Ninagawa Museum. Greek, Etruscan


and Roman Antiquities. Mainz 1982

H. Hoffmann, Ten Centuries that shaped the West; Greek


Texas Collections. Mainz 1970

and Roman

Art

in

Tiryns

Tiryns, Deutsches Archaologisches


Ausgrabungen. Athen

Tokyo 1980

Christos

Doumas

Institut.

Die Ergebnisse der

Marangou, The Ancient Greek Art of the Aegean


October 1980
The National Museum of Western Art, Tokyo
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Lila

Islands from the N.P. Goulandris Collection, 26 August-19

Tr en da II 1967, Suppl.
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III

Trendall 1982

A.D. Trendall, The Red-Figured Vases of Lucania, Campania and


Suppl. I1970, 1973, 1983
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The Art of South Italy, Vases from Magna Graecia, Virginia
Fine Arts,

17

Sicily.

1 1 1.

Richmond. 1982

E.

Mango.

Museum

of

Introduction
Most of the Greek works of art^ in the N.P. Goulandris Collection^ were first shown to the
Greek public seven years ago, in 1978, in an exhibition put on at the Benaki Museum which
continued for several months. The catalogue of the exhibition, in English and Greek, also
^

the Collection more widely known to specialists for the first time.^
In 1980 a number of objects (45), including gold jewellery and pottery, were exhibited along
with the Cycladic Collection at the Museum of Western Art in Tokyo and at Kyoto.
Since 1 981 the Collection has been enlarged by the important addition of fifty new objects,
consisting of twelve unique vases of the Archaic and Classical periods, and thirty-eight bronze
and clay vases and figurines from the collection of Lambros Evtaxias, who donated them to
the Goulandris Foundation in 1984. Exhibiting the Collection before its final scholarly publication and the necessity of adding a bibliography to the exhibition catalogue of the Benaki
Museum, as well as the permanent character of the museum display, made it desirable to

made

compile a new catalogue that would be as complete as possible.


The new catalogue lists only the objects that are on display in the Museum showcases.
The form of the catalogue was dictated by the varied nature of the objects exhibited, and
follows

in

general lines both the internationally established method for the publication of
and the summary catalogues of museums open to the public "for study,

private collections^

education and recreation".''

The criteria for selecting the objects to be displayed included not only artistic merit, beauty
and the aesthetic enjoyment of the visitor, but also, predominantly, their value as media for
instruction, as important witnesses to Greek civilization, and particularly to the production
of minor art from the 2nd millenium B.C. to the 5th millenium A.D.

feature of the Collection

sculpture),

and the materials

is

the diversity of the objects (vases,

(clay,

bronze, gold,

glass,

figurines,

jewellery,

marble) and the periods represen-

ted.

We have no knowledge of the circumstances in which any of the objects was found, but
one important aid for the student is the provenance, which in this case, unlike other private
collections, is known for most of the pieces.^
The Catalogue, like the display, follows a chronological order, according to century. The basic division is between the two great cultural phases: the prehistoric and protohistoric periods (I) and the Greek period proper (II). The dating depends perforce on the internal evidence provided by typological parallels and stylistic and pictorial comparisons with related
pieces whose chronology is known with greater certainty.
In addition to the brief description of each piece, in which the use of technical terms is kept
to a minimum, further information is supplied that may assist the reader to better appreciate
the object. At the same time we have tried to answer pertinent questions about the object's
dating, function, purpose, etc., and the workshop where it was made. Further support for
the answers will be found in the bibliographical references.'*
In the first section (I, p. 31-49), which is chronologically the older, all the objects are made
of clay, and they are divided into two categories: pots (nos. 1 -29), and figurines of humans
(nos. 30-38) and animals (nos. 39-47). They are all dated to the 2nd millenium B.C., a period
known as the Middle and Late Bronze Age,^" and illustrate the Aegean, Helladic and Cretan
civilizations.

The conventional terms" used

to designate the particular cultural identity of each geographarea also have chronological significance. The term Helladic is applied to the cultures of
Mainland Greece. The qualifying labels. Early, Middle and Late (Helladic) denote the chronological limits of each periodsical

18

For the Cretan civilization, apart from the epithet Minoan, derived from the old myth of King
Minos, the term Palatial is also widely used; it was suggested by the great palaces that are
the preeminent features of the Cretan world (Prepalatial, Protopalatial and Neopalatial).''^
The last phase of the Bronze Age in the Aegean, the Late Bronze Age (1600-1100), received
the cultural stamp of the new political and commercial centre, "Mycenae, rich in gold",
hence the term Late Helladic is synonymous with Mycenean,""*
The rich cultural amalgam created by the blend of Cretan and Mycenean elements in the
1 5th century is known as the Creto-Mycenean.^^ ^|so in common use is the important term
"Mycenean koine", ^^ associated with the latest Mycenean period, around 1200 B.C., to indicate the range and extent of Mycenean influence on the contemporary Mediterranean
world.
The second section (II, p. 50-183), comprises works of Greek minor art and sculpture, and
dates from the 11th century B.C. to the 5th century A.D. In this section the arrangement is
based on the material from which the objects are made and the category to which they belong, in chronological order: clay, metal, glass and marble. A brief introductory note generally precedes the descriptive catalogue of objects that are arranged according to typological groups or workshops, or are treated separately.

should be noted that although we are principally treating minor works of art, the term art is used
in the ancient Greek sense; on this subject, see A. Dresdner, Die Entstehung der Kunstkritik
(1915),M968, 15f and j.j. Pollit, The Ancient View of Greek Art [^974), 32f.
2. N.P. Goulandris' s private collection was known only as the Collection of Cycladic Art: see Chr.
Thimme-P. GertzDoumas, The N.P. Coulandris Collection of Early Cycladic Art, Athens 1968. See
Preziosi, Kunst und Kultur der Kycladeninsein in 3. lahrtausend v. Chr., Karlsruhe 1976, 67 fig. 36, 70
fig. 39, 91 fig. 76, 1 03 fig. 82 and elsewhere. And see the English edition of the same. Art and Culture of
the Cyclades in the Third Millenium, 1977, especially pp. 84-87.
3. Xp. NTOU|jaq-A. MapcryKoO, Mouoero MrrevaKq, ZuAAoy/] N.Tl. TouXavSpr], 'Apxaia 'EWqviKr) TeXvq, KuxAaSiKdc; TloXiTioiJdc; - 'ioropiKOi Xpovoi, 'louvioq-Noeijdpioc; 1978, pp. 147-334. Chr. DoumasLila Marangou, Benaki Museum, Exhibition of Ancient Creek Art from the N.P. Goulandris Collection,
Athens, June-November 1978.
1

It

here

J.

MapayKoO

1978, pp. 9 and 14 n.l.


Chr. Doumas-L. Marangou, The Ancient Greek Art of the Aegean Islands from the N.P. Goulandris
Collection [26 August- 7 9 October 1980). The National Museum of Western Art, Tokyo 1980, catalogue

4.
5.

nos. 167-210 pp. 73-80 colour plates, pp. 142-159 black and white, and pp. 206-221 catalogue in Japanese with English summary.
6. On the problems confronting the archaeologist in compiling the catalogue of an exhibition that has
no particular theme, see the comments of Gl. Ferrari Pinney-B.S. Ridgway, Aspects or Ancient Greece.
Allentown Art Museum, 1979, 6-8.
7. According to the definition of the International Council of Museums (ICOM) in article 3 of the charter, "the museum is a permanent institution, non-profit making, for the service and education of society, and open to the public. The museum carries out research into the material remains of man and his environment, collects, preserves and makes them publicly known and above all exhibits them for the
purposes of study, education and recreation".
8. The provenance of an object is given only when it is known with relative certainty.

The bibliographical references are intended for the reader' s general information and do not pretend
be complete The bibliographic information about objects presented for the first time is fuller.
10. For the use and significance of these terms generally, see D. Theocharis
(1974), 96f and bibliography pp. 393-394. See also E. Vermeule, Greece in the Bronze Age, Chicago 1964, 27f
11. For the problems of terminology in connection with the early cultures of the Aegean, see R A
NcNeal, "Helladic Prehistory through the Looking-Class", Historia 24, 1975, 385-401, and J.L Caskey,
"Aegean Terminologies", Historia 27, 1978, 488-491.
12. See D. Theocharis, op. cit, 122 and in the same volume C. Mylonas, 134f and bibliography 394
For the people who brought the civilization, see in the same volume M. Sakellariou, 364f
13. See N. Platon, HHW, 142f, 174f and bibliography 394-395.
14. See C. Mylonas, HHW, 242f and bibliography 395-396.
And see idem, Mycenae, Rich in Gold, Athens 1983, with full bibliography, 254f.
9.

to

HHW

15.

16.

HHW,
HHW,

The

249.
280f.

entries signed v^ith the initials L.P.

written by

were

Mrs Lydia Palaiokrassas.

Abbreviations
EH

Early Helladic (3rd

MH

Middle Helladic (2nd millenium B.C.)


Late Helladic (synonymous with the term Mycenean, 1600-1100 B.C.)

LH

millenium B.C.)

EM

Early

MM

Middle Minoan (2nd millenium B.C.)

LM

Late

Minoan

(3rd millenium B.C.)

Minoan (2nd

half of the

2nd millenium

B.C.)

20

115

m^pm

116

"^

"f

>

I2'>

Kl

J.4

>^4.L

Jl

130

142

152

173

2m

259

271

(^
wmM^^

"

'*^'^^%**i^^^^^-^^l^^itf^^^^^H^B^I

>
*"*a^
E^^

^^^^^^^^^^^^^^H|,^
'<^^^^^^^^^^BPV|I

'

272

"

"^^

(.

Catalogue

29

';

Prehistoric

I.

Protohistoric Periods

Objects nos. 1-10 are utility vases and vessels of the 2nd
millenium B.C. from different places. Similar types of
objects for everyday use accompanied the dead to the
grave as burial goods.

Feeding-bottle

H. 6.7*, Diam.
No. Col. 405.

mouth

4.3,

Diam. base

3.1.

Provenance: Karpathos

Pot with two horizontal handles and a small spout.


From the shape, reddish slip and the remains of black
paint it is dated to the early Middle Helladic period
(MH), the beginning of the 2nd millenium B.C. Similar
pots are usually found in children' s graves.
Bibliography;

Marangou 1978, 149

cat.

For the type, cf C. Blegen, Zygouries,

1^

no. 1.
Prehistoric Settlement

the Valley of Cleonae [^928), fig. 89, 115. Furumark, MP, 34,
n. 7, fig. 5 type 159 and others. Tiryns VI, 205 fig 8. See also
riapXa^a, iKupoq, 229-231 and 353 n. 69 (for terminology).
in

"Incense-burner" or model brazier

2.

H. 7.9,

No

Diam

rim 6

1,

Diam base

6.7.

Col. 481.

Clay vessel perforated in the upper part, with a handle,


known as an "incense-burner". It was probably used to
carry burning charcoal. From the shape, the quality of
the clay and the firing it is dated to the early phase of
the Mycenean period (LH), around the beginning of the
16th c. B C

The typological parallels usually have three legs for better support, and in a number of them traces of fire are
still
preserved. Similar vessels have been found in
graves of the 3rd millenium, the Early Helladic period,
and of the 2nd millenium, the Middle Helladic period.
Bibliography:

Marangou 1978, 150

142, 206 cat. no

cat

no. 2.

Tokyo 1980,

167

CVA British Muesum 5, pi. 1. Furumark, MP,


no 314 See also Y Boysal, Katalog der Vasen im
Museum in Bodrum,
Mykenisch-Protogeometrisch, Ankara
Universitesi, Ankara 1969, 26-27 pi. XXXI 1-4.
For the type, cf

77

fig

21

I.

Dimensions are given

in

centimetres

31

w^r^m

^mk i.M^^%^,

3.

"Kylix"

10, Greatest rim diam. 11 6,

Diam. foot

6.7,

'1

No. Col. 46

Pot with two handles and a low foot, undecorated. It


probably imitates a metal prototype. The shape dates it
to the 15th c. B,C, (LH period).
It Is one of the commonest grave goods in the Myce-

nean

civilization; similar pots

have also been found

in

palaces and settlements.


Bibliography:

Marangou 1978, 151

For the type, cf Furumark,


Boysal, op. cit,

4,

pi.

XXVII,

MP,

cat, no, 3.

16 types 269, 264.

fig.

2.

Skyphos

H. 7.6, Diam. rim 11.5, Diam. foot


No. Col. 461.

3.8,

Black painted linear decoration on the body, black


glaze on the inside of the pot. The potter has made a
characteristic effort to fit the decoration to the structure
of the pot (a band on the rim, spirals and linear decoration in the zone between the handles, and a black band
on the base). It belongs to the last phase of the Myce-

nean period (LH

ca1250

MIC),

B,C.

Marangou 1978, 153

Bibliography:

no.

cat.

5.

Tokyo 1980,

142, 206 no. 168.


For the type, cf Furumark,

353

fig.

59

fig.

62.

5.

Kylix

18.5,

(for the

MP, 48

fig.

13,

decoration) and 345

284

fig.

(for

the shape),

58 no. 39 and 363

Diam

rim 15.2,

Diam

foot 80.

No. Col. 45

Pot with a high-stemmed foot, round flattened base and


slim handles. It is a typically metallic shape and belongs to the last phase of the Mycenean period (LH
IIIC), ca 1240-1230 B.C.
This type of pot has its roots in the Middle Helladic tradition. According to Evans, the high-stemmed Myce-

two

nean kylixes have


Bibliography:

Minoan

origin

Marangou 1978, 154

For the type, cf

Furumark, MP,

fig.

cat.

no b

17 266. For the wider

stribution of the type, see Boysal, op.

cit.,

pi,

XXIX,

di-

4.

32

6.

Cup

H. 7.5, Diam. rim 10.1, Diam. foot 7.5.

probably imitating a metal prototype. The


in Minoan Crete and we meet it in the
early phase of the Mycenean civilization. It is dated to
the last phase of the Mycenean period (LH IIIA-C) ca
1240-1230 B.C.

The potter

is

type originates

Bibliography:

Marangou 1978, 155

For the type, cf Furumark,

MP, 52f

cat. no. 7.
fig.

15, 266.

7.

Spouted pot with handle

H. 1.3, Diam. base 4.3.


Restored
No. Col. 406.
Provenance: "Karpathos or Skyros". The typological parallels
from Skyros suggest the vessel came from there

Brown-black shiny

slip

on the mouth,

handle and

spout; bands circle the body of the pot. It is probably a


"feeding-bottle" from a child' s grave or else a vessel of

unknown

function.

1250-1240 B.C. (LM

IIIA-B).

For the type, cf Furumark, MP, fig 6 type 160-1, and recently
riapXa^a, iKupoq, nos. 85-89 (for the type) and 226f (with the

recent bibliography)

33

^F^^F^l^W

8.

Skyphos

6,

Diam

rim 8

3,

Diam

foot 3.2

Complete.
No Col. 409
Provenance: Skyros.

The black linear decoration on the body has been lost;


on the lower part of the body successive semicircles
and black bands can be more clearly distinguished.
From the shape and linear decoration it can be dated to
the last phase of the Mycenean period (LH IIIB 2 - C), ca
1200 B.C.
For the type, of Furumark,

9.

MP,

fig.

13 no. 284.

Skyphos

H. 10, Diam. rim. 12.8, Diam. foot


No. Col. 49.

5.1

An undecorated pot with two handles.


last phase of the Mycenean period (LH
of the 13th or beginning of the 12th
Bibliography:

Marangou 1978, 152

For the type, see Furumark,


cit, pi.

XXXV

MP,

c.

It is

dated to the

MIC), at the

end

B.C.

cat. no. 4.

fig.

14, type 284. Boysal op.

5.

10.

Prochous

[jug]

H. 30, Diam. belly 24.5, Diam. base


No. Col. 50

8.3.

The body of the pot is spherical, the neck tall and narrow, and the base annular. There are brown bands on
the rim, the base of the neck, the shoulder, the lower
part of the belly and the base. On the shoulder there
are spirals and vertical wavy motifs.
It is dated to the last phase of the Mycenean period (LH
III), the 13th c. B.C.
Bibliography: Marangou 1978, 157
144, 207 no. 170.

For the type, cf

E.

cat.

no. 9

Tokyo 1980.

Langlotz, Criechische Vasen, Martin von

Wagner Museum, Wurzburg (1932), no. 22, pi. 2. Furumark,


MP, 31 fig 6 type 1 36, for the decoration: type 353 fig 39 nos
16-21.
For the shape, ci Schefold, Meisterwerke,

1,

21-23, 118 and 5-

6.

10

34

Vases from Siteia

in

12. Piriform jar

Crete

H. 15.6, Diam. rim 9.7,

The pots

cat.

nos. 11-17

come

from the

district of Siteia

and are typical examples of the so-called


"Creto-Mycenean koine"^ They are dated to the 1 3th cenCrete

in

tury B.C.

For the last phase of the pottery


with the earlier bibliography
1.

Crete, cf

in

Kanta, 1980

Mended

at the shoulder,

Diam. base 5.3.


one handle restored

No. Col. 398


Provenance: Siteia, Crete.

The neck is short, the mouth wide and the lower part of
the pot strongly tapered. It has a dark slip on the neck,
handles and base; the decoration on the shoulder is
red-brown. The shape, the disproportionately narrow
base compared to the wide belly and the decoration
have a Mycenean origin. This type of vessel has a wide
distribution during the last phase of the Mycenean civilization (LM IIIA), 13th century B.C.
Bibliography:

Marangou 1978, 158

cat. no. 10.

For the type, ci Furumark, MP, fig. 4, 44-45. For the shapi. 45. Kanta, 1980, pi. 76,2.

pe, cf Tiryns VII,

11

Skyphos

12.2, Greatest rim diam


Diam. foot 5.1
No Col. 44
Provenance: Siteia, Crete.

H.

128, Diam

at

handles 11.5,

Pot with two high-swung handles, the zone between


is decorated with black running spirals. The

the handles

handles, rim, belly and base are lightly emphasized by


black bands
It

last phase of the Mycenean period (LH


around the end of the 13th c. B.C.

belongs to the

IIIA

1-C)

Bibliography:

Marangou 1978, 156

cat

no 8 Tokyo 1980. 149

and 207 no 169


Cf Furumark, MP,

fig

16

(type), fig

60,52 (decoration) and

262 (shape).

35

nssr

fig

13. Piriform jar

H 21.8, Diam rim 11, Diam. base


No. Col 412.
Provenance: Siteia, Crete.

8.3.

Pot with three handles, decorated with brown-black


bands, a wavy band on the neck and free spirals on the
shoulder and upper part of the body. On the lower part
are dark bands of different thicknesses.
13th c. B.C. (LM IMA 2).
Bibliography:

Marangou 1978, 159

cat. no. 11.

Tokyo 1980, 73

and 207 no. 171.


For the decoration, cf Furumark,
44-45. Kanta, 1980, pi. 75, 1-2.

MP, 370;

for the type,

fig. 4,

14. Piriform jar


H. 20, Diam. rim 10.7, Diam
No. Col. 413.
Provenance: Siteia, Crete.

base

8.

Pot with three handles; the shape and decoration (scale


wavy bands and free spirals) date it to the 13th

pattern,
c.

B.C.

(LM

Bibliography:

Cf Tiryns

Marangou 1978, 160 cat. no 12


French, BSA 60, 1965, pi.

VII, pi. 45.

Popham, BSA
(for the

IIIA-B)

62, 1967,

decoration with

346

fig

spirals)

5,

51c.

12. Kanta, 1980,

and

pi.

pi.

76, 7

139, 14 (for the scale

pattern).

36

15. Piriform jar


H. 22.1,

Diam. rim 11.1, Diam. base

8.1.

No. Col. 433.


Provenance: Siteia, Crete

Pot with three handles; the spherical body and papyrus


decoration on the shoulder date it to the end of the
13th c B.C (LH III).
Bibliography:

Marangou 1978, 161

For the decoration,

cfPopham,

op.

no

cat
cit.

(cat. no. 14),

see also Furumark, MP, fig.


IIIA 2 - IIIC), and, recently, Kanta, 1980,
143, 13 and pi 75, 5 for the shape.

(LM

11

IIIB);

13.

4,
pi.

348

fig. 6,

38 and 53, 18 (LM


51, 5, 113, 12 and

16. Piriform jar


H. 16, Diam. rim 10.5, Diam. base

8.

Intact.

Provenance:

Siteia,

Crete

Pot with three handles; the shape


(successive rhombs and bands) date
B.C.

(LM

and decoration
it

to the 13th c.

IIIA).

Unpublished.

16

37

Cf Furumark, MP, fig. 3, 20; for the shape, see Agora XIII. pi,
39, 12, (VII), pi. 65 XVI 3 For the decoration and shape, cf
Kanta, 1980, pi. 74, 6, 74, 4 and 113, 4

17. Piriform jar


H. 19.7, Diam. rim 10.5, Diam. base 73.

One

handle mended
No. Col. 399.
Provenance: Siteia, Crete

Pot with three handles; the shape is like that of the prejars, nos. 12-16. The decoration on the shoulder
(spirals and successive chevrons) are typical of the pottery of the last phase of the Mycenean period, 13th c.

ceding

B.C.
Bibliography:

Marangou 1978, 161

cat. no. 14.

For the decoration, cf Furumark, MP,


no. 16. See also Kanta, 1980,

pi.

75,

fig.

9 no. 38 and

fig.

63

5.

Stirrup Jars
were first made in Crete around the middle of the 16th c. B.C. The Myceneans
had a special fondness for this distinctive vessel and it is therefore often thought of as a hallmark of the Mycenean world and one of the most important export products of Mycenean
Stirrup jars

industry.
in size, but large examples are also known. They have two
small handles and two long spouts. The spout set in the centre of the closed top, to which
the handles are attached, has no orifice, whence the name, sometimes used, of "falsenecked jar". The other spout, with a very narrow mouth, is on the shoulder. From the traces
of aromatic substances preserved in a considerable number of these jars it is thought that

Stirrup jars are generally small

they were intended to hold aromatic or plain oil and were perfume or oil containers, depending on their size, like the aryballoi, lekythoi and lekythia of historical times. The shape is a
product of the vessel' s function, preventing evaporation and restricting the flow of the
liquid inside.

Stirrup jars are

Their presence

common
in

grave goods, and are dated on the basis of shape and decoration.
excavation levels is an important chronological marker.

For the vase type, see Furumark, MR, 22 figs. 3,23; 4,30; 5,31; 6,36; 8 and 37 fig. 9. K. Cook, "The
stirrup vase", BSA 7b, 1981, 167f; Simon, 1982, 27 no. 8; and the recent napAa/ja, IkOpoc,, 138f (with the earlier bibliography).

purpose of the

For clay stamps on stirrup

jars

see A. Sakellariou, Corpus der minoischen

und mykenischen

Siegel

(1964), no. 161

38

18. Stirrup jar


H. 24.5,

Diam.

Diam. foot 8.7, Diam. belly 20, Diam. mouth


handle 10.

2.7,

horiz.

Mended.
No. Col. 483.
Provenance: Siteia, Crete.
It is

decorated on the shoulder and spherical body with

brown

linear motifs and parallel bands of different


The crowded zig-zag lines, opposed semicircles
and rhombs with semicircles inside and S-motifs outside
point to the last phase of Mycenean pottery (LM IIIC),
late 13th c. B.C. The decoration is known as the Close
Style because of the crowded design.

widths.

Bibliography:

Marangou 1978, 162

For the decoration, see Furumark,


type, see

idem

31

fig.

6,

cat. no. 15.

MP, 550f

fig.

58, 25; for the

18

176-177.

19. Small stirrup jar


H, 19.5, Diam. foot 7.4, Diam. belly 18, Diam. handle
part restored.

6.

Mended; lower

No. Col. 484.


Provenance: Siteia, Crete

The shape is similar to the previous one (no. 18).


The crowded composition of the stylized, almost geometrical plant decoration corresponds to the
Mycenean pottery (LM IIIC, Close Style).

last

phase

of

Bibliography:
74,

Marangou 1978, 164

cat

no 16

Tokyo 1980,

208 no 172

For the shape and decoration, see Popham op. cit. (cat. no.
349 pi. 89 (LM IIIC); for the shape, Furumark, MP, 31, fig. 6.
See also Kanta, 1980, pi. 98, 1-2 and pi 121, 3 (for the decora-

14),

tion).

39

19

wcr

20. Stirrup jar

H 10
Intact,

5.

Diam

foot

3.

but decoration worn

No. Col. 395.


Provenance: Karpathos.

The shape dates it to the end of LH IIIA, 13th c.


and it appears to be from a Rhodian workshop.

B.C.,

Unpublished.
Cf Furumark, MP, 22 fig. 3, and 23
5, pi. 6, 22. Kanta, 1980, 124,6.

fig. 4.

CVA

British

Museum

22. Stirrup jar


H. 14, Diam. foot. 4.
restored at neck and foot.
No. Col. 394.

Mended;

21

Squat stirrup

jar

Provenance: Skyros.

H. 5.3, Diam. foot 3.9.


Intact,

The decoration is worn; traces of spirals can be distinguished on the shoulder and belly. As in the case of the
typologically parallel no. 20 above, it was probably

but decoration worn.

No. Col. 443.


Provenance: Karpathos.

The squat round body and decoration date


13th

c.

made
it

to

LH

Cf Furumark, MP, 44

Unpublished.

British

ta,

1980,

pi.

23, 7.10

Rhodes. 13th

c.

B.C.

Unpublished

B.C.

CiFurumark, MP, 44

in

IIIA,

12, 183. Arch. Dell 1973,


and flapXa^a, iKupoc;, 138,

fig.

pi.

Museum

5,

pi.

fig.

12. Tiryns VI (1973),

pi.

11,1.

CVA

6, 32.

73. Kan-

no.!, pi. 55.

40

^^rfe**'
23

24

24. Stirrup jar


23. Stirrup jar
H. 12.1,

Diam

H. 10.5, Diam. foot 3.1.

Mended; neck

foot 4.1.

Part of the foot missing; surface

and decoration worn.

No

Col 392
Provenance: Skyros.

The shape and especially the spare

among

class this

Unpublished.

Unpublished.

Cf Furumark, MP, 44 fig. 12, in which he dates the shape of


the jar and the spout to LM IIIB Popham, op. cit (cat. no 14),
349, pi. 89d (for an earlier example of the decoration).
T/ryns VI (1973), pi. 17.2.

Cf Furumark, MP.

sition to the

the

last

and beginning of the 12th

figs.

c.

(LH

pl.

Submycenean

5c, 31-32.

Studies,

fig.

6.

the tranof the 1 3th


in

NIC).

22 and 23 Kerameikos

shape), Inv. 449 (for the decoration)


renius,

linear decoration

Mycenean pottery,
Submycenean phase at the end

The shape and the linear decoration, reminiscent of no.


1 9 above, date it to the last phase of Mycenean pottery,
LM MIC, end of 13th c. B.C.

41

on belly and neck.

restored; chipped

No. Col. 393.


Provenance: Skyros.

pl.

I,

pl.

9b

(for

the

10, Inv. 504. C.C. Sty-

Recently,

BSA

75, 1980,

vessels of various shapes

Household

25. Askos
H. 9.8, H handle
Diam. belly 10.5,

2.5,

Diam. handle

5.1,

Diam. mouth

2.7,

Mended.
No. Col. 396.
Provenance: unknown.

Closed pot with a handle on the top and a spout on the


shoulder, known as an "askos". The shape derives
from Cycladic types and was probably taken by the Myceneans from Crete. The shape and the triangular motif
filled with oblique lines date it to the end of the 1 3th c.
B.C. (early

LH

Bibliographh:

IMC).

Marangou 1978, 165

cat. no. 17.

MP, fig. 20 type 195 and 68


example from Crete). For the decoration, see V.R.d' A.
Desborough, 7"^e Last Myceneans and their Successors (1964),
pi. 18 a-b. Popham, BSA 60, 1965, 31 6f pi. 82d. See also
"Unpublished Objects from the Palaikastro Excavations", in
BSA Suppl. 1, 1902-1906 (1923), 55f. Cf the recent Kanta,
1980, pi. 10,2-3 and 72, 3 and HapXaya, iKupoc,, pi. 65, no.
For the askos form, see Furumark,

(LM

10

(for the decoration).

26. Kalathos
H. 8

9,

H. with handle 11.6, Diam. rim 17.4, Diam. base 11.4.

Mended.

No

Col 439
Provenance: unknown

Container for fruit with a handle for suspension The


painted decoration of calyx-like stylized flowers date it
to the last phase of Mycenean pottery, 13th c. B.C. (LH
MIC).

Bibliography:

143, 208

Marangou 1978, 166

cat. no.

cat.

no. 18.

Tokyo 1980,

173.

Popham, op. cit. (cat. no 14), 349-350


and recently Kanta, 1980, pi. 4.11 and 145.

For the decoration, see


fig.

7,2,

42

27.

One-handled
Diam

H. 5.9,

utensil

rim 12, Diam. foot 3.8.

Rim restored.
No. Col. 435.
Provenance: Skyros.

Pot with
dates

It

one handle and a spout ("kyathio"). The shape


end of the 13th c. B.C. (LH IIIB-C).

to the

Unpublished.
Cf Furumark, MP, 48 fig. 13, type 253. Agora XIII, pi. 52 T.
XXXIV, 16. Tiryns VI, pi. 28,2 and r/apAapa iKupoq, 232f.

28.

Lekane or kalathos

H. 40.3,

Diam

rim 23, Diam. foot 14

8.

No. Col. 434.

Provenance:^yros.

two vertical rim handles and sparse decoon the body, handles and interior. It dates to the

Utensil with
ration

from the Protohistoric to the Historic


Protogeometric period, in the 11th c. B.C.

transition

era, the

28
Bibliography.

Marangou 1978, 167

cat.

no 19

Cf Snodgrass, 7he Dar/i; /4ge o/ Greece (1971), 42. For a similar


type of vessel from Skyros, see the recent FlapXa^a, lKupo(;,
239-240.

29. Pyxis, vessel with a lid


H. 10.2,

Diam. rim 4

5,

Diam

and two handles

8.

No. Col. 527


Provenance: Skyros

The pot's function is unknown- It was probably intended to hold jewellery like the typologically related examples of Greek Classical pottery The shape and decoration date
Bibliography:

Ct

43

it

to the transition stage, 11th

Marangou 1978, 167

cat

c.

B.C.

no 20

Payne, BSA 29, 1927/1928, 263 no. 165 bis

pi.

VI, 11.

29

ii

Human

Similar

figurines

representations of "worshippers" have


systematic excavations of peak sanctuCrete. Mountain peaks ware well-known places
clay

been found
aries in

in

in 2ncl millenium Minoan Crete.


The "worshipper" figurines are of special importance
for our knowledge of the history of popular religion a-

of worship

mong

the Minoans. Nevertheless, the lack of solid evi-

dence concerning the findspots and the conditions


under which they were found, as well as the fragmentary nature of the figurines in this collection, handicap
and limit the possibilities of interpretation. They proba-

come from purificatory fires or sacrifices by worshipers of an expiatory character. It is also, of course, possible that they were simple votive offerings dedicated to
the divinity being worshipped.
bly

Bibliography: for the peak sanctuaries, see N.


pov Ma^a (KaAoO Xcopiou fJESiaSoq) Kai la

Platon,
'

'to

'

'Ie-

MivcoiKa 'JEpa

1951, 96-160 and especially


their Place in Minoan Religion", Historia XVIII, 1969, 257-275. E. Loeta Tyree,
Cretan Sacred Caves: Archaeological Eviderice (1974). A.A.D.
Peatfield, "The Topography of Minoan Peak Sanctuaries", BSA
78, 1983, 273f, and also C. Verlinder, "Les statuettes anthropomorphiques cretoises en bronze et en plomb du llle millenaire au VI! siecle av. J.C", Arch. Transatlantica IV, 1984, 9b.
Kopucpriq' ", Kretika Chronika

105f. See also B.C. Dietrich,

5,

"Peak Cults and

30. ''Worshipper'' figurine


H. 11.5.
Extremities missing.

No. Col. 116.


Provenance: Crete.

Naked male figure with a bird-face, loincloth and a dagger at his waist. Modelled by hand. Small holes indicate
the eyes and protrusions the ears. The hair was modelseparately and attached to the head. From the
traces of dark clay it appears to have had a slip. From
the remnant of the right forearm it was apparently portrayed in the attitude of a worshipper with his hand on

31.

"Worshipper"

figurine

led

his breast.

Protopalatial or

1800

Middle Minoan

(MM

I)

period

2000-

B.C.

H.

9.

2.

Lower

legs

and

left

forearm missing

No. Col. 117.

Male figurine with loincloth and belt.


The eyes are made with small pellets of applied clay.
The locks of hair have broken off. Traces of reddish slip
are preserved.

Bibliograhy:

Marangou 1978. 168

Myres, BSA

1902-3,

cat. no. 21.

10 For the type, of R.A Hig


gins, Minoan and Mycenean Art (1967), 30 fig
19, and
E. laTToOva-IaKEAAapaKr), M/voi/kov ZcO/jq (1971), pi. 19 no.
70 and pi 14 no. 47 For the head type, cf C. Verlinden, op.
cit, nos 47-48, 98.
Cf.

J.

L.

9,

pi.

Dated like no. 30


2000-1800 B.C.
Bibliography:

to the Protopalatial period

Marangou 1978, 169

See no 30 and

(MM

I)

cat. no. 22.

lanouva-IaKEAAapaKr],

op.

cit.,

pl,

6 no

44

33.

Head

of a cult figurine

H. 4,2,

No. Col. 122.

The treatment of the head and the individual


ures establish
and date it to

it

facial feat-

the category of "bird-faced figurines"

in

MM

I,

ca 2000-1800 B.C.

Unpublished.

a Kanta,

1980,

pi.

2,

7-9.

According to A. Pilali-Papasteriou, who will publish the figurines from Crete in the Goulandris Collection, a similar, unpublished head is preserved in the Metaxas Collection in Herakleion, cat. no. 709.

32. Headless

Male Figurine

The head and greater part of the arms and


No Coll 118
Provenance Crete

legs are missing.

34.

Head

Typologically similar to no. 30, but with braids of hair


preserved on the back; traces of red-brown slip
2000-1800 B C

No. Col. 123.

Unpublished

MM

Cf R A Higgins, Greek Terracottas (1967), pi. 30 (MM I) S.


Alexiou, Guide to the Archaeological Museum of Heraklion

Unpublished.

MM

of a cult figurine

H. 4

I,

Bird-faced head, traces of colouring

(1968), pi

45

2b

I,

2000-1800 B.C

For the type and date see

no

33.

36. Clay female figurine


Clay statuettes like nos. 35-37 have been found in cult
places, and from the distinctive headgear, the "polos,"
it is thought they represent female divinities. They may
also, however, represent women dedicating images of
themselves to a divinity, as in the case of the "worshipper" figurines.
period, ca 2000-1800 B.C.
They are dated to the

MM

H. 7.5.

Neck mended.
No. Col. 120.

Typologically similar to no. 35.

MM

I,

2000-1800 B.C.

Unpublished.

For the type, cf Higgins, op. cit, no. 32,

37.

Fragment of

pi.

30

E.

a female figurine

H. 5.5.

Preserved down to the waist; the arms are missing.


No. Col. 124.

Typologically similar to nos. 35 and 36.


Unpublished.

similar

Collection

unpublished example is preserved


in Herakleion, cat no 708

in

the Metaxas

38. Headless female figurine fragment


H. 9.2,

W. shoulders

Mended from two

5.9.

pieces.

No. Col. 513.

From the remains of the infant-like legs preserved on


left shoulder, we presume it to be an example of a
kourotrophos (mother and child) in Minoan art.

the

Unpublished.
For typological parallels and the koutotrophos subject, see the
forthcoming study by Lydia Palaiokrassas.

36

35. Figurine of a divinity [?]


H. 9.2.
No. Col. 119.

Conical body, bird-face and headdress. Small triangular


projections indicate the arms

MM

I,

2000-1800 B.C.

Bibliography:

Marangou 1978, 170

For the type, see Myres, op. cit,

cat

pi.

no

23.

XI 20.

46

Bovoid Rhyta from Crete

Animal Figurines

The clay
The clay animal figurines nos. 39-45 come from Crete.
Similar ones have been found in the peak sanctuaries of
Minoan Crete dating to the Middle Minoan (MM) and
Late Minoan (LM) periods in the 2nd millenium B.C.
See N

Platon, op. cit, (p. 44),

holes

known

figurines nos. 41-45

H.

as

7,

11.5.

L.

There
Ears, tail

5.3.

and

I,

MM

feet missing.

Marangou 1978, 171

For the type, see Myres, op. cit,


fig. 2.

is

a hole

I,

in

the

mouth and

tail.

The eyes are ap-

2000-1800 B.C.

Bibliography:

2000-1800 B.C.

Bibliography:

ear restored.

plied clay pellets.

No. Col. 128.

MM

left

No. Col. 129

39. Bull figurine


L.

the form of bulls have

Bull figurine (rhyton)

Front legs and

H. 2.9,

in

mouth and tail. They may be cult objects,


rhyta, and were also offerings in peak sanc-

the

tuaries.

41

110 b

in

pi. XIII

53. Platon, op. cit,

cat. no. 26.

Cf Platon, op. cit. (p. 44) fig. 2, pi. 5 and S. Alexiou-N. PlatonH. Cuanella, Ancient Crete (1968), 110 fig. 123.

cat. no. 24.

K Davaras, Cuide to Cretan Antiquities

Marangou 1978, 172

pi.

['\97b), 11 fig. 6.

42. Bull figurine [rhyton)


H. 12.5,

Horns and

40.

Head

H. 4.2,

W.

No. Col. 131.

of a bull figurine

6.2,

L.

It has two small holes for eyes. From the preserved part
of the tail it appears to have been bent. Remains of reddish slip are visible.

5.8.

Right horn restored.

No. Col. 145.

nose and mouth shown by


2000-1800 B.C.

Pellet eyes;

MM

I,

Bibliography;

a Kanta,

47

Marangou 1978, 171

25.
legs missing.

MM

I.

2000-1800 B.C.

incisions.

cat. no. 25.

Bibliography:

Marangou 1978, 173

For the type, cf the figurine no. 41. See also


Fiirmer, Kreta,

1980,

pi.

19,4.

cat. no. 27.

19.

Thera

und das mykenische

S.

Marinatos-M.

Hellas^ (1976),

pi.

43. Bull figurine [rhyton]


H. 12.3, L. 22.5.
Legs missing; right horn restored.

No. Col. 132.

Typologically similar to the figurine no. 42. The details


are treated in the same way (eyes, mouth and tail). Incisions are visible on the tail to indicate hairs. Fragments
of figurines similar to nos. 45-46 have been found in
peak sanctuaries. They were probably intended for the
protection of the animals
Bibliography:

Marangou 1978, 174

cat. no. 28.

For parallels, see no. 42

head with part of the neck

44. Bull's

W.

10.1.

and horns missing.


No. Col. 133.
Ears

The eyes and mouth


reddish

MM

I,

are indicated

by holes. Traces of

slip.

2000-1800 B.C.

Typologically the

same

as nos. 41-43.
.

Bibliography:

Marangou 1978, 175

^.

cat. no. 29.

44
For parallels, see

45. Bull's

W.

12.7,

L.

no

41

head (rhyton)

10.

No. Col. 134.


Provenance: Crete.

Eyes of applied clay pellets. Traces of red and black

slip

'^-^.

are visible.

MM

I,

2000-1800 B.C.

Bibliography:

Marangou 1978, 176

cat

no

30.

45
Cf the earlier example

in

Kanta, 1980, pi

19,4

See no 42.

48

46. Bull's

head with part of the body

H. 7.2, L 9.5.
No. Col. 548.

,1

Provenance: Brauron, Attica.

Applied pellets for eyes. The brown-painted decoration


and the modelling of the details date it to the last phase
of the Mycenean period (LM III), in the 13th c. B.C.
Bibliography:

Marangou 1978, 177

cat. no.

32

Cf C. Blegen, Prosymna, The Helladic Settlement Preceeding


the Argive Heraeum (1937), 360f. Mollard-Besques, Catal. Louvre
pi.
A5.
I,

46

47.

Fragment of

H. 9.8,

L.

a leopard figurine

11.

No. Col. 547.


Provenance: Brauron,

Attica.

Head, forepart of the body and forelegs preserved. Decoration of brown spots on the body.
End of the Mycenean period (LM III), 13th c. B.C.
Bibliography:

Cf

49

^^^^^^^

E.

Marangou 1978, 178

French, BSA 66, 1971, 159

pi.

cat
26.

no

33.

II.

1.

Historic Period

Clay

Pottery

Protogeometric and Geometric vases from Skyros: nos. 48-77.

nos. 48-77 have a special place among the objects in the Goulandris collection;
according to reliable information they were found in graves on Skyros\ the southernmost island of the Sporades, together with the gold (nos. 220-223) and bronze jewellery (nos. 235-

The vases

247).

Although they do not come from regular excavations, and therefore valuable information
about the grave types, burial methods and exact find spots are lacking, they are important
evidence for the early history of Skyros, and for its commercial and "artistic" links with the
mainland and island world: Thessaly, neighbouring Euboea, the Cyclades and Lemnos.
The vases on display date to the first three centuries of early Greek history, from roughly the
11th to the 8th centuries B.C., the periods known as Protogeometric^ and Geometric^.
To judge by the few archaeological finds published so far\ Skyros continued the cultural traditions of the Mycenean^ world even during the transition period, the so-called Submycenean phase (11th c. B.C.), and into Historic times.
The large pots, nos. 48-53, are funerary and conventionally dated to the Protogeometric period, in the 9th c. B.C. Apart from the knowledge that they are funerary, it is almost impossible to establish their precise purpose. Nearly all the pots, with the exception of a few small
intact ones, were purchased as "sherds" and were mended and restored by the very experienced restorer, Andreas Mavraganis. We therefore do not know in what position they
were found, inside or outside the grave, ^ or whether they were grave-goods or served as
burial urns. They may have been broken in antiquity, but they may also have been destroyed through the ignorance and haste of the illegal excavators.
It is well-known from archaeological finds in other regions that the new custom of cremation, which was imported into Greece after the end of the Mycenean period, became general in the Protogeometric period (10th-9th c. B.C.), while at the same time the traditional
method of burial by inhumation continued''. Perhaps, therefore, these pots were used for
depositing the ashes of the dead person, but they could equally have come from cremations, enchytrismoi^ or

The vases

simple

cist graves.

and large pots nos. 54-77, apart from being charproducts of local workshops, are especially important for a knowledge of the Protogeometric and Geometric pottery of Skyros and for the study of early Greek art in general.
In these clay pots, created by anonymous craftsmen, we encounter the new formal princinos. 48-53, like the other small

acteristic

ples of

metric,

Greek art proper, the "Geometric spirit", or the "Geometric style". The name Geowhich was first used in the last century (1870) by the German archaeologist A.

Conze'' to denote

this distinctive pottery,

to-day covers

all

the cultural manifestations of the

50

/'o
The use of the term Geometric is fully justified, befirst centuries of Greek history
cause it refers not only to the surface decoration of the pots and other small works of art
with geometric decoration (figurines, bronze and gold jewellery etc.), but particularly to the
attention paid by early Greek potters and craftsmen to geometric-tectonic structure, and to
the architectural organization and articulation of their work. It is particularly apparent in the
vases that the potter' s chief concern was with structure, the "building" of the vessel; the
parts of a pot, whether small or large, function for the first time like the parts of the human
body, which is why when describing a pot we borrow the terminology used for statues
(neck, shoulder, belly, body, foot etc.).
The tectonic structure of the body of the vessel takes its form from the shape given it by the
potter with the help of his wheel and his feeling for proportion, the almost mathematical relation of the parts to each other. The simple decoration, the division of the body into zones
by black lines or bands of different widths, not only adds to the sense of stability, but creates
a balance between the vertical and horizontal axes. The tectonic structure is further served
by the linear geometric motifs (circles, semicircles, rhombs), which are painted with the aid
of a compass and ruler and not freehand as they had been earlier in prehistoric times. The
strictly symmetrical, absolutely disciplined composition of the decorative elements accentuates the style and "geometric atmosphere". The contrast between the light colour of the
clay ground and the dark glaze, achieved during the firing of the pot, is another important
decorative trait. The various features that give early Greek art of the Protogeometric and Geometric periods its characteristic appearance are found all over Greece from Attica to the Peloponnese and the Mainland, the Cyclades, Crete, the Dodecanese, Epirus, Macedonia,
Thessaly, Skyros and Euboea. From the similarities and differences in shape and decoration,
we can distinguish local traditions, artistic and commercial connections, and cultural interchanges.
Thus, in the Protogeometric pots from Skyros, unquestionably locally made, we can clearly
recognize close ties with Thessaly, ties also attested in the Neolithic and Mycenean periods.
We can even detect certain contacts with neighbouring Euboea and sporadic influences
from the pottery of Attica and the Cyclades."
Their chronology is derived from typological comparisons and stylistic correlations with
other, more securely dated pots from systematic excavations, which, like those at Lefkandi
on Euboea,^^ always have a relative chronological value. The chronological limits of the Protogeometric (10th-9th c.B.C.) and Geometric (8th c. B.C.) periods apply only to Skyros; it
must be noted that their chronological duration is not the same in every region, a very good
example being Attica, where the Geometric period begins as early as ca the 9th c. B.C.^^

three

BCH

1 893, 207-208. Dawkins, BSA^^.^ 904-5, 79f. AD 4, 1 91 8, 41 -44


Papadimitriou, AA 43,
H.D. Hansen, "Prehistoric Skyros
Studies presented to David Robinson (1951), 54-63(with
bibliography). For the history of archaeological research on Skyros, see the recent (lapXapa, iKupoq
1

1 7,

I.

1939, 31

',

(19841, chiefly 32-33.

For the name, see R. Murray, The Protogeometric Style: The First Creek Style, Coteborg 1975, If and
bibliography 36-39.
3. B Schweitzer, Die geometrische Kunst Criechenlands [^939). Coldstream, GG, 45 n. 46, 50-52.
4 Marangou 1978, 179 n
(bibliography). See also the recent, A. Kaloyeropoulou, ASAtene 4, 1979
2.

(1983), 142f.
5.

-D.

Heilmeyer, Fruhgriechische Kunst. Kunst und Siedlung im geometrischen Criechenland {^962),

iKupoq 32-33, 288 and 275 n. 24.


Desborough, CD A, 270f (for a bibliography on the Protogeometric graves on Skyros, see p. 201).
7
Andronicos, 'Totenkulf'. Arch. Homerica III, 1968, 5lf P Themelis, AAA VI, 1973, 356f, and
D.C. Kurtz and
Boardman, Creek Burial Cusfoms (1971), 29f E Vermeule, Aspects of Death in Early
Creek Art and Poetry^ (1981), 262-263 (bibliography) Lefkandi
33 and FlapXapa,

(y

I.

51

2, 1939, 17. See also Diehl, Hydria, 146 n. 194


der Anfange griechischer Kunst", Sitz -Ber Akad. Wien, Phil. -Hist. Kl.,
1870, 505f. See also B. Schweitzer, op. cit, 15f.
10. Coldstream, CP, 2f; idem, CC, 17f; and Heilmeyer, op. cit, 7 and 25f
11. Cf Desborough, PP, 129f; idem, CDA, 201-202. Verdelis, 73 And see the recent, Lefkandi
287
The whole of the pottery from Skyros has not yet been thoroughly studied, and there have been no systematic excavations up to the present, therefore conclusions concerning relations with the not far distant workshops of Thessaly, Euboea and the Cyclades are only provisional. See the forthcoming publication of A. KaAoyEpOTTOuAou, npojioyeiopeTpiKri koi feojpejpiKr] KepapeiKrj otto Tqv iKupo.
109f and especially 281 f; and BSA 77, 1982, 21 3f.
12. Lefkandi
13. Coldstream, CC, 26-35.

8.

For the term, see Hesperia Suppl.

9.

A Conze, "Zur Ceschichte

I,

I,

52

>i

mjj

48

53

>

LL J|

'

'.

Hydria

48.

44.3,

Diam

rim. 15.7,

Mended from many

Diam. belly 30,2, Diam. foot 10.3.

fragments.

No. Col. 296.


Provenance: Skyros.

Water jug with three handles, one vertical from the


neck to the shoulder and two horizontal on the belly.
The shape and profile of the pot and the decoration of
the handles betray the Thessalian originals used by the
Skyran potter.
Protogeometric period, end of 9th to beginning of 8th
c.

B.C.

Among

the hydria'

many

uses

may be

singled out the

one connected with burial: they were intended for the


deposition of the dead person' s ashes and for the memorial

rites.

Bibliography:

Marangou 1978, 195

cat.

no. 47,

and ASAtene

45, 1983, 142.

For the functions of the clay hydriai generally, see Diehl, Hyand for the cTay hydriai of the Protogeometric period from Skyros, op. cit. 224-225 no. cat. T.45-T.48. Verdelis,
53 n. 1-2 pi. 3, 14 and 13, 144.

dria, 120f;

For the handle decoration, see Kerameikos V^, pi. 153, and
Coldstream, CP, 159-160, pi 33d. See also Lefkandi
333f.
I,

49

49. Hydria
H. 49.4, Diam. rim 17.5-18, Diam, belly 33.5,

Mended from many

Diam. foot12.5.

fragments.

No. Col. 297.


Provenance: Skyros.

The decoration is simpler than that of no. 48, but they


both belong to the same time, at the end of the 9th and
beginning of the 8th
Bibliography:

c.

B.C.

Marangou 1978, 196

cat. no. 48.

For parallels, see no. 48.

50.

Amphora

53,

Diam

rim 17 5-18, Diam. belly 38.5, Diam. foot 12.


fragments.

Mended from many


No Col. 293.

Provenance: Skyros.

The shape, form of the body and decoration of the shoulder zone (concentric circles drawn with a compass) date
it to the Protogeometric period, in the 9th c. B.C. Clear
Thessalian influence.
Bibliography:

Cf

Marangou 1978, 183

cat.

no 34

Heurtley-Skeat, BSA 31, 1930-31, 27

11. Verdelis, 5-6 no. 1-2. Lefkandi

I,

fig

11

no

80, Class

335f.

54

57.

Amphora

74,

Diam

rim 30,

Mended from many


No Col. 289

Diam

belly 54,

52. Pithoid vessel with

Diam. foot 22.

fragments.

lid

Provenance: Skyros

("pyxis")

H. 40.4, Diam. rim 22-23, Diam. belly 39,

two handles on the belly. The potter's geometconception is realized in the shape, the structure of
the body, the differentiation between the light clay
ground and the dark glaze and the strict syntax of the
decoration: concentric circles with crosses in the centres on the belly, semicircles with hourglass motifs on
Pot with

ric

the shoulder.

Protogeometric period, 8th c

two double-handles and

Mended and

1983, 145

fig

foot 19-20.

No. Col. 288


Provenance: Skyros.

The lid is missing. The perpendicular axes of the pot are


emphasized by the "metopic" decoration of the belly.
The motifs (concentric circles with crosses and rhombs)
recall the amphora no. 51 The whole scheme of the decoration conforms to the shape of the vase.
.

B C.

Protogeometric period, 9th


Bibliography

Diam

restored.

Marangou 1978, 184


1, 138, 146 n 33

cat.

no

35.

ASAtene

Bibliography:

and decoration, see Charitonides, Arch. Delt.


28, 1973, pi 5, CM 23 Kerameikos
pi 55, Inv. 569. Desborough. PP, 25 pi. 5, 1089 (relations with Attica).
For the shape

I,

c.

B.C.

45,

145 and 209

A
pi.

similar

Marangou 1978, 185


cat. no.

shape comes from

13, 599.

cat,

no 36

Tokyo 1980,

174.
Attica: see

Desborough, PP, 112,

53. Krater with high conical foot

and double

handles
H

34,

Diam. rim 36.5-38.5, Diam Belly 34.7, Diam, foot 20.4-

27.

Mended and

restored.

No. Col. 290.


Provenance: Skyros

zone (concentric semihere, probably of


the inverted semicircles which

Typical decoration of the shoulder


circles: cf nos. 48-49).

Thessalian

seem

to

origin,

is

A new element

hang from the rim of the

Protogeometric, 10th-9th
Bibliography:

c.

vase.

B.C.

Marangou 1978, 193

cat. no. 44.

Cf Heurtley-Skeat, BSA 31, 1930-31, 30 pi. X (Class 20. Desborough, PP, 92, pi. 22 A. R.M. Cook, Creek Painted Pottery
(1966), 11, fig. 3. Verdelis, pi. 8, 45 and 9, 56-58. Desborough,
CDA, 223 pi. 23 (for the shape); and see pi. 1 7,5, 20, 6 and 24,
25. For the pendant semicircles and shape, cf Schehid, Meisterwerke, no. 1 36, 121 and 122.

-><^'

53

54.

Skyphos

H. 12.2, Diam. rim 14.7, Diam. foot 6.3.

V*

Mended.
No. Col. 430.
Provenance: Skyros

Open

two handles. The decoration


on the krater no. 53.

vessel with

to that

10th-9th

c.

is

similar

B.C.

Unpublished.
For parallels, see no

53.

55. Lekythos
H. 13.7,

Diam

rim 4.2,

Diam

foot 4.5

Foot and rim restored.


No. Col. 449.
Provenance: Skyros.

The shape, spherical body and linear decoration with


concentric semicircles place it among the mature Protogeometric pots, which are found in nearly all the
known workshops. Lekthoi of a similar shape and with
the corresponding decoration were already being made
in the Submycenean period.
10th c. B.C.
Unpublished.

CiKerameikos
borough PP, pi.

I,

13 Brann, Hesperia 30, 1961, pi 25 Des313-314 fig. 14B (tranditional type


Lefkandi

pi

9.

I,

from Submycenean to Protogeometric) and

pi

255c
S6

56.

Lekythos

H. 23

8,

Diam. rim

Mended and

8,

Diam. root

7.

restored.

No. Col. 403


Provenance: Skyros.

Vase with ribbon handle, short narrow neck and spherical body. Lekythoi were intended for fatty liquids, oil
and perfumes. The neck and shoulder zone have the
light colour of the clay ground. At the bottom of the
neck are parallel black lines, and on the shoulder, semicircles, a triangle with lattice filling and plastic knobs.
The knobs suggest Thessalian influence.
Protogeometric, end of 10th to beginning of 9th c. B.C.
Bibliography:

Marangou 1978, 187

Cf Desborough, PP. 164. Kerameikos

cat. no. 38.


IV^, pi.

17

Inv.

201 8 (grave

1904-5,
pi. 13, 14 (37). BSA ^^
and Kerameikos
79. Charitonidis, Arch. Delt 27, 1972, pi. 22g (CM 102-103)
pi. 126, 4 and 260c (examand pi. 17 (CM 76). Ci Leikandi
ples dated to the end of the 10th c. B.C
40], pi. 47;

I,

I,

57. Lekythos
H. 31, Diam. rim 10.1,

Mended and

Diam

belly 20.3,

Diam. foot 8.8

restored.

No. Col. 436.


Provenance: Skyros.

The shape is very like that af the preceding no. 56, but
the position and arrangment of the geometric motifs testify to a different workshop. On the neck three parallel
lines border a band of black triangles. A row of dots indicates the junction of neck and shoulder. On the shoulder are concentric semicircles and hatched lozenges.

Below the handle a band with the same decoration as


on the neck. Similar decoration is found on early
Protogeometric pottery from Attica and Euboea.
Dated to the beginning of the 9th c. B.C.

that

Bibliography:

Marangou

Cf Kerameikos

1978, 191 cat. no. 42.

pis. 47, 1
37,6 and 29 Inv 523 (similar decoKerameikos IV, pi 19 (grave 48) 2083, 2067 and pi 18
(grave 40) 2022 Desborough, PP. pi 9 (2022, 2067). Hesperia
30, 1961 pi. 26, 33. See also Lefkandi
pi. 260c.
I,

ration)

I,

57

Prochous or oinochoe with

58.

trefoil

mouth

and ribbon handle.

59.

Oinochoe with
Diam mouth

H. 12.7. Diam. foot 3.5.

H. 17,

Mended.

Intact.

No. Col. 444.


Provenance: Skyros.

No. col. 294.


Provenance: Skyros.

On

The

the shoulder

is a linear decoration of multiple trianbadly preserved. The lower part is painted black.
Typologically related parallels from Euboea are dated to
the 9th c. B.C., in the Protogeometric period.

gles,

6.5,

trefoil

mouth

Diam. belly 12.5, Diam. foot 6

base of the neck and the fine


The black glossy slip covering the whole of the pot is broken by a light reserve
band in the middle of the belly, decorated with a wavy
line. There are two small holes in the neck beneath the
light

grooves

at the

ring base recall metal vases.

Unpublished.

rim.

Cf BSA 65, T970,

"Sub-Protogeometric" period, 9th

pi

and the recent Lefkandl I, 31 6f


For the shape, cf op. cit, 31 5 and
21 1 a For the decoration, cf op. cit,

11 a-b,

(particularly for Skyros, 321


pi

183 26 no

pi.

67,

no. 2-3,

no. 4;
pi.

pi.

and

pi.

134. 16 no.

4; pi.

216b. See also op.

168. 3 no. 6-7;

cit, 315.

pi.

176 15

Bibliography:

Marangou

1978, 190 cat,

For the decoration, cf Lefkandi


pi.

I,

pi

c.

B.C

no 141.

266g and BSA

77. 1982,

22,3.

58

60.

Prochous

H. 12.9, Diam. rim 5.5, Diam. foot 4.5.


Intact.

No. col. 450.


Provenance: Skyros.

Small vessel with one handle (jug). The clay-coloured


shoulder zone is decorated with concentric semicircles.
On the lower part of the body are black parallel lines.
The neck and foot are emphasized with black glaze.
Protogeometric period, end of 10th to beginning of 9th
c.

B.C.

have been found in graves; they were prolife and also in the cult of the

Similar jugs

bably used in everyday


dead person.
Bibliography:

Marangou 1978, 186

For typological parallels, cf

Wurzburg
kandi

I,

I,

322

fig.

BSA

Kerameikos
16D.

pi. 3,3.

Oinochoe with
mouth

61.

cat. no. 37.

11, 1904-5, 79

IV, pi. 17,

vertical

fig.

2020 (grave

handle and

H. 33, Diam. mouth 12.7, Diam. belly


Mouth mended, foot broken in places.

21,

Diam

3.

CVA

40). Lef-

trefoil

foot 9.7.

No. Col. 379.


Provenance: Skyros.

The vase

is decorated with exceptional care and accuracy from the rim to the ring base and the ribbon
handle. The five thin lines around the belly of the pot
are drawn with geometric precision. On the shoulder
are semicircles with hourglass motifs. Similar decorative
motifs are found on Thessalian pottery and in Euboea,
but the prototypes appear to come from Attic work-

shops.

Protogeometric period, 10th-9th


Bibliography:

and 209

Marangou

cat. no.

c.

B.C.

1978. 188 cat. no. 39. Tokyo 1980, 75

175

Cf Heurtley-Skeat, BSA 31, 1930-31, pi. IV 58 V (66-67), class


9 Desborough. PP. 50-51 pi. 22 nos. 66-67 (from Marmariani
in Thessaly). Charitonides, Arch. Delt. 28, 1973, pi. 18,
80.
Hesperia 43, 1974, 383 pi 80a (from Attica). Lefkandi I, pi. 18,
39 no 2 (the Lefkandi examples are dated to the end of the
10th c B C ) There is a similar one from Thessaly, PC, 10th c:
Schefold, Meisterwerke, 122 fig. p. 121 no.
35, 7.

CM

Double oinochoe with

62.

H 21, Diam mouth


Diam toot 5 7
Slight damage to the

No

5-5

5,

trefoil

mouth

Diam. belly 10 (lower

9),

foot.

384
Provenance Skyros.
Col

The geometric scheme is realized by the potter not only


in the structure of the two bodies symmetrically united,
but in the syntax of motifs and use of colour contrast.
The basic scheme of the decoration is as though it were
a single vase: thus, the lower part, the belly, has black
glaze and thin parallel reserved lines (as on the oinochoe no. 61), while the upper part functions as if it were
the shoulder of an ordinary oinochoe, decorated in the
usual fashion with concentric semicircles. Also typical
of the vase's tectonic articulation is the accentuation of

the transition from neck to shoulder. The neck, like the


almost conical foot, is black; the edges of the foot and
the rim are the reserved.
Protogeometric period, 9th c. B.C.
"Superimposed" or double-bodied pots, oinochoai
and amphoriskoi of the same period have been found
on Skyros. Similar ones are encountered in Attica in a
later

phase of the Geometric period,

in

the 8th

c.

B.C.

Marangou 1978. 189

Tokyo 1980,
cat. no 40
176
For parallels, see Desborough, PP 165, 167. Smithson, Hesperia 43, 1974, 380 pi. 79 (NM 15314). Fortetsa, 53 pi
36 no
Bibliography:

146 and 209

cat. no.

537.

62

63.

Prochous with cut-away rim

H. 19.4, Diam. 7

Mended

from

4,

many

Diam.

belly 13,

Diam

foot

7.

fragments.

No. Col 429.


Provenance: Skyros.

The jug shape, with the back of the rim cut away level
with the handle, is the old Helladic form of prehistoric
Thessalian pottery and is a typical example of the influence of Thessalian art on the Skyran potters and also
of the conservatism and persistent traditionalism of the
provincial workshops New are the structure, the spare
linear decoration and the use of colour contrast. Analogous conservative tendencies are also to be found in
the local pottery of Epirus
Protogeometric period, 9th c. B C
Bibliography:

147 and 210

Marangou 1978. 192


no 177,

cat

no 43

Tokyo 1980.

cat.

Cf Verdelis. 19f and 41 Coldstream, GC, 41 and 45 For the


prochous, see
Koi)AEipavr|-BoKOToiTouAou, XcxXkoJ KopivdioupyeJc; Tlpoxoi (1975), 69f and generally for the uses of the
vessel in everyday life and the cult of the gods and the dead
I.

i
I

60

The small open pots nos. 64-76 and the bird vase no. 71
graves and were found on Skyros.
Although they are generally referred to as grave goods,
they were undoubtedly intended for everyday use. Attic, Euboean, Thessalian and Cycladic influences on the
shapes and decoration are apparent.
They date to the Protogeometric period, 10th-9th c.

One-handled kyathion

65.

come from

B.C.

H. 5.7, Diam. rim

9,

Diam. base

4.5.

Mended.
No. Col. 437.
Provenance: Skyros.

Small cup with ribbon handle, no foot and a flat base.


Only the rim and handle are decorated; the body is all
black.

cup is referred to as Cycladic. Similar examhave been found recently in graves at Lefkandi on
Euboea.
Protogeometric period, late 10th-9th c. B.C.

This type of
ples

64.

One-handled kyathion

H. 9.8,

Diam

rim 10.2, Diam. foot 5.3.

Bibliography:

intact.

No. Col. 401.


Provenance: Skyros.

Cf Lefkandi
grave 19 no.

I,

Marangou 1978, 220


pi.

13, 1, 5-6,

and 66,

cat. no. 85.


p.

262, and 294

f,

pi.

135

3.

Decorated kyathion with ribbon handle and high foot.


The type is known from grave finds in Thessaly and Euboea.

Protogeometric period,
Bibliography.

Marangou

late

10th-9th

978, 219 cat

c.

no

B.C.
84.

Desborough, CDA, 210 pi. 49; idem, "A group of Vases from
Skyros", Sfe/e Konto/eontos (1980), 55fpl. 11 d (identical). Lefkandi
pi 145 no, 2 and pi. 242, 44 nos. 5,7.

66.

One-handled kyathion

5.8,

Diam. rim

9.2,

Diam. base

4.6.

Breaks on the lip and body


No. Col. 416.
Provenance: Skyros.

I,

Black-painted cup with ribbon handle and


decoration
on the neck zone, similar to no. 65. It is a variation
of
the high-footed type, no. 64.
Protogeometric period, late 9th

c.

B.C.

Unpublished.
For typological parallels, see nos. 65 and
64
pi. 22. 11 and pi. 28b.

1982,

61

See also BSA 77

One-handled kyathion

67.

H b, Diam rim 9.
Mended and rim restored.
No. Col 438.
Provenance: Skyros.

the black paint on the body and


here the transition from the body
emphasized by a light reserve band.

shape and

Similar

in

handle

to nos. 68-70;

to the rim

10th

9th

is

in

B.C.

c.

Unpublished.
For typological parallels from

135, 19 no.
nos. 68-70,

pi.

3,

Euboea see Leikandi

148, 43 no. 6 and

168, 2 no.

pi.

I,

1.

293f,

pi.

Cf also

One-handled kyathion

68.

H. 7.7, Diam. rim 11.2, Diam. base 5.5

Mended.
No. Col. 441.
Provenance: Skyros.

Undecorated, black-painted cup with ribbon handle.


is known as "Thessalo-Cycladic". The recent
from the Protogeometric cemetery at Lefkandi on

The type
finds

Euboea
10th-9th

testify to

its

wide

distribution.

B.C.

c.

Bibliography:

Marangou 1978, 221

cat. no. 86.

in Thessaly, see Desborough,


40 pi. 21 (85, 86). For the Euboean examples see Leikandi
293f pi. 102 grave 33 no. 7; pi. 144 grave 28, 10 and pi 185

For parallels from Marmariani


PP.
I,

grave 31,

69.
H.

8.

One-handled kyathion

8,

Slight

Diam rim 10, diam. base 5.5.


damage to the foot, restored in

a very

few places

No

Col 415
Provenance: Skyros.

Similar to

Late 9th

no

c.

Bibliography:

68.

B.C.

Marangou 1978, 221

cat

no 87 (not

illustrated)

For typological parallels, see no. 68 See also Lefkandi


105, 45 no. 4 See also BSA 77, 1982, pi 15 nos. 9-11

I.

pi

69

62

One-handled kyathion

70.

H. 7.1,

Some

Diam

rim. 10.3.

due

spalling

to small inclusions

the clay.

No. Col. 710.


Provenance. Skyros.

Late 9th

c.

H. 7.2, Diam. rim 10.7.


Intact.

68 and 69.

Similar to nos

No. Col. 708.


Provenance: Skyros.

B.C.

Unpublished.

Typologically similar to no. 70.

pi.

105 grave 45 no. 4 and

and

69. See also Lefkandi


BSA, op. cit, pi. 15 nos. 9-11.

For typological parallels, see nos. 68


I,

One-handled kyathion

72.

9th

c.

B.C.

Unpublished
Lefkandi

no

71.

One-handled kyathion

H 7 8, Diam
Rim damaged
No Col 709

nm

73.

294

fig

79. pi

28

(70; P6)

and BSA

77. 1982,

pi.

24

One-handled kyathion

H. 5.5, Diam.

11.

nm

10.2.

Surface spalling.

No

Provenance: Skyros

The cup type

I,

3.

is

Col. 41.

Provenance: Skyros.

similar to nos. 68-70.

It is

dated by chro-

nologically securer parallels from Lefkandi, Euboea, to


the Late Protogeometric phase, 9th c B C.

Cup

with decorated handle. The shape dates

late 9th c.

it

to the

B.C.

Unpublished
Unpublished.
For typological parallels see nos
For parallels, see Lefkandi
pi

63

35, 3-5.

/,

294

fig

7K

pi

28 (70/P5-P7) and

Similar cups have also


pi.

35, 467.

70-72.

been found

in

Crete:

see Fortetsa,

74. "Pyxis" (pot with lid]

H 15

3, without lid: 12.3, Diam. rim 9


Foot broken.
No. Col, 407.
Provenance: Skyros.

The decoration and shape date


period, 10th

c.

it

5,

Diam

to the

foot, 5

Protogeometric

B.C.

Vessels of the same type have been found in the Kerameikos and the Agora at Athens as v^'eil as at Lefkandi on

Euboea.
Bibliography:

147 and 211

Marangou 1978, 218


cat. no.

cat.

no. 83.

Tokyo 1980

179.

For the shape and paralles from Skyros, see Desborough, PP


106f and 109, pi. 8; idem, CD A, 154-155 pi. 28. For parallels
from Attica, see Kerameikos IV, pi. 20 no. 913 (grave 28), and
Brann, Hesperia 30, 1961, pi. 26, 40. For examples from Euboea, see Lefkandi I, pis. 215, 220 and 267a-d (a variant of the
type with different decoration). For pyxides in general, see
especially Lefkandi
327f.
I,

75. "Pyxis"

Diam rim 7 9, Diam. belly


Body and base slightly chipped.

H. 8.6,

13.2,

Diam. base

5.6.

No. Col. 442.


Provenance: Skyros.
Pyxis without lid; two holes beneath the rim to fasten
the lid. The brown-black glaze covering the body is interrupted by a reserve band which assists the tectonic
articulation.

Geometric period, 9th


Bibliography:

B.C.

Marangou 1978, 194

cat

no 45

For pyxides, see no 74 and Desborough PP, 165, 172, no 21


See also Lefkandi
327f and pi. 180, 23, no. 5 (drawing) and
pi. 220f (similar but decorated).
I.

74

64

76.

Amphora

H. 20.5, Diam. rim 7.3, Diam. foot 11.7.

Rim mended.
No. Col. 291.
Provenance: Skyros.

The related decoration on pyxis no. 75 and the elegant


shape of the amphora suggest a roughly similar date, in
the Late Protogeometric or Early Geometric period, late
9th

c.

B.C.

Bibliography:

Marangou 1978, 94

For the type, ci Lefkandi

I,

335f

cat. no. 46.

pi.

101, 33 no.

5.

77. Bird vase


H. 15.4,

L.

26.2.

Base restored.
No. Col. 382.
Provenance: Skyros.
It has a conical foot, small handle and necked orifice on
the back.
This type of bird-shaped vase belongs to the last phase
of the Mycenean civilization and survives into the Pro-

togeometric period.
10th c. B.C.
Bibliography: Marangou 1978, 217
148 and 210 cat no 178. Lefkandi

no. 82. Tokyo 1980,


344, 408-409, n. 435.

cat.
I,

Desborough, PP, 166, 341, CVA Cyprus


pi. 34,1 (Mycenean period), and Lefkandi
pi. 254, a-d (Submycenean to
Late Protogeometric examples).

Cf

I,

I.

Vases from various workshops, 8th- 6th

78.

c.

B.C.

Skyphos

H. 7.7,

Diam

rim 11.5, Diam. base 5.9

Skyphos

80.

Intact.

No. Col. 199

H. 8.5,

Black glazed with linear decoration between the han-

Intact.

Diam

rim 14.7, Diam. base 6.7.

No. Col. 202.

dles.

Ca 775-750

B.C. Probably from an Attic

Bibiiographv:

Marangou 1978, 111

workshop.

Attic

workshop, end of 8th

Bibliography;

cat. no. 88.

The shape has Attic parallels: Brann, Hesperia 30, 1961, pi 19


32). Kerameikos V,, pi. 89 (no. 879, grave 25, pi. 90). Cercke, AA 1983, 484 cat. no. 7 fig. 9.

(I

79. Lekanis

Marangou 1978, 224

H. with handle 17, Max.

Mended from many


No Col 47

it

to the

2nd

half of the 8th

c.

B.C.

B.C

no 91
fig.

106

Diam. base

7.8.

Small kalathos [kalathiskos)

Intact.

tom and base.


The decoration dates

cat

c.

For parallels, see Hesperia Supplement II, 150 C. 37


V^, pi. 95 no. 861 (grave 11)

H. 4.5, Diam. rim with handles 23.5.

Lekanis with two handles, decorated with hatched meanders on the body and lanceolate leaves on the bot-

beginning of 7th

Kerameikos

81

No. Col 197.

Diam above

8-15,

3,

fragments and restored.

The measured, but no longer severe composition of old


geometric motifs (rhombs, rosettes, herringbone) suggest
a date in the late Geometric period, 2nd half of the 8th c.
B.C. Attic

workshop.

Probably from an Attic workshop.


Bibliography: Marar^gou 1978, 230 cat.

148 and 211

Unpublished.
For parallels from Attica, see Kerameikos

(Grave

66).

CVA

Louvre 16,

pi.

20,3.

V.,,

pi.

103

No 800

Cf

CVA

cat. no.

Heidelberg

3,

no 98

Tokyo 1980.

181.
51 pi

114, 7

CVA Wurzburg,

I,

pi

11,

(with the earlier bibliography).

66

Cretan workshop

82.

Prochous or aryballos

H. 11.5.
Intact.

No. Col. 40.


Provenance: Thera.
This type of jug with spherical body, ribbon handle

and

known from

Crete and other regions which exported pottery. The colour of the clay
and the decoration identify it as the product of a Cretan
workshop and date it to the 8th c. B.C.
short narrow

Bibliography:

neck

is

Marangou 1978, 225

cat. no. 92.

pi. 49 no. 759. CVA Oxford


A, 53 pi.
2.
Boardman, The Cretan Collection in Oxford (1961), pl. XXXIV 463.

Cf Fortetsa,

II

I,

J.

83. Aryballos
H. 7.4, Diam. rim
Diam. foot 3.

2.3,

Diam. mouth

1,

Diam. belly

6.5,

Intact.

No. Col. 22.

The shape

is very characteristic of Corinthian pottery,


but the colour of the clay and the decoration show it to
be the product of a Cretan workshop.

Geometric period, end of 8th


Bibliography:

and 211
Cf

Marangou 1978, 227

cat. no.

c.

B.C.

cat. no. 94.

Tokyo 1980, 7b

180.

(1961), 6 pl. 11. Brummer CollecP.C. Themelis, ASAtene 45, 1983, 216 fig. 3

H Payne, Necrocorinthia

tion,

no. 671.

(upper

left).

84. Aryballos

H 6.4, Diam rim


mouth 1
Mouth damaged.

2,

Diam

belly 5 4,

Diam

base.

2,

Diam.

No. Col 185

The shape is a Cretan version of the Corinthian aryballos, and the decoration shows Cypriot influence. Close
dating

is

problematic;

half of the 7th


Bibliography:

c.

it

probably belongs

Marangou

67

68, 1973, 36.

the

first

1978, 228 cat. no. 95

For the dating, cf Fortetsa, pl

BSA

in

B.C.

Cercke,

AA

71 950, pl

1983, 484

49 735 Coldstream,
cat. no.

fig.

11.

84

Ary hallos

85.

H 5 4, Diam rim, 1.7, Diam.


Diam mouth 0.008.
Mouth damaged.

No

Col

belly 4,

Diam. base

1.5,

186.

Cretan type, similar to no. 84.


First half

of the 7th

B.C.

c.

Marangou 1978, 229

Bibliography:

cat. no. 96.

Cf Fortetsa. pi. 71 1024 and pi. 96 1317, 1314.


See also Coldstream op. of. 36 and Cercke, op.
no. 8 fig. 11.

cit.,

484

cat.

85

hody

86. Aryballos with cylindrical

Max H

9.4,

Diam. rim

Diam. mouth

3,

1.3,

Diam. base

5.6.

Intact.

No. Col. 24.


Similar pots with cylindrical bodies
tion

have been found

in

graves

in

and

linear decora-

"Cretan" va-

Crete.

Corinthian aryballos.
half of the 7th c. B.C.

riation of the
First

Bibliography:

Cf Fortetsa,

Marangou 1978, 229

pi.

97,

1532 and

pi

cat. no. 97.

100, 1367.

Theran workshop

.^
"'

87.

Oinochoe with

H 8

5,

Diam base

trefoil

'^'Ji^

mouth

6.

Intact.

No

Col 198.
Provenance: Thera.

The simple decoration of the body with

hatched

rrie-

ander betrays Attic influence


Geometric period, ca 775-750 B.C.
Probably from a Theran workshop.
Bibliography:

Marangou 1978, 226

For the shape, ci Agora


864.

cat. no. 93.

VIII, pi. 5, 72.

Kerameikos V

^,

pi.

83 no.

68

88.

Trefoil-mouth prochous

H. 10.7,

Diam base 4

3.

Intact.

No. Col 446


Provenance: Thera

Skyphos

The shape and the simple decoration, consisting of dark


bands on a reserved zone of light clay ground, adapted
to the structure of the pot, date it to the 2nd half of the
8th c, ca 740-720 B.C.

90.

Unpublished

Provenance: Thera.

For Attic parallels see Kerameikos

1332 (grave

52). For the

shape

cf

V.,,

CVA

pi.

81 (grave 100)

Mainz,

RCZM^,

no

pi. 9,

11.

H. 5.5, Diam. rim, 10.3, Diam. base 3.6.


Intact.

No

Col. 411.

linear decoration date it to the Late Geometric period, 750-700 B.C. Product of an island workshop, probably Theran.

The shape and

Bibliography:

89.

Skyphos

91

H. 6

5,

Diam

rim 12, Diam. base 5.3.

Marangou

8.5,

with handles 9.9, Diam. rim 4.5, Diam. foot

Intact.

No

No. Col 201


Provenance: Thera.

The shape and simple decoration date it to the 3rd


quarter of the 8th c B C ca 750-725 B.C. Island workshop, probably Theran.
,

978, 223 cat. no. 90.

Spouted pot with two handles

Intact

Col 410
Provenance: Thera

4.

The yellowish colour of the clay and the simple decorait to the early 7th c.
B.C. Theran workshop.

tion date

Unpublished
Bibliography:

Marangou 1978, 223

cat

no

89.

Cf a parallel

See Hesperia Supplement II, 79 XVII, 1, 3 fig, 54


For the type and decoration, see Kerameikos V, pi. 112.

69

in

the National

Museum

of Athens: Collignon-

Couve, Catalogue des Vases peints au Musee National


nes,

1902-1904,

pi.

II,

lb (Thera).

d' Athe-

Corinthian workshop
The objects nos. 92-100 are typical examples of Corinworkshops and date to the 7th and 6th centuries

thian

BC
The vases nos. 92-93, known as alabastra or aryballoi,
were intended tor perfume and aromatic or plain oil;
th3y were used by men and women, especially athletes.
The pyxides nos. 94-96 were utility vessels (little boxes)
i'j

hold

women'

cosmetics.

92. Arybdilos
H. 7.4, Diam. rim. 3.j, Diam.

Rim

restored.

No

Col

mouth

V%i^

0.009, Diam. base 1.6.

93

261

The shape and decoration date

it

ca 660 B.C. Protocor-

inthian style.
Bibliography:

"WIFXW
Marangou 1978, 234

cat. no.

102.

pi. 11,7. CVA Oxford \\\ C. pi. 1, 19 (similar


Cf CVA Stuttgart
decoration). CVA Frankfurt am Main
pi. 13, 4-5. Ci Corinthi
XV, Part III, pi. 52 1245 (for the decoration).
I,

I,

93. Aryballos
H. 7.4, Diam.

Rim

94

mouth

(0.095).

restored.

No. Col. 457.

The typological

parallels

correspond to the transition

from the Protocorinthian


ca 640-625 B.C.

to the Early Corinthian styles,

Bibliography:

Cf

Marangou 1978, 235

CVA Oxford

III

C,

pi. IV,

ne, Necrocorinthia (1931),

20.

CVA

275

fig.

cat. no.

Leipzig
118.

103.
I,

pi.

24, 4. H. Pay-

9.1

94. Pyxis with lid


H.

5,

Diam. base

5,

Diam.

lid

95. Pyxis with lid

7 1.

Intact.

No. Col. 37.

H. 3.5.

women' s graves. The shape recalls


wooden boxes and belongs to the Ripe

Typical deposit

in

lathe-turned
Protocorinthian style (ca 640-630 B C). The decoration
would date it to the end of the century, around 610 B.C.
Bibliography:

Marangou 1978, 235

Cf H. Payne, op.

cit,

293.

cat. no.

104.

Intact.

No

Col 38

typologically similar pyxis to no. 94

same

period,

Bibliography:

end of the 7th

c.

Marangou 1978. 235

Cf H. Payne, op.

cit,

It

belongs to the

B.C.
cat. no.

105.

293.

70

96

96. Tripod pyxis


H 77. Diam (with the feet) 9
Diam. lid, 9.
Mended from many fragments.
No Col 36

1,

Diam. mouth

8.5,

The shape recalls wooden


It stands on three wide legs
prototypes and makes its appearance in the Early Corinthian style (625-600 B.C.), but the decoration corresponds to the early
Ca 590-580 B C
Bibliography:

B.C.

c.

Marangou

For the shape, see

1978, 236 cat. no. 106.

H Payne,

97. Exaleiptron
H. 7.5,

6th

op. cit,

293

[kothon or plemochoe)

Diam mouth 10

4,

98

Diam base 118

Intact.

No

Vessel for carrying liquids or perfumes. The shape and


decoration date it to the 2nd half of the 6th c. B.C., ca

H. 6

530 B C

No. Col 23.

Bibliography

oinochoe

98. Miniature

Col. 21

Marangou 1978, 237

cat

no 108

Tokyo 1980,

149 and 212 cat no 182

1,

Diam. base

The

trefoil

name, function and shape of this pot, see below nos


113 and 114 For the type, see
Scheibler, Idl 79, 1964, 72f 90
and 108 fig 32 For Corinthian parallels, see H Payne, op. cit.,
335 and CVA Stuttgart
pi 16, 7 And the recent M. Th. Camp-

4.

mouth, expanded base and decoration of


style, date it to 550-540 B.C.

Late Corinthian

For the

5.

Intact

Bibliography:

II

Marangou 1978, 238

cat.

no 109.

II,

bell,

71

Later Corinthian Pottery (1983), 66f

Hornbostel 1980, 47-48, no


Cf H Payne, op. cit, 336.
Stuttgart

(1965),

pi.

16,1.

35.

CVA Oxford
CVA Munchen

II

C.
3,

pi.

pi.

II,

25.

142, 12.

CVA

Skyphos

99.

H 4 2, Diam
Diam base 4

rim 6.7, Diam. rim with handles 9.3,


2.

Mended
No. Col. 528.

The shape and


of the 6th

Bibliography;

linear decoration date

Marangou

Campbell, op.

Cf

334.

cit.

it

to the

2nd

half

B.C.

c.

CVA

978, 236 cat.

For the type, see H. Payne, op.

cit, 125f.

Stuttgart

pi

I,

no 107.

15,

14 and

CVA Wurzburg

I,

pi.

34, 5

100. Miniature l<alathiskos


H. 5.8, H. handle 2.3,

Diam

rim 5 1-5.4, Diam. base 4.2.

Intact.

No.

col. 39.

The

unusual shape and the decoration date


end of the 6th or beginning of the 5th c. B.C.

relatively

to the

Bibliography:

Marangou

it

110

978, 238 cat. no.

Similar pots have been found in children' s graves


Corinth and elsewhere: Corinth XIII, pi. 40 no. 287,
type of pot, see Corinth XV, Part III, 337f pi. 74.

in

4.

Attica,

For the

Boeotian workshop

101. Miniature skyphos


H. 4.5, Diam. rim

6.

102. Miniature skyphos

Intact.

No. Col 757

(L.

Evtaxias Collection, no. E 29)*.

H.

Miniature skyphos; on one side a lion facing right, on


the other a goose; carelessly painted filling ornament of
rosettes, spots

and

incision to render the

details recall the Corinthian technique.


is

Diam.

5.

8.

No. Col. 758

(L.

Evtaxias Collection,

stylized plants.

The shape, decoration and use of


It

4,

intact.

probably a Boeotian product imitating Corinthian

Miniature skyphos like no. 101


the other a goose.

no

30)*.

On one

side, a boar,

on

Unpublished.

pottery.

2nd

half of the 6th

c.

For typological parallels, see no 101

B.C.

Unpublished
For this group of pots, see

CVA Reading

J.

J.

Maffre,

BCH

99, 1975, 463-467;

167 For the relations between Corinth


and Boeotia, see also Corinth XV, Part III, 370
cf

I,

pi

*Catalogue no. 101, like nos. 102, 111, 134, 135, 136, 147 and
171 is from the Evtaxias Collection. Of the twelve vases in the
Evtaxias Collection (nos. E23-E34, Coulandris Collection nos.
751-762), eight are displayed in the cases and illustrated here.
They will all be published shortly by Lydia Palaiokrassas.

72

Attic

Variously shaped small vases from

Vases nos.

03-1

1 1

shop. The name,

come from

a 6th century Attic

"Swan group", has been

workshops

work-

given to the

workshop because of the swans that usually decorate its


products. The workshop was apparently in operation
for two or three generations, from about 575-525 B.C.
The vase-painters of the "Swan workshop" preferred to
paint very small pots without any particular care for design. Most of them have been found in graves; many
were children' s toys and a good number were votive
offerings

in

sanctuaries.

For the workshop, see Eieazley, Hesperia 13, 1944,


ABV, 665. Boardman. ABFV. 179, Addenda. 69

55f,

and

U\VVv\^S,|lMi

104

104. Lekanis
103. Pyxis of lekanis type
H
H. with

lid

8.7,

Diam. with handles li, Diam, base

No

Intact.

No. Col. 32

The

lid

570-560 B.C

Cf

107
73

5 1,

Diam base

2.5.

Col

13.

Decoration like that on skyphos no. 106; the swans'


heads are here shown raised and the bodies facing

carries the typical decoration of swans.

Bibliography:

Diam nm

2 6,

Lid missing

4.

right.

Marangou 1978, 239

cat

no 111

Kanellopoulou, Arch. Dell 1972, 246, nos


Roebuck, Hesperia 9, 1940, fig. 17 no. 49.

Bibliography:

145-146

pi.

Marangou

978, 241 cat

Agora

in

no 115.

in the Museum of the Ancient


Athens, S.R. Roberts, The Attic Pyxis (1978), pi. 2, 1.

For the decoration, ct the pyxis

105. Lekanis
H. 2 5, Diam. rim 4.3, Diam. foot 2.4.
Lid missing.

No. Col 33.


107

Stylized swans.

Ca 550

B.C.

Bibliography:

Marangou 1978, 242

cat. no.

116.

For parallels, see no. 103.

106. Skyphos
H. 3.5, Diam. rim with handles 8.9, Diam. foot 3.4.
Intact.

No. Col. 12.

Here the swans are turned

to the

left,

with their heads

Ca 550

/oy

/08

inverted.
B.C.

Bibliography:

Marangou 1978, 241

cat. no.

114.

For references, see no. 103.

107. " Exalelptron" or "kothon"


H. 2.3, Diam. mouth 2.8, above 4.6, Diam. base 1.3.
Small piece of rim missing.

No. Col. 34.


Bibliography:
For

Marangou 1978, 242

name and

its

cat.

no. 117.

function, see nos. 113 and 114.

For parallels, see no. 103

>>

108. Small oinochoe with trefoil


H. 6.1,

Diam

mouth

foot 2.6.

Intact.

No. Col. 10.


105

Decorated with
B.C.

Bibliography:

Marangou 1978, 240

See Beazley, op.

^-rjLf't.

stylized birds.

Ca 570-560

cit.

cat

no. 112.

56

109. Miniature psykter


H. 4

8,

Diam. rim 2.2 Diam. foot

1.8.

Intact

No. Col. 11.

Decoration similar to that of no. 108 The shape


large vases from Attic workshops.

Oh

is

known from
Ca 550 BC.
Bibliography:
For the

12-13
55f

Marangou 1978, 240

name and

figs.

87-89.

cat. no.

113.

function of the psykter, see Richter-Milne,


Drougou, Der attischer Psykter (1975),

St.

74

110. Miniature kalathiskos


3, with handle 4, Diam. mouth
Body and rim restored
No Col 459

H.

5,

Diam. base

4.

Stylized swans.

'''A^$^^

Ca 550-540

B.C.

Bibliography

Marangou 1978, 243

For the type, see no. 100. Cf also


no 648.

111

no.

118
Collection

II

Col

756

112. Miniature lebes

H
a small break

on the

to the

2nd

cit

321 no 688

*See cat no 101

75

in

rim 7.5.

half of the 6th

c.

B.C.

The shape and simple decoration of parallel


horizontal
brown bands alternating with reserve bands of
equal
width
Attic

recall

the Ernest

Brummer

Collec-

metal prototypes.

workshop, ca 550 B.C.

Bibliography
l3l and 213

For the type, cf a similar hydria

op

Diam

No. Col. 16.

Unpublished.

tion,

5.9.

Intact.

rim.

Miniature pot with two handles (amphoriskos or lebes


gamikos) It is decorated on both sides with a swan. The
decoration sets it in the class of pots from the Swan
it

li
110

Evtaxias Collection, no. E 28)*

group and dates

317

Amphoriskos

H 8, Diam foot 4.2


Complete except for

No

cat

Brummer

Marangou
cat. no.

1978, 298 Cat no


213.

169 Tokyo 1980

name, function and shape, see Richter-Milne 9 69-71


^'""'^' ^^'^ ^^^ Ancient Agora of Athens:
Agora
?,?fn?''^.''^'^
XII (Black and Plain Pottery],
242, pi. 4 no 85.
For the

Exaleiptra
This type of vessel (nos. 113-114) has been identified as
the exaleiptron of the ancient sources; it used earlier to
be known as a plemochoe or kothon. Exaleiptra have
been found in women' s graves and in sanctuaries as
votive offerings. They are often depicted in scenes showing women beautifying themselves, marriage ceremonies and the cult of the dead, particularly on white lekythoi. They also occur in symposia scenes, and are freqvently mentioned among medical utensils. They
chiefly date to the 6th and 5th centuries B.C.
Bibliography: Scheibler, Idl 7b, 1964, 72f. See aiso Art
Antique, Collections Privees de Suisse Romande (1975), no.
156. Cefassdarstellungen, 82-85. Hornbostel, 1980, 97.

113. Exaleiptron
H. 13, Diam.

mouth

11.2,

Diam. belly 21.2, Diam, foot 13.5.

Intact.

No. Col. 20.

The

lid is missing. The body is covered with a glossy black


glaze and the mouth is decorated with black linear motifs on a reserved band.

Attic
It

is

workshop, dated ca 550-525 B.C.


an early type, known as Attic A.

Bibliography: Beazley, Paralipomena, 159. no. 12.


1978, 299 cat. no. 270. Addenda 46.

Marangou

For parallels, see Hornbostel 1980, cat. no. 59, 97-98.


cat. no. 65, 163-166 (bibliography).

Froning 1982,

114. Exaleiptron
H. with

lid 13, without


Diam. foot 9
Mended and restored.
No. Col. 408

lid

11.4,

Diam. mouth

8,

Max. Diam

14.7,

Similar to the preceding, no. 113.

The shape and decoration date


6th c B.C., 500 B.C.
Bibliography:
7

Marangou 1978, 300

it

to ca the

end of the

no 171

Hornbostel

cat,

950, 97-98.

Cf

and 105 Also CVA Stuttgart


13 An identical one, complete, in the Kropatschek Collection: Hornbostel 1980, 97 no. 59.
pi.

I.

Scheibler, op. cit, nos 17

!,

25,

114

76

Attic Black-figure

Vases

115. Black-figure lekythos


H. 17.5, Diam. rim 36, Diam. foot
Intact.

6.

Rim repaired; surface damage.

No. Col. 780.

The black glaze on the mouth, handle and upper shoulder is badly worn; it is better preserved on the lower
part of the body, the base and the foot of the vase. Of
the plant-ornament on the lower shoulder band, some
stylized lotus blossoms and linear decoration are still
preserved.

The body of the vase bears a horseracing scene. The


centre of the field, on the vertical axis of the vase, is dominated by the figure of a horse with a youthful rider
galloping towards the right. Two pairs of figures approach
the

young horseman from opposite

rider,

wearing a

fillet

directions.

The

and with a small beard, holds the

reins firmly in his right

hand;

his

body

is

inclined slightly

backwards to check the full gallop of the animal, which


only touches the groundline with its hindfeet, while its
forelegs are in the air. The galloping horse is intercepted
by the figure of a naked youth wearing a fillet and walking towards the left, with his right hand raised in an
eloquent gesture. In his left hand he appears to be holding a spear, which is no longer visible to the naked
eye. A carefully folded purple himation hangs from his
right shoulder, covering his right arm as far as the bent
elbow. The young athlete is followed by a person dressed (in the manner of a priest) in a long ankle-length decorated chiton and overcloak (himation without folds),
which covers his arms as far as the wrists. Approaching
the young horseman from behind is a young naked athlete with a fillet on his head, a spear in his right hand,
and a himation draped over his left shoulder, making
the same gesture with his left hand as the athlete in
front of the horse, and giving the composition symmetrical balance. He is followed by a figure in a himation
with a long close chiton, which covers his right hand.
Over his left arm at the wrist a neatly folded himation is
draped, leaving his hand bare with its long fingers stretched in a controlled gesture like that of the naked athlete.

The features of the

figures' faces and the horse's head,


the anatomical details of the bodies of the athletes and
the horse and the edges of the garments are indicated
by deep incision. The remains of white colour are visible on the rider's short chiton and on the decoration of

the left-hand figure's chiton. Added purple is used to


render the fillets, the athletes' himatia, the horse's neck

and hindquarters, and the centres of the rosettes that


adorn the garments of the end figures.
77

115

The theme of the horse-rider representation, "the man


on a galloping horse", can be connected with the horseraces which, along with gymnastic contests had a principal place in the celebrations of the Great Panathenaea
that were introduced by Pisistratus at Athens in 566 B.C.
The end figures probably represent the judges of the
race, while the young athletes on either side of the central
figure of the young horseman appear with their expressive gestures to be proclaiming the rider's victory.
From the shape, known as a shoulder-lekythos, the style
and the subject depicted, the vase is dated to around
the middle of the 6th century, 560-550 B.C., and is reckoned among the early works of the Amasis Painter.
The inscription, made by Amasis, has been preserved
on 8 complete vases, all of them painted by the same
artist. His hand has been recognized on another 110
vases and fragments, large and small and from a variety of
shapes. Since on none of these vases does the word
egraphsen = painted) appear, and the identification of
the potter Amasis with the vase-painter has not been generally accepted, the painter is usually referred to by the
conventional name of the Amasis Painter.

-^^

Unpublished.

Bibliography: Sotheby's 10.12.1981, cat. no. 245.

monograph: Semni Karouzou,


Oxford 1956. And see J.D. Beazley, Ttie
Development of Attic Black Figure, 1951, 57f. The only study
in Creek is still the article by l[jvr| Kapou^ou in AM 56, 1931,
AriKu6oq toO "Apaoi oto 'EGviko MouoeTo, 98f. Typological
parallels and a more recent bibliography are given in D. von
Bothmer, Antik III, 1960, "New Vases by the Amasis Painter
71
For the vase of the same shape in Tubingen, see CVA
For the painter, see the basic

The Amasis

Painter,

',

f.

TiJbingen

3,

(1980) 50,

pi.

38, 5-7. For the subject of the horse-

man, cf the kylix CVA Mainz, Universitat, (1959) 43 pis. 41,2


and 42,3. Cf the Louvre kylix: D. von Bothmer, Madr.Mitt. 12,
1971, 'Three Vases by the Amasis Painter", 123f.

116. Black-figure

See also the catalogue of all the works: ABV (1 956) 1 50-1 5 Paralipomena (1971), 62-67 and Addenda 1982, 18-20 with com-

foot 16.2. H. neck 11.

amphora

H. 40.5, Diam. rim inside 13

Mended from many

Diam

fragments and

rim outside 18

much

2,

Diam.

restored.

plete bibliography. For the origin of the artist's

No. Col. 716.

Boardman, IHS 78, 1958, If


The Amasis Painter and his World, Vase-Painting in Sixth-cent.
B.C. Athens, The Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York,
Sept. 13-Oct 27, 1985 (with complete bibliography).
For the theme of horsemen, see M. B. Moore, Horses on Blackfigured Creek Vases of the Archaic Period, ca 620-480, Diss.

The scene on side A is dominated by the priestly figure


of Dionysus. Bearded and wearing an ivy wreath and a
long, ankle-length himation, he holds in his left hand a
kantharos, the characteristic Dionysian cup, from which
two ivy stems are growing. He is flanked by two sa-

New

tyrs in

name, see J.D.


and the recent D. von Bothmer,

York, 1971, 65-67 no. 406-417.

For the connection of the scene with the horseraces and celebration of the Pisistratan Panathenaea, cf lEpvr) KapoO^ou, Ta

ayyeia toO 'AvayupoOvToc;, Athens (1963), 89. See also Kleine, "Untersuchungen zur Chronologie der attischen Kunst
von Peisistratos bis Themistokles", IstMitt. Beih 8 (1973), 30
For the trade and export of the Amasis Painter's vases, see Boardman, ABFV, 60f and Scheibler, 172 n 88 with recent biblioJ

graphy.

dancing postures. On the other side (B) Hermes


depicted with Athena, accoutred with Attic helmet
and round shield and wearing an ankle-length embroidered garment, who slightly bends her head towards
him. "Crafty Hermes" wears a very ornamental chlamys, winged sandals and a brimmed hat; his left hand
holds his emblem, the caduceus (herald' s staff) The
two divinities are flanked by the figures of two mortals:
is

lib

79

behind Athena, a bearded man with a long himation,


and following Hermes a bearded warrior with greaves,
breastplate, shield of Boeotian type and Corinthian hel-

met
The
ing

clothskillful use of added colours on the figures'


and the alternation of white and purple, red and

black, lends vividness to the scenes.


A wonderful variety of floral and linear ornamentation

frames the scenes and


structure of the vase.

same time emphasises the


chain of palmettes and lotuses

at the

decorates the neck.


relief band marks the junction of neck and shoulder;
the latter bears a painted tongue decoration. Beneath
the handles six opposed plant spirals terminate in pomegranate blossoms. A band of stylized pomegranates connected by lines and making rhomboid patterns forms

include the cycle of Dionysus, mythological scenes mostly


from the cycle of the Labours of Hercules, and also scenes
from everyday life, we can detect not only the spirit of the Pisistratid era, but also certain political overtones.
The presence of the Goulandris amphora in Greece acquires
special importance from the fact that it and the amphora Inv
no. 15111 in the National Museum of Athens, with the representation of Pisistratus's club-bearing bodyguards are the only
known examples of his work preserved intact in this country
(see E. Bohr, op. cit, pi. 50 a-b, and p. 117 for a listof his vases
Athens).
For the festival of Aiora on the third day of the Anthesteria, see
E. Simon, AntK. VI, 1963, 18 (with bibliography).

in

the ground line on which the representations on both


sides of the amphora are painted. Beneath are the old
ornamental motifs of a meander band and rays on the
base.

There is an incised T
mark.
Ca 540-530 B.C.

(graffito)

on the

foot, the potter's

Unpublished.
Bibliography: Sotherby's 13.7.1981, cat. no. 245.
Bohr, "Der Schaukelmaler" (Forschungen zur antiken Kera-

E.

mik

II.

Kerameus

Reihe,

231, cat. no. 93,

pis.

Bd. 4, 1982), 18-27f, 33, 54


91-93.

n.

23, 24,

The vase shape, known

as a neck-amphora, is widely found in


Athenian pottery from the beginning of the mid-6th century
B.C. (see

E.

Bohr, op. cit, 27).

The scene of Dionysus and the

Satyrs

is

a favourite subject of

Athenian pot-painters, especially in the time of the Pisistratids.


The scene of Athena and Hermes in conversation (side A) recalls

Theomachy in book XX of the


Athena and Hermes set off to give
decisive protection to the Achaeans (for the Athena-

Homer'

Iliad, lines 32f,

their

description of the

when

Pallas

Hermes pair in Attic vase-painting, see P. Zanker, Wandel der


Hermes Cestalt in der attischen Vasenmalerei, Bonn 1965, 65f.
The name "Swing Painter" was given to the artist by Sir John
Beazley because of the scenes on two vases in the Boston
Museum and the Louvre, which depict a girl on a swing (on
this subject see the monograph by Bohr, op. cit. pis. 64 and
126, p. 52 and notes 532-540, with the earlier bibliography;
see also Boardman, ABFV, 63 fig. 142).
The Swing (or Aiora) Painter was one of the most prolific Athenian artists of the 2nd half of the 6th c. B C. He painted vases
of different shapes, especially large ones: amphorae, pseudopanathenaic amphorae, psykteres, loutrophoroi, lebetes, hy-

and kraters. Over 145 pieces have been attributed to hirn


with certainty The Aiora Painter's vases were chiefly intended
for export to the Italian commercial market, and indeed most
of them have been found in Etruscan graves. The Goulandris
amphora belongs to his early phase (I) (540-530 B.C ). His
work is characterized by the simplicity of the drawing, the variety of subjects and his originality in the composition and rendering of the figures In the wide repertoire of subjects, which
driai

lib

80

5th century vases from Attic workshops.


23 are called lekythoi, perfume bottles or oil flasks. Their shape is adapted to
narrow neck with a mouth like a flower bud. Lekythoi were produced
in Attic workshops from the 1 st quarter of the 6th century and lasted until the end of the 5th
century B.C. They were chiefly intended for the cult of the dead.
From the many lekythoi found in early 5th century graves it is concluded that they were
usually funerary objects, and that the production of small lekythoi in Attic workshops was
on a mass scale. We frequently see lekythoi in vase-paintings both beside the bier and beside or on the grave stele, as an offering to the dead.
Cat.

nos

1 1

7-1

their function: a thin

C. Haspels, ABL. Cefassdarstellungen,

77-82 (Tabelle 39)


For the funerary use of lekythoi, see the recent DC. Kurtz,

400 B.C."
Mus. Ser.

Vases for the Dead An Attic Selection 750Ancient Creek and Related Potter\, Int. Vase Symposium. Amsterdam 1984 Allard Pierson
Vol. 5, 314-328 (with large bibliography).
in

117. Black- figure lekythos


H. 13.6,

Diam

rim 2

Intact; belly slightly

No

7,

Diam

foot 3.5.

damaged.

CgI. 4.

It shows
a warrior mounting a four-horse chariot. A
male figure wearing a himation behind the horses offers
a flower to the warrior. Farewell scene (departure of a
warrior?). It belongs to the group of lekythoi with cocks
on the shoulder; the type survives into the 5th c. B.C
Ca 500 B C

Bibliography; Paralipomena. 210 ^arangou 1978, 268


143 Addenda, 57.

cat.

no.

Cf Haspels. ABL, 67-68 For the lekythos group with cocks on


the shoulder ("Cock group"), see CVA Tubingen 3 pi 45 6-9
(with the earlier bibliography)

man
118. Lekythos
H 13

6,

Diam nm

3 5,

Diam

foot 3

8,

Diam mouth

2 8

Intact

So

Col 387

It shows the departure of a warrior wearing a short chiton and helmet and holding a round shield, he is surrounded by figures, probably relatives on the left, an old

81

seated on a folding stool, perhaps his father; the


is flanked by figures wearing himatia and holding staves or javelins, probably simple onlookers. A usual warrior farewell scene.
Ca 500-490 B C It belongs to the same class as the preceding one, no 117.
central farewell scene

Bibliography;

Marangou 1978, 269

For typological parallels see

cat. no.

144.

no 117 and Addenda.

57.

119. Black- figure lekythos


H. 13.8, Diam. rim 3.3,

Diam. foot

4.

Neck mended.
No. Col. 388.

Four figures wearing himatia and holding spears are deThe first on the left has a beard and is taller than
the others; probably an old man. Careless drawing,
picted.

deep
It

incision.

belongs to the same class as lekythoi nos. 117 and

118.
Bibliography:

Marangou 1978, 270

cat. no.

For typological parallels see no. 117 and

145.

Addenda,

57.

119

f
120. Black-figure lekythos
H. 30.6, Diam. rim 7.4,

Mended and
No. Col.

On
On

Diam mouth

5.1,

Diam

foot 8.5.

restored.

3.

the shoulder, black seven-leafed palmettes and spots.


the body of the pot, five dancers. The sense of sym-

metrical arrangement of the figures is accentuated by


each one's movement and rhythmical posture, as well
as by the alternation of naked dancers with others wearing himatia thrown over one shoulder. The movements
of the heads and bodies and the eloquent gestures of
the hands indicate the relationship between the dancers. The wreath on the head of the second dancer
from the left and the branches scattered in the background and surrounding most of the figures evoke the
festive Dionysiac atmosphere.
Attic workshop, ca 500-490 B.C.
Certain typological similarities, like the palmettes on the
shoulder, the spots, branches etc., are suggestive of the

work of the Athena


Bibliography:

Painter.

Marangou 1978, 284

cat.

no 158. Hornbostel

1980, 109 cat. no. 64.

For the Athena Painter, see Haspels, ABL, 14lt, and I.

Kapou-

^ou, Kipvoc^, JipqitKi) npooq)opa otov f. MTTOKaXaKq (1972),


58f and the recent Hornbostel 1980, 109f, with bibliography.

32

k\^v

,.,VVA.%WV,".%VW#ir^//W.'.,v

121. Black- figure lekythos


H

34,

Diam. rim

7.7,

Diam. mouth

5.1,

Diam. foot

8.3.

Mended and restored.


No Col 265.
Scene of the Gigantomachy; in the centre is the god Hephaestus, recognizable by his tongs. He wears a short
chiton, which makes violent leg movements easier, and
strives to throw down his giant opponent, who is half
on his knees before him He holds him by the throat
with his left hand and with his right he thrusts the tongs in
the giant's face The tongs are grasping a round object,
probably a red-hot lump of iron. The scene is calm and
does not convey the savagery of the fight The bearded
giant is down on his left knee with his right leg out in
front of him, slightly bent at the knee. He is fully armed,
wearing a breastplate, with a shield in his left hand acting as a counter-weight to support his body, and a high83

crested Corinthian type of helmet. He tries to defend


himself with the raised spear he holds in \\\s right hand,
bent up from the elbow. The scene of the fight is flanked by two figures; on the right, a woman almost running towards the right with her head turned and her
right arm stretched out behind her. On the left, a bearded warrior with short chiton, breastplate, Corinthian
helmet, baldric, and in his left hand a shield. In his right
a spear; from his hostile approach to Hephaestus he appears to be comming to the aid of the giant. The identification of the woman Is problematic. F. Brommer believes she is simply a supplementary element, a "figure to
fill the empty space".
Attic workshop, ca 490 B.C.

Brommer, AAA V, 1972, 455-459. figs 5-9


290 cat. no. 161. Tokyo 1980, 77, 214 cat. no
189. Paralipomena, 256. Addenda, 61. Hornbostel 1980. 107
Bibliography:

Marangou

1978,

cat. no. 63.

M2.

Black-figure lekythos

H. 33.2, pres. H. 20.8,


restored.

Diam

foot 7

5.

Mended and

No. Col. 556.

Hermes is shown leading a four-horse chariot. The god


wears the characteristic winged sandals, petasus and
short himation. He walks to the right, with his head
turned back towards the chariot. A female figure in the
chariot wearing a himation holds the reins. A citharaplayer and a figure with a himation are behind the horses. In the background are branches with fruit. The details are shown with incision and added white.
Attic workshop, ca 480-470 B.C.
The subject and certain details recall the Haemon Painter.

Marangou 1978, 286 cat. no. 159. The reference


Paralipomena, 218 and Addenda, 58 corresponds to the no.
col. 2: see below no. 137.
Bibliography:

in

Haspels, op. cit 130, pi. 41, 2a. Ch. Kanellopouiou - Papadopoulou. Arch. Dell 27, 1972, MeAetqi, 224, pi. 90, no. 94. Hesperia 37, 1968, 358, pi. 105, no. 32 and 33 (similar meander
in white paint). For the workshop of the Haemon Painter, see
D.C. Kurtz, Athenian White Lekythoi, Patterns and Painters

23

'

(1975), 150f.

123. Small Black-glazed lekythos


H. 13.1, Diam. rim 2.4, Diam. foot 3.7.

122

Intact.

No. Col. 5
Black glaze on the body; plant ornaments on the unpainted shoulder.
Attic workshop, ca 500-490 B.C.
Bibliography:

a Agora
41,

XII,

CVA

no. 14.

Marangou 1978, 301


153, 314,

cat. no.

172.

CVA Reading pi. 11


and CVA Cela IV (1979), 25, pi.
bibliography on p 24 for this class of

pi.

38 no. 1116.

I,

Kassel, pi. 45, 5

10 and 13 (with

large

lekythos).

124

124.

Oinochoe with

H. 17.7,

Diam

trefoil

mouth

rim 6.5-7, Diam. belly 9.5, Diam. foot

Ca 490
6.

Intact.

No. Col 28

and an Amazon. On
Heracles with his characteristic attributes, a lionskin on his head and a club in his right hand, tries to overcome an Amazon; she wears a short chiton, helmet and
a sword at her waist, and carries a shield in her right
hand and a spear in her left.
Black-figure scene with Heracles

the

left

B.C.

Representations of Amazons were special favourities in


the repertoire of the Attic vase-painter from the 2nd
quarter of the 6th c. B.C.
Bibliography:

Marangou 1978, 270

cat

no 146

For the iconographic subject, see D. von Bothmer,


Creel< Art (1957), 12f

pi.

XXXV

3 no. 61

and

pi.

Amazons

XXXVII

6.

in

For

the oinochoe type, see

E. Langlotz, Criechische Vasen, Martin


von Wagner Museum, Wiirzburg (1942), 68 pi 104, 351-353,
and ABVi 436.

84

istic

125. Black-figure kylix

of the workshop is polychromy: off-white and viothe hearts of the palmettes.

let for

H.

8,

Diam. rim 14, Diam. foot

Attic

6.

workshop, ca 470-460 B.C.

Intact.

Bibliography:

No. Col. 370.

Palmette band between the handles; it belongs to a


group known as the Floral Band-Cups from the workshop of the "minor artists".
The workshop's activity began in the middle of the 6th c.
B.C. and continued until 450 B.C. Another character-

Marangou 1978, 265 cat

no. 140.

For kylikes of this type, see Beazley, IHS 52, 1932, 189f. and
Maffre, BCH 95, 1971, 658-660 nos. 15-16.

j.J.

125

Chalcidian' Vases
126-130 were purchased outside Greece and are the only examples in Greece
Chalcidian' workshop.
The Chalcidian' pots, decorated in the black-figure technique with scenes from the repertoire of Archaic Greek art (mythological subjects, monsters, floral ornaments), belong chronologically to the second half of the 6th c. from 555 until 510-500 B.C. They all come from
the West. They have been found in graves in Southern Italy, Sicily, Etruria, Marseilles and in
Spanish Emporion. They are called 'Chalcidian' because the inscriptions that have been preserved on a considerable number of vases are all written in characters from the alphabet of
Euboean Chalkis. Even though no examples of pots from the Chalcidian' workshop
have so far been found in Euboean Chalkis or in Euboea, A. Rumpf (1927) in his monograph
argued with some evidential support that Chalkis was where they were made
The location of the workshop in Chalkis itself, the mother-city of the South Italian colonies,
has been disputed by many, and the site of the workshop remains to this day a problem for
scholars. Hence, although the use of the name Chalcidian' for the vases has undoubted
epigraphical support, they are always referred to as works of the so-called Chalcidian' work-

The vases

nos.

of the prolific output of the

shop.
The prevalent view to-day is that the home of the Chalcidian' ware was in the South Italian
colonies and places the centre of production at Reggio Calabria (Rhegium), where most of
the vases have been found, although, of course, the place of provenance does not have to
be the place where they were actually made. The Chalcidian colonies in South Italy could

85

be thought of as transit points for the redistribution of the mother-city's products. The later
examples from the 'Chalcidian' workshop of the second generation of potters, the vases nowadays called Pseudo-Chalcidian, are, as Rumpf noted, copies of the early Chalcidian'
vases and may be considered colonial products.
Wherever, with the aid of scientific analyses of the distinctive orange clay, the centre of
production finally turns out to be, the presence of the Chalcidian inscriptions will always be
decisive, at least as far as the name is concerned, in linking them with Euboean Chalkis.
What remains indisputable is the high quality of the pots from the problematic workshop,
whose products can be compared only with the contemporaneous vases from the Athenian
Kerameikos. Furthermore, the influences of Attic, as well as Corinthian, Laconian and Cycladic pottery are obvious. The shapes, too, taken as a whole - hydriai, amphorae, kraters,
kylikes, olpai etc. - are typically Greek. The scenes depicted are from the world of Greek
mythology; together with the exotic animals (lions, leopards), the monsters (sphinxes, sirens) and the great variety of floral ornamentation, they constitute the profuse repertoire of
subjects on the 'Chalcidian' vases. The particular character of the workshop can also be recognized from the original manner of the conception, composition and rendering of the
subjects portrayed, from the neat incised lines and the partiality for the use of auxiliary colours. A comparison with the ceramic products of the West, from Italy and Etruria, plainly reveal the individuality of the 'Chalcidian' ware.

1948. 121 and J. Beazley. ^^^omon 4,


Bibliography: Rumpf. Cf also the reviews, H. Payne, jHS 48,
by H.R.W. Smith in fhe Origin
maintained
is
pottery
'Chalcidian'
the
1928 331 An Etruscan origin for
VVochenschr,ft 54, 1934,
Berl.Phil.
views,
recent
of the Cfialcidian Ware (1932). Cf A. Rumpf s more
54-55. For the location of the work1953),
6,
Archaeolog.e
der
(Hd.
Ze/chnung
680f, and Ma/ere/ und
Vallet /?heg/on e Zande n958) 211f
shop in the Chalcidian colonies of Rhegium and Zancle, see G.
Islandsv Calcidesi Vasi (L. Ban i). An
260f,
II (1959),
EAA
see
problem,
the
of
For an overall view
Ferrari,
Anna
generally
see
And
27.
MiJnctien
6
(1
958),
CVA
Ionic" origin is argued by E. Walter-Karydi,
Problema di pittura greca del VI secolo A.C. (Torino_1978).
/ Vasi Calcidesi.
^
recent R. Luliies, Bemerkungen zu den
For the hi.torv of the research with full bibliography, see the
74
CVA Basel (198U
'Chalkidischen' Bauchamphoren", RA 1982, 45f; see also
BSA 53, 1957,
"Early Euboean Pottery and History
For the relationship with Euboea, see J. Boardman,
I

ForYhe numerous pots found

at Reggio, T.

Dunbabin'

view

is

of interest, Ttie Western Creeks (1948),

251
Archaeometry 19 1977 73f.
For the clay analyses, see the recent W.B. Stem,
Local Scripts of Greece (1961), 80f, 282.
The
For the Chalcidian alphabet, see J. L. Jeffery,
trade, see the recent Sche/its geographical distribution and
ware,
Chalcidian'
of
the
origin
For the
'

bler,

175

n.

95.

86

126

126.

Deep cup

with one handle [deep kyathos

H. 9.8, Diam. rim 7 1,

No

Diam

foot 7.1.

Col. 718.

Provenance: the Northampton Private Collection of CreekVases at Castle Ashby.

on the body of the pot is a Siren flanThe woman-headed bird is shown as


wings and her
if walking towards the right with open
head turned backwards. The lions are coming towards
the Siren, their bodies in profile and their heads full

The central
ked by two

figure

rim, handle, foot

and inside are coated with black

Chalcidian' Workshop. 550-525 B.C.


The shape of the cup is typical of Etruscan pottery; the
decoration, subject and style identify it as a product of
the Chalcidian' wojrkshop, and it is by the hand of the
most important pot-painter of that workshop, the "In'

scription Painter" or "Inscribed

lions.

viewer The anatomical details and feaby careful incision The lions' tails encircle the handle
and terminate over their backs. Added purple is used to
differentiate and accentuate parts of the body, the
wings and the tail of the Siren; the filling ornaments
consist of two quatrefoil rosettes and a multipetal one.
The typical ray ornament on the base and the tongues
on the shoulder delimit the representation on the body.

face, looking at the

87

The

glaze.

dipper).

Bibliography:
shby,

pi.

ropolitan

Amphora

Painter'

D Boardman, CVA

Great Britain 15, Castle A5.7.1982, cat. no. 315. The Metof Art, Notable Acquisitions 1980-1981, 12.

30, 1-3. Sotheby"

Museum

For the attribution to the painter, see Boardman, op. cit., 19


with the earlier bibliography. For the painter, see Rumpf, 71
and 133, pi 19-25, and EAA. (op. cit), 263
For the clay analysis, see Boardman, BSA 68. 1973, 271-272,
and
B. Stern - J P
Descoeudres, Archaeometry 19, 1977
73f
For the Sirens, see Rumpf, 71 f, pis. LXXX, LXXXI and elsewhere.
and lepvri KapouCou, 7d ayyEia toO 'Avayupouvroq, (1963),

57f.

Unpublished.

127. Hydriske [small hydria].

Bibliography: Sotheby'
H. 17.3. Diam. rim. 10.2.
No. Col. 722.

On

the main side of the vase in the zone between the


horizontal handles two sphinxes are shown face-to-face
in profile walking towards each other. On the back,
underneath the vertical handle, with their bodies in

heads turned back but shown frontally,


two panthers face the viewer. The shoulder is decorated with alternating different coloured tongues There is
a black band beneath the animal frieze and from the
base springs the typical ray ornament. The foot, handles,
neck and rim are coated with black glaze, and there are
traces of added white on the faces and breasts of the
sphinxes; the anatomical details are incised.
Chalcidian' workshop. Ca 540 B.C.
The shape and size of the pot, a miniature hydria, are
profile

and

their

'

Most miniature pots


of this type come from graves and were found at Taranto. They were very likely used as perfume containers,
characteristic of funerary vessels.

like

the lekythoi

on Rhodes.

in

Attica

and the hydriskes

at Fikelloura

1/2.3.1984, cat no

51.

For the type, see generally Rumpf, 124-125, 140; for the panRumpf, pi. CLXIX no. 162; for the panther theme,
see also Kunze, OIBer VIII, 1 59 no. 36. For hydriskes generally

thers, see

and

their function, see Diehl, Hydria,

128.

78f,

184 passim.

Amphoriskos

H. 19.6, Diam. rim 8.5, Diam. foot 6.9 H


Complete. Foot mended, neck damaged
No. Col. 717

neck

5.4,

The belly of the pot is decorated on both sides (A and B)


with pairs of opposed sphinxes They are walking towards each other; on one side their lion feet meet, while
on the other they are a little apart Traces of white
paint are preserved on the female heads of the monthe violet band adorning and restraining their hair
drawn. The scythe-shaped wings are differentiated by incision and added voilet. Their tails are intertwined like spiral plant decoration beneath the handles.
The scattered rosettes are the vase painter's typical filsters;
is

clearly

ling

ornament.

On

the shoulder there

The

is

tongue deco-

neck, handles
and band beneath the frieze of sphinxes are coated
with black glaze, and from the relief ring circling the
base springs a decoration of rays.
Chalcidian' workshop. Ca 540-530 B.C.
From the shape (neck-amphora), decorative motif, technique, clay and style, the amphoriskos can be attributed to the Phineus Painter, the last of the 'Chalcidian'
vase painters, and probably a pupil of the "Inscription
ration of alternating colours.

Painter" (see

above no.

rim,

126).

Unpublished
Bibliography: Sotheby's 13.12.1982, cat. no. 197.
For the sphinxes, the beloved monsters of ancient

art, see genKunze, OlForsch 11, 54f and especially 58f See also
I. Kapou^^ou, op. cit, 108f
For the subject of the sphinxes on the Chalcidian' pots, see
Rumpi, lOf, and CVA Heidelberg A, 13, pi. 139, with the earlier
bibliography. For the painter, see also H Hoffman, Jen Centuries, 560 cat. no. 171.

erally

129. Black-figu re

amphora

H 38, Diam rim outside 17, Diam. rim


H neck 11, Diam foot 13 1

inside 12.4,

Intact.

No

Col

On

side (A) three

779.

the right. They

spears

in

their

the right a bird

mounted Amazons

are galloping to

wear short chitons and helmets and hold


left hands. Behind the end Amazon on
flies to the right. The bare limbs of the A-

mazons are painted white, as is the horse in the centre,


while the end ones are black. The chitons and the horses'

manes and

tails

are purple.

The outlines of the

fig-

ures and the anatomical details are incised.

On
two

the other side (B) a sphinx


lions with

head, which

its

body

in

is

shown

sitting

profile facing right

between
and the

is picked out in white, looking backwards.


The lions are also shown with their heads turned backwards The alternation of colours, black, purple, white
and the orange ground lends vividness to the picture.
The same alternation of colours is used for the ornament on the neck and shoulder. The lower part, beneath
the black zone, is decorated with black rays. The rim,
handles and foot are black
This IS work of the so-called
"Pseudo-Chalcidian"
workshop and is attributed to the Polyphemus Painter,
and dates to ca 540-530 B.C.

89

Unpublished

The painter's

Bibliography: Christie's, 10.12.1981, cat. no. 243.

For the "Pseudo-Chalkidian" workshop vases, see Rumpf,


161-163, pis. 206, 209, 213, 215 and the recent CVA Basel, 1,
74 (with the earlier bibliography).
For the Polyphemus Painter, see G. Vallet, "Le groupe de Polypheme", REA 58, 1956, 42-44; for the painter's work, and pi.
idem, REA 62, 1960,
Ill (especially for the scene on side B);

161, no. VI.


For the London

see

P.

amphora with

mounted Amazons,

the three

"A Black-figure Amphora fiMQ 16, 1951, 77.


Von Bothmer, Amazons in Creek Art (1957) 114

Corbett,

See also D.
no. 9 pi. LXV,
For the

",

3.

Amazons'

horses,

see

MB.

Moore, The Horse on


620-480

Black- figured Greek Vases in the Archaic Period, ca


(Diss.

New

York 1971), 203-206.

proclivity for decoration

is especially aphas joined the ears to the nose and


in the lotus ornament on the forehead between the eyebrows.
The added white in the eyes alternates with black and
violet on a light orange clay ground.
The handles, lower part of the body and interior are
coated with black glaze. The foot of the low base has
been left the colour of the clay. On the interior of the
kylix are two tiny concentric black rings in a clay

parent

in

way he

the

ground circle.
The decoration, shape, style and colour of the clay date
the cup to ca 530-520 B.C. It belongs to the type of kylix
known as an eye-cup and is attributed to the 'Chalcidian' workshop. It is a work by the Phineus Painter,
who was so named by Rumpf (see ref. below) from the
kylix in the Wijrzburg Museum with the scene of the
Phineus myth. Eye-cups are considered the chief
products of the second generation of the 'Chalcidian'

workshop.
The decorative motif, the face with huge eyes (face of a
Silenus or Nymph?), probably has a magic or apotropaic character and perhaps reflects popular beliefs and
superstitions.

Unpublished.

130. Eye-cup [kylix)


Bibliography: Sotheby's 8.12.1980 cat. no. 256.
H. 10.9, Diam. rim (inside) 27.2, Diam. foot 9.4.
Mended from many fragments.
No. Col. 702.

The decoration on both sides of the cup is the same.


The body of the vase is filled with a face, on which are
depicted the huge, wide-open eyes, schematic nose,
which is treated like a floral ornament, and large ears of
a Silenus or Satyr; it is framed on either side by palmettes.

For the type of kylix and the painter, see Rumpf, 104f and 125f
(with the earlier bibliography) and

EAA

III

(1960),

694

sv

Simon, FUhrer durch die Antikesammlungen des Martin von Wagner


Museums der Universitat Wijrzburg (1975), 85, with the earlier
Fineo. For the kylix with the Phineus myth, see

E.

and more recent bibliography.

CVA Munchen 6
288, 3.4; for parallels see also CVA Heidelberg 4
(1970), 12. Heidelb. Neuerwerb. 1971, 27f nos. 48-49. P. Blome, AntK. 21, 1978, 72f pi. 20,2 and Allentown Art Museum,
no. 21 with the recent bibliography and H. Blosch, op. cit, 94For the question of the origin of the type, see

(1968), 29f

pi.

95.

130

90

Vases from Boeotian workshops, 6th and 5th centuries B.C.

131. Lekanis with twisted vertical rim handles


H. 12.2, H. with handle 16.5, Diam. rim 26.3, Diam. foot12.3.

Mended from many

fragments

No. Col. 25.

Decorated with black-figure scenes. The subject Is the


sides: two opposed sphinxes with a bearded man in a himation between them. The rear ends of

same on both

the sphinxes are crouching, the forelegs straight. Under


one of the handles are lions, under the other, swans.
The tame and harmless lions have lost their old monstrous character and are here simple decorative subjects. The details (wings, folds) are indicated with fine
incision.

Boeotian workshop, ca 550 B.C.


Bibliography: Marangou 1978. 244 cat no
150, 212 cat. no. 183.

119

Tokyo 1980,

See generally A. Ure, IHS 49. 1929, 160. K. Kiiinski, Boeotian


Black Figure Vase Painting of the Archaic Period (Diss. 1975,
University of Missouri)

Boeotian Kylikes.
The kylikes nos. 132-137 belong to a group of vases that are typical of Boeotian pottery in
the Late Archaic period, particularly in the 3rd quarter of the 5th c. B.C.^
The vases of this group still maintained the black-figure tradition, directiv influenced by the
Attic painters of the late black-figure style (e.g. the Athena, Haemon and Beldam Painters),
but also clearly influenced by the distinctive local ware, especially the palmette kylixes and
the Cabirean vases.
The features that characterize the kylikes of the above group are first, the shapes^ and second, the style of the representations that decorate them, distinguished by its great carelessness. The awkward drawing betrays great haste, the outlines are clumsy and unsteady and
the details are shown with very scant use of incision. The movements of the figures are characteristically stiff and wooden These features are also preserved to some extent on the later
examples of the group, but without the incision, while the figures are more like the schematized figures (caricatures) on the Cabirean vases.
1

For their attribution to individual workshops, see

See P Ure, AE 1915, 124-127

Bibliography P Ure,
Wailblinger) Maffre,

loc.

BCH

cit.

Chali-Kahil,

99, 1975,

I,

BCH

J.

-J.

Maffre,

BCH

99, 1975, 410-411.

74, 1950, 54-61, pis

6-12.

CVA

Louvre 17, 25

(A.

487-504.

For Boeotian black-figure pottery in general see especially Kilmski,


the earlier bibliography) and BCH 102, 1978, 263f

loc. cit.

Maffre, op.

cit.

409, (with

LP

132. Black- f'igu re k ylix


H. 9.3,

Diam

Mended and
No col. 381

On

rim 23.2, Diam. with handles 30.7, Diam. foot8.


restored.

the inside (the medallion)

spite of the

in

face a female figure wearing a chiton

worn

sur-

and himation can

be seen; her raised left hand holds an indistinct object,


probably a mirror.
On the zones between the handles on both sides the

myth of Heracles overcoming the Nemean lion is depicHeracles on his left knee has siezed

ted: in the centre,

the lion by

its

left

hind

leg.

On

either side stands a

fe-

The Doric pillar between


the woman and Heracles, and the palm tree behind the
lion, indicate the place. Heracles' weapons, a bow and
quiver, are visible hanging on the left of the palm tree,
and on the right his sword, wrapped in his himation;
there is an ivy-leaf under each handle.
male

figure holding a wreath.

Careless drawing, unsure outline,

Ca 475-450

little

incision.

B.C.

The approximate dating of the kylix to the 2nd quarter


of the 5th c.B.C. relies chiefly on typological and stylistic comparisons with more securely dated Attic blackfigure vases and on the terminus ante quem provided
by the finds from the Polyandrion of Thespiae (424
B.C.): Ure, op. cit,

124-127.

The scene on the medallion

is identical to that on a kythe Kanellopoulos Collection: Maffre, BCH 99,


1975, 1, 487-491 cat. no. 21, 488 fig. 37.
The subject used to decorate both faces of the outside
of the vase occurs on two more vases; one in the Natio-

lix

in

nal

Museum

of Athens, inv. no. 656,

is identical: Ghali56-57 pi. VIII, 2. The second one, in the


Mainz Museum, presents certain differences, for exam-

Kahil, op. cit,

ple

in

for

the figure of the

women

spectators,

who

are sea-

Mainz, RGZM 1, 74 (with bibliography) and


the iconographic subject, pi. 35, 5, 6, 7. The kylix in

ted:

CVA

Mainz Museum is attributed to the "style of the Haemon Painter", one of the few anonymous Athenian vasepainters who continued on into the 5th c. B.C. prodthe

ucing chiefly small vases

the old black-figure silhouette technique (see no. 134 below).


The subject of the mass-production of black-figure vases in Classical times outside of Attica, Boeotia and Euin

boea has not been studied in depth. Hence the question, whether these were Boeotian vase-painters who
learnt to imitate the technique

in

Attic

workshops, or

were Athenian immigrants, remains unanswered (see


Boardman, ABFV, 182-183 and 237). From the large

number

of black-figure vases found

Boeotian necroRhitsona (ancient Mycalessusj,


in

and particularly at
It is apparent that they were chiefly produced for local
consumption and were rarely exported: Kilinski, op.
cit, 129 n. 44.
poleis

The summary treatment of the figures as black silhouetminimal incision used only to convey the essential details, gives the scenes depicted on the 5th c.

tes with

Boeotian black-figure vases a playful, often strongly reaand satyrical character, a precursory form of the later original creations of the Boeotian potters, the vases
of the so-called Cariban type (see no. 172 below). Nevertheless, the importance of these provincial vases lies
mainly in their value as evidence for the aesthetic ideas
of the Boeotians of Classical times, their conservatism
and their persistence in following the traditional techniques and what they "had been taught".
listic

For a

full

bibliography up to 1970, see

Beotici, Vasi,

146-148

(P. Pelagatti)

EAA SuppI

and Maffre, op.

(1970), sv
cit,

411

n.

16
For the realistic tendencies
see N. Himmelmann,

ses,

Kunst (1980), 60

ns.

in

5th c

Boeotian black-figure va-

Uber Hirten-Genre in der antiken


146-147. and Scheibler, 120 fig. 6.
92

133

133. Black- figu re k ylix


H 9

8,

Diam. rim 27.7, Diam foot 10.

Mended from many


No Col 378

On

fragments.

horseman with a spear, wearing a


and a petasos on his
head. On the outside between the handles are naked
horsemen with whips and in the middle a riderless horse.
Rough work with careless outline incision and very few,
hurriedly drawn incised lines to indicate the details.
Ca 470-460 B.C.
the medallion a

short chiton, a billowing chlamys

Bibliography:

Marangou 1978, 261

153, 213 cat no

cat. no.

137. Tokyo 1980,

186.

For the chronological, typological and workshop attribution of


the kylix, see no 132
For the scene on the medallion, cf the chronologically older
plate in the Kanellopoulos Collection Maffre, op. cit, 181 pi

346
For the decoration of the cup sides with mounted Amazons on
the chronologically earlier black-figure kylix from an Attic work-

shop, at the end of the 6th c BC CVA New Zealand ^ pi 31,


For the subject, cf the archaic Boeotian lekanis, CVA
Tubingen 1, 78 (with bibliography) pi 43, 1-3
,

1-2.

9j

134. Black-figure kylix


H. 13.5, Diam. rim 32 9, Diam. foot

Mended from many

11.

fragments Parts of the painted scene dam-

aged
Provenance: unknown; probably Boeotian.
No. Col 753 (L Evtaxias Collection, cat no

E 25)

Athena is depicted on the medallion wearing a peplos,


aegis and helmet. In her hands she holds an indistinct
object. To the right, in front of the goddess, an altar,
and behind her a shield and spear lying on the ground.
In the zones between the handles the scene is the same
on both sides On one side are shown a naked male figure and a charioteer in a chiton mounting a four-horse
chariot; behind the chariot stands a figure in a chiton
holding a lyre. On the right, Athena wearing helmet.

peplos and aegis fights with a spear against a female (?)


who has fallen to the ground, wearing a short chiton, helmet and sword slung at her waist and holding a
shield and spear. The same scene is repeated on the
other side except for the naked male figure on the left,
while Athena's opponent is depicted in a different arrangement. There are branches in the background.
Under the handles an ivy leaf.
figure,

The drawing
tails

is

sketchy, and the lines showing the de-

are incised hurriedly

and

Unpublished

The

kylix painter

Haemon

is

a faithful follower of the

Haemon

Painter, see D.C. Kurtz, op.

cit.

Painter

(no. 122),

150f Paralipomena, 285, Addenda 64). For the date and the
scene, ciCVA Reading^ (P. Ure-A. Ure), pi. 9.9 a-c and pi. 9.6
(for the duel between Athena and a female (?) figure). CVA
Heidelberg 4 [H. Cropengiesser),
For the

workshop

BCH

fre,

tribution

pi.

158.

which the kylix is assigned, see J.-j. Maf99, 1 975, 487f, and particularly for the problem of atto a Boeotian or Attic workshop, see Maffre, op. cit,
to

490.

LP
The collection of Boeotian pottery (nos 131-133) has been
enlarged by the addition of new, unpublished vases (L. Evtaxias donation), of which three kylikes (nos. 134-136) are presented and illustrated
*

H. 8.7, Diam. rim 22,

Mended and

restored

Diam
in

two

foot 8.
places; the painted scenes

ged in parts.
Provenance unknown; Boeotian workshop.
No. Col. 752 (L. Evtaxias Collection, cat. no.

dama-

E 24).

carelessly.

475-460 B.C.

(for the

135. Black- figu re k ylix

Dionysus is shown on the medallion crowned with ivy,


wearing a chiton and himation and standing in front of a
chair, hie holds a kantharos in his raised left hand. There
are stylized ivy leaves on either side of the god. In the
zones between the handles the same scene is repeated
on both sides: a battle between two pairs of hoplites
with belted swords and helmets and holding shields
and spears. Between the two first figures on the left is a
pillar, and beneath each handle is an ivy leaf.
The drawing is hasty, the outlines are shaky and the incised lines showing the details scant.
475-450 B.C.
Unpublished.
CfChali-Kahil, BCH 74, 1950, pis Vlil, IX, XI CVA Louvre 17,
pi. 32 (A. Waiblinger). Maffre, op. cit., 487 no. 21
For the kylix
type, cf Maffre, op. cit.. 491 no 22

LP.

94

136. Black- figure kylix


H. 8.1,

Diam. rim 22.2, Diam. foot

8.2.

damaged.
Provenance unknown; Boeotian workshop.
No Col. 754 (L. Evtaxias Collection, cat. no.
painting inside

Intact; the

A naked male

(?)

figure

is

shown on

E26).

the medallion with

outstretched hands There is a garment on the ground


in front of him on the right, and behind him a stick. The
same scene of dancing women is repeated on both
sides of the cup between the handles. In the middle is a
male figure in a chiton and himation, on one side of the
cup playing a lyre, on the other a flute. He is flanked by
four female figures, two on each side, wearing chitons

and dancing. Two of the women carry rattles, one a skyphos and one a band. On the side with the flute-player
at the right-hand edge of the picture a pillar indicates
the place. There are branches in the background, and
below each handle an ivy-leaf.
The outlines and the in^cised lines indicating the details
are drawn carelessly and hastily.
475-450 B.C.
Unpublished.
kylix from its shape belongs to Ure' s type E, op. cit, 124 f.
Cf Chaii - Kahil, op. cit, pi. XII, and J.-J. Maffre, op. cit, 487491 nos. 21 and 508. For the date and the representation, cf JMaffre, op. cit, 491-496 no. 22.

The

L.P.

White-ground vases

137. Black-figure white-ground lekythos


H 31, Diam, rim 6 9, Diam. foot 7 1
Neck and mouth mended and restored.

No

Col 2

It shows Heracles with the Nemean lion.


Heracles has
siezed the lion with his left hand and is beating it down
with the club in his right hand. Heracles' traditional at-

bow, quiver, himation and swordbelt with


sword are hanging in the background On the left is
Hermes with short chiton, petasus, winged sandals and
the caduceiis in his right hand The god' s gesture is
tributes

eloquent as he stretches out his hand towards Heracles


to encourage him in the difficult task. Equally encouraging is the backward glance of the goddess Athena, Heracles' protectress, as she walks away to the right, fully
armed and wearing her helmet, with a spear in the left

hand and
lolaus

is

a shield

also

in

the

right.

Heracles' faithful friend

shown (behind Hermes) dressed

as a

war-

with short chiton, Corinthian helmet, shield in the


right hand and spear in the left.
Attic workshop, ca 500-490 B.C.. It is attributed to the
Edinburgh Painter The five palmettes on the shoulder
rior

and the tongue ornament on the base of the neck are


typical of this vase-painter.

Bibliography:
1

Marangou

52, 21 4 cat. no.

No. Col.

is

88.

1978, 288 cat. no. 160. Tokyo 1980,


Paralipomena 21 8 and Addenda, 58 (the

inadvertently given incorrectly).

For the Edinburgh Painter, see Kurtz, op.

cit.

(no. 122), 13f.

138. White-ground lekythos


H. 16.5, Diam. rim 3.5, Diam
Neck and handle mended.

foot 3.9.

No. Col. 391.

A woman

is

shown

sitting

on a

wears a chiton and himation;

in

stool to the right. She


her right hand she holds

in her left a wreath. The hair and details have


been painted in. Behind her head in the background
can be seen an alabastron (perfume flask). The white
slip is fugitive, the firing poor. The black paint and faint

a mirror,

brushstrokes are typical.

relief

workshop, ca 475-460 B.C. Probably a work of the

Attic

the

Tymbos

Bibliography:

Painter "school".

Marangou 1978, 295

For this type of

ATL

cat. no.

166.

and Paralipomeand the recent CVA Lei110, 6-9 (lekythos from the Beldam worklekythos, see ARV-, 709

na, 753-758. Kurtz, op. cit, 82f pi. 22,

den

3 (1983),

pi.

137

shop).

For the
25-26.

Tymbos

Painter, see

F.

Felten,

AM 91,

1976, 78-86

pis.

For the function of lekythoi see Heidlb. Neuerwerb. 1971, 6162, no. 95.

139. White-ground lekythos


H. 12.5,

Diam

rim 3.3, Diam. aperture 1.9,

Diam

foot 3

5.

Intact

No

Col. 6

The scene on the body of the vase takes us to the world


of the dead: a tonsured male figure is propped on a staff
in front of a tomb that is marked by a grave stele. The
picture is painted with black and thin pale yellow paint.

On

the shoulder club ornaments in red-figure technique;


black glaze on the lower part of the vase.
Careless work, probably by the Tymbos Painter, ca 470-

460

B.C.

Bibliography:

Marangou 1978, 296

For typological parallels, see no

25,2

cat.

no 167

138, and Felten, op.

cit.,

pi
1

>

139

96

140. Tripod pyxis


H

5,

DIam. rim

8.

Mended from many

fragments and restored:

lid

missing.

No. Col 51

On
a

the slightly concave surface of the pyxis is preserved


central part of the scene con-

gynaeceum scene. The

of a woman seated on the right being approached


by a procession of three other women. The seated woman wears a heavily folded chiton, visible underneath
the red himation, in which she is bundled up to the chsists

in.

The architectural elements, such as the double-leafed


closed door behind the seated figure, the doric column
in front of her and the string of flowers and fruit hanging
on the wall indicate the setting.
The three women wrapped in himatia hold objects in
their hands to offer the seated person. The first holds a
round object, hard to identify, the second a pot and the
third a lekanis. Thev are probably wedding gifts being
offered to the bride on the second day of her marriage,
the epaulian day. In any case the pyxis itself is a household vessel, a woman' s toiletry container used for cosmetics, aromatic ointments or jewellery. Red-figure and
white-ground pyxides with painted scenes have been
found in graves as funerary goods and especially in sanctuaries as offerings to female deities.

Ca 460-450

B.C., attributed

by Beazley

to the

London D

12 Painter {ARV% 1675).


140
Bibliography: ARV-, 1675 (963, 94

loan R. Mertens, Attic


White-Cround, Its Development on Shapes Other than Lekythoi (New York-London 1977). 137 no 12 Marangou 1978,
294 cat. no 165. Tokyo 1980, 78, 215 cat. no. 191. Europalia
1982, 263 cat no 175. Addenda. 150. Irma Wehgartner, Attisch
weissgrundige Kerannik. !^altechniken, Werkstatten, Formen,
Verwendung (Mainz aR 1983), 138 n.20, cat. no. 4 and 146-

147 n

ter).

32.

For the interpretation of the representation, see Heidelb. \eu(1 971 ), 54-55, cat no 84, and for the flower strings on

ervverb.

the wall with

62

left.

fertility

For the

the recent

significance, see op. cit, 56 cat.

name, function and type

Wehgartner, op.

cit,

no 85

pi.

(A) of the pyxis, see

136f (with the earlier biblio-

graphy)
For the door
1907. 89-90
For
te,

marriage scenes, see

A Brueckner.

AM

32,

gynaeceum scenes in red-figure vase-painting, see E. CotFrauengemachbilder in der Vasenmalerei des funften lahr-

hunderts (1 957), 12-33 and especially 33 For depictions of pyxides on vases, see Cetassdarsteliungen, 86

97

141

H. 2.2,

Small white-ground plate


Diam

rim 9.5, with handles 13.2,

Intact. Slip slightly

Diam

foot 4

damaged

No. Col. 30

Miniature plate with two handles. The representation


on the inside is painted with quick strokes to form the
outline, without incision: genre-painting; caricature of a
naked male figure.
Corinthian workshop, ca 460 B.C.
Bibliography:

151 and 213

Marangou 1978, 266


cat. no.

known
U re, /HS 69

For the group of vases

as

AM2b,^ 901

43f.

cat no. 141.

Tokyo 1980,

187.

"Sam Wide",

949,

1 8f.

see S. Wide,
Stroud, Hesperia 37,

pi. 87 b-d. Boardman, jHS 90, 1970, 194-195


and the recent Corinth XV, III (1984), 368f.

1968, 302
III,

pis.

II-

Attic red-figure vases


142. Red- figure kylix
H. 9.4, Diam. rim 23.2, Diam. foot 9.6, H. Foot
tondo 14.
Complete: mended from many fragments.

5.4,

Diam.

No. Col. 721.

On

the medallion (tondo) a beardless youth wiih short


is shown standing with feet crossed and leaning on
a staff propped under his left arm. His right hand rests
on his right hip; the left one reaches forward with the
palm open. The himation is draped over his left arm,
leaving the right side of his body bare as far as the hip.
The figure of the youth, with head and body inclined slightly to the right, is set within the circular field of the
tondo. Behind the figure to the left a small fluted pillar
with molding at the top indicates the place, a wrestling
school. On the right in the background hangs a bag
hair

with a ball or disk. The scene is framed by a running


meander band.
The decoration on the outside of the kylix in the zones
between the handles is the same on both sides (A and
B). It shows a pair of athletes in action and a young paidotribes (sports instructor). From the movements and
gestures of the athletes and the remains of boxing

thongs - visible on the wrist of one of the figures - the


scene must represent a boxing match. The first naked
athlete (from the left) is stepping to the right with both
hands raised in a posture of attack and the left fist clenched. \-\'\s left foot is planted firmly on the ground, while
only the toes of the right one touch it. His opponent is
moving towards the right, with the right leg bent at the
knee, and the left one almost kneeling H is body is bent
to the right and his head is turned to the left facing his
opponent; the lower part of the body is shown in profile, the chest frontally. With his right fist clenched over
his head he tries to guard himself; the left arm is held

down and to the right. In the background betthe athletes hangs a bunch of bands, probably
boxing thongs, and behind the first athlete are the ath-

straight

ween

letes' rods. The scene is watched by a young man in a


himation leaning on a staff propped under his left arm.
In his right hand he holds the forked stick carried by gymnastic instructors and schoolmasters. He is bending
forward to the left, and is shown in back view with face
and lower body in profile.
The shape of the kylix (type B), the subject depicted and
its style, the treatment of the figures, the anatomical details, and the himatia, especially the borders, date the

98

vase to ca 480 B.C.


The painter is known as the "Painter of the Paris Gigantomachy", a name taken from Kylix no. 573 in the Cabinet des Medailles depicting a gigantomachy. Over 134
vases, mainly cups, are listed in Beazley's catalogue as
the work of this vase painter, who together with five
others was a pupil of the innovatory Brygos Painter.
Unpublished.

have been a favourite one

in

known on

complete vases and a number


Musee de Cinquantenaire. pi.
3. 2a. 2c. and 2d. and ARV-, 419 no. 33. For iconographic parallels, see Robinson. AjA 32. 1928, 45f figs. 8-15.

detail are

of fragments: see

at least five

CVA

Bruxelles,

For the athletic terms (boxing thongs, sports instructor etc.),


see U. Poliakoff, Studies in the Terminology of the Creek Combat Sports (1982): see also j. JiJthner, Die athletischen Leibesubungen bei den Criechen (1965) with the earlier bibliography, and
Harris, Sport in Greece and Rome (1972).
I

Bibliography: Sotheby'

2 3 1984, cat

HA

no 67

H Blosch, Formen attischer Schalen von


For
des strengen Stils (1940) 88, III no.
the painter, see ARV-. 400 and 417-424, Paralipomena, 373374, Addenda 116 For iconographically related parallels to
the scene on the inside, see the fragment CVA Adria (1957),
For the kylix type, see

Exekias bis

zum Ende

I.

no 81037), and /\/?V- (1968). 419 no. 42: part of


the small pillar with moulding is preserved The nearest example for the posture of the figure and the bag with the ball is on
pi

26,1 (cat

CVA Villa Ciulia Fasc III, le pi 32.2 cat. no. 3586,


419, 40 (39) and Paralipomena 374, no. 39 See also
CVA, Geneve (1962), 17 pi 8.1 For the scene on the tondo.
see E.F Van der Crinten, On the composition of the medallions in the interiors of the Creek black and red-figured kylikes

the kylix

ARVi

(1966), 32-33 n

The subject depicted on the two sides of the

99

kylix

seems

to

vase painting, because almost

identical representations with only very slight differences of

143.

Red

figure kylix

purple band tied over his brow. The upper part of his
is bare, the lower covered by a himation; the exposed tip of his left foot rests on the black line marking
the lower edge of the scene. The inscription KALOS can
be made out over the youth's head close under the kylix rim.
Next, in the middle, is the figure of a halfreclining youth wearing a wreath; his lower part faces
left, his torso and head right, towards the first figure. H is

body

H. 9.5, Diam. rim 23.9, Diam. with handles 31 1


fragments; one handle restored; retouched in a few places The three pairs of holes in the thin
walls of the body show that it had been broken in antiquity

Mended from many

and

drilled for repair with

metal clamps of lead or perhaps

jold.

No. Col. 781.

bent knees, stooping body and head bent towards the outstretched right
arm all vividly depict his action. The black outline of the
body in faint relief lends plasticity to the youthful torso.
The anatomical details are drawn with special care: the
slim ankles, nimble knees, lines of the groin, genitals,
lumbar muscles, white line {linea alba), chest muscles
and collar-bones. The face with its strong chin and full
lips is topped by the neatly combed hair tied with a
purple band; the curls on the back of his neck are tucked under the band.
The spaced-out inscription LYSIS is painted in purple;
running from left to right, it begins at the rim of the krater and ends by the nape of the youth' s neck. H is beauty is praised in the inscribed epithet KALOS painted in
the space between his left arm and the circular margin
of the medallion.
The position of the partly visible krater at the edge of
the medallion gives balance to the composition in the
confined circular zone, and the almost sculptural figure
of the youth thus stands out in the remaining blank
space; the studied shape of the youthful figure, the stance
of the feet, the bent legs, the inclined head and body
are wonderfully adapted to the narrow limits of the circular field. Two reserved concentric circles surround
activity:

the position of his

feet, slightly

the picture.
Both sides of the kylix carry three-figure representations
of symposiasts. On side A two youthful semi-naked figures and an older man, bearded and bald, recline comfortably on cushions. On the right, almost touching the
root of the handle, a young man sits on a cushion folded in the middle with his knees bent, and appears to
be leaning on the handle of the kylix with his leftelbow;
he looks towards the left at his two drinking companions. His right arm is out-stetched and the index finger
of his raised hand is thrust through the handle of the kylix he holds up. He is shown playing the game oi kottabos (the 'wine-throw' ) at the moment when he is about
to twirl the kylix on his finger and hurl the wine into a
container without spilling it. Around his hair he wears a

and part of

hidden behind the third perstretched out and the right one bent
at the knee. Between his legs is the end of a cushion.
He is propped up on his leftelbow, which is covered by
the himation draped behind his left shoulder, leaving
exposed the wrist and hand with its long fingers. His right hand holds a kylix, which he seems to be offering to
feet

The medallion on the interior shows a naked youth drawing wine with an oinochoe from a column-krater to fill
the kylix in his left hand. The oinochoe in his right
hand, plunged into the krater as far as the wrist, is not
visible to the naked eye, but the outline sketch for it can
just be made out.
The youth' s posture imparts a sense of movement and

son; the

left

leg

his legs are


is

drinking companion. The relationship, the converbetween the two youths both with the same firm
chins and parted lips, is a feature of many of the vasepaintings of the time
his

sation

Above

the right elbow of the central figure a basket

hangs almost from the rim of the kylix. Lines in thin


paint indicate the fringed ends of the cords holding the
basket, which probably contains food for the usually
frugal meal.

Only the

letter L survives to

the right of the

basket, obviously the beginning of LYSIS.

The

mature symposiast, is propped up


elbow on the cushion between the central

third figure, the

with his
youth's

left

His half-stretched legs, bent at the knees,


His body
faces left, his head right, looking at the talking youths.
Wearing a myrtle wreath like the central drinker, his left
hand holds a kylix by the foot, while with his right hand
he plays kottabos like the first figure.
In the drinking scene on side B the three figures are
youths. Here, too, the first one plays kottabos with his
right hand, leaning with his leftelbow on a folded cushion. The posture is the same as that of the first figure on
side A, except that the bare foot is visible as far as the
legs.

are adapted to the limited space available.

The central figure reclines on a cushion propped


against the shins of the first one; he offers the kylix in his
right hand to the third youth. Over the head of the cenankle.

tral figure,

close to the rim,

is

the inscription

HO

PAIS.

The basket hangs in the same position as on side A,


above the central youth's knee. The left-hand youth,
wearing a myrtle wreath, supports himself on his right
arm, which is covered by the himation draped over his
left shoulder. His legs are bent at the knees and doubled
under him; although he is half reclining towards the left,
his body is turned slightly and his head sharply to the
right, facing the central figure. The sense of the conversation going on between them is reinforced by their gestures: the end figure holds out his left hand to take the
kylix offered him by his companion. The folded cushion
on which the right-hand figure is leaning may be considered as indicating the movement of the scenes from
right to left, and as linking the scenes on the two sides.
100

143

101

In both scenes the head of the onlooker faces the same


direction as the central figure. On side A the onlooker is
the mature man on the left facing right; on side B it is
the young man playing kottabos and facing left. The

barely visible harmony created by this alternation of


head directions brings life to the composition and gives
the impression that "retrogressive harmony" did not
leave even simple vase-painters untouched.
Both representations depict scenes from the second, independent part of the symposium, the potos (drinking
party). The fDOtos was in fact the main part of a symposium, coming after the first part, the deipnos or syndei-

pnos (supper) at which the eating was usually frugal and


brief. During the potos and after the indispensable formalities, the nomizomena mentioned by Plato in the
Symposium, the drinking companions always drank
wine mixed with water, never wine alone, and "conversed". In this case the absence of the girl-pipers, dancers
or singers usually depicted at a potos calls to mind the
"intellectual" atmosphere of the symposia described
by Plato (Protagoras 347 CD): "But where the company
are men of manners and education, you will see no
or dancing-girls or harp-girls; without lyres or
such games, they are content with their own conversation, speaking and listening in turn and politely, even

The kottabos [kossabos in the Ionic


was a favourite game at symposia. Al-

the 6th century B.C.

and

Attic dialects)

so often depicted are the utensils used in the game: the


kottabeion, a metal container into which the wine was
tossed from the kylix, or a clay lekane with small empty

saucers [kottabos in lekane), and the kottabike rabdos.


Success at kottabos won the admiration and love of the
player's drinking companions.
On the Coulandris kylix the players are shown as they
are about to twirl the kylix without spilling the wine; the
choice of this moment, even in the absence of the special utensils or the kottabike rabdos, is enough to bring
the picture of the game to life.
The type of the kylix and especially the style of the painting favour a date towards the end of the decade 490480. B.C.
The painter
inscription
terion?)

in

is known as the Antiphon Painter from the


Antiphon kalos on the curious pot (hypokre-

the

Museum

of East Berlin (see

ARV%

335,

1).

The Antiphon Painter belongs with the cup-painters of


the late Archaic and early Classical periods. From the

number

of vases attributed to the painter himself (over


and to his pupils or imitators (around 130

flute-girls

100

when they have drunk much wine."


The game played with the kylix held with

pots), he appears to have been particularly prolific.


The Antiphon Painter's subjects were chiefly symposia,
but he also depicted athletes and warriors. Figures in
action and explicit erotic scenes are typical themes while

the right forethe handle, the kottabos, was


thought to be an invention of the Dorian colonists in Sicily, and is therefore sometimes called "Sicilian". According to the evidence of written sources and representations on vases, it came to Greece from Etruria in
which are separated by the kylix handles. The detailed
treatment of the folded cushions conveys a vivid feeling
of their softness, through the fabric, decorated with wide
wide bands and red and black stripes, the stitching on
the sides, and the way their ends are finished. The relief
outlines and the fine lines showing the anatomical details and folds of the himatia contribute to the plasticity
of the figures. The wreaths and bands on the heads of
the symposiasts are indicated by thick added paint.
finger

The

thrust through

relatively large heads, the youths' faces with the


strong chins and slightly parted lips are typical of the
efhos that stamped the art of the later Archaic period
during the transition to the Severe style. The composition of the three-figure scenes is strict and harmonious;
however, the consecutive arrangement of the semireclining figures within the curved, circular space of the walls
of the cup is enlivened by the variety of the figures' postures and particularly by the studied turning of the
heads to the right and left in the opposite direction to the
bodies. The turned head of the central figure in each
scene also determines the direction of the head of the
onlooker, who is watching his two drinking companions conversing. Thus, in both scenes an onlooker watches a pair of young men conversing.

kylikes)

mythological representations are

rare.

Unpublished.
Bibliography: Sotheby'
For the kylix type see

J.

s:

14-12-1981, 146-147

cat. no.

375.

Blosch, op. cit, 78-90. For the painter

work see /\/?V-. 335-341, 1646, 1701 and 1706. Paralipomena. 361-362. Addenda, 108-109 with the earlier bibliography. See also K. Peters, AA 1967 (1968), 171-175 and R.
and

his

Blatter, /\/M 968 (1969), 649-652. See the recent R. Blatter, "Eine neue Schale des Antiphon Malers", HASB^O, 1984, 5-7 pis.

newer bibliography; for the relations with the


Onesimos workshop see p 7 n. 15. For the iconographic theme
of the wine-drawing from the krater, cfH. Hoffmann, The Sorbert Schimmel Collection (Edit. O.Muscarella, 1974) cat. no.
61. Cf also the Epiktetos cup at Oxford, Ashmolean Museum.
Creek Vases (1978), fig. 23. P. Cercke, Funde aus der Antike.
1-3 with the

Kassel, Hg. P. Dierichs, Katalog


(1982), 101-102 (here the
choice of moment in the wine-drawing is different). Here too
the hanging basket, described as a "Brotkorb" (bread basket),
is depicted.
For the column-krater, cf IbHambKuSamml. 24,
1979. 195f and Kunst der Antike, Ausst. Cal. Neuendorf,
I

Hamburg

(22.11

20.12.1978), no. 31; see generally Cefass-

darstellungen, 36f.

For the concentric circles of the medallion see Blatter,

1968 646
utensil, cf

fig
P.

AA

For the hanging basket, a usual symposium


Cottinger Vasen. Sebst einer AbJacobstahl,

/.

handlung. lupnooiaKO (Abh. der Kon. Ces der Wiss. Cottingen, Phil. -Hist. Kl. Bd. XIV, 1) 1912, 60 pi. XXIII, 83. Cf also
Hoffmann, op. cit. cat no 61 Cf also the Makron cup, Simon

102

no 34 and the cup by the Foundry Painter,


37, 1-2, and Europalia T982, 225
cat. no. 141. For the iconographic subject of the symposium,
lusee Jacobstahl, op. cit, 33f. For symposia in general, see
KouTpnc;. nXoTivvoc, lufjTTOoiov' (Athens 1976), 29*f and
Dentzer, RA 1971, 215
For the kottabos, see K. Sartori, Das
7982, 80-83 cat.

CVAKassen

(1972), 56-57 pi

rendering of the semi-naked figures with one foot

visible,

see

Jacobstahl, op. cit, 41-42.

For the "scupturesque" character of the Antiphon Painter's


figures, see

M. Wegner, "Das Menschenbild im VVandel von

1.

der archaischen zur klassichen Kunst",

113-114 and

Blatter, op. cit,

644

Gymnasium

65, 1958,

n. 7.

f.

Kottabosr Spiel der alien Criechen (1893), EAA II (1959), 923924, sv cottabo (Stucchi) with large bibliography, and especially B A Sparkes,
"Kottabos, An Athenian After-dinner Came",

Archaeology 13, 1960, 202-207 See also Hornbostel 1977,


312-313 (with large bibliography). For the symposiasts wreaths,
see luKOUipnc;, op. cit., 33* n.1 and
Blech, Studien zum
Kranz bei den Criechen (1982), 63f For the bands on the symposiasts' heads, see Antje Krug, Binden in der griechischen
Kunst(D\ss Mainz 1968), 34f pi. Ill, 10 a-c For the cushion types, cf Peters, op. cit., 172 fig. 1 and 173 fig 2
For the conventional "archaic system" of the arrangement and

lUi

For the "scupturesque" character of the Antiphon Painter's


M. Wegner, "Das Menschenbild im Wandel von
der archaischen zur klassichen Kunst", Gymnasium 65, 1958,
113-114, and Blatter, op. cit, 644 n. 7.
For the ethos of the painter' s faces, see Blatter, op. cit, 652
For the name LYSIS, see ARV-, 1597-1598, Blosch, op. cit, 73
79, 103.
For the names of the kalos and their significance, see
Robinson - E. J. Fluck, A Study of Greek Love-names (1 937), 1 39 and
figures, see

DM

141 and generally Odeliese Fuchs, Der attische Adel im Spiegel


der Kalosinschriften" {D\ss. Wien. 1974).
'

144. Red- figure lekythos


H. 17.2,

Diam

rim 3.7,

Diam aperture

Diam. foot

2.5,

4.4.

Neck, handle and mouth mended.


No. Col. 262.
It

shows a

woman

in

a scene from everyday

life:

she holds

wool and in front of her is a basket. She


wears a chiton and a himation, and has a fillet round
her hair, which is gathered on the nape of her neck,
and earrings. A reserved band forms the base of the
a ribbon or

^ms/&^ej3f^/hs>^

scene
workshop, ca 470-460 B.C.

Attic

Bibliography:

Marangou 1978, 293

cat. no.

164.

For references to the type and the iconographic subject, see


the recent Gercke, op. cit, 495, figs. 34-36 and 496 no. 22.

I
145. Red-figure lekythos
H. 27,

Diam

rim 3.8, Diam.

Mended from many


No Col. 385.

mouth

2.6,

Diam, foot

5.

fragments and restored.

beardless man wearing a himation rests his


hand on a staff; the left one is covered by the himaBehind the young man can be seen a Doric pillar,

A young
right
tion.

indicating the place (sanctuary or house).


Attic

workshop, ca 470-460 B.C.

Bibliography:

Marangou 1978, 291

cat. no.

162.

For the function and type, see Keramelkos IX (1976), 14f, 38

and 115.

146. Red-figure lekythos


H. 14, Diam. neck 2.5, Diam. foot 4.8.
missing.

Neck and handle


No. Col. 380

Winged
an

altar

Attic

Vitory with a wreath in her hands approaches


She wears a chiton, himation and a hair-cloth.

workshop, ca 460 B.C.

Bibliography:

Marangou 1978, 292

cat. no.

163.

4b

Cf no. 145 above

104

little.

right

cake),

His hands are outstretched to the left, and in the


a streptos [plai<ous, sort of sweet

one he holds
in

the child,
hide.

He

the

a horn (rhyton). He is offering them to


on a rock spread with a spotted animal
with his legs doubled under him leaning

left

who
sits

sits

on his left arm and turned to face the silenus, to whom


he holds out his right hand in front of his chest. The
child is also bald and has an animal's tail and ears, snub
nose and thick lips (a satyr child). Details of the bodies
of the silenus and the child are shown with thin light
brown paint. Above and below the metope are running
meander bands and on each side a thin reserved line.
460-450 B.C.
The oinochoe belongs to the class of vases called choes,
which were associated with the festival of the Anthesteria, especially with the second and main day of the celebrations known as the Choes (jugs). The Anthesteria
was a three-day festival in honour of Dionysus "in Limnai", and took place at the beginning of Spring in the

month of Anthesterion (see H.W. Parke, Festivals of the


Athenians (1977), 107f; E. Simon, Festivals of Attica
(1983), 92f). In general, the scenes decorating choes
draw on subjects from the Dionysiac cycle and the lives
of children.
Choes of every size have been found, but they are
usually tiny, since many were intended for children,
who played a very important role in the festival. Tiny
choes followed their little owners to the grave or were
placed in the graves of children who had died before
having taken part in the festival, which was directly
connected with fertility and vegetation, but also with
the dead (cf the third day of the Anthesteria).

Unpublished

(to

be published by the

For the painter and


ming publication

writer).

interpetation of the scene, see the forthco-

FH.F. Immerwahr, TransactAmvan Hoorn, Choes and Anthesteria


(1951); A. Pickard-Cambridge, Dramatic Festivals of Athens
(1953), 10-12; J. R. Green, AA 1970, 475-487; idem, BSA 66,
1971, 189-228; H. W. Parke, op. cit; E M. Stern,
KinderKannchen zum Choenfest," Thiasos, Festschrift W. Frommel
(1978), 27-37; CVA Tubingen 4, 89 (E. Bohr).
For the silenus figure, see also E Simon, AntK 6, 1963, 6f
(especially 18), for a silenus with little satyrs, see CVA Karlsruhe ^. pi. 19.1 (C. Hafner); K. Brommer, Satyro/ (1937), 56
n. 23; idem, Satyrspiele (1959), 38f
For the streptos, see C van Hoorn, op. cit., 42
For the presentation of satyr drama on a chous, see E Simon,
Das Satyrspiel Sphinx des Aischylos
SBHeidelberg 5, 1981,
27-28, 34 pi 16
LP.

For choes and Anthesteria, see

PhilAss 77, 1946, 254f.

'

147. Red- figure oinoche with


fchous)
H

13,

trefoil

mouth

Diam nm 6

Mended and
flaked off

in

in

9, Diam foot 6.8.


places restored, surface

damage

(the glaze has

spots)

No

Col 751.
Provenance: unknown

(L

Evtaxis Collection,

no

E 23).

On

the belly of the vase within a metope are a silenus


on the right and a child on the left. The naked, bald silenus IS turned to the left with half-bent knees and his

body
105

slightly inclined

towards the

child; his

tail is

raised

',

148. Red- figure hydria (kalpis).


H

30.8,

Diam Rim

12.6,

Diam. foot 12.3

Intact.

No. Col. 719.

On

the body of the vase is a scene with three figures;


the centre is dominated by a winged female in profile
running barefooted towards the right; the left foot is flat
on the ground and the left knee slightly bent, and only
the toes of the right foot touch the ground. She wears a
long, thickly folded peplos which almost covers her ankles and is belted at the waist, forming a pleated overfall. She wears earrings and a band on her head, which
keeps the carefully combed bun of hair in place at the

back of her neck. In her outstretched hands she holds a


white-painted floral wreath against the bare chest of a
youth in front of her. He is crowned with a wreath and
his head is turned to the left, towards the "gift-bearing"
winged female, while the motion of his legs and feet
shows that he is hurrying away to the right; this is clear
from the positions of the left foot, which treads firmly
on the ground, the knee slightly bent, and the right
foot, which is just leaving the ground, as well as from
the pronounced twist of the body. The upper part of the
torso is shown frontally, the lower part almost in profile,
following the movement of the legs. His eloquent gestures and hurried movement towards the right with his
head turned facing backwards, indicate his surprise and
dislike of the love gift of the wreath. Behind the winged
female is depicted a young woman wearing a folded
ankle-length chiton and a draped himation. The movement of her legs, the posture of her body, her gestures
and her head facing backwards all indicate her intention to flee to the left, in the opposite direction.
The scene is bordered below by a band of running meanders, and above, at the base of the neck, by a band
with an elaborate palmette and foliate pattern running
above the heads of the three figures. The roots of the
three handles and the rim carry a decoration of stylized
Ionic echinus ornament. Black glaze covers the body
and handles, and the edge of the base is reserved.
The shape, technique and stylistic rendering of the figures, the ethos of the persons, the treatment of the drapery and the anatomical details date the vase to 460450 B.C. and place it among the works of the artist

known

as the

'Villa Giulia Painter".

The scene portrayed on the body of the hydria belongs


to the cycle of the loves of the gods. The subject, known
in Creek literature since the Ceometric period, the time
of Homer, is depicted in Creek art from the early 6th c.
B.C. In the Classical period, the 5th century, the loves
of the gods were represented in many various ways both
in monumental sculpture and vase painting, as well as
miniature art: scenes of attempts to entice immature
youths and girls with love gifts, and episodes of pursuit.

148

kidnapping and abduction. Most scenes show the loves


of the male gods: Zeus, Poseidon, Hermes, Pan, Apollo,
Dionysus, Hades, Boreas. Among the female deities so
represented the only one found in the repertoire of

and Selene. The didawn-goddess for Tithonus of Troy,


the son of Laomedon, and the abduction of Clitus and

Creek

art

is

Eos, the sister of Helios

sastrous love of the

the beautiful hunter, Orion, by "gold-throned, rosyfingered" Eos are mentioned in the Homeric epics. And
there are eloquent accounts of Cephalus, the son of
Herse and Hermes, who was abducted by "sweet-shining" Eos "for love's sake
in

'

while hunting on Hymettus

Attica.

A comparison

of the winged female portrayed on the


hydria with the numerous parallels illustrated on Attic
red-figured pottery puts her identification as Eos beyond
doubt. She is shown at the moment when she is trying
to entice one of the youths by offering him a love gift.

106

the wreath. The identification of the young man as Tithonus or Cephalus is made difficult by the absence of
attributes, such as the lyre usually carried by Tithonus

weapons and gear that often characterize


Cephalus; nor does the youth's refusal, plainly shown
by his gestures and attitude of flight, help to identify the
mythological person in question, because in all the preserved representations the young men evince indignation and try to flee, thus provoking pursuit. It is tempting to connect the scene on this Attic hydria with the
local myth of the love of Eos for Cephalus, but for the
time being this must remain a pleasant speculation.
or the hunting

Unpublished.
Bibliography: Sotheby's 5.7.1982 cat. no. 384.
For the painter' s name, work etc., see ARV\ 618-626, nos. 1109 (with bibliography), Paralipomena, 398, and Addenda,

132.
For the subject depicted, see Sophia Kampf-Dimitriadou, "Die
Liebe der Cotter in der attischen Kunst des 5. Jhrts. v Chr .",

AntK. Beiheh II, 1979, 16f, with the earlier bibliography (from
the description of the hydria given on p. 1 8 n. 84 and 1 36 and
p. 91 cat. no. 188a it would appear to be the same vase). For
the identification of the figure in flight, see L.D. Caskey - J.D.
Beazley, Attic Vase Paintings in the Museum of Fine Arts Boston, II (1954), 37-38. For the personification and worship of
Eos, see F.W. Hamdorf, Criechische Kultpersonifikationen der
vorhellenistischen Ze;t (1964), 84-85
For the love

gift

of the wreath, see

Blech, op.

cit.

(cat.

no.

143), 46f.

and its connection with Aphrodiand marriage see Diehl, Hydria, 181f.

For the function of the hydria


te

149

149. Red-figure pelike


H

32.8,

Diam. rim 14.4, Diam. mouth 11.7, Max. Diam. 22.3.

Intact.

No. Col. 376

Red-figure Pelikes
Nos. 149-1 51 are a type of vase with two handles, onepiece body, very short neck and wide foot (a variation
of the amphora), known as a pelike. This type of pot
was made in Attic workshops ca 520 B.C. and continues
until the 4th century B.C

name and

1977),

107

both sides two men are shown wearing himatia and


conversing; the one on the right is leaning on a stick.
Ca 470-460 B.C. It has been attributed by R.M. Becker
to the Leningrad Painter, one of the early "mannerists ".
Unpublished.
Bibliography:

Becker, op.

Marangou 1978, 306

and Kanowski, 113-115. R.M. EJecker, Formen attischer Peliken von der
Pionier-Gruppe bis zum Beginn der Frijhkiassik (Diss. Tubingen
For the

On

function, see Richter-Milne, 4-5

tioned

in

cat.

cit.,

75 n.249

cat.

no. 266, p 91

no. 177. (The pelike

is

not men-

ARV).

For the vase-painter, see ARV-. 567f Paralipomena, 390-391

Addenda, 128.

On

side B three beardless youths

in

himatia converse.

The middle one leans on a staff, the one on the left holds
out his right hand and the one on the right is wrapped
in his himation (two on the left, one on the right). Palmettes
on the neck, a meander below
Ca 450-440 B.C. A work by the Painter of the Louvre
Centauromachy, who takes his name from the Louvre
krater with the

8,9 and pi

Centauromachy {CVA Louvre

29, 2,5.

ARVi

4,

pi.

28,

1088f).

Unjpublished.
Bibliography:

ARVi

1682, 87

ter. f.

MrraKaAaKn*^, 'AvaoKOcpn

the decoration) and 56 (for the


shape). Marangou 1978, 306 cat. no. 178. Tokyo 1980, 79 and
216 cat. no. 193. Europalia 1982, 218 cat. no. 136.

lTpO[jr\(;, (1967),

54

n.1

(for

For the vase-painter see ARV^, 11431 Also CM. A. Richter, AtRed Figured Vases (1958), 130.
For the device of the A on the shield, see also B. Schrroder,
Der Sport in Altertum (1927), pi. 49a, and J.D. Beazley, Creek

tic

150

Vases

in

Po/and (1928), 51

pi

19,4.

151. Red-figure pelike


H. 32.5, Diam. belly 25.5, Diam. foot 16.1.
Very worn; mended from many fragments and restored
neck and mouth.
No. Col. 377.

at the

Side A, centre, the return from a symposium: a young


with his head bent, holding a lyre; he wears
a short himation and a broad band on his head, with

man walks

the ends hanging

down

his

back.

On

his right a

naked,

bearded man wearing a laurel wreath walks to the right


with his head turned back; he holds a torch in his left
hand and a rod in his right (he holds out his right hand

young man in the middle). On the left a beardless


with a laurel wreath on his head, a himation tucked
at the waist, a rod in his right hand and a vase, (skyphos
or kotyle), under his left arm. Above the scene on the
neck of the vase is a band of olive leaves, and below, a
meander forms the ground line of the picture On side
B three beardless men in himatia converse.
Ca 425 B.C. Work by an anonymous painter of the Cleophon Painter school.
to the

man

150. Red-figure pelike


H. 37,

Diam. rim 21.3, Diam. belly 27.5, Diam. 'hot 18.5.

Mended and
No. Col.

On

side

restored.

1.

a farewell scene: the departure of a

naked warrior with

his

He

body nearly

frontal

and

young

his

head

holds a spear in the right hand


and a shield in the left, with A for a device (probably
standing for Athenians). On the left is a woman with a
phiale in her right hand and an oinochoe in her left. She
wears a chiton and himation and a sakkos on her head.
At the righthand side, left of the young warrior, is a
bearded man wearing a himation a leaning on a staff; he
offers his left hand to the warrior.

turned to the right

Unpublished.
Bibliography:

Marangou 1978, 307

cat.

no 179.

For the Cleophon Painter, see no 152 below And cf CVA


Laon, pi. 31, 1-6. CVA Munchen 2. pis. 74. 75, 2-6-7 and 5, pi.
256, 2, pi 258. ARV% 1143-1151, 1684, 1703-1708

Cf Richter, op.

cit, 143,

24
108

152. Red-figure bell-krater


H. 37.1,

Diam nm

38,

Diam. foot 18.

Mended from many

fragments, rim and neck restored on side


B. Slight restoration of the painting on side A to the woman's
head and clothing, her companion's himation and the body of
the

dancing

first

figure.

No. Col. 723.

On

the main side (A) of the vase, a scene with four figIn the centre a young woman playing a double
flute steps towards the left. She wears a long garment
with fine folds, belted at the waist, and a wreath of leaves
ures.

is followed by a naked, bearded man,


supporting himself with his right hand on her right shoulder, and with his left hand, holding a knotty, crooked
stick, pressed against her back beneath her left shoulder. His folded himation hangs over his left shoulder
and he wears a headband. As he staggers towards the
left his head is turned facing backwards to the right. He
is followed by a dancing, lightly-bearded youth wearing
a headband.
In
his right hand the young dancer
clutches his himation, which is falling from his back.
The dancer's position as he steps towards the left and
the motion of his legs are adapted to the surface of the
vase. A wreath of leaves hangs above his head in the
background. The left side of the scene is completed by
the figure of a beardless youth wearing a himation on
his shoulders and a headband and dancing in front of
the flute-player. There is a torch behind his right leg.
On the other side (B) are three men in himatia, two of
them in conversation and the third standing and listening. The end figure on the right, seen in back view, leans
with his left shoulder propped on a stick that is hidden
by his himation and rests his right hand on his hip. The
central figure, his himation draped at an angle, stands
erect in profile facing right with his right hand outstretched and resting on a stick. The third figure stands frontally with his head turned to the right The left hand is
concealed by his himation and the right one rests on his
hip. In the background between the figures to the left
and level with their heads is a cross ornament. The picture is bounded at the bottom by a broken meander
and at the top by a band of laurel leaves.
By the Kleophon Painter, 440-430 B.C.

on her head. She

The scene depicted on the principal side

(A) shows the


symposium It was known as a komos and
favourite theme in Greek art and especially in At-

return from a

was
tic

vase-painting.

In

particular the

anonymous

painter

no 723, the "Kleophon Painter ", seems to


have had a preference for festive scenes, symposia and
komoi, and youths wearing himatia.
He was an important Attic vase-painter and one of the
younger members of the Polygnotus group and takes
his name from the inscription Kleophon Kalos on stamnos no 810 in the Leningrad Museum (see ARV\ 1144,

of krater

7).

He

painted large vases (stamnoi, kraters, amphorae,


and belonged to the transition period between

pelikes)

109

the so-called "free style" and the style of the end of the
5th c. B.C. His figures, especially the heads, retain something of the majesty of the Classical period, but are
more fleshy and plastic, and the outlines of the bodies
and the folds of the clothing have a particular fluidity.
Unpublished.
Bibliography: Sotheby's

(New

York) 1/2.

3.

1984, cat no. 71

For the Kleophon Painter see ARV\ 1143f. Paralipomena, 455457 Addenda, 164-165f. See also J.M. Hemelrijk, "A stamnos
by the Kleophon Painter", BaBesch XLV, 1970, 50-67, with the
earlier bibliography, andF.Felten, Jhanatos und Kleophon Maler (1971)
For the chronology see also Corn. Isler-Kerenyi,
"Chronologic und Synchronologie' attischer Vasenmaler der

Parthenonzeit

",

nerally see also

AntK. Beih

EAA

IV, sv

9,

1973, 29-30. For the

Komos, 382-384.

komos

ge-

154

Black-painted wares from


Attic

workshops, 5th

B.C.

c.

153. Skyphos
H. 9.1, without handles 8

8,

Diam

rim 9 6-10

1,

Diam

foot

6.1.
Intact.

No

Col. 35.

Black glaze,

horizontal

horseshoe handles and ring

foot.

Attic

workshop, ca 470-460

Bibliography:

B.C.

Marangou 1978, 302

no 173

cat.

155

For typological parallels, see Agora


A).

Kerameikos

IX,

pis

112,

7,

84
113,7 and
XII.

pi
pi

16 no 324 (type
79 (variations of

the type)

154. Pyxis with

lid

155. Pyxis with


H with lid and handle
Diam foot 6 7

7 5,

without 4

5,

Diam

H. with lid and knob 10, without 6


Diam. foot 9 5
Small breaks on the rim and lid.

Intact

No. Col 15

Black glaze except for the ring foot, which is reserved.


The reddish brown colour of the outside surface is due

poor firing
Ca 460 B.C
to

Bibliography:

Marangou 1978, 304

cat

No

Col

kos

IX,

54

pi.

XII,

Diam mouth

5,

The stylized Ionic cymatium on the reserved band


breaks the monotony of the solid black glaze. Similar
decoration on the lid. The type (D) and decoration date
it to ca 460-4,50 B.C.

no 175

324

83 (variations of the type)

5,

Bibliography:
For similar examples, see Agora

lid

rim, 10,

pi

42,

and Keramei-

Marangou

For parallels, see Agora

19^8, 305 cat.


XII,

no 176.

328 nos 1309, 1311,

pi.

43

no

15b

56.

Column

krater

H with handles 32, without 31 7 Diam nm 25


mouth 19, Diam belly 25, diam Toot 14 3
Mended from man\ fragments

5,

Diam.
;37

No. Col 205

body is covered with black glaze


The edges of the stepped foot
and the rim are reserved. Incised lines on the base of
the neck, the shoulder zone and the transition from the
body to the foot
Attic workshop, ca 450 B.C.
Similar vases were made in Attic workshops and usually
Virtually

all

of the ovoid

of exceptional quality.

intended as votive offerings in large sanctuaries or for


export, chiefly to Italy, where the Etruscans used them
at

symposia and put them

Bibliography;

Marangou

154, 215 cat

no 190

For the

pe see

in

tombs

1978. 282 cat.

as funerary goods.

no 157. ToI^yo 11980.

name and function see Richter-Milne, 6-7 Fot the shaCVA Bologna pi 36f CVA Wien
pi 86f. For kraters

generally, see K

I,

Hitzel,

OIpe

H. 24.8, with handle 29.8, Diam.

nm

11,

Diam. foot

7 8.

Handle mended.
No. Col. 490.

Twisted basket handle Black glaze


Attic workshop, ca 450 B C

II,

Die Entstehung und Entwicklung des

V'olutenKraters von den truhesten Anfangen bis

Auspragung

des Kanonischen Stils in der attischen schwarzfiguren Maierei


Arch.Studien 6, 1982
,

157.

Bibliography: Marangou 1978. 303 cat


155, 216 cat no 192

For the type, see Boardman, ABFV.

fig

no 174

266

Tokyo 1980.

Low

158.
H

3 9,

kylix

Diam

rim 11

Diam

9,

foot 4 9

Intact.

No. Col. 18

There are

letters incised after firing

on the medallion

in-

side (graffito):

The shape, horseshoe handles and ring foot date


450-430 B.C. Attic Workshop.
Bibliography:

Marangou 1978, 264

For the type, cf -Agora

Kerameikos

IX,

pi.

XII,

100

pi.

cat.

21, no.

it

ca

no 169.
457 (Rheneian

type).

81 (variations of the type).

159. ''Cup"
H. 9.8, Diam. rim 8.7,

Diam base

6.5.

Intact.

No. Col. 776.

The shiny

Attic glaze and the shape of the vessel derive


from metal prototypes. Typological parallels generally
have fluting on the aryballos-shaped body. This type of
cup is common in Attic pottery and is called "Phidian"
from the famous example found in Phidias's workshop
at Olympia, with the inscription, "I belong to Phidias".
From securely dated parallels found in the Polyandrion
of Thespiae it can be placed in the third quarter of the

5th

B.C.

c.

Unpublished.
Bibliography: Sotheby'

9.12.1981,

cat. no.

202.

For Phidias's cup, see OlForsch V, 151, 169 fig. 45.


For the Polyandrion finds, see D. Schilardi, The Thespian Polyandrion [424 B.C.): The Excavations and Finds from a Thespian State Burial {^977), 203f. pi. 71, 2-3; cf also Kerameikos IX,
pi.

112, 46 and 113, 4-6.

160. Black-glazed oinochoe


H. 5

4,

Diam. rim 2

7,

Diam

foot 8

Intact.

No

Col. 181

The grooving on the

belly

and the shape suggest a metal

prototype.
Attic

workshop, ca 424-400 B.C.

Bibliography:

Marangou 1978, 312

cat,

no 183

For the type (Corinthian C), see Hesperia


XII, 154. Corinth XIII, 138

no. 138. Agora

6,
pi.

1937, 288
58,

363

fig

23
fbO

(4).

112

161. Kantharos
H. 11.7, H. handles 10.8, Diam.

mouth

Diam. foot

11.9,

7.4.

Intact

No. Col.

9.

Black glaze with plant decoration in the zones between


the handles. Stylized plant ornaments, ivy leaves, Doric
cymation and rosettes. The use of polychrome black,

added white and yellow colours

is

characteristic of this

class of vases.
Attic

wokshop, ca 460

Bibliography:

Marangou

B.C.
975, 310 cat. no, 181.

CVA Stuttgart pi. 35,7. CVA British Museum III, pi. 32, 19-21
CVA Munchen 2, 26, pi 94,4. For the bibliography see also
Antlken aus dem Akademischen Kunstmuseum, Bonn (1969],
I,

202-203

fig.

98.

162. Black kantharos


H. 73,

Diam

rim 8

9,

Diam

foot 6.6.

Intact.

No

Col 17

Attic

workshop, end of 5th

Bibliography:

a Agora

XII,

c.

B.C.

Marangou 1978, 315


115

pi.

cat. no.

185.

27 no. 633.

163. Feeding-bottle
H 5 5, H handle
Diam foot 3

3,

Diam mouth

2.2,

Diam. spout 0.004,

Handle and shoulder mended.

No

Col 29

The mouth

is

surrounded by black

spirals.

Black glazed

body.

Workshop, ca 430-425.
examples are usually found
funerary goods

Attic

Similar
as

Bibliography:

Marangou 1978. 311

156, 217 cat. no

cat

in

children's graves

no 182

Tokyo 1980,

194

Cf Agora XII, 1970, 161f, 320 nos 1197-1199, pi 39. For the
chronology, see Hesperia 32, 1963, 121 pi. 39 D7 and 8. For
the function, shape and decoration, see
Snijder,
"Cuttus und Verwandtes", Mnemosyne, 3e Ser.
1934, 34f.
H. Schadewaldt Ceschichtliche Ubersicht uber die zur Saugligsnahrung verwandten Cefasse. D Kleve-H. Schadewaldt, Ge/asse zur Kindenahrung im Wandel der Zeit (1955) K. Schauenburg, IbRCZM 4, 1957, 71 n 52. B A Sparkes-L Talcott,
Pots and Pans of Classical Athens'* (1970), fig 52 Kerameikos
IX, 50-51 pi 80,5

CAS
I

13

Attic vases of different

shapes, 4th

B.C.

c.

164. Red- figure squat lekythos


H 17
Diam

1,

Diam

rim 4

3,

Diam, mouth 4

2,

Diam aperture

2.8,

foot 7 9

Mended and

restored

No. Col. 27

the right, a woman sitting on a rock looks to the left,


she wears a belted chiton forming an overfall. On the
left, a woman with a chiton and himation walks towards
the left with her head turned back towards the seated

On

Between them is a spiral plant ornament and


above it hangs a strip of cloth Below the scene is a
band of egg-and-tongue ornament.
Attic workshop, ca 425-420 B.C.

figure.

S/larangou 1978, 314 cat

Bibliography

no 185.

name and

function, see Richter-\4ilne. 15 fig 101.


Rudolph, Die Bauchlek\ihos. Ein Beitrag zur.
Formgeschlchte der attischen Keramik des 5. lahrhunderts

For the

For type see

(1971).

The shape of the vase and the rendering of the

Schuwalow

figures

and

cloth-

Der
Schuwalo^-Maler, EIne Kannenwerkstatt der Parthenonzeit,
Kerameus 2 (1976), for the shape see 18 and for the style, pi.
81c, 107 c-d, 148 a-b
ing recall the

see

Painter;

Lezzi-Hafter,

164

165. Squat lekythos with calyx


H 9

Diam. rim

5.

Diam base

3 3,

5,

mouth
Diam, aperture

2.

Intact.

No. Col.

7.

The body is decorated with oblique black wavy lines;


beneath the handle is a very fine branch. Added white
alternates with the thin brown paint. The mouth and
foot are black.

4th

c.

B C

Bibliography; S^arangou 1978. 318 cat, ho


For the type see

1940-1945, 16-17
phy),

pi.

36, 7.

Agora
Cf

XII,

153f.

And

189.

see Beazley, BSA 41,

CVA Mainz RCZM

1.

75-76 (bibliogra165

14

166. Black-glazed plate


H

nm

Diam.

i 2.

17.

Diam. foot

9.7.

Intact.

No

Col 19

Two

holes in the rim indicate its purpose, to be hung


up. probably as a votive dedication. In the middle of the
bottom Is a circular depressiom. There is an inscription

underneath the foot: TPINONT.


ca 375-350 B.C.

Attic,

Bibliography;

a Agora

XII.

Marangou 1978.

320, cat. no. 192

147-148 n. 18 (bibliography],
Simon 1982. 110 no. 4.

pi.

37. no.

1070 See

also the recent

167. Miniature Panathenaic


H

5.

nm

Diam mouth

9,

amphora

Diam, foot

1.7.

Intact

No

Col

31

Side A: Athena on the left; her head reaches the shoulder zone. Side B; athletes holding olive branches (emblem of victory) in their right hands. \'erv rough work. It
may have been intended as a souvenir, but certainly
not for actual use. 390 B.C.
Tspologically it belongs to the Bulas group.

The eloquent inscription that is nearly alvsavs found


above the figure of Athena, "of the games at Athens
explains the name (Panathenaic) and the function of the
,

amphorae as prizes for the victorious athletes. A great


number and variety of amphorae from Attic workshops
have survived. They begin in 560 B.C. and continue
until the end of the 2nd c B C
the shape and black
painted technique were preserved for religious reasons
;

Bibliographv

Vfarangou

978, 320 cat

no. 191.

Ci Boardman. ABFV, 179 fig 316 and Allentov^n Art Museum,


68 cat. no. 31, with bibliographv

168. Acorn-shaped amphoriskos


H

5 8,

Diam

nm

7,

Diam

root

4.

Mended
No Col 14
The upper part of the body, the neck and the handles
are black, the lower part and the foot are reserved and
are the red colour of the clay The fugitive slip is flaky.
ii:

Impressed dimples imitate the acorn-cup.


ca 400-390 B.C Votive.

Attic,

Bibliography;

Marangou

1978. 316 cat, no

187.

For the type see P Jacobstahl. Creek P/ns (1956). 71 and 188 n
280 E. Langlotz, Aphrodite in den Garten (1954), 39 n. 7
and the recent A Creifenhagen, Eicheilekythen" RA 1982
2 fig

151f.

169. Seal lop- shaped vase


H 6 8, Max W 7 1
Damage to the mouth

No

546

Col

Black grooves alternate with reserved ones.


workshop, 4th c. B.C.

Attic

Natural and imitation shells from different materials,


both cheap and precious, were part of the woman' s toilet gear and served to hold cosmetics. They are found in
women' s graves and in sanctuaries as votive offerings to
female deities, especially Aphrodite.
The little vase no. 169 is a faithful imitation of the shellfish known in ancient Greece as "Aphrodite's Comb".
It is not known whether this one was for use or was a
votive offering.
Bibliography:

Marangou 1978, 317

no 188.

cat.

For parallels, see CVA Bonn


pi. 39, 8 and
^,7b (bibliography) and pi. 36,9.
I,

CVA Mainz RCZM

70. Pyxis with lid

H with lid, 9.3, without 5.2, Diam.


Diam foot 4 8
Intact; slight damage to the surface,

No

rim 11.7, Diam.


fugitive slip

lid

on the

3.8,

lid

Col 203

Decoration of stylized leaves and a sprig of myrtle on


lid. The added white decoration is almost in
relief

the

on the black slip.


Attic workshop, 4th

c.

B.C.
170

Marangou 1978, 322

Bibliography:

For the type of decoration,


Xii,

1275

71

known

cat.

as

no. 194.

"West Slope"

Pyxis with lid

H 5 (with
Mended

lid),

Diam

No. Col. 759 (L Evtaxias Collection, no.

On

see Aeora

42.

pi

the

known

lid is

as

a branch with ivy leaves

E 31)

This decoration

is

"West Slope".

Unpublished
For parallels, see
*

no 170.

See no 101

116

172. Boeotian skyphos of Cabiran type


H. 11.8,
Intact; slight rim

damage.

No. Col. 42.


Ivy leaves in the zones between the handles;
bands on the lower part.

parallel

belongs to the class of black-painted vases called Cabecause many have been found at the Cabirion
in Boeotia, the sanctuary of the Cabiri near Thebes.
They are painted with plant ornaments or mythological
scenes depicted in a caricaturist, genre-painting style.
They are made of excellent Boeotian clay; the ornaments and scenes are painted in black or brown glaze,
using incision and added white; the inside has a reddish
slip. The workshops were probably in nearby Thebes
and produced the vases for local consumption and not
It

biran,

r^^^i^Jm

for export.

They date from the 2nd

half of the 5th

century to the

middle of the 4th c.B.C.


Bibliography:

Marangou 1978, 319

cat

no. 190.

Tokyo 1980,

156, 217 cat. no. 196.

172

See C. Bruns-P. Wolters, Das Kabirenheiligtum bei Theban


(1940), 95-128 pl. 59, 5. Cook, 102. Cf the recent Ur. Heimberg. Die Keramik des Kabirions. Das Kabirenheiligtum bei
I

Theben

11,

(1982).

South

Italian

Workshops

The

red-figure krater no. 173 and plates nos. 174 and 175 are products of South Italian workshops.
The quantities of red-figure vases that have been found in the cities of southern Italy are
known as South Italian vases or South Italian vase-painting.'' The term South Italian is associated with the geographical area of southern Italy, since the Greek colonists of Italy are described as Italiots^ to distinguish them from the native inhabitants, who are referred to in the
international literature by the more recent name of Italians.^
The South Italian red-figure vases are the products of local pottery workshops in Apulia,"
Lucania,' Campania*' and Paestum,'' and date from about 440 to 300 B.C. The chronology of
the South Italian vases is derived from stylistic comparisons with Attic red-figure pottery,
whose painting technique, shapes and to some extent subject matter were faithfully imitated by the first generation of South Italian potters, who were probably Athenian immigrants.
The dependence of the first South Italian red-figure vases of the 2nd half of the 5th c. B.C. on
Attic red-figure pottery was so manifest that up to the end of the last century art historians
considered them to be Attic imports.
A. Furtwangler'' in 1 893 was the first to perceive the distinctive character of the painted co-

and to connect its sudden appearance with the founding of Thurii by the
443 BC/"" It seems that the creation of local pottery workshops in Magna Graecia was greatly promoted by the political situation in Greece and particularly the decline of
the Athenian export trade that began in the first years of the Peloponnesian War. It is thus
no coincidence that after the plague of 430 B C, and especially after the Athenian Sicilian
expedition of 41 3 B.C., South Italian vases replaced those hitherto imported from Athens.
lonial pottery,

Athenians

17

in

The thousands (over 18,000) of South Italian vases that have been found from the 18th century until to-day in both illicit and regular excavations, and above all the finds of the last thirty years, have given a new impetus to the systematic study of South Italian vase-painting. Today, thanks to the studies of A. Trendall, who used the same methods as those applied by Sir
John Beazley to Attic pottery, and also of A. Cambitoglou and others, it is possible not only
to distinguish individual local workshops and the works of the great vase-painters, but also
to attribute many vases to schools, pupils and imitators of the anonymous vase-painters,
who maintained the tradition until the end of the 4th century B.C.
The importance of South Italian vase-painting with its often ostentatious, monumental or eccentric shapes, overloaded with crowded compositions of representations from the repertoire of Greek mythology and drama, has been unanimously recognized by scholars.

Of

great importance, also,

ing of the social

life,

is

the evidence provided by South

religion, burial

customs and everyday

Italian

likes

and

vases for an understandCreek colo-

tastes of the

and native inhabitants of southern Italy.


The small krater no. 1 73, a favourite shape of the South Italian potter, is a typical example of
the Apulian workshop.
The plates nos. 1 74-1 75 belong to a class of vessels that are generally found as grave-goods
in burials, and because of the painted decoration are called fish-plates^* (Fish-Teller, plats a
poisson). The ancient name and function of these plates with a low foot and shallow depression in the centre are not known. The decoration of edible fish and shellfish have led a
number of scholars to believe that they were utility tableware "for the serving of fish"; the
small cyclindrical depression in the centre has been interpreted as a receptacle for the sauce
(garum) or juices from the fish. However, the symbolic character of fish, together with the
shape of the plate and the circular depression, reminiscent of the libatory phialai of Archaic
and Classical times, have caused some to suggest that they were libatory vessels, plates intended for cult purposes or rites in honour of the dead.^^
The large number of South Italian fish-plates found makes it possible to speak of massproduction, and there is no reason why they should not have had a double function, as utility vessels in daily life and as grave-goods or cult objects in burials.
nists

AD

For South Italian pottery see generally CooA, 193-198 See particularly
Trendall, Fruhitaliotische
Vasen' (T938) and South Italian Vase Painting {^9b6) and the recent Trendall 1982 (bibliography on pp
316-317).
2. EAA /V'(1961), 274-276, sv italiota, ceramica, stile, and Trendall 1982, 15. Vases from the cities in Sici-

1.

ly

are called Siculan.

For the term see EAA IV (1961), 251-274, sv italica arte, and R. Bianchi Bandinelli - A. Ciuliano, Les
Etrusques et I' Italie avant Rome (1973), and Popoli e civilta dell' Italia antica, l-Vll (1974-1978).
4. Apulian 7 967 and Apulian l-ll. Cf. also Suppl.
5. Trendall 7967 and Supplementa l-lll, (with the recent bibliography).
6 Beazley, /HS 63, 1943, 66-111. Trendall 7967, and EAA 11, 298-302, sv Campani, vasi, piati.
7. A.D. Trendall, Paestan Pottery [1936), and BSR 20, 1952, 1-53 and 21, 1953, 160-167.
8 Trendall 1982, 15, and Scheibler, 184.
9. A Furtwangler, Meisterwerke der griechischen Plastik (1893), 149-152.
10. Trendall, Fruhitaliotische Vasen. 2. Cook, 193. Trendall 1982. 15
11 See the recent Margot Schmidt, "Some Remarks on the Subject of South Italian Vases in E. Mayo,
The Art of South Italy, Vases from Magna Crecia. Virginia Museum of Fine Arts, Richmond (1982), 23-36
with the earlier bibliography.
12 Seethe recent Hornboste/ 7 9S0, 22J cat nos. 127 and 224 (bibliography). Plates with red-figure decoration of fish also exist in Attica: see Ines jucker, Aus der Antikensammlung des Bernischen Historis3.

I.

'

chen Museums (1970), 56

n.

70 no. 67.

118

173

his leTt shoulder. In tront of the youth on the ground is a


calyx-krater with linear decoration. On the right a female figure wearing a sleeveless, belted chiton, bracelets on her wrist and a rayed diadem on her head appe-

173. Red-figure bell-krater


H 25

Diam rim 26, Diam


one handle mended

5,

Intact,

No

Col

715

On

side

A two

foot

19.

figures are depicted;

on the

left

naked

vouth with a band round his head leans his back against
a pillar bearing the inscription (Kiovri66v): TEPMQN.
The figure is turned towards the right, standing on his
left leg,

ed

one
19

with the right foot slightly raised

IS

hand he holds

In his

outstretch-

wreath with a band; his left


concealed by the himation hanging folded from

right

be coming from the right Her left hand holds a


palm frond decorated with a band, which rests on the
ground; her right hand holds a horn (rhyton) from which
ars to

she pours liquid

(?

wine) into the krater

(libation). In the

background between the figures and above the krater is


a female head with a band (mask) hanging "on the
wall' towards the right To the right in the lower part is
a spiral plant ornament and in the corresponding place
on the left a circle.

On the back, side B, the figures of two naked youths


walk with long strides towards the left with their arms
stretched out obliquely and wearing head-bands. The
youth on the left carries a kados (situla) in his left hand
and turns his head to face the figure on the right, who
follows him. In the background of the scene behind the
head of the second youth there are halteres (jumpingweights). The scene is framed by spiral plant ornaments, one on the left and two on the right, which seem
to sprout from the ground.
On both sides the head-bands, the female's crown and
jewellery, the liquid running out of the krater, the krater's decoration, the inscription and the decoration of
the band on the palm frond are rendered with added
white.

Under each handle

a palmette.

is

Above

the scenes,

under the rim of the krater, is a band of laurel leaves,


and below them is a band of z-shaped ornament (like a
broken meander).
The work is done with considerable care and one is therefore struck by the careless treatment of the faces, especially on side B, where the drawing in general betrays

some

hastiness.

The black glaze

On

is

good

quality.

the basis of the iconography and style the vase

tributed to the

Museum

Graz

is

at-

from the vase in the Graz


967, 49 pi. XXViii, 130).

Painter,

(see Apulian

For the problematic interpretation of the scenes,

one

has to invoke the funerary function of most South Italian vases: see M. Schmidt, op. cit, 23-26. Lohmann,
Idl, 97, 1982, 191f and especially 233 and recently K.
Schauenburg,
91, 1984, 359f. Nevertheless, the
presence on the pillar of the inscription TERMON ( =
term, end) is decisive, because it relates the picture to
athletic scenes of an eschatological nature (for the
word, see Lee, /HS 96, 1976, 70-79; for an interpretation, see Moret, RA 1979, 3f and especially 4-5). Accordingly, the naked youth on side A should be interpreted
as a dead man receiving offerings from the female figure The presence of the Dionysiac symbols is also connected with the world of the dead (see Moret, AntK 21
1978, 85f; RA 1979, 11; Lohmann, op. cit, 233-247),
and perhaps also the scene on side B.

RM

Bibliography: Sotheby'

Unpublished

(to

For the scene and

2.

Intact.

No. Col. 43.


Fish, stylized shellfish

and seaweed around the characdepression.

teristic circular central

The depression bears a rayed, dotted decoration. There


is a reserved circle around the edge. The rim is decorated with a running spiral; the foot is unpainted.
Among the fish a conger eel and a ray [raja] can be identified with some certainty. Clearly identifiable are the

Campanian workshop, 350-340 B

writer).

Thimme, AA 1967,
199-213 Moret, RA 1979, 3f and 235f Lohmann, op. c/t., -246247 Schmidt, loc cit. For the motive of the youth leaning
against a pillar, see H iller, AntK 1 9, 1 976, 30f RA 1 979 11 and
255
For the mask, see Apulian II, pi. 253.2.
For the painter, see Apulian 1961, 760-762; Apulian, Suppl.
20 no 212a pi II 3-4
its

H. 5.1, Max. Diam. 23.4 Diam. foot 6

squid [Loligo vulgaris], cuttlefish [sepia], seahorse and


the two stylized scallops [Pecten jacobaeus].

Catalogue, London 7 5.82, no. 293.

be published by the

174. Red-figure plate

interpretation, see

\,

L.P.

Bibliography:

Marangou 1978, 321

For parallels cf
pi. 1, 6.

CVA

104. Heidlb.,
stel

CVA

Stuttgart

Frankfurt 3

Neuerw

1,

62

C.

cat. no.
pi.

57,

3.

193.

CVA Capua

erb. 1971,

68

pi.

28.

IV, E^

107 no.
Recently, Hornbo-

47. Jucker, op. cit,

pi.

70

n.

1980, 223-224 and Simon 1982, cat no. 74 (with bibliography).

For the identification of the fish and molluscs, see L. Lacroix,


La faune marine dans la decoration des plats a poissons (1937),
34 (he refers to the sources, whence also the name: ixduqpoq
TTivaKioKoc;).

Cf

for fish

names D'Arcy Wentworth Thompson,

Glossary of Creek Fishes

947).

120

75.

Red- figure plate

H. foot 0.005, H. base 1.5, Diam. depression 2.6, H. rim 1.3.


Intact.

No. Col. 714.


antithetical fish of the same species, probably the
sea-bream Lithognathus mormyros. Between the heads
and tails of the fish, a stylized scallop shell and an unidentifiable mollusc. The edge of the plate is defined by
a reserved circle. Tongue ornament on the rim. Foot
unpainted. Added white has been used for the details.
Lucanian workshop (?), 350-340 B.C.

Two

Bibliography: mentioned and illustrated in EX Parke-Bernet


24.4.1970, no. 320 and 1.12.1973, no. 65.

Unpublished.
For typological parallels, see no.

(USA

8), pi.

174 and CVA Fog Art Museum

XXXVIII, 2 and Ten Centuries, 444 cat. no. 203.

Pointed-based Amphorae'
Pointed-based amphorae, generally of large size, were widely used in antiquity for the storage and transport of a variety of substances, chiefly wine, although a considerable number
held oil, cheese, fish-paste or even water, usually when reused. Amphorae were also on occasion used in burials.
There were different types of amphorae, but their general shape was similar; they had narrow mouths for easy sealing, two vertical handles, and the bottom terminated in a pointed
tip that served as a third handle. In their morphological evolution a progressive lengthening
of the neck, handles and body, which becomes narrower, is discenible.
Pointed-based amphorae originally appeared in the region of Syria and Palestine during the
Bronze Age. In the 1 5th c. B.C. amphorae of Canaan ite type with sealings were depicted in
Egyptian tombs. They appeared in Greece considerably later in the 7th c. B.C., perhaps
under the influence of Phoenician or Egyptian traders. The main centres of production were
Rhodes, Kos, Kolophon, Paros, Chios, Lesbos, Mende, Thasos, Sinope and Chersonesus in
the Black Sea; by contrast Athens and Alexandria were the principal commercial centres.
The places of production are also represented by different types of amphorae. The shape,
colour of clay and to a great extent the stamps they carried are what give each type its individuality (e.g. the high-shouldered handles of the Rhodian type, the bases of the Cnidian type
and the different emblems and names on the stamps).
The stamps, which were impressed before firing and usually on the handles, are the surest
evidence for the date and provenance of amphorae; they signified a dated state guarantee
of the vessel' s capacity, and they also often included a name, perhaps the maker's or the
^

supplier's.^

In

the Coulandris Collection there are

dian, Koan): inv. nos. 166-167, 491-496.


121

now

eight

amphorae

of different types (Chian, Thasian, Rho-

Through them ue can ascertain certain facts about the wine trade. Thasian amphorae, Tor
example, were sold in the local market, but also in Athens, centres in Northern Greece and
the Black Sea; Cnidian chiefly in Athens and Delos; Rhodian in Rhodes, Athens, Alexandria,
the regions of Syria and Palestine, South Russia, France and Spain. ^ It is also indicative that
different types of amphorae dominated the market at different times, and this is explicable
by the historical situation (e.g. Rhodian amphorae were predominant in the 3rd and 2nd
centuries, Cnidian in the 2nd and 1st centuries B.C.).
1
See V Grace, The Aegean and Mear East. Studies Presented to Hetty Goldman (1956), 80f Idem, Amphoras and the Ancient Wine Trade- (1979), figs. 12-15.
VIII (1949), 176f A.M Bon -A Bon, Et.
2. See v. Crace, op. c/f. (1979), 9f. Also idem, Hesperia SuppI
Thasiennes IV (1957), 35f. V. Crace-M Savvatianou-Petropoulakou, EAD XXVII (1970), 278-279
etude des amphores' Actes du
3 See D Peacock, "Methodes classiques et methodes formelles dans
Colloque de Rome, 27-29 Mai 1974 (1977), 266t W. Schultheis, Amphoren, Bestimmung und Einleitung nach ihren Merkmalen (1982), 38-39.
I'

Bibliography: For Pointed-based amphorae, see AM. Bon-A Bon, op. cit.. 9-44 Crace-SavvatianouPetropoulakou, op. cit., 277f. V. Grace, op. cit. (1979).
For Roman amphorae, see W. Hautumm, Studien zu Amphoren der spatromischen und fruhbyzantinischen Ze/t (1981).
Schultheis, op. cit.. BABesch 59, 1984, 137f
For stamps, see n 2 and also V Grace, Hesperia III, 1934, 197f Idem, Hesperia SuppI X (1956), 122f

LP

176.
H

Amphora

77 5

Intact

No

Col 494.

Conical body; accentuated, nearly horizontal shoulder;


the base slightly curved and concave in the centre. Marine deposits cover the surface.
Thasian (?) type, 4th c B C. (400-350 (?)).
The base is typical of Thasian amphorae of
A.M. -A. Bonn type [op. cit.. ^bf). although the shape of
the body is closer to type II [op. cit, ^9\)
I

Cf also the amphora from Constantinople (Chersonesus type),


V Grace, Hesperia SuppI VIII (1949), pi 19.4.
For the Thasian amphora type see A
-A Bonn, op. cit., 13f

LP

."0

Figurines from various

workshops

177. Fragment of a relief plaque


H. 12.5

The lower part of the body below the pubic area missing
No. Col
It

189.

represents a naked female with the

known

as a polos.

The back

is

flat.

It

is

tall

headdress

assumed from

it represents a female deitv.


Cretan workshop, ca 660-650 B.C.

the headdress that

Bibliography:

Marangou

1978. 231 cat. no

99

Ci Higgins, SMC, 160 pi 76 no 586 "vIollard-Besques. Catal.


Louvre
29 pi. XXI (B165). J. Chesterman, Classical Terracotta
Figurines{^974), 31 fig. 15, and f he Creek Art of the Aegean IsArt 1 979, 1 36 no. 83, with bibliography.
lands, New York,
See also the basic studies by C. Rizza-V.S.M. Scrinari, // santuario sull' Acropoli di Cortina (1968) and G. Rizza, "Le terrecotte di Axos", ASAtene 29 30, 1967,68, 21 If. And see the recent P Blome, Die figurliche Bildwelt Kretas in der georvetrischen und frUharchaischen Perlode (1982), 28f.
I,

MM

178. Relief plaque of a


Max H 11, w
No Col 195

nude female

figure

179. Figurine head, probably female.

3.5.

The back slightly rounded, the face worn The arrangement and treatment of the tresses is typical of the Daedalic style. Typologically and stylistically it belongs to
650-640 B C. Similar plaques have been found in sanctuaries on Crete; it may represent a goddess.
Bibliography;

Marangou

1978. 232 cat

Cf Mollard-Besques, Catal. Louvre

I,

no 100

30,

pi

XXI (B 169),

XXXVI Higgins, BMC, 160, pi 76, no 585


For the type, cf The Creek Art of the Aegean Islands, 1 i7,
84, and Blome, op. cit. 28f with the earlier bibliography.
the term Daedalic, see the recent B. Sismondo Ridgway,
Archaic Style in Creek Sculpture (1977), 17f and 40, with
previous bibliography.

123

pi

no
For

The

H. 6.7, Max. W. 4.8.


No. Col. 170.

Provenance: Thera

Back unworked. The structure of the

face,

the treat-

ment

of the features and the horizontal arrangement of


the tresses date it to ca 640-630 B C in the later phase
of the Daedalic style.

Although it comes from Thera, it appears to be an imported work from a Cretan workshop. The hole in the
upper part shows that it was intended to be hung up in
a sanctuary or a house Probably a votive offering.
Bibliography:

Marangou

1978, 233 cat. no. 101,

the
For the type, cf Kestner

Museum, 36-37

cat

no T4 (with

eariier bibliography).

80.

Female

figurine

head

H 56
Tip of nose broken, surface of right

No
In

cheek damaged.

Col 172
spite of the

worn

surface, there

ian delicacy in the structure

ures.

is

a perceptible Ion-

and treatment of the

feat-

The head-covering suggests the probability that

it

represents a female deity.


Parian or Samian workshop, 540-520 B.C.
Bibliography

Marangou 1978, 251

cat. no.

127.

CM

A Richter, Korai (1968), 59 no. 95-96 fig. 293, 300.


Cf
37 pi. XXVII B 213. B. FreyerMollard-Besques, Catal. Louvre
Schauenburg, Samos XI (1974), 41-42 pi. 10. F. Croissant, Les
I,

protomes femininesarchalques{^983),
40 69

pi. 7,

11. 13, 22. 26. 49,

780

181. Vase

the form of a reclining

in

L. 14, Diam. mouth


Bottom edge chipped.

H. 11.1,

1.5,

Diam.

woman

rim. 2.8.

No. Col. 188.

propped on a cushion. The body stretchis frontal. The head-covering forms


the mouth of the vase. Her left hand holds a horn, her
right rests on her left knee. Tresses hang down to her
breast. Traces of red paint on the white slip.
510-500 B.C. Votive offering.
Many plastic vases in the form of animals or men in different postures and from different workshops (Corinthian, Laconian, Rhodian, Boeotian etc.) have been found,
mainly in graves, but also in sanctuaries. Their function

The

left

elbow

es to the

is

left,

is

the head

problematic: they were intended to hold aromatic

oil

and also probably served in the cult of the dead. Many,


perhaps, had a special significance, a symbolic character,

while others were purely decorative.

Bibliography;

Marangou 1978, 252

cat

no 128 Tokyo 1980,

149, 212 no. 184.

See generally M.

Maximova, Les Vases

Plastiques dans /' AnDucat, Las Vases Plastiques Rhodiens


Archaiques en Terre-Culte (1966), 169f HIggins, BMC, 54 pi.
16 no. 81 (Rhodian). Mollard-Besques, Catal. Louvre
pi.
XXXII, B293. Also cf 5/mon 1982, 201 no. 135.
I.

tiquite (1927), vol. 1-2.

I,

181

124

Boeotian plank figurines, 6th

c.

B.C.

singular plank figurines^ with long garments reaching to the ground and often richly decorated, and with the distinctive terminations of the arms and heads, were commonly called
Papades (priests) by the Boeotian villagers of the last century, who found great numbers of
them in their fields. The name has persisted in the international archaeological vocabulary

The

and has often been used even

surprisingly large

number

in the recent literature.


of these figurines has been found

in

systematic excavations

in

Boe-

otian cemeteries, especially at ancient Mycalessos {modern Ritsona),^ Tanagra and elsewhere. A considerable number of Boeotian figurines, stray finds or the products of illicit ex-

cavation,

is

to

be found to-day

common

in

most museums^ and

in

private collections.''

these figurines are the flat plank-like body, the long garment
covering the feet, the long neck, frequently adorned with a necklace, the schematically represented arms, like horizontal extensions of the shoulders ending in triangular projections,
and above all the head and face; the latter is sometimes bird-shaped and sometimes depicts
the female features in every detail. Another trait common to all of them is the white slip on
which the varied decoration of the dress, the jewellery, the hair and the facial features are
painted in different colours. They are usually modelled by hand; sometimes the body is
wheelmade and the head made in a mould.
The interpretation of the figurines remains a problem. Their almost exclusive presence in
burials as grave goods suggests they were connected with the worship of the chthonic deities, Demetra and Kore.^ Nevertheless, the similarity of the plank figurines to the wooden
xoana (images], the presence of the tall headgear, the polos,^ which in many instances is a
characteristic of the gods and the "heroized" dead, as well as the mass production of these
ancient wooden xoana only in Boeotia, have led scholars to relate them to the worship of
Hera on Boeotian Cithaeron." According to the written sources and particularly Pausanias's
account in the 6oeof//ca/ the Plataeans and later all the Boeotian cities carried "wooden xoana dressed in female costumes like brides" in procession to the summit of Mt Cithaeron,
where they burnt them in a fire together with slaughtered animals that were sacrificed in honour of Hera, the patroness of marriage. The wooden xoana, Pausanias relates, "were called
daedala by the ancients"; the festival was also called the Daedala and "all the Boeotians celebrated together".'* Erika Simon has argued persuasively for the indentification of the plank
figurines with the daedala of written tradition. ^'^ The funerary use of these figurines is, however, incontrovertible and makes their unreserved association with the worship of Hera
unlikely. If indeed we consider the conservatism and strong traditionalism thatdistinguished
the Boeotians and Boeotian art, and recall the many attributes of Hera, ^^ the age-old, preOlympian goddess of prehistoric times, we can perhaps recognize in the clay xoanonshaped figurines the mk cessors of the goddess' s ancient wooden xoana, the daedala, the relics of deep-rooted popular faiths and beliefs. This Interpretation is further supported by the
complete disappearance of the xoanon type of figurine by the Classical period in the 5th c.
Characteristics

to

all

BC.
The Goulandris figurines can be divided into two groups according to the treatment of the
head. The first group (a), comprising nos. 182-186 is chiefly characterized by the bird-face
and summary rendering of the features. On the basis of excavation data and a comparative
study of Boeotian coroplasty, the typological parallels are dated to the 1st half of the 6th

c.

B.C.^''

The second group (b) consists of nos. 187-190, and is distinguished by the tall polos on the
head and especially by the plastic, often meticulous rendering of the facial features. The treatment of certain facial features, however roughly executed, has chronological importance,
and this group is dated thereby to the 2nd half of the 6th c. BC The large round applied earrings are a further distinctive trait of the second group.
^2:

n^m

For the term "Brettidole" and the type, see

Leipzig, 8, 1958/59,

Paul,

"Die bootischen Brettidole",

Wiss. Zeit Univ.

165-206

P N Ure, Aryballoi and Figurines from Ritsona in Boeotia (1934).


5 pi III and 9-12 pis VII-VIII; Higgins, BMC, pis.
See for example Mollard-Besques, Catal Louvre
100-104, idem. Creek Terracottas [^9b7), 45f pis. 18-19
4 See for example /\rf/Anf/que, Collections priveesde Suisse Romande(^975), nos. 170-172. Kl. Stahler,
Heroen und Cotter der Criechen, Arch. Museum der Univ. Munster (1980), 12-14, and recently Simon
1982, 191 no. 122
2
3

I,

Higgins, op. cil, 46

Marangou, Lakonische Elfenbein- und Beinschnittzereien (1969), 269 n. 870


6 For the polos, see E -L.
with the earlier bibliography, and Simon, RA 1972, 21 4f.
7. E. Simon, Die Cotter der Criechen^ (1969), 58-59; idem RA 1972, 205f and especially 21 Of, 'Hera
und die Nymphen ', and recently Simon 1982, 191.
8. 9, 3, 4. The recent N. narraxaT^ric;, Boicvtiko (1981), 38-39 n 1 and 40 ns. 1-2. For the written
sources, see also W. Burkert, Structure and History in Creek Mythology and Ritual [Sather C\ass\ca\ Lectures, 47, Univ. of California, Berkeley 1979), 132f and nos. 207-208.
9 Pausanias 9, 3, 5: "for they called this xoanon daedalon..." and "the Boeotians celebrated the festival of the Great Daedala with them" (the Plataeans).
For participation in the celebration of a complete Boeotian Amphictyonia, see Simon RA 1972, 210
I.

4,

and

E.

Kirsten,

RE

2319-2320 (sv Plataeae).


and the recent Simon, 1982, 191.
and especially 21 8f.

XX, 2 (1950),

10. Simon, op. cil, 210f

Simon, op. cit., 21 3f


12 F.R Grace, Archaic Sculpture
11

in

Boeotia (1939), 21

ff;

for the dating

see also Higgins,

op

cit.,

45-47.

126

j^

r
I-

183

184

183. Figurine with 'polos"

and peplos

H. 17.5.
Intact, surface

No

worn.

Col. 155.

The polos has an applied rosette with painted decoraThe profuse hair, added separately, is carefully

182

tion.

rendered;

it

covers the long neck,

reaching to the

and is decorated with black horizontal


stripes which recall the hair of the "Daedalic" style.
Round her throat is a necklace with an amulet. The linear decoration on the breast is also painted with care.
shoulders,

1st quarter of the 6th

c.

B.C.

Unpublished.

182. Figurine

For

H 17

Basques, Catal. Louvre


10 pl. VII B 58. Kestner
cat. no T 26 (with bibliography).

parallels

see

Higgins,

BMC,

204-205,

pl.

100.

I,

Mollard

Museum, 50

Intact.

No

150

Col

184. Figurine with

has the typical coiled head termination and beak-like


nose Red linear designs indicate the garment' s decora-

'polos"

and

disk

It

tion

Ca 570-560 B C
Bibliography:
l-or

Col 151.

Traces of black-painted decoration.

Marangou

parallels see

H. 15.3.

No

Ca 575-550

1978, 246 cat. no. 120

Ure, op.

cit.

Grace

54f

op.

en.,

21

An

Anf/que(see n 4 above) nos. 170-172. Mollard- Basques, Catal.


Louvre
10 pl VII B 58 Higgins, BMC, 204-205 pi 100 Kestner Museum, 21 7-21 9 cat no. T 20 T 24 (with bibliography)
I,

Unpublished.
For parallels see Ure, op. cit. 56

BMC, 208

127

B.C.

pl.

Ill

pl

B14.

Grace, op.

cit..

21. Higgins,

104 no 778. Mollard- Besques, Catal Louvre

I,

185. Figurine
H 18

Mended
No Col 148
Similar to

no 184.
Marangou 1978, 249

Bibliography:

For typological parallels, see


pi

XIII,

cat

no 125.

no 184 And see Ure,

op.

cit.,

57

1171.

186. Figurine.
H

16.6.

No. Col. 149.


It

has the same coll of clay on top of the head and beaknose as no. 182. The slip has flaked off.

like

Ca 570-560

B.C.

Unpublished
For parallels see Kestner

Museum, 47

nos.

T 20 and T 21

18b

187. Figurine
H 21.9
Head mended,

right

hand and

tip

of

head restored

Slip

dam-

aged
No. Col. 152.

no 188, has a coiled projection on- the


left hand holds a doubtful object,
pomegranate fruit or flower Traces of paint

This one, like

head. The stylized

probably a
from the linear decoration.

2nd

half of the 6th c

Bibliography:

Marangou 1978, 247

VIII

cat

no 121

no 188 and Mollard-Besques,


8 66 and 12 pi. VIII 8 68.

For parallels, see


11 pi

B.C.

Catal.

Louvre

18/

128

189

190

188. Figurine
H

189. Figurine

21 5

The

face, slip

and painted decoration are damaged The coiled

top of the polos


No Col 153

IS

missing

No
Traces of the painted decoration on the dress and polos
are preserved; yellowish and black colours are visible.
2nd half of the 6th c B C.
Unpublished
XIV, 110 715. 80 270
103 no. 780. N Breitenstein, Danish NaMuseum, Catalogue of Terracottas{^94^), p\ 14 no 141-

tional

142

129

BMC

Col 145

The best preserved figurine of group b. The face with


the large round applied earrings and the tall polos is reminiscent of works of contemporary sculpture
Last quarter of the 6th

For parallels, see Ure. op. cil, 59 pi


Higgins.

29.4.

Intact.

209

Bibliography:

c.

B.C.

Marangou 1978, 248

cat. no.

122.

pi

For parallels, see

56

pi

no 188 Cf Mollard-Besques,

XXXIX B 355

Catal.

Louvre

I,

190. Figurine
H 24
Mended

at the

head and body; damage

to the slip

and decora-

tion

No, Col 146

no 189

Similar to

Last quarter of the 6th

c.

B.C

Marangou 1978, 249

Bibliography:

cat

no. 123.

For typological parallels, see no. 189.

Boeotian figurines^ 6th

c.

B.C.

191. Seated female figurine

22.5, L. base 11.2.


No. Col. 763 (L. Evtaxias Collection, no. E35)*.

Figurine of a seated female with plank-like body and


of the individual details. On her

summary rendering

head a rayed diadem, a kind of headdress recalling the


on the pomegranate fruit. The face is mouldmade. The figure's attributes, the breasts and the garment belt are indicated by applied clay. Boeotian workshop, 2nd half of the 6th century, ca 530 B.C.

sepals

t^

191

Unpublished.

The type

is

no. 647,

and

*Of the

also

known

for the

in Attica:

crown, 211

see Higgins,
pi.

BMC, 173

pi.

84

106 no. 790.

thirteen figurines in the Evtaxias Collection (nos. E 35-

Coulandris Col. nos. 763-775), only cat. no. 191 is on display; the rest are in the study collection and will be published
together with all the Coulandris Collection figurines by Lydia

47,

Palaiokrassas.

Dog

192.
H

1,

figurine

11 6.

Intact

No

Col 137

It holds a small wild animal in its mouth


Surface covered with red slip
Boeotian workshop, 550-525 B.C

and date, ci AA 1940, 23-24 figs. 27-30 Higgins,


104 no 789 Mollard-Besques, Catai. Louvre
B126.

For the type

BMC.
Das

pi

Tier in

1974), 169

I,

der Antike (Ausstellung Kat. Zurich, 21

Brummer

Collection, nos

7-17

11.

737-738
L

130

Boeotian figurines, 5th

c.

B.C.

193. Standing female figurine


H. 22.8,

W. base

7.7.

Intact.

No. Col. 26.

stands on a high base, wearing a peplos of the Lacon-

It

type and a headdress [polos). The slip has survived


and traces of red and blue colour can be distinguished.
Boeotian workshop, ca 460-450 B.C.
ian

Bibliography:

Marangou 1978, 259,

cat. no.

153

Cf Higgins, BMC, 217-218 pi 111 no. 815 pi. 12 nos. 813-814.


Kestner Museum, 59-61 cat no T 44 (with bibliography).

193

194. Satyr figurine


H. 11.5.
Tail missing; right

No

arm mended

Col 144

He seems to be sitting on his tail. He is bald and bearded and has a rayed diadem on his head, which is made
in a mould, while the body is hand-made. The hands on
his waist act as handles. Ears and genitals applied separately. The slip has flaked off.
Boeotian workshop, ca 460-450 B C
Bibliography:

Marangou 1978, 260

For parallels, see Higgins,

cat

BMC, 253-254

no 136
pi

133 nos 923-924

Legner, Anf//ce Kunst im Liebieghaus(^9b9), nos. 31, 32. Kestner Museum, 52 no T28 Cfalso H Hoffmann, AntK. 7. 1964,

67f, pi

131

181

194

195. Three doves on a ring base


H 7 5, Diam
Mended
No Col 138.

6.7.

White slip with other colours: chiefly red on the base


and yellow on the doves' bodies. It is specially connected with the worship of Aphrodite.
Boeotian workshop, ca 500-490 B.C.
Bibliography:

Marangou 1978, 254

no 130.

cat.

There is an identical one in the National Museum of Athens


from Boeotia (Inv. no. 6090); see also Inv. no. 12868 (four
doves).

a Mollard-Besques,

Louvre
22 pi. XVI 8 127. Kestner
127 (with bibliography).
For the connection of this type with the worship of Pan and the
Nymphs, see the recent A. Pasquier, "Pan et Nymphes d' antre Corycien", Etudes Delphiques, BCH Suppl. IV (1977), 377
fig. 10 and 378 n. 38-39

Museum, 51-52

Catal.

I,

cat. no.

Figurines from Corinthian workshops, 5th

c.

B.C.

196. Figurine of an enthroned female


H

8.1.

Mended, the lower

part of the footrest and the lefthand extremity of the back of the throne are missing.
No Col 171

A dove on her bosom;

the

left

hand on the knee

is

visi-

ble beneath the foldless foot-length garment. The front


part is mould-made The throne, tall headdress [polos)

and dove, symbols of divinity, point

to

some female

dei-

probably Aphrodite.
Corinthian workshop, ca 490 B.C.
ty,

Bibliography:

Marangou 1978, 257

no 132.

cat

For parallels, see H. Payne, Perachora


1940, 219f pi. 96 no.
102 Corinth XV. 2, 94f pi 17 Olynthus XiV, 133 pi 53 no.
140 Mollard-Besques, Catal. Louvre
75 pi. XLVIII no 8 526.
Higgins, Creek Terracottas (1967), 82 pl 35 B Kestner Museum,
bl no T 53.
i,

I,

132

197. jointed doll


H. 12.5.

Right

No

arm mended.

Col. 142.

mobile arms and legs attached by wires pasthrough the shoulders and tops of the thighs. The
short chiton and headdress are typical. The head and
front are mould-made; the back is flat. White slip.
Corinthian workshop, ca 490 B.C.
Similar figurines depict dancers with castanets or rattles,
Doll with

sing

children's dolls.
ries.

One

They

are

in graves and sanctuaholding similar dolls on

found

can see the dead

girl

in Attica. They are children's


connected with the worship of mar-

grave stelae, especially


toys or cult objects

riage deities; girls dedicated their toys to the patron


goddesses of marriage before reaching marriagable age.
Bibliography:

Marangou 1978. 258

cat.

no 133

and 2. Hespena Suppl. VII,


132 no. 909, pi. 133 no. 924,
117 pi. LXXXIV,
929, 930. Mollard-Besques. Catal. Louvre
For the type, cf/Af 1901,

114

fig.

53. Higgins.

122

figs. 1

BMC. 248

pi.

I,

C215. Dorig, AntK. 1, 1958, 41f pi. 22 2. J. Bartos, "Koreoder


Puppe", /./sty F/Vo/og/cke 94 1971, 102-103. E. Schmidt 'Spielzeug und Spiele der Kinder im Klassischen Altertum
SUdthiJringerForsch 6, 1971 Heft 7 71. Chr. Bauchhenss, A/4 1973, 5f
and llf. Kestner Museum. 20-21 68-69 nos. 54 and 54a (he relates them to the "daedala": see above p. 125). Simon, FiJhrer
(1975), 173, and Werke der Antike im Martin-von-WagnerMuseum der Univ. VVurzburg (1983), 120, no. 53.
On the question of votive offerings in sanctuaries, see /\u6i'a
riaXaiOKpaoaa, To 'lepo rqc; 'AprefjiSoc; Mouvixioc; (1983) 89f
(supplied by L. Palaiokrassas).
",

197

198. jointed doll


H. 8

The extremities are missing


No. Col. 468
Typologically the
of the

same

as

no 197, except

for the

shape

headdress

For typological parallels see no. 197 and also Allentown Art
Mus.. 244-245 cat no. 119. Kestner Museum, 68 cat. no. 54a

133

4H

/M

Figurines from island workshops, 5th

c.

B.C

w>*

199

200. Cut-out relief cock


199. Standing female figurine

9.6

intact.

H 12

No. Col. 140.

No

Col 141

The

front

mould-made, the back flat Slip and red


paint on the legs The headdress, the dove she holds
with her bent right arm to her bosom and the pome^granate in the left hand suggest the figure represents Aphis

Two

holes for suspension or attachment to furniture.


out in colours on the white slip.
Votive offering or grave-good?
Melian workshop, ca 490 B C.

The

details are picked

rodite

Bibliography:

Corinthian workshop, ca 480-470 B C.

1980. cat no. 41.

Bibliography;

Marangou 1978, 259

cat

Marangou

pi.

Cf Higgins, BMC, 247 pi 51 no 905. H. Payne, Perachora


218f pi. 95 no 100, 101 Corinth XV 2, 84 pis 15 and 16. Kestner Museum, 61 no T 45 (with bibliography)
I,

256

Jacobstahl, Die
67 b. Payne, op. cit, 234 pi. 101
pi. 42 no 349
For the connection of the cock with
see Kestner Museum, 19 and 56 no.

For parallels, see P

no 134

1978,

cat.

no. 131. Hornbostel

melischen Reliefs {^980),


O/ynthus VII, 89

no. 195

the worship of Dionysus,


Y 36 (with bibliography).

134

201

Female bust

H 23.5, W.
Mended.

17.5.

No. Col. 24.

brow and forms a kind of crown.


Hole in the upper part; white slip.
Severe style, ca 480-460 B.C.
Similar female busts have been found in sanctuaries,
houses and graves. They are typical examples of Ionian
art from the workshops of Rhodes, Thasos, the Cyclades, Boeotia, Attica, Southern Italy, Sicily, Selinunte,
Magna Graecia etc. They date from the end of the 6th
to about the middle of the 5th c. B.C. From the hole (or
holes) in the upper part of the heads it seems they were
intended to be hung up. They had a triple function: as
votive offerings in sanctuaries, for domestic worship
and for the cult of the dead.
The

hair frames the

Circular earrings.

Bibliography:

Marangou 1978, 253

no 129

cat

16 pi. 1 12. H. Goldman, HeWinter, Die Typen der Figurlichen


Terrakotten III, 243. Higgins, BMC, pis. 26, 27, 28, nos. 146,
148. Mollard-Besques, Catal. Louvre
pis. Xli, XXIIi, XXVII,
LXVIII, LXiX. Ch Biinkenberg. Lindos
593f Similar examples
have been found in Boeotia: Brummer Collection, no. 760.
For older busts, see F. Croissant, Les Protomes feminines archaiques (1983).
For the type, see

Olynthus

speria 9, 1940, 463-464.

VII,

F.

201

\.

4th

c.

B. C. figurines

202. Figurine of an actor


H 85

Broken from the knees down, surface damaged

No

Col 143.
Provenance: Thera

He wears a mask with a pointed beard, a short chiton


next to the skin, indicated by impressed dots, and a himation from his head to his genitals. His bare legs are
crossed, the right one over the left. H is right hand, crossed over his chest, supports the left one, which props
up

head

shoulder level.
It represents an Aristophanian type of the Middle Comedy, the weak man, in a contemplative posture, and
his

makes

at

fun of the natural infirmities of the

weak and

the

aged
Attic

135

workshop, ca 350 B.C. A

similar

one was found

in

a grave

of

New

in

Athens and

now

in

the Metropolitan

Museum

York.

Bibliography:

is

202

Marangou 1978, 323

cat. no.

196.

Bieber, The History of the Creek and Roman Theatre^ {^9b^).


47 fig. 194 n. 45, 281 (with the earlier bibliography). For the
chronology, see D. Burr Thompson, Hesperia 21, 1952, 143 n.
129. For the masks, see the recent L Bernabo Brea, Menandro e il teatro greco nelle terracotte liparesi (1981), especially p 79, with the earlier bibliography.

203. Tanagran figurine


H

i}. I

Mended

base 12
at the

3,

Minimal restoration

No

Col

007

Th

shoulder, middle of the thighs and the fan

Many

cracks, mostly superficial.

558.

Clay statuette of the "Tanagran" type. It represents a


standing female figure wearing a heavily folded chiton
and a himation, also with many folds, draped over the
left shoulder The posture is statuesque, with the left leg
relaxed and slightly to the back and side, and the vertical right leg supporting the weight of the body. The
axial disposition is characteristic with the head slightly
tilted to the right following the line of the right leg. She
holds a heart-shaped fan in her left hand over the left
thigh. Her right arm, hidden by the himation, is bent at
the elbow, with the hand resting on her right hip and
clutching the folds of the garment. Her hair is gathered
in a bun at the back. The slip and paint are preserved:
white, blue and rose. In the back is a long narrow firing
hole.

Boeotian workshop, dated ca 325-300 B.C.


The name "Tanagran" was given to a class of clay female figurines from their place of origin at Tanagra in
Boeotia, where hundreds were found in graves at the
end of the last century.
They belong to the Hellenistic period and date from the
2nd half of the 4th to about the end of the 3rd century
B.C. (330-200 B.C.)
These female statuettes with

their white slip and bright,


simple colours were the chief products of the Boeotian
workshops, with their long-lived coroplastic tradition,
after the destruction of Thebes in 336 B.C. They were
destined both for local consumption and for export to
the great centres of the Hellenistic world. Nevertheless,
as is confirmed by the non-Boeotian clay, many Tanagran figurines that have been found in the East and the
West, at Alexandria, Smyrna, Pergamum, Taranto and
South Russia, were made in the same moulds as the
genuine Boeotian ones. It seems that the figurine moulds
travelled widely, and the various local workshops reproduced the Boeotian originals using local clays.
The statuesque types generally portrayed by the Tanagran figurines testify to the strong influence of largescale sculpture. Although the bodies are often of the
same type, typological variety and different axial dispositions were achieved by turning the heads to the left or
right and attaching them to bodies that were clothed
in rich garments and holding various symbols in their
hands (fans, parasols, ribbons) or wearing smart sun-

2U3

hats

Most of the Tanagran

figurines

were found

in

graves,

Bibliography:

Marangou 1978, 308

cat.

no 180

but their function as simple decorative statuettes in


houses has been proved by excavation and also reflects

Cf G. Kleiner, Tanagrafiguren, Idns. Ergh. (1942), 110-111

the spirit of the Hellenistic period.

22a.

Unpublished.

menta

E.

Berlin,

Paul,

Tanagrafiguren,

pi

Aus den Staatlichen Museen zu

1962 E. Rhode, "Criechische Terrakotten", MonuAntiquae 4, 1972, 23f.

Artis

136

Varia

Lamps

The elements of a lamp necessary for its functioning are the body, to contain the fuel, and
the wick, by means of which the fuel is burnt. The basic form of the lamp resulted from an
integration of these two elements, with subsequent improvements and variations in, for
example, the form of the nozzle to take the wick and the addition of the handle. The shape
of the lamp evolved in accordance with its functional requirements and changing market
preferences. Clay was the principal material used in its manufacture, but some, mainly
early, were also made of stone and luxury ones of metal.
Lamps were widely used in antiquity by all sections of the population. Their chief function
was to illuminate private buildings, public places and places of worship. Large numbers
were offered in temples as ex-votos, and many have been found in tombs. There were three
methods of making them: by hand, on the wheel and in moulds. Wheel-made lamps were
the longest-lived, but their production declined with the introduction of the mould at the
beginning of the 3rd c. B.C.
Lamps were already known in prehistoric times: the use of a primitive form has been noted
in Syria and Palestine a little before 2000 B.C. Almost immediately afterwards the first form
appeared of the open, wheel-made, phiale-shaped lamp ("cocked hat"), which spread to
other centres of the eastern Mediterranean. Their production was later confined to the Palestine area, with a few exceptions (Cyprus). The lamps that reappeared in the rest of the
Mediterranean at the beginning of the 7th century had the same shape. In the 6th, 5th and
4th centuries B.C. Athens was the largest production centre for lamps of new types and excellent quality, which were exported all over the Mediterranean and the Black Sea region.
Until the 3rd century B.C. lamps were purely utilitarian objects with no special decoration
In time they acquired a higher body and smaller mouth, and the nozzle lengthened.
At the beginning of the 3rd century B.C. moulds came into use; these opened up new horizons both for fabricating the lamps and expanding their production through mass manufacture and lower costs. Towards the end of the 1st c. B.C. and until the beginning of the 2nd c.
A.D. the market was dominated by Italian lamps, whose chief feature was the relief representations on the enlarged disk of the upper surface. Later, first Corinth and then Athens led
in their production until about the 5th c. A.D., when the so-called Asia Minor and African
lamps made their appearance in the lamp trade. These latter centuries were characterized
by the predominance of different types of lamp in production at different times until ca the
7th-8th centuries B.C.

general Corinth IV, II. Agora IV. D Bailey, Creek and Roman Pottery Lamps, The
R.J. Forbes, Studies in Ancient Technology V (^966)^, 122f. U. Jantzen-R. Tolle,
ArchHomerica II P (1968), 86f. T. Szentleleky, Ancient Lamps (1969). D. Bailey, A Catalogue of the
Lamps in the British Museum (1975). KerameikosW. E.M. Cahn-Klaiber, Dieantiken Tonlampen desarcheologischen Instituts der Universitat TUbingen (1977). J.W Hayes, Ancient Lamps in the Royal OntaBibliography; see
British

Museum

in

(1963).

rio

Museum (1980).
Roman lamps in particular,
I

see F. Fremersdorf, Romische Bildlampen (1922). Agora VII


For lampstands, see Agora IV, 24-25. Bailey, op. cit. (1975), 14. Kerameikos X\, 61 f.
For inscriptions on lamps, see Agora IV, 4. Bailey, op. cit. (1963), 23f
For the lamp trade, see Agora VII, 4f Bailey op. cit. (1975), 10-12
For

LP.

137

204.

Lamp

H 2 5, H with handle i. L with handle and nozzle


Diam mouth 4 8, Diam. base 6.1.

No

11,

194

Col

Single-nozzled, wheel-made, black-glazed.


Characteristic type of 5th century Attic lamp.

Ca 420-410

B.C.

Bibliography:

Marangou 1978, 313

figs

cat. no.

184. Tokyo 1980,

156, 217 cat. no. 195.

Cf Agora

IV,

48 no 172 type 21 C,

205. Black-glazed
H. 4,

L.

6 and 34.

2U4

lamp

10.

glaze flaked off


No. Col. 534.
Intact;

Single nozzle.

The

in

lug

perforated; the base


Attic

pis

is

places.

on the

lamp

right side of the

is

slightly raised.

workshop, end of 4th-beginning of 3rd

B.C.

c.

IV, no. 310, 312 type 25B. Bailey, op. cit. (1975),
Q87, Q92 Kerameikos XI, 27, 30 no. 119 type RSL 4.
For the lug, which appeared in the 2nd half of the 4th c. B.C.
and served chiefly for suspension, see D Bailey, op. cit.
LP.
(1975), 14 no. 9.

Cf Agora

205

206.

Lamp

H 4, L 8.6, Diam. base 3.5


Small breaks on the base; surface wear.
No. Co. 533

The knobbed lug


perforated. Ring-base.
inside and the rim, traces of red glaze

Single nozzle, circular body.


right side of the

Attic

lamp

is

on the

On

the

workshop, 250-220 B.C. (3rd quarter-beginning of

4th quarter of the 3rd c

B C

Ci Agora IV, no 322 type 25B, Prime. Kerameikos


161 type RSL 6
For the lug see no. 205.

Xi,

34-35 no.
L. P.

38

207.

Lamp

Max. Diam 14, DIam. base 6.8


Handle and two nozzles broken.

No

Col

532.

Multi-nozzled (nine),

made

of black clay.

150-100 B.C.
Cf.
pi.

Agora
55.

IV,

no 459 type 34B Kerameikos

XI,

56-57 no 315
LP.

208

208. Negro figurine lamp


H 10

2,

H base

)2.7.

Intact.

No. Col. 173.


Provenance: Thera.

A naked negro boy

with a floral wreath on his head


squats facing right on a tall trapezoidal base. His skinny

body

is

doubled over on

his

haunches and

his right el-

bow rests on his knees as he looks towards the viewer.


A himation can be distinguished on his back. His right
arm embraces
with lion's
back.

207

feet.

on a lekane
round suspension hole at the

a lagynos (wine jug) resting

There

is

2nd c. B.C.
An exact duplicate from the same mould comes from
Egypt. Relations between ancient Thera and Ptolemaic
Egypt are well attested, and one may therefore legitimately suppose that the mould was imported from Egypt.
Representations of Negros were a favourite subject
during the

last

three centuries B.C.,


in the minor arts.

the Hellenistic

in

period, especially
Bibliography;

258

cat.

Marangou

1978. 324 cat. no. 197. Europalia 1982,

no 258.

Cf F. M. Snowden, Blacks in Antiquity (1970), pi. 40b (from


the same mould) and RA 1973. 1, 238-239 fig. 3. P. Perdrizet,
Les terres cuites greques d' Egypte de la collection Fouquet
77, 1962,
(1921), 140 pi XCVII no 370 U Hausmann,
55f. See also J Vercouter-J Leclant-F M. Snowden-J. J. Desan(1 976)
ges. The Image of the Black in Western Art

AM

139

209. Black-glazed lamp


L.

12.1.

Intact.

No. Col. 536.

band handle. Around the filling


hole on the top, relief tongue decoration. On the spout,
which has a triangular end, two relief spirals.
Single nozzle, vertical

End of 1st

c.

B.C. (Augustan era).

H Menzel,
Lampen im romisch-germanischen Zentralmuseum zu

For the type, ci Agora IV, nos. 714, 718 type 52C.

Antike

Ma/nz' (1969), nos. 55-56 Kerameikos


SML/IV2.

X\.

211

76-78 no. 462 type


L.P.

210.

Red-brown glazed lamp

211. Plain lamp

10, Diam. base 3.5.


Handle and part of body near base broken.

H. 3.9,

No

No. Col. 440.

L.

Col. 535.

On

the disk, relief tongue decoration.


The round body and the nozzle with triangular end are
covered with an extra layer that projects onto the upper
part like a rim.
Beginning of the 1st c A.D. (Augustan era).
Single nozzle

Agora IV, no 734 (type 52E). Agora VII, no. 382, 386 Kerameikos XI, 80-81, no 490 type SML/VI.
LP.

Cf.

L.

9.3,

Diam. base

3.2.

Intact.

Single nozzle, ovoid shape, ring base.

On

and the disk, which like the nozzle

surrounded by

convex figure-of-eight band,

is

is

the shoulder
a

a relief decoration with a

pattern of concentric circles and dots.


6th c A.D.
Cf

BAD

XXVI, no. 4693, 4730-4731


16 nos. 611, 632, 634.

A Bovon, Lam pes d' Argos

(1966), pi

LP.

140

212. Plain lamp


L

9.5.

Slight

damage

to the handle.

No. Col. 156.


Single nozzle, elliptical shape. On the shoulder, relief
decoration of three rows of dots. On the disk, an acanthus wreath and a cross. On the base, a cross.
6th-7th c. A.D.

Cf

BAD

nos.

XXVI,

42-1 43

4726-4730

pis.

33-34 no. 4723

(for

the decoration),

(for the shape).

LP.

213.
L

Lamp

9.5.

Intact.

No. Col. 157.


Single nozzle. On the shoulder, tongue decoration.
the base, a cross.
7th c. A.D.
Cf Corinth

Bovon, op.

IV, pi.

cit.

no.

86

pi.

1415 type XXIX.


16 no. 603. Isthmia

III,

80

pi.

On

40n
LP.

213

Loom weights
Loom

weights, chiefly of clay,

were used when weaving on the

loom [6pdio<; Totoc;


suspended from
keep them vertical").

vertical

or rectum stamen) (Polydeuces, 'Ovo^aoriKOv VII, 36, sv ayvuGEc;: "stones

the warps

in

ancient weaving". Plutarch

2.

156B: "in order to

They have three shapes: pyramidal, conical and diskoid, and they are often incised or stamped; moulds were also used to a limited extent in certain cases. They served to keep the
warp threads perpendicular on vertical looms and were suspended from the threads with
the help of rings, probably of metal, attached to the holes in the weights.
The origin of loom weights is unknown, but they had already appeared by the Neolithic
period.^ The end of their use can be determined with some certainty: with the steadily increas-

looms from the 1 st century A. D. onwards, it is generally believed that


loom weights went out of regular use at the end of the 1 st or beginning of the 2nd century
A.D
Study has shown that the type in use depended mainly on geographical and not on chronological factors In some regions all three types were in use (eg. Corinth and Olynthus), while
in others only one (e.g. Argos). In Athens for a long period of time, from the 7th century on,
the common type was the pyramidal. Loom weights of this kind became heavier as they
evolved and the bases became wider. Towards the end of the 4th c. B.C. the typical Corinthian conical weights were imported into Athens, and along with diskoid weights they became
especially popular in the Hellenistic period. The conical weights initially had sharp lower
edges, but in time these edges became more rounded until by the Roman period they had
ing use of horizontal

acquired an almost biconical shape


141

1.

Corinth

XII,

147-148

Bibliography: Hesperia
VII, 65f.

Corinth

III,

BSA XXXVII, 1936-1937, 36-47. Davidson, Hesperia Suppl.


AE ^9&2, 77-79. X. T^ou6apa-IouAa, z^cdScuva] IB' 1983, 9f

474f. Crowfoot,

XII (1952). Aik.

Despoini,

82-83.
loom weights, see Lefkandi
For stamps and incision on loom weights, see Davidson, op. cit, 74f and 77 Despoini, op. cit, 79.
For weaving techniques and looms, see R.J. Forbes, Studies in Ancient Technology IV (1964)^, 198f. H.
Blummer, Technologle und Terminologie der Cewerbe und KUnste bei Criechen and Romern (1969)^
135f(for loom weights in particular, 146-147). C. Wickert-Micknet, Arch Homerica III, R(1982), 39f.
Carrol, AjA 89, 1985, 168-173.
For early

I,

LP.

214.

,*.

im

:*

>

Loom weight

H. 6.2, W. base
Small breaks on
No. Col. 704.

Pyramidal.

4.

tip

and base; surface damage.

On one

of the sides, incised linear decora-

by a

tion of three angles joined

ti'

vertical line

through

their apexes.

4th

214

c.

B.C.

(?).

For the type, cf Davidson, op. cit, 73f

fig.

32, no. 4

and

fig.

33,

nos. 28-30. Despoini, op. cit, 77-79.

For the incision, see Corinth

XII,

loom weight of the Geometric

no.

1192 (same

incision

on a

period).

LP.

215.

Loom weight

H. 7.2.

Small breaks on top and base.

No. Col. 518.

Pyramidal. Red-slipped surface,


bnd of the 4th - 3rd c. B.C.
For the type, cf Davidson,

cat.

no 214, and

fig.

33 no. 17. Des-

poini, loc. cit

215

LP.
142

216.

Loom weight

H. 8.5.
Intact.

No. Col. 514.

Conical, unpainted. Corinthian type.


End of the 4th or 3rd c. B.C.
Cf Corinth

XII,

169 nos. 1166-1167. Davidson, op.


fig. 38 no. 138.

cit,

76f and

especially for the dating, 77

LP.

217.

E_^

Loom weight

ne

H. 5.8.

Surface wear and damage.

No. Col. 515

Pyramidal. The type appears to be relatively early, but


in the shape would lower the date considerably (Hellenistic period).

the clay and certain irregularities

Cf Davidson, op. cit.


Xil, no. 1202.

fig.

32 no. 52 and

fig.

37 no. 115. Corinth

217

LP.

218.

Loom weight

H 4 3.
Surface damage.

No

Col. 525

Biconical.

Roman

period (1st

B.C. -1st

A.D.).

c.

and date, see Davidson, op.

For the type


XII,

c.

cit, 78-79,

Corinth

218

no 1191
LP.

219.

Loom weight

H. 4 4

No. Col

519

Biconical, but the

Roman

period (1st

For the type


IS

and

shape
c.

is

distorted.

B.C. -1st.

date, see

above no

c.

A.D.).

21

8;

loom weight no

21

later.

LP.
143

219

2.

The gold objects nos. 220-233 come from Skyros according to trustworthy information. They were found in graves

Metal Objects

in the locality of Magazia, at Yialos, together with the


vases nos. 48-77 and the bronze jewellery nos. 235-247.
The information receives support from a comparison
with similar typological parallels coming from excavations of burials on Skyros.
The island provenance, the technique and the decoration of the objects have an especial interest for early
Creek gold-working technique and its links with the

Gold
Jewellery

Mycenean tradition.^
They may be divided
disks, small pins

and

sheet ornaments with

typologically into

two groups: a)
and b) gold

rings (nos. 220-227)

human

representations (nos. 228-

233).
1

Lila

BCH

Marangou, "Bijoux en

or,

99, 1975, 365f, ns. 32-33.

Collection D. Goulandris",

Marangou 1978, 210-216,

cat.

Tokyo 1980, 158-159 and 218-221, cat. nos. 197210. Lefkandi


220 n. 23. P. Themelis, AAA 14, 1981, 202, fig.
19. P. Themelis, PAE 1980 (1980), 94 ns. 1 and 2 and 96 n.l.
ASAtene45, 1983, 139 n. 17. HapXa^a, iKupoq, 321 ns. 32-33
nos. 68-82.

I,

Disks
Comparisons with other

similar burial offerings

from

graves of the Mycenean period and from Skyros, as well


as the fine perforations round the edges, make it clear
that they were sewn onto the dead person's clothing.
The decorative motifs (spiral ornaments, rosettes, semicircles) testify to the Skyran goldsmith's attachment to
the Mycenean tradition.

220. Disk
220
Diam.

4.3.

Intact.

No. Col. 611.

Complete, decorated with spiral motifs.


Protogeometric period, 10th c B C.
Marangou 1975. 365 no. 1, 366 fig. 1 Marangou
1978, 210 cat. no. 68. Tokyo 1980, 158 and 218 no. 197.

Bibliography;

221, Disk
Diam.

4.3.

Two

small fragments missing.


No. Col 614.

Similar to no.

220

Marangou 1975, 366 no 2 fig. 2. Marangou


1978, 211 cat. no. 69. Tokyo 1980 158 and 218 no. 198

Bibliography.

221

]44

211

111. Disk.
Diam. 4 3
small fragment missing from the centre and a larger one from
the edge
No. Col 612

Similar to nos. 221

and 223. Decorated with

a six-peta

rosette.

Bibliography:

Marangou

1978, 211 cat. no

70

7 975,
366 no. 3 fig. 3. \1arangou
Tokyo 1980, 218 cat. no 199.

225

224

223. Disk
Diam 4

Small piece near the centre missing.


No Col 613

The decoration of semicircles and concentric


contemporary Protogeometric vases.

circles re-

calls

Bibliography Marangou 1975. 367 no 4, 366 fig. 4. "Marangou


1978, 211 cat no 71 Tokyo 1980, 158 and 219 cat no 200

Head

224.
H. 2.1,

W.

of a pin

1.9.

Intact.

No

Col 609

These
Pins

and Hair-spirals

ten a

Mycenean

pins, like the bronze fibulae, were intended


garment or head-covering.

survivals can also be seen in the pins nos.


224 and 225 and the rings nos. 226 and 227, which were
hair ornaments
Schweitzer and Desborough recog-

Bibliography:

nized an unbroken continuity of Mycenean tradition in


the pottery of the Submycenean and Protogeometric
periods; and in the gold jewellery of the Goulandris
Collection we can recognize Mycenean survivals in the
decorative tradition and the goldsmith' s technique, and
possibly also in the funerary customs of the Protogeometric period

225. Pin
7 5, L

no. 6 fig. 6. Marangou


Tokyo 1980, 159 and 219 cat. no. 201

Marangou 1975, 367

1978, 212 cat no

to fas-

head 2

72

1.

Intact.

No

Col 610

Similar to

no 224, but with the

shaft preserved.

'

Bibliography:
1.

Marangou 1975, 373 and flapXa^ja, iKupoc;,

14S

33.

1978, 212 cat

Marangou 1975, 367 no. 5 fig. 5. Marangou


no 73. Tokyo 1980, 219 cat. no 202.

"Braided locks caught waspwise in gold and


(Homer. Iliad
52, ed R Lattimore)

silver''

226. Spiral hair-ring


H 12, Diam 19.
Intact.

No

Col. 616.

Spiral-shaped ring for the hair.


Bibliography: Marangou 1975, 367 no. 7 fig. 7 Marangou
1978. 213 cat. no. 74. Tokyo 1980, 219 cat. no. 203.

226

227. Hair-ring
H. 1.8, Diam.
No. Col. 615.

2.1.

Similar objects are found from the


metric period.

Mycenean

Marangou 1975, 368 no. 8


1978, 213 cat. no. 75. Tokyo 1980, 158 and

Bibliography.

For parallels see Lefkandi

Hammered

I,

pi.

fig.

220

to the

8.

Marangou

cat. no.

110.59 no. 19 and

Geo-

pi.

204.

220h-i.

gold sheet
227

The 2nd group of gold jewellery cat. nos. 228-231 is


characterized by the presence of "warrior" figures.

They were
wood.

all

hammered over

a mould, probably of

228. Funerary ornament


H. 6.2,

W.

1.8.

No. Col. 605.


It is not known for certain which part of the head, face
or body it adorned. A naked man with helmet and
uncertain objects in his raised hands is depicted. Typological parallels have been found in graves at Mycenae
and graves of the Protogeometric period at Lefkandi on
Euboea. The Skyran ornament may be a transitional type
between the Mycenean and the Protogeometric pe-

riods.

Protogeometric, 9th
Bibliography:
1978. 214 cat.

c.

B.C.

Marangou 1975, 368 no. 9 fig. 9. Marangou


no 76 Lefkandi
220 n. 23. Tokyo 1980, 159
I,

and 220 cat no 205 Themelis,


228

For parallels see also Lefkandi

nos 8-9,
232e-h

pi

I,

AAA

14, 1981,

202

190-191 and 220-221

189 36 nos 14-15,

pi.

217e

(T3),

pis.

170 3
229 and

pi.

146

229. Funerary
H. 11,

W.

ornament

9.3.

No. Col. 604.


In each of the two lower ends is a hole for fastening.
The decoration is arranged in metopic fashion, each
scene being separated by thin relief lines: two round
shields symmetrically placed in the two lower ends and
the upper triangular end. In the middle, two helmeted
warriors with Boeotian shields and spears.
The style of the figures suggests an early 8th century
B.C. date. The symmetrical, disciplined arrangement of
the filling ornaments, the precision of the original design, the clarity of the relief lines and the form of the
bodies would be unusual before the Geometric period.

Bibliography:

1978, 214 cat.

and 220

cat.

Marangou 7 975, 368 no. 10 fig. 10. Marangou


no 77. Lefkandi
220 n. 23. Tokyo 1980. 80

no 206

P.

Themelis, op.

230. Probably a chest


W.

cit,

202.

no 228.

ornament

13.2.

intact.

No. Col. 608

Four metopes decorated with standing warriors bearing


and helmets. The metopes alternate with
narrow vertical zones containing three circular shields
and acting as triglyphs separating the metopes. A meander band, the predominant ornament in Geometric art,
borders the representation above and below.
shields, spears

8th

c.

Diadem with

triangular

"horn"

in

the

middle
L

H. 1.8.

16.7.

Intact.

No. Col. 603.

I,

For typological parallels see

H. 4.6,

231.

B.C.

Bibliography: Marangou 1975, 368 no 11 fig. 11. S/larangou


1978. 215 cat. no. 78. Tokyo 1980. 80 and 220 cat. no. 20.

of hammered gold sheet to adorn the head (perhaps the brow) of the corpse. Two holes at each end for
fastening (perhaps sewn onto fabric?). It shows warriors
with figure-of-eight shields, helmets and spears. Meander ornament on the horn and both ends. It seems to
have been cut from a larger sheet originally intended
for another purpose. This would explain the inverted
position of the warriors and the circular course of the
meander band.

A band

This type of diadem is known as Eretrian. Its typological


similarity with Euboean jewellery may help to identify
the workshop or prototypes of the Skyran ornaments.
8th

c.

B.C.

Marangou 1975. 370 no. 12 fig. 12. Marangou


1978. 215 cat. no. 79. Tokyo 1980, 159 and 221 cat. no. 208.
P. Themelis, PAE 1980 (1982), 94 n.l.
Bibliography:

Ci Lefkandi 219 pi 232a,b and d (without the triangular horn


and with different decoration), pi. 187.33 no. 7. P. Themelis,
op. cit. 93, 94 pi 78a
I.

230
147

Plaques
The plaques

cat. nos.

232 and 233 are the same except

for slight differences in their state of preservation.

232

23i

They

come from the same mould and workshop, like the diadem no. 231, but they were cut from a larger hammered gold sheet. They both have the same decoration: a
warrior with helmet, figure-of-eight shield of the socalled Dipylon type, and spear. In comparison with the
gold jewellery from workshops in Attica, Crete, Rhodes
and Asia Minor, the Skyran pieces look "provincial".

Hammered

232.
H

5,

W.

gold sheet plaque

2.2.

Intact

No

Col.

606

Bibliography: Marangou 1975, 370 no 13, 371 fig. 13. Marangou 1978, 216 cat. no. 80 Tokyo 1980, 80 and 221 cat. no.

209.

233. Plaque
H

5,

2.2.

No. Col 607.


Bibliography:

1978, 216 cat.

Marangou 1975, 370 no 14 fig. 14. Marangou


no 81 fokyo 198U, 80 and 225 cat. no 210
148

234. Hellenistic gold wreath


H. 2.3, H.

bead

2.1.

No. Col. 602.

Nine oak-leaves of thin beaten gold sheet and a long,


narrow, perforated stone (carnelian?) bead are preserved. The leaves are bent over at the ends and threaded
together with the bead on a gold wire. Since no remains
of fastening have survived, it is impossible to tell whether they all belong together or whether they were threaded onto the gold wire at a later time. Similar leaves with

no signs of fastening have been found

Hellenistic

in

graves.

Probably from an Attic workshop, 4th-3rd


Bibliography:

Marangou 1978, 322

AD

phy, pis

32, 1977,

B.C.

no 195.

and wreaths, see the recent PapapoMeAetqi, 288f with the earlier bibliogra-

For gold funerary leaves


stolou,

cat.

c.

I.

98a and 99b.

234

Bronzes

The bronze jewellery cat. nos. 235-247 was found in


graves on Skyros in the locality of Magazia Yialos), probably together with the vases nos. 48-77 and the gold
jewellery nos. 220-233. They formed part of the accessories of women's dress or were intended for adornment, for which reason they must have come from women's graves. They were personal belongings and thus
give us valuable information about the preferences,
tastes and fashions of the period; at the same time they
are evidence for the production of the minor arts and
the relations between Skyros and other regions.
(

Jewellery

149

Fibulae

"They wrought many

bend

pins that

intricate things,

back, curved clasps, cups, necklaces"


(Homer, ///'ad 18, 401, ed. R. Lattimore).

Fibulae nos. 235-241 fastened clothing at the shoulder


or the head-covering, the peplos, beneath the chin.
They are bow-shaped broaches with a horizontal pin to

pierce and hold the cloth. The end of the pin, which
forms the "string" of the bow, is caught at the other

end of the bow

in

idea and function like the

modern

safety-pin.

235

numbers have survived in great variety, small, large,


simple, plain and elaborately decorated, and in different metals (bronze, silver, iron, gold). They are found
all over Greece, in burials as grave goods and in sanctuaries as votive offerings. They are dated and attributed to workshops according to their type, shape and
Large

decoration.
For fibulae and bronze jewellery generally, see Heidelb. Neuer-

werb., 88f, with the earlier bibliography.

Homerica

IC (1968)

the recent H. Philipp,


XIII,

E.

Bielefeld, Arch.

with a large bibliography. For fibulae see


"Bronzeschmuck aus Olympia", OlForsch.

236.
L.

Bow

fibula

6.8.

Intact.

260f.

No. Col. 565.


is known from Protogeometric times; on Skycorresponds to the Late Geometric period. The
shape and decoration of the bow date it to the Protogeo-

The type
ros

it

metric period (10th-9th


Bibliography:

235.
I.

Bow

fibula
For the

c.

B.C.).

Marangou 1978, 198

cat. no. 50.

workshop see no 235. For typological

parallels, cf the

fibulae from Lefkandi (end of 10th to 1st quarter of the 9th c

4.1.

Complete but with badly corroded


No. Col

BSA77, ^9&2, pi. 20.36 and pi. 21.7; Lefkandi h pi. 170.3
10 and pi. 248.9. Also E. Sapouna-Sakellarakis, Die Fibein
der griechischen Insein (1978), pi. 21 no. 643, 646 (type IV b)
and nos. 650-659 (from Skyros).
B.C.):

surface.

no.

572.

belongs to the Late Mycenean period, the transition


stage from Late Mycenean to Protogeometric, 10th c.
It

B.C.
Its

precise attribution to a

workshop

is

doubtful;

it

may

have been imported to Skyros from nearby Thessaly or


else, very probably, it was made by a Skyran craftsman
following Thessalian models.
Bibliography:
n

Marangou 1978, 198

cat. no. 49.

Lefkandi

239

14.

For the history and typological development of the fibula in


the Late Mycenean and Protogeometric Periods, see V.R.d' A.
Desborough, 7"he Last Myceneans and Their Successors (1964),
54f For the question of the workshops, origin and development of the type, especially in Thessaly, see Kl. Kilian, Fibein
in Thessalien von der mykenischen bis zur archaischen Zeit
(1975). Ch. Blinkenberg, Fibules grecques et orientales (^92b),
71 type II, 14. For Euboean parallels, see Lefkandi I, 239 (10th
c.

B.C

),

and 233

236

(for fibulae generally).

150

238

237

238. Fibula
H. 11.5,

L.

20,

L.

plate 7.4.

Corroded. The upper part of the plate and part of the

bow

mis-

sing.

No. Col. 561.

237.

Bow

The semicircular bow is decorated in the middle between the two beads with parallel incised lines. On side
A of the plate a ship with sails and oars can be seen.

fibula

H. 5.5.
Pin missing.

No

Col. 567.

shape of the bow and the decoraProtogeometric period, in the 9th c.

The nearly

elliptical

tion date

to the

it

B.C
Bibliography:

Marangou 1978, 199

cat.

no

51.

Cf Blinkenberg, op. cit. fig. 85 Type III, llf Sapouna-Sakellarakis, op. cit. pi 9 no. 256, pi 11 nos. 306-307 (type III a).

The semicircular bows of fibulae nos. 238-241 terminate atone end in square, hammered catch-plates, decorated on both sides with incised representations. They

known

Boeotian type. Chronologically they


half of the 8th and beginning of the
7th centuries B.C. Typological parallels are found in
women' s graves and Panhellenic and local sanctuaries
(Olympia, Delphi, Argos, Perachora, Samos, Boeotia,
Thessaly and elsewhere). The fibulae in the Goulandris
Collection were found in graves on Skyros and are probably from a Thessalian workshop.
are

belong

as the

to the

2nd

For fibulae of the Boeotian type, see

no

58,

Marangou 1978, 203 cat


and Heidelb. Neuerwerb. 1971, 88f nos. 121-129

There is a bird over the stern and a horse over the ship
(only the rear half is preserved) with another bird under
its belly. Rhombs fill the space (filling ornaments) between the horse's front legs and under the ship's sails.
The border of the plate is decorated with linear motifs:
semicircles, parallel or broken lines etc. Fine careful incision. On side B, a row of parallel fish.
End of the 8th or beginning of the 7th c. B.C.
Bibliography:

Marangou 1978, 203

cat. no. 58.

For side A, see R. Hampe, Fruhe griechische Sagenbllder in


Bootien (1936), nos. 14, 13, 91, 93. For side B, see BCH 45,
1921, 384 fig. 43 no 149 BCH 68-69, 1944-45, 42 fig 6 (Delphi). For the type, see Ch. Blinkenberg, op. cit. Type VIII 4-6,
161f. K. Fittschen, Untersuchungen zum Beginn der Sagendarstellungen bei den Criechen (1969), Anhang II, 213. See also
Kerameikos V 1, pis. 160-161. Keith de Vries, Hesiodic Pictures. The Creek Incised Fibulae (1970); idem, Forschungen
und Berichte 14, 1972, 112 Heidelb. Neuerwerb. 1971, 90f
Kl. Kihan, op. cit. (no 235), 105f Coldstream CC, 202f SapounaSakellarakis, op. cit, pl. 44 nos 1497-1499 (type IX b) (she dates the examples from Skyros to the end of the Geometric pe242riod and beginning of the Archaic) See also Lefkandi
244 (850-750 BC.) and
Maass, Antiken Sammlung
Munchen, Criechische und Romische Bronzewerke der Antikensammlungen 1979, 64 no. 38 (with bibliography).
I,

239

152

Hair-rings.

239. Fibula
H. 11.7,

erably

18

L.

3,

L.

plate 7 4,

part of the plate missing

Upper

plate 6

9.

The representations consid-

and the

worn Corroded.

No. Col. 562.


sails, ram, birds and horse. On
heads up. Typologicaliy the same as no.
238 with minor differences of detail. Certainly from the
same workshop and by the same craftsman.
End of 8th or beginning of 7th c. B.C.

On

Nos 242-243 are common offerings in female graves.


From their position near the head, their small diameter

side A, a ship with

side B, fish with

literary sources they are taken to be hair ornaments. There are many typologicaliy similar hair-rings
from all over Greece. They can be approximately dated
by their shape and, when it exists, decoration, and by
the vases found with them. They are known from the
Late Mycenean period and occur in the Protogeometric
and Geometric periods and not infrequently in later

times.

Marangou 1978. 204

Bibliography:

cat.

no 59
1.

For parallels

and bibliography, see no. 238.

See the recent

Imma

Kilian-Dirlmeier,

den Fingerrmgen mit Spiralenden",

"Bemerkungen zu

jbRCZM

27, 1980, 249f

(with earlier bibliography).

240. Fibula
H.

9,

plate 5.7,

L.

13.5.

Lower edge of the plate missing. Worn and corroded.


No. Col. 563

On

side A, an indistinct representation; on side


Typologicaliy similar to nos. 238 and 239.
Bibliography:

Marangou 1978, 205

cat.

B, fish

no 60

no 238 For the subject on side B, see Heidelb. Neuerwerb 1971, 88f pi 86 nos. 122 and 123. Kilian, op.
cit.
62f, and Sapouna-Sakellarakis, op. cit, pi. 43 no. 1495
For parallels, see

(type IX

b).

242

242. Ring with spiral ends


Diam.

2.

Intact.

No

Col

574.

ends to
The shape is reminiscent of the decoration
on contemporary pots (llth-IOth c B.C.).

241

It

consists of a small piece of wire coiled at the

form

spirals.

241. Fibula
Bibliography:

9.1,

No

Col

L.

op.

14.3.

564

Only the pin and bow preserved,


icaliy similar to nos.

Bibliography

plate missing. Typolog-

no 1503 (type
I

S3

no 238 Cf

IX b)

I.

Kilian-Dirlmeier,

The type is common in North Greece from the 11th and 10th
centuries B C and survives in Greece until the 7th century; see
Mav. Av5p6viKO<^, Bepyiva
(1969), 225 and 238f. Desborough
A, 219, 303-304 pi 60. H. Payne, Perachora 11, 178

CD

cat

no

27 Higgins, BSA 64, 1969, pi 34b. BCH 45, 1921, 367


20 no 169. Lefkandi
220 and pi 95, 15 no. 6a (LM period) Kilian-Dirlmeier, op. cit., 258 Philipp, op. cit. 146f pi 7
no. 538
pi.

61

pi

For parallels see

Marangou 1978, 199 cat no 52

261 no. 18.

238-240.

Marangou 1978, 205

cit.

also Sapouna-Sakellaraki, op.

cit.

79,

I,

243. Ring
Diam

2.2.

No

Col 580.
Provenance: Skyros.

Typological parallels date to the 10th and 9th c


Bibliography.

Marangou 1978, 200

cat. no.

B.C.

53

For parallels see Kerameikos


85. ASAtene VIII-IX, 1925-26,
213 fig. 11. Muller-Karpe, Idl 77, 1962, 86, 119 fig. 4. Cf also
the 9th-10th century rings from Lefkandi (875-750 B.C.): LefI,

kandi

I,

pi.

110.59 no. 24 and

PI.

24J

173.13 no. 18.

Bracelets
Plain, undecorated solid or hammered bracelets of various types were common grave goods in female burials
from the Protogeometric period.

244
For parallels see generally Lefkandi

H. Philipp, op. cit, 196f

244.

Double

pi.

I,

246-247 (900-875

B.C.).

45 no. 723.

solid bracelet

Diam. 5.2.
No. Col. 575.
Bibliography:

Marangou 1978, 200

148.43 nos.
216 and 241g.

For parallels see Lefkandi


pi.

173.13 no. 23,

pis.

cat. no. 54.

I,

8-9, pi.

167

nos. 8-9,

245

245. Solid bracelet


Diam. 4 3
No. Col. 576.
Bibliography:

Marangou 1978, 201

Cf

Papadimitriou,

op.

cit.

(cat.

AA

no. 235)

1936, 230

and 172

367. See also Lefkandi I op.

n. 2
cit.

cat, no. 57.


1. See generally Kilian,
Desborougli, CD A, 201 and

fig.

(cat. no. 244).

246. Bracelet
Diam 6

247. Bracelet

Intact

Dia. 5.2

No. Col. 577.

One end

Bibliography:

Marangou

Cf Lefkandi
pi 24

246-247.

missing.

No. Col 578


1978, 201 cat.

no

55.

Bibliography:
I,

pi.

241

1.

Cf BSA 77, 1982,

pi.

16,

Marangou 1978, 201

cat

no 56

and
Cf nos 244-246

154

ii

248. Bracelet
Diam. 12.5.
Intact.

No. Col. 745.


Solid

Evtaxias Collection, no. E 17).*

(L.

with

bracelet,

incised decoration

of geometric

rhombs and multiple chevrons, small

circles and
dashed lines.
The typological parallels are dated to the 8th c. B.C.
Nos. 248 and 249 come from the Evtaxias Collection;
Although their provenance is not known, it is thought
that they came from the general region of Phthiotis because similar bracelets have been found in the Lamia dis-

motifs:

trict.

Unpublished

249
Bouzek, Craeco- Macedonian
Bronzes (1974), 126 figs. 40, 3-4 and 41, 2. Cf Kilian, op. cit,
pi.
67 nos, 2-3, I! and the recent E. ApaTTOYiavvr)Ma^OKorrdKr], rE(jo^iETpiK6i; Tdcpoc; noAu6p6oou riapvaoi809., AAA XV, 1982, 81 fig 5 and 82 n 12.
For typological parallels see

J.

For the bronzes from the Evtaxias Collection see

p.

159

249. Bracelet

Bronze Animal Figurines

Diam. 12.
Intact.

No. Col. 746 (L. Evtaxias Collection,


Complete bracelet similar to no. 248.

The provenance of the objects 250-253 is unknown, but


they are important for a study of 8th c. B.C. art and religion. The bronze, like the clay statuettes, representing
living creatures (animals or men, and not infrequently
gods or heroes), are the only examples we possess of
plastic art forms in the Geometric period.

no. E 18).*

Unpublished.
For parallels see

no 248.

See generally N.

Himmelmann, Bemerkungen

chen Plastik (1964). For bronzes


zes, 19f

250, Cock figurine on a


H. 5.6, Diam, base
No. Col. 180

in

zur geometris-

general, see Master Bron-

round perforated

base.

2.6.

The body

is decorated with incised circles.


Probably from a Peloponnesian workshop, 8th c. B.C.
Only a few cock figurines have survived, and they are
generally found in sanctuaries, as ex-votos, or in children's burials as grave goods.

Marangou 1978, 206, cat No 62 Imma Kilian"Anhanger in Criechenland von der mykenischen

Bibliography
Dirlmeier,

bis zur spatgeometrishen Zeit", Prehistorische Bronzetunde


1979, 161 no. 950A, pi. 51.

250
155

XII

Cf
D Heilmeyer, "FriJhe Olympische Bronzefiguren", OlForsch XII (1979), pi 120 no 943 and pi 121 no 950 (for the
perforated base).

251
H

Horse figurine on perforated base

4,2.

Horse

No

L.

253.
H. 5.5,

4.1.

Marangou 1978, 207

Bibliography:
E.

6.3.

No. Col 158.

544

The legs and part of the body of a human figure are preserved on the horse' s back. Similar forms of horse figurines with riders have been found in sanctuaries
(Oiympia, Delphi and elsewhere). They date to the 8th
c. B.C. Probably from a Thessaiian workshop.

Cf

L.

figurine.

Intact

intact.

Col

Ox

Kunze, OlBer

IV,

9ffig. 9. For the type, cf

cat

no

The structure of the body and the rendering of the anatomical details point to a workshop in the west Peloponnese, probably Laconian, influenced by Argos. Probably a votive offering in the Santuary of Oiympia.
8th

c.

B.C.

Bibliography:

63.

107 fig. 89. M. Weber, Stadel Jb NF.


O/f orsch XII, pi. 36 no. 310, pi. 65 no.

I,

Marangou 1978, 207

cat

no. 65.

Cf Herrmann, op. cit, 30f Also OlForsch


538, pi. 61 no. 476.

XII.

pi

71 nos 537-

496.

252. IHorse figurine.


H. 5.2, L. 6.6.
Right ear missing.

No. Col. 177

From a Peloponnesian workshop, probably in Elis


might have come from the Sanctuary of Oiympia).
Geometric period, 8th c. B.C.
Bibliography:
For bronze

mann,

Marangou 1978, 207

workshops

Jdl 79, 1964,

in

(it

cat. no. 64.

the Geometric period, see Herr-

17f

Bronze objects from Luristan


Bronze objects like nos. 254 and 255 come from Luristan in western Persia, but since they
were not found in regular excavations it is difficult to be precise about their geographical
provenance and chronological position. Similar objects are generally dated between the
14th and 8th centuries B.C. The Eastern peoples preferred to depict monsters or upright animals, symmetrically opposed, reminiscent of the "animal style" of the Eurasian nomads.
The style is distinguished by a tendency to rhythmic stylization of a vegetal character and an
avoidance of a naturalistic treatment of the figures. Important examples of the bronzeworking art of the nomads of the Eurasian steppes are to be seen in their equestrian trappings
and horse ornaments, skilfully worked and decorated with relief, incised or cut-out representations, always cast. A considerable number have been found in Greek sanctuaries, demonstrating Greek relations with the East as early as the 8th c. B.C.

Bremen aus Luristan, Rautenstrauch-Joest-Museum, 1955 A Godard,


Wiesner, Kunst aus Luristan und Amiasch, Kunstverein Darmstadt (1965).
A.
Portatz, Luristanbronzen. Istanbul. Nederlands Historisch-Archaeologisch Instituut in Het Nabize Oosten (Leiden 1968) L. Van den Berghe, On the Track of Civilisation of Ancient Iran (1968), and the recent, idem, Luristan, Ben verdwenen Bronskunst uit West-Iran (Cent, 9.10.1982 -30.1 1983). Cf E. de
Waele, Bronzes du Luristan et d' Amiashi (anc. coll. Godard) (1982).
Bibliography: M. Heyderich,

L'Artde

I'

Iran (1962).

J.

J.

156

252

251

253

157

254.
H

3 1,

No

Apex of an unknown

255. Wild goat figurine.

object.

H. 4.6 L 3

Th 3.7

No. Col. 585.


Provenance: "Asia Minor".

Provenance: "Asia Minor"


It

terminates

ween them
8th

c.

in

is

two opposed wild

heads; bet-

goats'

The loop on the animal's back probably indicates

a suspension loop.

its

use as a pendant.

B.C

8th
Bibliography:

5.

Intact

Col. 573.

Marangou 1978, 209

c.

B.C.

cat. no. 66.

Marangou 1978, 209

Bibliography:

on an animal's back, see H. Liebmann, Tierbronzen aus dem vorchristlichen Mittelmeerraum, Samml.
Prof. H. Liebmann (1971), nos. 93, 94 pi. 13.

cat. no. 67.

For a similar loop

Cf Liebmann, op.
op.

cit.,

c;f.

no. 98

pi.

14.

And

see

Van den Berghe,

192 no. 246.

256. Bronze statuette of Asclepius


H.

7.

corroded.
No. Col. 589.
Provenance: probably Asia Minor.
Intact; face partly

The god is shown with beard and long hair. He wears


sandals and a himation, leaving his right arm, part of his
shoulder and his chest bare, and covering the lower
part of the body and the left arm. The right leg carries
the weight of the body; the left one, relaxed and slightly
bent at the knee, is placed back and to the side. The posture of the legs assists the upper part of the body, which
is inclined slightly backwards. The head is turned a little
to the left towards the left leg. The right arm is bent at
the elbow and rests on the right hip. His left arm
supports him on a staff with a twining snake, the attribute of the physician god.

one of the many sanctuaries


honour of the god of healing.

votive offering from

lished

in

estab-

Hellenistic period, 2nd-1stc. B.C.

Typologically the

ous

artist

has

more

cult statue of Asclepius

Bibliography:

or less followed the fam-

by the sculptor Bryaxis.

Marangou 1978, 325

cat. no.

For the original, see M. Bieber, Proceeding of


osophiical Society ^0^, 1957, 70f

figs.

198.
thie

American

Pliil-

24-29, and Antike Plastik,

Lief X, 55f pis 46-56.


Typologically related is the bronze statuette in BMfA Bronzes
1971, 90 no 96. Cf. C Van Gulik, Catalogue of Bronzes in ttie
Allard Pierson Museum at Amsterdam (WW), 1940, 14fno. 23 pi.
7,

in

and the recent Antje Krug, Heilkunst und Heilkult: Medizin


der Antike (Munchen 1984), 120f and especially 126f.

jt^

nir'#K^^'

>'j:-.^'.*ii^".

rjdU?J!M...<j^

256

58

Bronzes
Of the

in

the Lambros Evtaxias Collection

forty-seven^ objects donated by

Lambros

Evtaxias to the N.P. Goulandris Foundation,

twenty-two are of bronze.

Lambros

Evtaxias'

celets, cult

and

Collection of Bronzes includes, in addition to the two 8th century^ bravessels covering some eight centuries, from the 8th B.C. to the 1st

utility

A.D.^
all the pieces facilitates stylistic analysis, typological comparisons with related parallels, particularly those coming from excavations and thus more
securely dated, and technicological observations that assist in dating them more accurately.-*
The geographical locations of the workshops are also of necessity based on internal criteria,
the evidence provided by the objects themselves.
Nevertheless, the lack of concrete facts about the places and circumstances in which they
were found becomes particularly noticeable when we try to define the function or functions
of the objects. It is therefore not always feasible to determine the purpose, for example, of
the phialai (nos. 257 and 270), the hydriai (nos. 258-260), the oinochoe (no. 261) or the tri-

The excellent condition of nearly

pod vessels (nos. 265 and 266).


The utility vessels that frequently accompanied

their owner to the grave as burial objects although they also occur as votive offerings at sanctuaries - include the oinochoai (nos. 262,
263), lebetes (nos. 267-268) and the two-handled lagynos-shaped jug (no. 270).
Among the luxury table vessels are the askos (no. 271) and the lekanis with the elaborately
decorated bucket handles and distinctive body-shape (no. 272). The presence of the askos
and lekanis in Greece, where there is a profusion of bronze objects from the Geometric to
the Hellenistic periods, acquires special significance from the fact that the two pieces are
unique and the first to be exhibited in a Greek museum.
Their importance becomes all the greater when we see that all the many related parallels
found in foreign museums came principally from the rich household furnishings of Late Hellenistic Pompeii.
It is to be hoped that the scholarly publication of all the bronze objects in the L. Evtaxias Collection will soon provide answers to many questions which we cannot even pose within the
limits of a general catalogue such as this.
1

2.
3.

For the clay vases and figurines see above no. 101,

See nos. 248-249, p. 155


Of the twenty-two bronze objects

lustrated for the

first

in

the L

p.

72 and no 191,

p.

130

Evtaxias Collection eighteen are here exhibited

time: the bracelets nos 248-249

and iland sixteen vessels nos. 257-272. The rest are in


They consist of the following: a) a rectangular, in-

the "study collection" and will be published shortly.


scribed ("butchershop" etc.) weight of 1100 gr., H. 2, L 9 (No. Col. 738, no. Evtaxias Col., E 10). b)
Double-axe, probably Geometric, L. 11, H. 5 (No. Col. 743, no. Evtaxias Col., E 15). c) Intact Hellenistic arhyter, (ladle) H 10.8, Diam. rim 5, Diam. foot 3.2 (No. Col. 744, no. Evtaxias Col., E. 16), and d)
Late Archaic figurine of a cock, L. 9 (No. Col. 747, no. Evtaxias Col., E 19).
4. For the techniques of making bronze vessels (moulding, casting, hammering, joining etc.) see generally Master Bronzes, 1968, 9-15, with bibliography, and the recent CI. Rollev, Die griechischen Bronzen

(Hirmer 1984).

159

257.

Mesomphalos phiale

DIam 22

3,

Diam. omphalos 4

3,

We

Diam

ring 2

no

E 22).

5,

ring 2.3.

Intact

No

Col

750

(L.

erary evidence and the representations of the mesomphalos phiale, that the vessel was for libations.
have
the description of Athenaus (II 783), "in my opinion the

Evtaxias Collection,

Complete mesomphalos phiale of hammered sheet


bronze. The ring complete with palmette is soldered to
the rim at the back for suspension. There are two incised lines on the rim.
The precise dating of this libatory vessel is difficult without an excavation context, since the mesomphalos
phiale, because of its use for libations or as an athletic
prize, preserved its traditional shape, which changed
very little from the earlier examples.
The shape and proportions - the ratio of height to diameter - and the type of palmette date this phiale to ca
the middle of the 5th c B.C.
The ancient name of the dish, phiale or phiala, is known
from ancient authors and epigraphical evidence; and
from written tradition we also know the characteristic
epithet, mesomphalos or omphalote, descriptive of its
shape
We further know from a number of 8th c. B.C. examples, found mainly in the Sanctuaries of Argos, Perachora, Olympia, Athens, Samos and elsewhere, from the lit-

depas is bowl-shaped because it is used for libations",


and the representations of the vessel on Classical vases
Ex votos from sanctuaries made of bronze, silver, gold,
clay and more rarely of wood, testify to the diffusion of
the omphalos phiale, which originally derived from Eastern models.
Unpublished.
For the phiale in general (name, use, ancient evidence etc.)
see the monograph by H. Luschey, Die Phiale, (1939). See also D. von Bothmer, "A Cold Libation Bowl",
1962,
1 54-1 66 (pp. 1 54-1 55 for a summary on phialai). Recently see
Carol Cardon, "Two Omphalos Phialai", The Paul Cetty

BMMA

Museum journal, 6-7, 1978-1979, 131f, especially n 5 (bibliography) and, Kanowski, ^^b-^^7
For representations of gods and mortals with libation bowls,
see E. Simon, Opfernde Cotter (1953) Gefassdarstellungen, 2731, pis. 55-56, and Cardon op. cit, 131 n. 9. For chronology,
see Vokotopoulou, BCH 99, 1975, 759, No. 12, n. 97, fig. 20.
For phialai as athletic prizes or grave goods see BMFA Bronzes
1971, 323 no. 453.
For wooden and clay versions of phialai without the omphalus
see Hornbostel 1980, 10-12.

MMMntwapmasi

^^^^

160

258. Hydria
H. 39.7,
belly 34,

Diam. inside rim 17.5, Diam. outside rim 27, Diam.


Diam. foot 14, H. vertical handle 22.5, H. neck 9.4.

The lower part is restored in places.


No. Col. 730 (L. Evtaxias Collection, no.

The body

is

of

hammered

E 2).

sheet bronze; the three han-

and attached to the body with rivets. The


separate base is also cast and soldered to the body. The
rim is flat and horizontal with the edge slightly turned
down. A hole in the rim shows that it had a lid attached
by a chain. On the upper end of the vertical handle are
two palmettes, one a trefoil, and the other, at the top of
the handle, with nine leaves. The cylindrical neck is circled by a raised ring. The vertical handle is fitted to the
rim with two waisted, semicylindrical arms terminating
in relief knobs and attached by two rivets. The lower end
dles are cast

of the vertical handle terminates

ed with two

in

a solid ivy-leaf fasten-

resembling ornaments. The craftsman


has succeeded with admirable skill in matching the fastening of the rivets with the decoration of the vase. The
ivy-leaf sprouts from a knobbed band decorated with
projections, probably imitation rivets. The two horizontal handles, also terminating in solid ivy-leaves, are fastened to the body of the vase in the same fashion. Opinions on the date of the hydria and the workshop differ,
but the predominant view is that it dates to ca 450 B.C.
and belongs to the group of products of the northwestern Peloponnesian workshop.
rivets

Unpublished
(-or

the type of hydria cf the parallels from Patras

Diehl. Hydria, 43f

pi.

24, 1-5.

and Olympia:

Von Bothmer, Gnomon 1965,

605 Choremis, At 1969, 210f pis 34 and 36a. For the type cf
Bronzes 7977, 290 no. 415. For the shape cf Andriomenou,

BCH

99, 1975, 541

no

2 figs

8-13 (hydria

in

the Vlagalis col-

lection).

Diehl, Hydria, 45 and esp Rolley, BCH


459f Kent Hill,
69, 1965, 191 Recently Rolley,
RLouvre Jl, 1981. 329-330 (with recent bibliography)
for the uses of the hydria see no. 259.

For the

workshop see

87, 1963,

161

^nr

MA

258

259. Hydria (kalpis)


H. 39, Diam. rim 15.7, Diam.

mouth

inside 10.5,

Diam. foot

14.3.
Intact.

No

Col. 729 (L. Evtaxias Collection, no. E 1).


Provenance: "probably from the Thebes area".

Hydria with a Siren on the vertical handle. The body is


hammered sheet bronze, the three handles are cast.
The base was hammered after casting and attached to
the body by a relief ring. In the centre of the base is a
hole, evidently to aid the craftsman in shaping the
body by centering the vertical axis. There are small corrosion patches on the body, apparently produced by attempts to clean the metal; the patina is recent.
The outside edge of the rim is decorated with a finely
worked relief of Ionic echinus and bevelled on the perimeter. On the upper, smooth surface of the mouth is an
astragal decoration. The horizontal handles and the
upper end of the vertical handle are attached by two
fine, almost invisible rivets; they terminate in leafshaped ornaments surrounded by a delicate studded
decoration; the handles are finely grooved. The foot is
also decorated with a leaf-shaped motif.
The vertical handle terminates in the figure of a Siren
standing on the "heart" of an inverted palmette with
nine leaves, from which spring spiral plant motifs and
small seven-leafed palmettes. The attachment of the decorated end of the handle is effected discreetly; the outstretched wings and the body of the Siren are soldered
on, and the palmette is fixed with a small rivet. The Siren stands with frontal body and head. Her woman's
head and bird's feet are set on the vertical axis of the
handle grooves. The noble face with its delicate features
is framed by her hair, and the long curls fall loosely onto
her breast; an astragal band adorns her head and she
wears a similar necklace around her neck. There is a
scale decoration on her breast and shoulders. The wings
converge at her head and the tips touch her temples;
they are rendered in relief with fine curving incisions.
The leaves of the two flanking palmettes are also inci-

of

259

match the Siren's wings; the spiral ornaments


and nine leaves of the large palmette are deeply groosed, to

ved.

The shape of the hydria and especially

and
stylistic analysis of the decoration of the vertical handle
place the hydria in the 5th c. B.C. Typologically it is one
of the "group of hydriai with cast handles decorated
with a Siren and palmettes", which is generally dated between 450 and 400 B.C. The workshop that produced
the group remains uncertain: Boeotia, Euboea, Corinth
and Athens all claim it. The Theban provenance of the
Evtaxias hydria and a number of typologically related
vases does not necessarily imply the location of the workshop in Boeotia; neighbouring Chalkis, well-known in
ancient times for its abundant production of metalwork.
a typological

might well be considered the place of manufacture.


The figure of the Siren with its charming woman's head
on the top of the vertical handle is surely not merely a
decorative motif. The appearance of Sirens in Greek
poetry as early as the 8th century B.C., the time of the
Homeric epics, and their continuous representation in
Greek art from the 7th century to Late Antiquity are determinant factors in the interpretion of these figures on
the hydriai of Classical times. The fresh imagination of
the Greeks attributed many properties to the Sirens and
related them sometimes to the etherial winged women,
the Muses, and sometimes to the Harpies, the monsters
of death. The widely testified funerary use of hydriai
'62

suggests a connection between the representation of


the woman-shaped bird and the sweet song of the Sirens,

which solaced the

living

and gladdened the dead.

Unpublished.
For the shape, functions and terminology (hydria-kalpis) see
generally E. Foelzer, Die Hydria {'[906). Verdelis, /\f 1951, 80f.
Diehl, Hydria, 35f, 183f (with the earlier bibliography) and the
recent Kanowski, 37-42.
in honour of the gods
Amandry, BCH 95, 1971, 615-619.
For the workshops and particularly the Chalcidian workshop

For the use of hydriai as athletic prizes

see

see Verdelis, op. cit. 87f with the earlier bibliography


For the technique of casting the handles in moulds and the

bronzesmith' s distinguishing marks see the recent M. Maass,


"Typus und Ausfiihrung von Bronzearbeiten an Beispielen aus
3f
den Antikensammlungen in Munchen", AntK 26, 1983,
and esp. 6f pi. 6, 1-4 (two similar handles from Thebes). For the
siren on the handle see D. Kent Hill, "Creek and Roman Metalwares". The Walters Art Gallery, Baltimore, Maryland
I,

(1976), no.

18 (with bibliography).

For the chronology of the

workshop see

and the contrary view of von Bothmer,

Diehl, Hydria,, 36f.

Gnomon

37, 1965,

603.
For related parallels see Diehl, Hydria, 34 no.

B143-B154

16.2, 17.3-4; also Master Bronzes, 104-109. Cf the

pis.

bronze hy-

MaKedoviKO IX, 1969, 188 pi. 93. BMFA


Bronzes, 1977. 293 no. 419, and for the siren 297-298 no. 423.

dria from Toroni,

"Two bronze hydriae in Malibu", The Paul


lournal
1974, 15-22. Idem, "A Bronze Oinochoe in New York", Studies in Classical Art and Archaeology. A
Tribute to P. H. von Blanckenhagen (1979), 64. Andriomenou,
op. cit., 535f figs. 1-7.
For the sirens see generally E. Buschor, Musen des lenseits
(1944). C Weicker, See/en voge/ (1902) and Roscher, ML IV,
601 f and esp. 604-617 sv Seirenes. RE 111, Al, 288f, sv Serenen
(Zwicker). EAA VII, 341 f, sv Seirene (Sichtermann). For the sirens as a subject of popular inspiration in Euripedes' tragedy,
Helen, see Coll Bude, Euripide, V (1950), 38
For the connection between the sirens in Creek art and the
Egyptian bird Ba, see Cooney, BCIevMus 55, 1968, 262-271.
For sirens on hydriai see Diehl Hydria, 163f. Heidelb. Neuerwerb. 1971, 85f; cf the recent S Karouzou,
99, 1984, 316
pis. 40 and 42a.
D.

von Bothmer,

Getty

Museum

I,

AM

260. Hydriske
\-\.

9.5,

Diam. rim

4.5,

Diam. mouth

2.5,

Diam. belly

8,

Diam.

foot i.7.
Intact

No. Col. 731

(L.

Evtaxias Collection, no. E

3).

Small hydria (hydriske) with undecorated handles. The


is of hammered sheet bronze, the three handles
are solid cast. The decoration at the handle junctions is
a kind of leaf-shaped rosette. The base was cast separately and soldered to the body. The underneath of the
base has large and small holes from the casting. On the
rim there are a finely worked astragal and an Ionic cymatium The blue-green patina of the bronze suggests
the Sanctuary of Zeus at Dodona as the likely provenance.

body

Although

many

ed, the precise

typological parallels have been preservchronology remains problematic. These

vessels are generally assigned to the 2nd half of the


5th century, from 450-400 BC. The workshop where

they were made is also uncertain, since the places where


they have been found, mainly panhellenic sanctuaries,
are seldom the places of fabrication.
163

^P^

Small-sized hydria are


written sources

known

in

many

materials: metal,

evidence of the
and representations preserved on vases

clay, glass, faience.

According

to the

and other kinds of monumental or miniature art, these


were intended to hold aromatic oil for the nuptial
bath. Their connection with Aphrodite has often been
attested; they are frequently found as ex-voto offerings
at sanctuaries, and were sometimes, it seems, used as
vessels

gifts for

the courtesans.

Unpublished.
For the type see Diehl, Hydria, 31-32 pis. 9, 2-3 and 10, 1-3.
Kent Hill, op. cit., no. 17. Cf Master Bronzes, 110-111 no. 109

(handle attachment undecorated).


For the chronology see Diehl, Hydria, 31
fers in his

view: op.

cit.,

D. von Bothmer dif603 and Amandry, op. cit., 608f figs.


f;

12 and 15.
For miniature hydriai in different materials see generally Diehl,
Hydria, 31 f pis. 9-13 with bibliography. For glass hydriai see P.
Fossing, Glass Vessels before Class Blowing {^940), 96f figs. 72,
101; for faience see Schefold, Meisterwerke, 256 fig. 282.
For the connection with Aphrodite see Diehl, Hydria, 181f and
E. Simon, Die Ceburt der Aphrodite (1959), 4. For representations of small hydriai on vases, see Cefassdarstellungen, 48f.

.'h/

261

H 19

Oinochoe

Diam. rim 9 8, Diam, base 8.9.


The lower handle attachment is missing.
No. Col. 742 (L Evtaxias Collection, no.

There are no exact typological

E 14).

Oinochoe cast in a mould; the base is one with the body.


The handle, hollow inside, is also cast. The lower end of
the handle is broken; from the outline of the slot cut into the thick wall of the vase, it seems to have been
heart-shaped. The root of the handle is surrounded by
small relief dots, like a necklace. There is similar decor-

round the upper extremity of the handle, which


tongue ornament The decorative circle
culminates in a bovoid protome. The features of the bull's
head are rendered with pronounced plasticity and in a
ation

also has a relief

schematic fashion
There is a carefully worked ring, hollow inside, rourid
the neck of the vase at the point where it meets the
shoulder Incised lines indicate the transition to the
shoulder.

parallels; the shape rethe clay psychter. The technique, thick walls and
the treatment of the bull' s head on the handle suggest a
probable 6th c. B.C. date.
calls

6,

Unpublished.
s head see the recent M. Maas, MiJlb XXIX, 1978,
6a-b and idem, Criechische und romische Bronzewerke
der antiken Sammlungen und der Clyptothek Munchen (1 979),

For the bull'

11

fig.

nos. 26-27.

On

the problem of the

workshops

particularly for

oinochoai see B. Shefton, Die rhodischen Bronzekannen",


Marburg, Studien 2, 1979, 3f The plastic ring at the base of the
vase's neck often occurs on bronze vessels of the Archaic period, as eg on bronze oinochoai of a different shape: P. Cercke, Funde aus der Antike, Sammlung Paul Dierichs, Kassel, Katalog (1982), cat. nos. 36 and 37 (on the basis of the pottery
found with the bronze oinochoai they have been dated to the
end of the 6th c. B.C. and attributed to an East Ionian workshop)
For bronze psykteres see S Drougou, Der attische Psykter
(1975), 26-27 and Kanowski, 123-125.
I

164

262.

Oinochoe

H. 18.5, H. with handle 24.5,

the neck and body.


(L. Evtaxias Collection, no.

Restored

at

No

748

Col.

263

Diam. rim 12.5, Diam. foot10.7.


E.

35).

The body was beaten out of a single sheet of metal; the


handle is cast and the mouth is round with a broad rim.
The high-swung handle is attached to the body with a
rivet and to the rim with three large rivets (the rivet at
the lower extremity of the handle seems to be more recent). There is a carelessly incised palmette at the lower
end of the handle.
The number of typological parallels in Greece is relatively limited; the closest examples come from N.W. Greece
and date to the 5th c BC.

263.

Oinochoe

(olpe)

H. 22, Diam. rim outside 12.8, Diam. foot 11 .5


Intact except for a small break in the lower end of the handle.

Surface corrosion.

No. Col 733

(L.

Evtaxias Collection, no. E5)

The body is of hammered sheet bronze, the handle


and soldered to the rim and body. The lower end

cast

Unpublished

body and the handle type, see Th. Weber,


Bronzekannen 0983), 426 no IV ETR h 13 pi. IX (section drawing) For the chronology, see Vokotopoulou, op cit., 754 no.
9 fig. 16 and no. 10 fig. 17, for typological parallels, see op.
cit, 756, with bibliography Cf Andriomenou, op. cit., 567-568
figs. 36-37
For the connection of this type with Etruria, see
Maria H. P. Den Boesterd, The Bronze Vessels in the Riiksmuseum, CM. Kanat Nijmegen (1956), 75 no. 272 pi. XI 272.
For the shape of the

165

of the handle terminates

in a solid schematic ivy-leaf,


schematic birds' heads. In the middle
of the upper handle attachment is an excised leaf ornament, slightly raised above the rim. The circular rim is

and

at the rim in

flattened.

The shape dates


For the type, cf

name

it

to

BMFA

around the end of the 5th

c.

B.C.

Bronzes 1971, 319. no 444 For the


18 and Kanowski, 108-111

(olpe), see Richter-Milne

The function of the vase

for the transport of

wine and
and South

known from representations on Attic


pottery of the Classical period as well as from
written sources.
Metal and clay kadoi, bell-, calyx- and stamnos-shaped
with spouts, richly decorated and with heads of demons, gods and animals on the handle bases, have
been found throughout the ancient world: Italy, Northern and Eastern Europe, the Balkans, South Russia,
water

is

Italian

Asia Minor, and in Greece in Thrace, Macedonia and


Thessaly. Since the greatest number oi kadoi, especially
the clay ones, come from Etruscan cities, most scholars
have considered Etruria to be the place of origin and
centre of production and distribution of this utility vessel. Recent finds, however, over the last twenty years,
chiefly in excavations from Greece, In the regions of
Macedonia, Thessaly and Thrace, have shown that the
bell- and stamnos- type of kadoi in metal and clay had a
wider distribution than was supposed. They further suggest the need to revise opinions about the production
centres of this class of vessel and more generally about
bronze casting and bronze sheet working in late Classical

and early Hellenistic times.

Jb4

Unpublished.

264. Kados (situla)


H. 25.7, Diam. rim 21 4, Diam. mouth 19.3, Diam. foot 10.9.
Lower part of the body and middle of the foot restored
No. Col. 732 (L. Evtaxias Collection, no. E 4).

Provenance: Pelasgia, Thessaly.


is hammered sheet, the handles are solid cast;
the base is cast and hammered, reworked together with
the body. The slender body is bell-shaped. The twin,

The body

For the name and function of the vessel, see Amyx, AjA 49,
1945, 509f and especially 51 4f. Cfthe recent Gisella Zahlhaas,
Crossgriechisctie und romische Metalleimer (1972), 7f.
For the Latin name (situla), see H. Cericke, Lateinische Cefassnamen, Beih. Bjb. 1969.
For illustrations of the utensil, see Cefassdarstellungen, 54-55.
There is a catalogue of known typological parallels up to 1959
by P.J. Riis, Acta Arch. 30, 1959, 1 7f, with the earlier bibliography. See
Bronsted, Danmarks Oldtid- III, 1960, 75 fig 393
J

no. 11.
For the types and the origin of the decorative motif of the palm-

see C. Zahlhaas, op. cit, 31 f. and W. Schiering, Zeitund Herkunft der Bronzesitula im Waldalgsheim,
HambBeitrA VI, 1975, 83f (for the decorative motif below the

bow-shaped, hinged handles pass through half-rings fastened to the rim. The ends of the handles are bent back
and terminate in astragal ornaments. Between the pairs

ette,

of half-rings are four-leaf palmettes. A delicately incised


decoration of stylized laurel leaves runs around the body in a band below the rim. The decorated band is

rim).

edged above and below by a fine relief line and dots, and
is interrupted by two vertical parallel lines beneath the
palmette hearts between the pairs of half-rings. At these
two points are the central axes of the skillfully worked
plant ornament that decorates the kados: acanthus
leaves, spiral shoots and multi-leaved palmettes set symmetrically under the vertical axes of the handles.
The related typological parallels, the bell-shaped kadoi
(situlae in Latin), date to the Classical period, the late

5th

and the 4th centuries B C. The slender proportions


body and the composition and treat-

of the elongated

ment
mate
4th c

of the simple plant decoration suggest an approxidate for the Pelasgia kados in the early years of the

B.C

stellung

For the kadoi from Greece and the Balkans, see Beryl Barr"Macedonian Metal Vases in Perspective; Some Ob-

Sharrar,

servations on Context and Tradition", Studies


Art,

Vol.

10,

Late Classical

Symposium Series
and Early Hellenistic

I,

in

the IHistory of

Macedonia and Greece

in

Times, National Gallery of Art

Washington 1982, 123-137 (with earlier bibliography), 127 fig


8 and 129 fig 11.
For kadoi of Macedonian and Thracian origin, see also the catalogues of the 1979 and 1980 exhibitions: Treasures of Ancient
Macedonia, Museum of Thessalomki (1979) 80 cat no. 332 pi.
47 and 107 cat no. 459 pi. 61 and The Search for Alexander
(1 980), 1 81 cat. no. 1 57 pi. 26 and Supplement (1 982), 8-9 AD
30, 1975, Chronika, 302 pi. 205g (Thracian) and the recent D
von Bothmer, "A Greek and Roman Treasure
BMMA XL!!,
1984, no. 74 (with bibliography).
For the interaction and interdependence of metal-working
establishments in the late Classical and Hellenistic periods see
Pfrommer "Grossgriechischer and mittelitalischer Einfluss
,

166

in der Rankenornamentik fruhellenistischer Zeit", Idl 97, 1982,


119f and idem, "Italien-Makedonien-Kleinasien Interdependenzen spatklassischer und fruhellenistischer Toreutik", Idl
98, 1983, 235t and the recent CI. Roiley, Die griechischen
Bronzen (1984), 173-174.
On the question of the Etruscan origin of the clay examples see
Beazley, Etruscan Vase-Painting (1947), 250f. For the Etruscan production and distribution of the stamnoid kadoi see
Boucher, RA^973, 85-96.
J.

265. Tripod vessel


H. 8.5,

H bowl

5,

Diam

rim 15.

intact.

No. Col. 740

(L

Evtaxias Collection, no. E 12).

The semicircular body of the

le-

decorated on the rim with an Ionic cimatium

in

Complete tripod
bes,

hammered

lebes.

The three legs were cast in the


same mould; their lower ends have lion' s feet and the
tops are Sirens with open wings. The details of the Sirens' faces and the anatomical features are rendered
with particular care; even the nipples on the breasts are
relief,

is

cast.

discernible.

The shape of the bowl, the technical details and especially the morphological features of the Sirens date it to
ca the 4th c. B.C
Similar tripods with monsters as legs have been found in
sanctuaries and graves, chiefly in Etruria. A common
type has gorgons and sphinxes in place of the feet, while
those with Sirens are rarer. The precise function and

name

of these vessels are

unknown; they

are usually

called thymiateria (incense-burners).

Unpublished

The shape of the body of the lebes is known from the Geomeperiod. See
Maass, "Die geometrischen Dreifijsse von
Olympia", OlForsch. X, eg. pis 1 and 5 For early tripod vessels with gorgons see louAi'a KouAeipavri-BoKOTOTTGuAou,
XaAKoi KOQivdioupyeiq npoxoi (1975), 55, 157, 185 pi. 46 d
and Roiley, RLouvrei], 1981, 325 n 7 fig 7. Cf Cauer, AM 99,
tric

1984, 46f

pi 13, 2 (with earlier bibliography)


For Etruscan parallels see Haynes, AntK. IX, 1966, lOlf. For
sphinxes as legs for similar vessels see Ten Centuries, 197-198

no 93
For thymiateria generally and especially Etruscan ones see
Medelhavs MusB 18, 1983, 45-67 (with full bibliography) and
Kanowski, 145-146 For sirens as a decorative theme see no.

259
lb;

266. Tripod vessel


H 7.6, H. bowl 3, Diam rim 9 8.
Surface corroded.
No. Col. 741 (L. Evtaxias Collection, no.

Complete tripod

vessel.

The body,

E 13).

in the form of a lebes


with a flat horizontal base, is cast. The feet are also cast
and soldered to the base of the lebes The three legs terminate at their lower ends in lion' s feet and at the
upper ends in Sirens with open wings The shape of the
bowl, the treatment of the Sirens and the thick walls of
the vessel, date it to ca the 4th c. B.C.
For typological parallels, see no. 265.

267. Pyxis with


H

5,

Diam

lid,

or "lebes"

rim 14.2, Diam, base 14.5.

Intact

No

Col.

739

Evtaxias Collection,

(L.

no

E.

11).

in the shape of a lebes with two handles and a lid


type of pyxis). The solid handles, with astragal decoration, are soldered to the body beneath the rim; the

Vessel

(a

hammered

sheet. The lid, a disk


movable and joined to
the rim by a small rivet, probably modern. Under the
flat rim, level with the handles, is a band with an incised
decoration of Ionic cymatia and astragals. On the bottom three concentric circles are incised.
Similar vessels without lids are called lebetes and dated
to ca the 2nd half of the 4th c. B.C.

body and

are of

lid

made from

thin sheet bronze,

is

267

Unpublished
For typological parallels see the Calaxidi

Hoard

Museum: W. Lamb, Greek and Roman Bronzes

in

the British

(1929), 185

n.

and the Botovosi Hoard: J. Vokotopoulou, "Le tresor de


vases de bronze de Votonosi", BCH 99, 1975, 785 fig. 46 n. 168.
6,

268

268. "Lebes", vessel with


H. 8.5,

Diam

two handles

rim outside 20.2, Diam, base 19.2.

Intact.

No. Col. 734

(L.

Evtaxias Collection,

no

E.

6).

The body is of hammered sheet, the solid handles are


and attached below the rim At the point of attachment of the handles the expanded ends are decorated

cast

with leaf-shaped decoration in the form of rosettes. Beneath the rim is a band decorated with astragals and
Ionic cymatia.

The shape is like that of larger utilitarian vessels (caulThe shape of the handles, reminiscent of hydria
handles, the meticulous decoration and the thick walls
date it probably to the 2nd half of the 4th c. B.C.
drons).

Unpublished.
For parallels cf

no 267.
168

270

269. Two-handled utility vessel


H

11,

H with handles

15,

Diam

rim

9,

Diam

foot 10.3.

Intact.

No. Col. 749

(L.

Evtaxias Collection,

no

21)

Vessel with the shape of a lagynos, with ring foot and


two high-swung handles. The body is of hammered
sheet; the cast handles terminate below in stylized excised palmettes, roughly worked. Concentric circles

on

the bottom.

The use and the ancient name are unknown. The lagynos form dates it to the end of the 4th or beginning of
the 3rd c

B.C.

Unpublished

270. Phi ale with handle (patera]


H

5 5,

Diam

rim 23,

Diam base

14, L

the base.
The ancient

name and

the function of the frying-pan


In the bibliography this
type of utensil, which has survived in very many examples made of bronze, gold and silver, is generally referred to by the Latin name, patera.
The meticulous decoration on the inside of the Evtaxias
phiale suggests it was a libatory phiale, like those of
Classical times (see above no. 257).
Typological parallels have come from graves, settlements and sanctuaries, and are dated to the Hellenistic
period, from the 4th c. B.C. to the 2nd c. AD.
The shape and decoration could set this one approximately in the 3rd c. B.C.

shaped

utensil are not

known.

handle 13.

Intact

No

lion has been elaborately worked. Concentric rings


have also been incised with care on the underneath of

Unpublished.

Col 737

(L

Evtaxias Collection, no. E 9)

HP. den Boesterd, The Bronze Vessels


the Riiksmuseum CM. Kamat Miimegen (1966), 25-26 no.
68 PI. IV, 68 (with the earlier bibliography); for the handle type
see G Faider-Feytmans,
Les bronzes remains de Belgique",
For the type, see Maria

The body, in the shape of a deep phiale, is of hammered sheet, the horizontal handle is cast, hollow inside,
with fluting on the outside.
The handle has relief rings at either end, it is attached to
the body with a thin cut-out panel fastened by two rivets, while the free end terminates in a ram's head. The
horns and eyes are shown by incision Fine incision has
been used for the concentric circles and floral decoration in the bottom of the phiale. The motif in the medal169

^^^

in

RCZM

Mainz

1979, nos 339-343 pi 127 and no 360 pis.


Randnoti, Die romischen Bronzegefasse von
Pannonien (Diss Pannonicae 1938), 81-93 fig. VI, 29 and pi

138-139. Cf

II,

XXVII.

name and the handle types in Roman times see E


Greece and Roman Cold and Silver Plate (1966), 145-

For the Latin


Strong,

146

271. Askos
Max. H

15

5,

Max

22

5,

Diam. base

8.6.

Intact.

No. Col. 735

(L.

Hammered

body, cast handle.

Evtaxias Collection,

no

On

E 7)

the outside edge of

the rim, a hammered relief of Ionic cymation (preserved


only on the side edges; destroyed around the spout).
The ribbon handle is exceptionally finely worked; it has
a delicate rib in the centre and terminates at the rim in

an animal head and an acanthus, and

is

fastened to the

mouth by a small rivet. The lower end of the handle,


where it meets the shoulder, is divided and fastened
with two rivets. The head of a goose adorns the handle
fork. Here, too, the bird's head springs from
an acanthus. Two plastic ribs running from the rim to
the lower limit of the shoulder emphasize the lateral outline and enhance the structure and functionality of the
askos. The ring foot assists in the vessel' s stability. Three
concentric circles are incised underneath the base.
The shape and handle decoration date it to the Hellenistic period, probably in the 2nd c. B.C.
Clay vases of similar shape, known conventionally as askoi or askoid vessels, are found in Greece from the 2nd
millenium B.C., and they appear to have had many dif-

above the

ferent functions.
In

in the last three centuries B.C. and


century A.D., the askoid utility vessel was espepopular and had a wide distribution.

Hellenistic times,

the

first

cially

Very many askoid vases have survived, plain or variously decorated on the handles, made of different materials, valuable or not (gold, silver, bronze, agate, faience, glass and clay), most of them coming from the
Creek colonies in South Italy and especially from the

Campanian

region.

Unpublished.
For the type of vessel in late Hellenistic and in Roman times,
with a list of typological parallels and bibliography, see A. Rand-

Bronzo romani nel Museo Profano del Vaticano,


Accad d' Ungheria di Roma 4, 1937, 32 no. 18;

noti,

Vasi di

Bibl

dell

idem, Die romischen Bronzegefasse von Panonien (Diss. Pannonicae II. 6, Budapest 1938), 144f, pi. 13, 70 and pi. 52, 1. Cf
the recent C Faider-Feytmans, op. cil. 180 no. 370 pi. 149.
BMFA Bronzes 7977, 335 no. 470 (with full bibliography).
Suzanne Tassinari, "La vaisselle de bronze romaine et provinciate au Musee des Antiquitees Nationales" (XXIXe suppl. Gallia). CNRS 1 975, 59-60 no
1 51 pi. XXIX (with earlier bibliography). Pompei AD 79, Royal Academy of Arts. London, 20. 11
1976 -27 2 1977, nos 266 and 227; cf also no. 18.
For parallels in clay see E Simon, Fuhrer durch die Antikenabteilung des Martin-von-Wagner Museums der Universitat Wurzburg (1 975), 1 90 and 21 2, idem, Werke der Antike (1 983), 1 62163 no 74 Kanowski, 30-32
For glass askoi see V. Spinnazzola, Le arti decorativi in Pompei
e nel Museo Nazionale di Napoli (1928), pi. 228.
There is a unique askoid vessel (perfume flask) of agate with a
gold lid and foot from Amisos, the capital of Mithridates IV and

271

dating to ca. 200 B.C.:


D Cooney A Perfume Flask from
Antiquity ", BCIevMus 52, 1965, 45 For askoi made of precious stone see generally HP. Bijhler, Antike Cefasse aus EdelJ

stein (1973).

170

raised rings on the base increase its stability when empty.


The ancient name and the purpose of the vessel, which
is conventionally called a lekanis, are not known. Similar bronze "lekanides" with elaborately worked handles, decorated sometimes with a Silenus mask, sometimes with flowers, lotuses, pomegranates etc., have
been found in the luxurious villas of Pompei. The place
where they were found fixes their date before 79 A.D.,
the year when the city was destroyed, and at the same
time enables them to be classed among the numerous
metal utility table-wares of everyday use. In the bibliography it is often referred to as a "fish bowl", and many
scholars believe it was used for the "serving of fish".
Such an anachronistic interpretation is not supported

by the written sources or the archaeological evidence.

More probable

is Lambros Evtaxias' s idea that it was a


bowl for washing the hands after the sumptuous
lunches and dinners of Hellenistic and Roman times. It

finger

is

not unlikely,

Mr

Evtaxias thinks, that the lekanis

is

re-

bronze vessel no. 271, which may


have been used as a ewer. This suggestion is supported
by the fact that both vessels are usually found together.
"Lekanis" no. 272 is at present the only known example in Greece. The exceptionally careful workmanship
of the details and its technical perfection suggest a date
towards the end of the Hellenistic period, probably in
lated to the askoid

the 1st

272. "Lekanis" with hinged handles


H. 9, with handles 13, Max. Diam
handles 22.5, Diam. foot 8.6.

rim 34

3,

Diam between

(L

Evtaxias Collection, no.

E.

8).

Body hammered; handles, suspension loops and base,


The petal-shaped, fluted handles pass through

cast.

loops riveted to the rim of the bowl. The handles terminin unidentifiable animals. Between the loops, stylized pomegranates; cast shellfish are fixed to the triangular ends of the metal handle mounts.
The body of the lekane is almost oval in shape, the
sides being slightly compressed at the point of attachment of the handles to the rim, so that the vessel is divided into two unequal, nearly semicircular lobes. The
rim of the larger lobe is flat and inclined slightly outwards; the rim of the smaller lobe, on the other hand, is
slightly raised and inclines inwards. The inclination is
indicated by an incision, the end of which forms a wide
band The base, which is offset from the centre of the
vessel's body, has three concentric relief rings.
The vessel's shape is undoubtedly adapted to its function. The location of the base towards the smaller section
of the body shows the direction in which the liquid was
poured. This conclusion is further suggested by the differentiation of the rim, which in the one section prevents, and in the other aids the pouring of liquid; this
function is also confirmed by the sizeable handles. The
ate

71

A.D.

Unpublished.
For parallels,

see Pernice,

AA

1904, 18-19

fig.

1,

from the

and the recent /\nf;/<en Museum


Berlin, Staatliche Museen Preussischer Kulturbesitz, Romisches
inn Antiken Museum (1979), 115 no. 90 (inv. no. 8976) with bibliography. See also E. de Meester de Ravenstein, Musee de
hoard of the

Intact.

No. Col. 736

c.

Villa Boscoreale,

Ravenstein, Notice, Bruxelles^ (1884), no. 1133, 330-331 (from


the Herculaneum of Pompei; to-day in the Musee Royaux
Festival de Lille, Musee des
d' Art et d'Histoire). Cf the
Seaux-Arts (1981) (22.1 0-2.1 2), 112 no. 109, fig. on p. 113. See
also the "lekanis" in the British Museum (inv. no. NT 632):
Pompei A.D. 79, Royal Academy of Arts, London, 20.11.197627.2.1977, cat. no. 271.
For utility wares of everyday use in Pompei, see in general R.
Etienne, La vie quotidienne a Pompei [Lib. Hachette 1966) and
Pompei: Das Leben in einer antiken Stadt (Redan 1, 1974).

We

3.

Glass vessels

was a synthetic material composed of three substances: sand, soda and


production, revolutionary at first but conservative in its development, required a
time-consuming and laborious procedure.
Glass became known in the Mesopotamian region at the end of the 3rd millenium, although
it had already been in existence in the form of faience and vitreous glaze on stone at the end
of the 5th millenium. The production of actual glass vessels began in the same area towards
the end of the 16th century and subsequently in Egypt at the beginning of the 1 5th. Class
making continued to thrive in Western Asia until the beginning of the 12th century and in
Egypt until a century later. Large production of glass vessels was made possible by the discovery of a new technique for making them by the use of a core (core-forming).
The collapse of the great empires caused a break in glass production for several centuries. It
reappeared during the 9th century in Mesopotamia in the different forms of inlay and mosaic. In the 8th century the Assyrians were the chief producers of moulded bowls. In the following centuries these techniques spread over the Mediterranean, largely through the Phoenician trade. From the end of the 7th and beginning of the 6th centuries B.C. glass-making
returned to the core-forming technique and was dominated by the shapes of contemporary
Creek vases (e.g. aryballoi, amphoriskoi, alabastra, oinochoai) and by a uniformity in the
colours and decoration (see no. 273). Class vessels ceased being utensils for the exclusive
use of the priests and imperial courts,, and were used by ordinary people to keep perfumes,
cosmetics and oil in. At the same time their production extended to other centres such as
Cyprus, Italy and Carchedon, although it is only on Rhodes that actual remains of glass manufacture have been confirmed. In the 4th and 3rd centuries the same types were produced
using the same techniques, but there was a considerable decline in the quality (see nos.
274-275). On the other hand the use of moulds during this period produced some examples
of exceptional artistry. In the 3rd century newly founded Alexandria restored Egypt to the
forefront of production, features of which were great luxury and the search for different
techniques.^
The technique of glass mosaic (see the millefiori vases), and the use of gold leaf and polyClass

in

lime.

Its

antiquity

chrome in glass vase-making became widely diffused.


Towards the end of the 1 st century B C. the new revolutionary technique of glass-blowing
was introduced (see nos. 276-281); it appeared first in the Syria-Palestine area and rapidly
all the production centres of the Roman Empire. The new technique required little
manpower and made production very rapid and cheap and glass vessels available to all.
They now became objects of everyday use (they were used to store material goods, even in

spread to

graves).

The ancient glass-making

tradition

continued

until

recent times using

more

or less the

same

techniques.
For the use of glass in Mycenean Greece and Cyprus, see S. Goldstein, Pre-Roman and Early Roman
Class in the Corning Museum of Class (1979), 36. D. Harden, Catalogue of Creek and Roman Class in
the British Museum (1981), 39.

1.

2.

See S H. Auth, Anc;en( Class at the Newark

Museum

(1976), 17.

Bibliography: P. Fossing, Class Vessels before Class-blowing [^940). C. Ising, Roman Class from Dated
Finds (1957) E. Spartz, Antike Cl'aser. Kassel Katalog (1967). J. Hayes, Roman and Pre-Roman Class in
the Royal Ontario Museum (1975). Auth, op. cit. Goldstein, op. cit. K Cummings, The Technique of
Class Forming [^9&0). Harden, op.

cit.

S.

Frank, Class

and Archaeology

[A9Q2].

LP.

273. Aryballoid amphoriskos


Diam

H. 6.5,

rim

Diam mouth

3,

0.008, Diam. belly

5.

Intact.

No. Col. 241.

the sand-core technique from opaque dark


blue glass. It has a spherical body and short neck; the
two S handles were made separately and attached beneath the rim and on the shoulder. It has a ring foot. On
the body two yellow uneven parallel lines enclose a
broad zone with yellow-green rhomboid ornaments of
irregular shape.
Similar shaped bottles are dated to between the 6th and
4th centuries B.C. and come chiefly from North Syrian

Made by

and Mesopotamian workshops. They are known as


"Phoenician glass". Many imports from the East have
been found in Greece in graves, sanctuaries and settlements.
Bibliography.

Marangou 1978, 329

cat. no.

203.

fig. 48. ICS IX, 1067,


OlynthusV, no. 1124. Art Antique, Collections privees
de Suisse Romande[^975), no. 316. Hayes, op. cit, 11 nos. 1416 pi. 1 Axel von Saldern, C/as von der Antike bis zum jugendstil.
Clas 500 B.C. to A.D. 1900. The Cans Cohn Collection,
Los Angeles/Cal. (German and English) (1982), 11 f (short detailed introduction about the ancient and medieval ways of working glass, and a bibliography, 284f); for parallels, see op. cit,
26 nos. 1-3. And cf Claser der Antike. Sammlung Erwin Oppenlander (1974), 13f and 77 no. 208 (for the technique and

For parallels, see Fossing, op. clt, 72 n. 3

36-37.

decoration).

275

274

27 S. Amphoriskos
H

7,

Diam. mouth

1,

Diam

rim 2.4,

W.

with handles 4.3.

Intact.

274. Alabastron

No. Col. 55

H 10, Diam. rim 2 5, Diam mouth


Mended. One handle missing

No

Col

1.1.

56

Made from opaque, dense dark blue glass (the same


technique as no. 273). Knobs instead of handles
Ca 4th c B C
Bibliography:

Marangou

1978, 330 cat, no. 204.

Made from

dense, opaque dark blue glass by the core


has a long narrow neck and handles attached separately, the linear decoration on the body
and neck is yellow and white.
The shape dates it to ca the 4th or 3rd c. B.C.

method

It

Bibliography:

Marangou 1978, 330

cat. no.

205.

For parallels see no 273 See also Fossing, op. cit. 110 n 1 fig
P. La Baume, Clas der antiken Welt 1(1974), B11. Hayes,
op. cit, 46 no 65. For a similar amphoriskos, see von Saldern,
op. cit, 26 cat no 2 (with bibliography) Cf also for the shape
of the handles SmI Oppenlander (op. cit, cat no 273), 78
93.

Cf no
jects

273 and C. Rolley Collection Helena Stathatos III, Obantiques et byzantins (1963), 273-274, nos 185-186 pi

XXXIX

Harden, op.

(op. Clt, cat.

no

no 282. See also SmI. Oppenlander


198

cit.,

273),

cat.

no 208 (they date

it

between the 2nd and

1st

c.

B.C.).

276. Amphoriskos
H 6

Diam mouth

4,

0.009,

Diam

rim 2

1.

Intact.

No

Col. 239.

Made from

transparent blown glass. The type of amphoriskos with irregular handles made from opaque
blue glass goes back to the 1 st c. A. D.; related parallels
are dated up to the 4th c. A.D.
Bibliography:

Marangou 1978, 331

cat. no.

206.

no 128 pi 8 There is a
Oppenlander collection,

For parallels, see Hayes, op. cit, 5 cat.


similar

one without the

op. cit, (cat. no. 273)

foot

in

the

219 no. 636 (4th

c.

A.D.).

276

277. Perfume flask


H. 15.1, Diam. rim 4.1, Diam.

mouth

1.5,

Diam base

9.8.

Intact.

No. Col. 467.

Made from clear transparent blown glass. It has a flattened conical body and tall cylindrical neck that narrows
towards the mouth; flat rim.
This type of flask is dated to ca the end of the 1 st or beginning of the 2nd c A.D.
Bibliography:
isings, op. cit.

Marangou 1978, 332

cat. no.

207.

97-98, shape 82 (A2). Hayes, op. cit, no. 502

and 518.

.-^;

278. Perfume flask (unguentarium]


H 12

8.

Intact; surface

No

damage.

Col. 183.

Provenance: probably
Tall

rim.

Syria.

neck and narrow conical body. Broad horizontal


The bottom is slightly concave. Transparent blown

glass.

1st-2nd c

A.D. (50-150

AD.)

For the type and chronology, cf. Mackworth


Young, BSA 44
1949. 91 pi 34 no 15 Isings, op. cit 24 (type 8
1st c
97-98 (type 82A, 2nd c
Hayes, op cit. 68 no 232-233'
Auth. op. cit, 114 no. 134.

AD)

AD)

LP.

277
1~4

279

280

279. Perfume flask (unguentarium)


H. 15.3,

Diam. rim 2

4,

Diam mouth

1.3,

Diam base

3.

Intact.

No. Col. 465.

Made from

clear

blown

glass.

nearly conical body,

low,

It

has a very long neck,

broad horizontal rim and

concave bottom.
The shape and technique date

it

to the lst-2nd

c.

A.D.

(50-150 A.D.].

The large number of typological parallels from regular


and irregular excavations show that this type of perfume flask, known as a lacrimatorium, was especially
widespread in Roman times throughout the ancient
world. Probably imported from Syria or Egypt.
Bibliography.

Marangou 1978, 333

Roman
D Harden, Roman

Cf C

Isings,

cat. no.

208.

Limbu^g{^97^), fig. 15,9 and 11.


Class from Karanis (1936), Glass XIII F pi.
Class

has compressed the traditional piriform shape of the


body at four points and created, with the possibilities afforded by the very malleable material, a simple
but elegant vase.
Ca 2nd or 3rd c. A.D.
flask' s

Marangou 1978: 334

Bibliography:

cat. no. 209.

Cf AjA 66, 1 962, 1 32 pi. 28 fig. 12. OpusArch. 7, 1952,1 36 pi.


VIII, 7 (B III). C. Platz-Horster, Antike Claser, Antikenmuseum
Berlin-Staatliche

Museen

Preussischer Kulturbesitz, (Ausstellung

Nov. 1976-Feb. 1977), no. 170 (with bibliography).


For the plastic properties of glass, see von Saldern, op.
"Class is the most versatile material".

281

Handleless

cit, 1 1

flask

in

XX 834.

Diam

12.8,

rim. 6.2,

Diam base

5.4.

Intact.

No. Col. 526.

Transparent blown glass. It has a spherical body, short


neck with funnel-shaped mouth and flat base On the

280. Flask
H 16

7,

Diam mouth

neck below the rim are applied threads.


The shape occurs in the 2nd half of the 3rd
2.5,

Diam. base

4.8.

Intact.

No

Col 101

Transparent blown glass with iridescence. On the tall


like threads The glass-worker

neck are applique rings


175

Ca

4th

5th

Bibliography:

c.

Marangou

For parallels see


(1957), 123-125,

c.

A.D

AD
C

1978, 334 cat. no. 210.

isings,

and Hayes,

Roman

Class from

op.

no 300

cit.

Dated Finds

Stone sculpture

4.

^^W
^^^Hr^

^jS^

^C^rf^Vr^

^^^H

"^
'^l'

283

282

283. Male
H

head of

marble statuette

3.

Much
282.
H

Head

of the top of the head, the nose and the right eye are
missing

of male statuette

No. Col. 557.


Pentelic marble.
Provenance: Athens, "Acropolis area".

5 3.

Slight chipping.

No

Col. 204.

Limestone.

Remains of paint on the brow band, which is tied in a


"Hercules knot" at the back of the head. The curly hair
and parting are shown by incision. The kind of stone,
the type of hair and especially the style can be parallelled in the workshops of Naucratis and Cyprus.
Ca 580-570 B.C.

The tight curls, thick nape of the neck, short curly beard,
head turned to the left and the treatment of the facial
features identify the head as that of Heracles.
It is a small copy of the bronze statue by the famous
sculptor, Myron, showing a bearded Heracles. Echoes
of the lost work can be recognized in a marble statue
with a complete torso of Heracles resting, in the Boston

Museum.

Unpublished

The

Bibliography:

the Collection was probably made in the


2nd half of the 1 st c. A.D. in the time of the Flavians It
is a work of exceptional quality, probably Attic.

original

small

Marangou 1978, 250

cat.

no 126

Cf F.N. Pryce, Catalogue of Sculpture in the British Museum


183, 184 pi. XXXIX. B 438 For parallels from Samos, see C Schmidt, Samos VII (1968), cat. no. C211 60 pis.
102-103 (ca 580) For the Cyprus-Naucratis connections, Hele
ne Cassimatis, Les Cypriotes chez les Pharaons. Centre D' Etudes
Cypriotes, Cahier 1 1 984 Pans X (Nanterre), 33 (bibliography).
See also
Davis, Gottinger Miszellen 41, 1980,
The Cypriotes at Naucratis", and the same periodical: 35, 1979, 13-

(1928),

I,

is

dated to between 460 and 450 B.C. The

in

I,

W M

23.

copy

AAA^2. 1979,

Bibliography: Marar)gou 1978, 273 cat no 148.


93-103. Europalia 1982, 100 cat. no 48

For the type represented by the original statue by


ton

Museum,

h. 57),

see C. Lippold, Griechische

buch der Archaologie

Myron

Plastik,

and

(Bos-

Hand-

139

pi.

49,2,

Die Skulptur der Griechen (1969), 73

fig

67. For parallels, see

X.

III

(1950),

Kapou^oc;, "ApiOToSiKOc; (1961), 81

V no

Fuchs,

176

284. Fragment of grave relief stele


H. 35,

W.

35.

The upper part of the

figure

above the shoulders and the lower

part from the beginning of the thighs are missing; surface

weath-

ered.

No. Col. 278.


Coarse-grained marble, probably from Naxos.
Provenance: Amorgos (site of Xylokeratidi).
shove's a

It

young nude male

figure, standing.

surviving fragment, he appears to

be supporting

From the
his

weight

with the right one flexed. The angle of


the preserved right arm suggests that the hand was stretching down to the side; the left arm is covered by the
himation hanging from his left shoulder. A typical example of island sculpture; pedestrian work, probably from

on the

left leg,

a local

Dated

workshop.
end of the 5th

to the

c.

or beginning of the 4th

'

c.

B.C.

^''--

Bibliography:

Marangou 1978, 274

Although the

stele

cat. no.

^^w

149.

\Nis

insufficiently well preserved to

be

.0

sure,

i^

the craftsman's rendering of the type appears to be a continuation of the old island tradition. Chronologically it falls into the

'^-^-iS^'

grave stele of the ripe Classical period, like, for example,


in the Constantinople Museum, inv. 193 bis: E. PfuhlMobius, Die ostgriechischen Crabreliefs{^977), 19-20 (with

class of

the stele

the earlier bibliography)

and

pi.

9.35. Cf also the later

of the relief from southern Lycia, op. cit,

For the grave stelae of the Classical period

20 no. 39
in

example
pi.

10.

285

general, see the

recent, B. Schmalz, Criechische Crabreliefs, Ertrage der Forschung, Bd. 192, Darmstadt 1983, 189f, especially n. 462.
The Goulandris fragment will shortly be published together
with all the funerary monuments of the Classical and Hellenistic periods from Amorgos by Dimitris Kokkonis.

285.

Upper part of an inscribed grave

H. 48.

W.

stele

41.7.

No. Col. 276.


Fine-grained Pentelic Marble.

has a pedimental capping. The akroteria are in high


the decoration on the pediment was painted: in
the middle, under the central akroterion, a flameshaped palmette and traces of an Ionic cymatium can
be distinguished. Two female figures are depicted in
low relief. The left one, sitting on a backed stool, wears
a sleeved chiton with many folds and a himation (the
figure is preserved down to the waist). She has short
curly hair gathered at the nape, and her right arm is visible, broken at the wrist. On the slightly raised horizontal frame above the seated woman' s head is the inscription SOSIPATRA (H. letters 1.2). The righthand, standing, figure wears a chiton girded high up beneath her
breast and a himation draped over her head and grasped in her left hand. She holds out her right hand to the
seated figure. On the frame over her head is a three line
It

relief,

inscription (H. letters, 1):

TOU KEPHALETHEN.

The

KALLISTRATE THEOPHANinscription gives the standing

s first name (Kallistrate), patronymic (daughter of


Theophantos) and place of birth (the deme of Kephale).
The inscriptions make it clear that both women are

figure'

284

177

dead.

work,

Sketchy

poor

echo

good

of

Attic

relief

sculpture.

The type of the

and the form of the

stele

letters

date

it

ca

350-340 B C
Bibliography:

Marangou 1978, 275

cat

no 150.

Unpublished.

The type has a wide distribution in Attica: see A Conze, Atf/sche Crabreliefs (1893), pi. XLII, 123. For the reception scene,
I

see B Schmalz, op. cit, 245f.

\
286. Crave stele
H

bottom 26.2.
Surface slightly corroded and damaged
54,

in

places.

No. Col. 552.


Coarse-grained marble.
Provenance: Tinos.

On

the upper part

ed,

in

low

on the

relief, in

a "reception'^ scene.

shown framThe seated one

the dead person,

saying farewell

two female

right, clearly

figures are

is

to the standing figure.

This type of stele is known from the 4th c. B.C. Island


workshop, end of 4th to beginning of 3rd c. B.C. This type of stele is known in Attica from the 4th c. B.C.

Unpublished.
For typological parallels from Attica see Conze, op. cit, I. pi.
120. For the form of the "reception" on Cycladic grave

XLII,

stelae of the Hellenistic period see Th. Couillou, "Reliefs fune-

des Cyclades de
epoque hellenistique a epoque imBCH 98, 1974, 41 2f. Cf Pfuhl-Mobius, op. cit, 262f.
For the subject see also the recent Schmaltz, op. cit, 15f with
the earlier bibliography.
raires

1'

I'

periale",

287. Inscribed grave stele


H 94
ters 2,

5,

W. above 42

space

7,

below

45,

pediment

45, H. let-

2.

intact apart from slight damage to the crowning of the -pediment, the central akroterion and the right upper cornice end

Marble surface weathered

No Col 601
Coarse-grained marble from Skyros
Provenance: Skyros
Relief disk

286

the centre of the pediment, probable


traces of painted decoration on the pediment and akroin

teria

178

marble, the statuesque posture of the figure, with the


bent, relaxed right leg and the well-balanced position of
the arms carefully hidden beneath the himation, betoken a skillful artist. The architectural setting in which the
dead man is depicted is also carved with great care.
The interpretation of the disk in the centre of the pediment is uncertain. It is probably a shield or an astral
symbol. It may very well, of course, be connected with
isis, whose worship was widespread from the Hellenistic period onwards. The form of the naiskos with an
apse must also be interpreted in relation to the person
of the dead man; it is found on grave stelae in Attica and
the Aegean from Hellenistic times (2nd c. B.C. to the

2nd c. A.D.).
The presence of the Milesian Pamphilos on Skyros also
needs examining in the historical context.
The precise dating of the stele is difficult. The spelling of
the epithet Meilesios instead of Milesios was in use as
early as the 3rd century B.C. The form of the letters, with
the little end-strokes and the open omega, as well as the
type of the figure and the careful workmanship, point to
a date around the end of the 2nd c. or beginning of the
1st

c.

B.C.

Unpublished.
For this type of stele

Conze, op. cit, IV, pi.


also A. Mijhsam, Die
romischer Zeit (1936), 7 and 12.
in

Attica,

cf

CCCCVI, 1901 and CCCXXXII, 2028; see


attischen Crabreliefs in

For the type of naisl<os with apse, see Couilloud, op. cit, with
earlier bibliography.

For the spread and dispersion of the Milesians in the Helleniand Roman periods, see generally N. Ehrhard, M;7et und

stic

seine Kolonien, (1983).


On the question of the spelling ei for

Grammar

see Leslie Threatte, Tiie


of the Attic Inscriptions, V, P/iono/ogy (1980), 195f
/,

The stele will be published by Dimitris Kokkonis;


warmly for supplying information and references

thank him

287

Below the horizontal cornice an inscription of three


lines

with carefully incised letters gives the

name

288. Marble statue

of the

H 52

dead man, PAMPHILOS, his father' s name, son of LEONTEUS, and his place of origin, MEILESIOS, from Miletus in Asia Minor. The dead man is shown standing,
wearing a long himation that covers both his arms. He is
standing in a "naiskos with pilasters and apse, with an

are missing

arch inscribed in the rectangular frame of the crowning.


The naiskos and the figure of the man are rendered in
low relief. In spite of the damage to the surface of the

of the

The

right

arm from the shoulder and the

legs

from mid-thigh

No. Col. 277.


Marble.

"

79

Naked boy with a hare in his left hand From the angle
body his weight was apparently on his left leg and
the right one was slightly flexed and forward The upper

289

289.
288

Head

of a seated female statuette

H. 8.4, Max. W. 5.5.


No. Col. 596.

Coarse-grained marble.
Provenance: Thera

part of his body was turned to the left and his head to
the right The meticulously combed hair has been care-

rendered, he has a braid instead of a parting and


wavy curls surround his neck and throat. The sculptor
portrays the boyish character with great skill. His childish age is emphasized by the rounded belly and folds of
skin above the pubic region.

Back unfinished. Wavy hair parted in the middle. She


wears a kind of "polos" on her head. The obtuse forms
("sfumato") lend liquidity to the eyes. The round face
recalls Praxitelean originals.

fully

Similar statues of boys

and

girls

have been found

in

the

Sanctuary of Artemis in Brauron, Attica.


Attic workshop, ca 320-310 B.C Votive offering.
Bibliography:

Marangou

1978,

281

cat.

no. 155. Christiane

Vorster, Criechische Kinderstatuen (Diss.


ns.

582-585, 355

cat. no.

Bonn 1983), 173-175


68 (she dates it to the 2nd c. B.C.)

It

represents the goddess Cybele and dates to the 2nd

c.

B.C.
Its

identification as

Cybele should be correct, because

the typologically closest parallel is an intact marble statuette showing the goddess seated on a throne (H. 48),
after the usual type. This one also comes from Thera
and is in a private collection in Germany: see R. Lullies,
Eine Sammlung griechischer Kleinkunst (1956), 82 no.
268 pi. 84. Lullies's date in the "4th c. B.C." is certainly
too early; the treatment of the features and the style place
the statuette in the 2nd century.

Unpublished.

Bibliography:

For portrayals of children see generally the recent H Rijhfel,


Kinderstatuen im klassischen Athen (1984), and idem. Das Kind
in der griechischen Kunst (1984).

For the iconographic type of Cybele, see the recent F. Nauin der phrygischen und
griechischen Kunst", IstMitt 26, 1983.

Marangou 1978, 326

cat.

no 199.

mann, "Die Ikonographie der Kybele

180

Banquet

Reliefs

Cat. nos. 290-291 belong to a class of reliefs known since the last century as banquet reliefs
[nekrodeipna). The name derives from the interpretation given by scholars to the subject depicted: a dead person reclining on a "strewn" couch and in front of him a table with offerings, the "banquet for the dead".
The first, relatively few, representations of funerary banquets appear in the Archaic period,
the 6th century B.C. By the full Classical period, in the 5th c. B.C., banquet reliefs are widespread, and from the 4th to the 1st c. B.C. they are found all over the Greek world, from

Asia Minor to South Italy.


Ever since the 19th century archaeologists and historians of ancient religions have endeavored to determine the purpose of the funerary banquet reliefs (votive or funerary), the identification of the reclining male figure (god or hero, or simply dead mortal?), and the meaning
of the scenes depicted (hero cult or cult of the dead?). Current prevailing opinion holds that
at least the early reliefs of the 5th and early 4th centuries B.C. were dedicated to heroes (heroized mortals) or gods. This is borne out by the inscriptions ["hero, archegetes, ruler, physician, god, dedicated..." etc.), by certain attributes that accompany and characterize only
hero-gods (i.e. snake, rhyton, altar, sacrificial animals, incense-burner, dedicator-suppliants
etc.), and often by the place where they were found (sanctuaries or sacred precincts). However, from the first decades of the 4th century B.C. funerary banquet reliefs are also found
in necropoleis, and similar scenes occur on grave reliefs. It seems that in time ordinary mortals after their death came to enjoy heroes' honours and gradually appropriated their attributes. Hence, from the 4th century on, funerary and votive banquet reliefs existed together.
Furthermore, literary sources often mention "banquets" for the cult of the dead on the third
and ninth days after the interment, the "third" and "ninth" day rites that still survive in modern Greece under the same name. The offerings on the table, the plakountes, popana etc.
cakes with sesame, honey, milk etc. were not unlike the modern kollyva.
The banquet reliefs, most of them the work of simple marble sculptors and often inspired by
great originals, emanate a feeling of warmth for the dead and reflect very ancient, deeply
rooted popular beliefs.

AM

For nekrodeipna see Rhea Thonges-Stringaris, 'Das griechische Totenmahl",


80, 1965, If. B. Fehr,
und griechische Celage (1971). Jean-Marie Dentzer, Le motif du banquet couchee dans le
proche-Orient et le monde grec du Vile au IVe siecle avant j.C. (Ec. Fr. de Rome 1982), 246f. And see

Orientalische

the book-review

in

Gnomon

56, 1984, 335f (B

Fehr).

290

290.

/?e//e/

H. 24.5,

L.

fragment

3.3

No. Col. 164.


Fine-grained marble

il

^^y^^^'^^^^^
-.

Lower part preserved. A semi-nude male figure reclines


on a couch, resting his back against a somewhat stylized cushion The lower part of his body is covered by a
himation; his right arm is raised and his left hand holds a
phiale. A female figure is seated on the lower end of the
couch (on the left) facing the man; she holds an open
pyxis (little box) in her left hand, while her right hand is
poised over an incense-burner She wears a chiton and
a heavily folded himation, and her right foot rests on a
footstool between the legs of the table which is set in

popana (cakes), and under


The couple on the couch is flanked on
the right by a child, seen in back view, holding an oinochoe in his right hand and a phiale in his left (typical representation of a "wine boy") By the boy's right leg is
an amphora On the left behind the woman a small boy
leads a lamb to the altar that can be seen in front of the
lower end of the couch. The hand of another figure holding an indistinct object is preserved above the boy's
head In the upper left-hand corner are the remains of a

291

square frame (panel?)


The work is rough and the treatment of the details lacks
care, although all the elements making up the scene are
shown accurately The craftsman may have been influenced by the painted wooden votive panels.
Hero cult Dated ca 340-330 B.C.

Pluto.

front of the couch, laden with

which

IS

Bibliography.

Marangou 1978, 277

cat.

no 151.

Unpublished.
For the type, function and meaning, see the bibliography above.

For the

type, cf National Museum no. 1503; see


iBopcovoq, To iv 'AdqvaK; 'EdviKov Mou(1903), 562 pi. XC 1532, and XCIV, 1538.

"wine boy"

also no. 3873.

aeiov

Relief in the form of a naiskos

a snake.

H. 26,

L.

Damage

43

5.

capping and right-hand


No. Col. 162
Coarse-grained marble

On

the

to the

a reclining semi-nude male figure rests his


arm on a cushion, facing the viewer. The
headdress), thick beard and horn-like rhyton

right,

back and
po/os

pilaster.

(tall

left

hand suggest the god of the underworld,


figure, facing right, sits with head slightly raised on the lower end of the couch; she wears a
chiton, himation and a sakkos (hair cloth) on her head.
Her feet rest on a low footstool. She holds a pyxis in her
left hand, and her right one rests on her right knee. A
table with plakountes and popana in front of the couch
is depicted schematically with little attempt to convey
the different relief planes. The diagonal folds of the drapery on the couch are rendered with considerable sensitivity. Behind the couch (on the left) a small boy stands
almost frontally holding up an oinochoe ("pouring a
in

his right

A female

libation");

front,

in

'I.

on a pedestal. Four

beside his left leg, is a volute krater


figures of differing height stand on

the left side of the relief: a man, a woman and a child


dressed in himatia, probably the dedicator's family.
They are followed by a child carrying a chest on his
head, probably a slave.
Votive offering. Dated to the 2nd half of the 4th c. B.C.
Bibliography:

Marangou 1978, 278

cat.

no 152.

For the type, see no. 290. For the libation-pouring boy, see National

Mseum

no. 1519; the relief type

is

like no.

1513: see

l6p(I)vo(;, op. cit, pi. LXXXVII.

291

182

SP*^^^^"