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Annotated Bibliography on Homelessness in Rural Areas

Quigley, B. (2015, January 18). 10 Facts About Homelessness | Economy In Crisis. Retrieved
March 07, 2016, from

In this article, Bill Quigley provides ten facts about homelessness. These ten facts range from the
people most susceptible to homelessness, statistics, and a few reasons why people are homeless.
Throughout his research on the subject, he concluded that over half a million people in the
United States are homeless. These people are spending their nights on the streets, in homeless
shelters, or in some kind of short-term transitional housing. More than a third are living in cars or
under bridges. Of this statistic, one quarter of homeless people are children under the age of 18.
These children are finding homes in cars, parks, buses, or awaiting foster care placement. The
article also emphasizes the reasons why people are homeless. The three reasons are: inability to
pay rent, the high cost of living, and the governments lack of support for homeless people.
Quigley also includes a statistic about the severe mental illness that the homeless population
suffers from. While 6 percent of the general population suffer from a severe mental illness,
nearly 20 to 25 percent of the homeless population suffer from a severe mental illness. The last
statistics that Quigley provides are the cities that are making homelessness a crime.

"Under this definition, the National Center for Homeless Education reported in September 2014
that local school districts reported there are over 1 million homeless children in public schools.

Homelessness in Rural America. (2014, July). Retrieved March 10, 2016, from

The article, Homelessness in Rural America begins by describing homelessness and the
population most effected. The National Advisory Committee on Rural Health and Human
services, believes that Rural homeless individuals and families are more likely than urban
homeless individuals and families to be doubled-up with friends or families, living in vehicles, or
living in substandard housing. The article begins my explaining the reasons for homelessness
which are the following: loss of affordable housing, wages and public assistance have not kept
up with the cost of living, unemployment and underemployment, and a decrease in communitybased housing and services. Today, CoCs (Continuums of Care) are working to transition the
homeless to a permanent housing solution with a wide range of services. The article describes the
different needs families and individuals in rural areas face along with the barriers. The three
main barriers listed in the article are the following: transportation, isolation, and shortage of
services. In addition to these barriers, service providers face challenges to serve heavy populated
homeless areas such as: limited resources, lack of employment, and having sufficient housing.
The committee concludes that the needs of rural individuals and families may differ from those
of urban and suburban people.

The rural homeless population is made up of more families and fewer individuals, and some
smaller-scale studies suggest that individuals experiencing rural homelessness are more likely to
be working, more likely to be experiencing homelessness for the first time, and less likely to be
on government assistance, than their urban counterparts. (page 2)

Hard to Reach: Rural Homelessness and Health Care. (2001, October). Retrieved March 6, 2016,
The issue of Healing Hands examines obstacles to health care encountered by people who first
experience homelessness in small communities and rural areas of the United States. In some
rural areas, homelessness per 1,000 population is comparable to or greater than in New York
City. For small towns with little health and social services, homelessness is heavy and hard to
document. Most cases of homelessness is linked to poverty. When individuals and families lose
permanent housing, they revert to moving in with friends or relatives, living on the streets, or to
more urbanized areas. The article provides an in depth summary of why rural homelessness
differs from urban homelessness. This article focuses primarily on the health problems and
access barriers homeless individuals and families face, as described by service providers. Mental
health and substance abuse, chronic medical conditions, infectious diseases, disabilities and skin
problems are the most common health conditions seen among the homeless population. With all
of these health problems, the access to health care in rural areas is significantly limited.
Transportation, scarcity of specialists and services, and lack of health insurance are the three
most commonly seen access barriers. To conclude, the National Health Care for the Homeless
Council, believes that rural homelessness has become a major problem in America. It differs in
many ways than homelessness seen in urban areas. With the assistance of community outreach
programs and other services can be used to assist homeless individuals and families with proper
health care and services.
Rural residents get less professional medical attention than residents of metropolitan areas;
more of them lack health insurance, and fewer physicians practice in rural areas. (page 2)

Wiltz, T. (2015, June 26). States Struggle With 'Hidden' Rural Homelessness. Retrieved March
11, 2016, from
In this article, Teresa Wiltz covers nearly every aspect of homelessness along with two important
government funded programs that provide assistance to the homeless population. The main
causes for homelessness seen in big cities and rural areas are the following: poverty, mental
illness, inadequate housing, domestic violence, and the psychological wounds of war. However,
rural areas are more likely to be in poverty and lack transportation. The article discusses the need
to make the effects of rural homelessness well known. People are being undercounted, which
results in lack of resources, because many individuals and families are ashamed and do not reach
out for help. Two of the most important important government funded programs are the U.S.
Department of Housing and Urban Development (HUD) and continuums of care (CoC). HUD,
goes through the states and then is distributed among local agencies to provide funds for the
homeless population. The CoC are local, community-based organizations that are responsible for
coordinating aid for individuals and families in need.
HUD set aside $30 million for a competitive grant to tackle rural homelessness. But the agency
didnt get enough applicants to send money to rural areas, according to Ann Oliva, director of
HUDs Office of Special Needs Assistance Programs.

Lewis, M. L., Scott, D. L., & Calfee, C. (2013). Rural Social Service Disparities and Creative
Social Work Solutions for Rural Families Across the Life Span. Journal Of Family Social Work,
16(1), 101-115. doi:10.1080/10522158.2012.747118
This article is a case study that provides an overview of the roles that churches, schools, and
social service agencies play in providing services and sustainable assistance for the homeless
population. The resilience seen among poor rural has historical significance rooted in family ties,
interconnected community networks, and schools and churches providing support. In the absence
of formal helping networks, rural communities must come together to ensure the needs are met
under certain circumstances. Rural homelessness receives less attention compared to
homelessness seen in urban areas because, the actual data remains unavailable. Social and
economic factors create an environment where homeless individuals and families may be
considered an illness, an accident, or one paycheck away from possibly losing their current
living arrangements. Churches and schools play a pivotal role in rural communities. Churches
provide a safe, destination for families living in a remote location where it is normal to function
relatively autonomously throughout the week. Schools, receive support from community
members improving school conditions, promoting education, participating in extra curricular
activities, and preserving customs and values.

Rural community strengths often include the shared values of self- reliance, importance of
family connections, concern for other rural residents, and significance of indigenous helpers and
informal helping networks where lives intersect on personal, social, and professional levels
(Larson & Dearmont, 2002). (page 104)

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