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Grammaire Finale

02/18/2016

    Chapitre 1
    Present Indicative
 Usages
o Descrive what is happening currently,near
future,future,past
 Near future

Aller+infinitif

 Make generalizations or peak about habitable actions

    Pronominal Verbs
 also called reflexive
 use (me,te,se,nous vous,se)
 for past tense use etre
    Infinitive
 This means the verb is not conjugated
 Happens
o When you use a verb after a conjugated verb
    Imperatives
 Usages
o Commands
o S’il te plaît
 Formation

Camille Streeter
French 202

o

Er verbs


o

drop the –s for the tu

use toi for inverted commands

 Faire Causif
o use faire + infinitif
    Chapitre 2

 Descriptive Adjectives

The Basics
o the adjetif goes after the noun normallly
o Pour adjectifs masculin
 singulaire
 keep the original form
 Ex : Impoli
 pluriel
 add s
 Ex : implois
o Pour adjectifs féminin
 singulaire
 add e to the orignal form
 Ex : Impolie
 pluriel

Camille Streeter
French 202
add es to the original form
 Ex : Impolies
o If the adjetif ends in -e
 Féminin singular and plural stay the same
 If the adjetif ends in -s
 masculin singular and plural stay the same
 If the adjetif ends in –er or –f
 Féminin
 Add –ère to –er adjetifs
 Add –ve to –f adjetifs
 masculin
 Add –er to –er adjetifs
 Add –f to –f adjetifs
Irregular adjetifs
o Somes times adjetifs are before the noun
o If the adjetif fits under the desciption acronym
 Beauty (beaux/belle)
 Examples
 Masculine : bel
 Féminin : belle
 Age (jeune/vieil)

Camille Streeter
French 202
Example
 Masculine :vieil
 Féminin : vieille
 Number (deux/trois)
 Example
 Masculine :nouvel
 Féminin :nouvelle
 Goodness (bon/douce)
 Example
 Masculine :fol
 Féminin :folles
 Size (grand/ petite)
 Example
 Masculine :grand
 Féminin :grande
Postions of Adjetifs
o Ancien : Old
 Example
 Mon ancienne maision
 My former house
 Une maision acienne

 How to use the adjetif Tout :meaning entire or all
Singulaire
Pluaral

Masculine
Tout
Tous

Féminine
Toute
Toutes

How to use the Pronom Tout :meaning everyone or all of
them
 Singulaire
 Pluaral

 Masculine
 Tout
 Tous

Féminine
Tout
Toutes

Camille Streeter
French 202

How to form a Question
   Basics
o Est-ce que
 Always at the beginning of the sentence
 Ex : Est-ce que il est arrivé
o Inversion
 Invert the verb and subject
 Ex : Est-il arrivé
o Using negative
 you could ad dit at the end of the sentence
 Ex :Tu aimes jouer de la guitare, n’est-ce pas ?

Camille Streeter
French 202

Il

o Just using your voice
 Raise your voice at the end
Specfic Questions
o Quand : when
o Combien du : how much
o Comment : How
o Où : Where
o Pourquoi : Why
o Quel/Quelle/Quels/Quelles :What
est vs C’est
Il/ Elle est
o Translate to : He or She is
o Followed by an adjective
C’est
o Translate to : it is
o Followed by a noun

 Chapitre

3

   Passé Composé
o Used for saying something that occured once in the
past

o Use avoir + past participle
 Past participle

Camille Streeter
French 202

 Er verbs -> é
 Ir verbs -> i
 Re verbs-> u
o use être + past participle
 use être for « going and coming » verbs
   Imparfait
o Used for description and continuous action in the past
o take the ending off and add
 -ais
-ions
 -ais
-iez
 -ait
-aient

   Plus-que-fait
o Used for when discussing something in the far past

 Like before i was born, my mom did this
o Formation
 Same rules like passé composé with avoir and
être
 BUT AVOIR AND ÊTRE IS IN IMPARFAIT FORM
 PAST PARTICIPLE IS IN PASSÉ COMPOSE FORM

Chapitre 4
   Articles
o Definite
 Masc : le/les
 Fem :la/les
o Indefinite
 Masc :un/des
 Fem :une/des
o Partitive Article
 Basicially when you combine de+le (means some)
 De+ le= du
 De+ la= de la
 De+ les= des

Object Pronoms
o Direct Ojects
1 personne
2e personne
3e personne
e

Singular
Me (m’)
Te (t’)
Le/la (l’)

Plural
Nous
Vous
les

Camille Streeter
French 202
It goes before the verb
 Ex : je le vois
 I see it/ him
o Indirect Object

1 Personne
2e personne
3e personne
e

Sigular
Me (m’)
Te (t’)
LUI

Plural
Nous
Vous
LEUR

Camille Streeter
French 202

Ex

o Y

Il lui offre un livre

Used to replace à when talking about an idea,
thing, person
Or other prepositions except DE

o En

Used to replace de when talking about the idea of
some, any, none

   The offical order of pronoms
1. Ne
 the first part of negation goes first before
anything
2. Reflective
 Ex : me, te,se…
3. Direct object
 but only le,la,les
4. Indirect Object
 Including : Lui, leur
5. Y
6. En
7. Verbe
8. Pas

Camille Streeter
French 202
1. Last part of negative

Chapitre 5
  Prepostions with Geo Names
o For Cities and Islands
 Use à to go 
 Use de to leave 

REMEMBER CITES CAN BE MASC OR FEM SO KEEP IN
MIND THE ARTICLE COMBINATIONS
 De+le= du


o

De+la= de la

For countries and continents

For féminine countries



Use de to say from 

Mascline countries



Use en to say to or in 

use au to say in 
use de to say from 

plural



  Futur Tense

use aux to say in 
use des to say from 

Camille Streeter
French 202

o

Means will do..

keep original form of verb and add




-ai

-ons

-as

-ez

-a

-ont

Main irregular verbs (includes the stem)



Aller=ir
Etre=ser
Avoir=aur

  Conditional
o Means would do/have…
o Keep the original verb and add
 *THINK IMPARFAIT ENDING*
 -ais -ions
 -ais -iez
 -ait -aient
o irregular verbs are the same as above^^
  Passé Simple
o Used a lot in literature
 Take off the endings (er verbs)
 -ai -âmes

Camille Streeter
French 202


-as

-âtes

-a
-èrent
Take off the endings (ir/re verbs)
 -is -îmes
 -is -îtes
 -it -irent
Irregualr verbs
 Avoir
 eus eûmes
 eus eûtes
 eut eurent
 Être
 fus fûmes
 fus fûtes
 fut furent
 Faire
 fis fîmes
 fis fîtes
 fit firent

Chapitre 6

Negative Expressions

Camille Streeter
French 202
o ALWAYS GOES AROUND THE VERB
o Ne…pas
 Can make this stronger by saying
 Du tout
o Negatives can be quantified
 Use encore
o Other Expressions
 Ne…jamais= never
 Ne…plus= no longer, not anymore
 Ne…personne= no one
 Ne.. rien= nothing
 Ne…ni…ni = neither nor
 Ne…aucune= not yet

Relative Pronoms
o Qui


o Que


o Dont

Used for subject
You’ll see a verb after this word
Used for direct object
You’ll see a subject after the this word

Camille Streeter
French 202

Used to replace verbs with de
 Ex :avoir besion de, être content(e) de,
parler de

o Où
 Used for a place
o Lequel/Laquelle/Lesquelles
 If there’s a prepostion before
 Ex : avec, sans,dans
o Ce que/ Ce Qui
 Same rules apply when using que or qui
 BUT LOOK TO SEE IF THE WORD IS REPLACE AN
ANTICENDENT

Chapitre 7

Subjontif
o Used for
 Emotions
 Examples
 Peur que
 Aimer que
 Express doubt
 Examples
 Il est possible que
 Common phrases

Camille Streeter
French 202
Examples
 à condition que
 bien que
 à moins que
pas croire and penser
 Examples
 because it shows doubt

Use stem
o Er/re verbs
 -e -ions
 -es -iez
 -e -ent
o ir verbs
 -isse -issions
 -isses -issiez
 -isse -issent
o Irregular verbs
 Avoir
 Aie ayons
 Aies ayez
 Ait
aient

Camille Streeter
French 202

Être



Aller


sois
sois
soit

soyons
soyez
soient

Aille aillions
Ailles ailliez
Aille
aillent

Infinitive
o Use






for
Certainity
Declaring
Hoping
Probability
Thinking
With preposition DE
Croire and Penser