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Emily Hert

Math 200-101
11 November 2014

Johann Bernoulli
Johann Bernoulli was a swiss
mathematician who was born in Switzerland on
August 6th, 1667. He was the tenth child of the
Bernoulli family, and though influenced to go
into math by some of his brothers, his parents
didn’t much encourage it until later on in his
life. He attended the University of Basel to
study medicine, which his father had hoped to
influence him to take over the family business,
but Johann did not feel like that was his chosen
path. His older brother was a mathematics
professor at the university. They began
engaging in conversations in the new area of
calculus, and Johann realized that was his real
passion, though his father disagreed. With the
two of them studying and debating with each
other they became experts in Leibniz’s theories
and ideas on calculus. Bernoulli than began to
teach others of these principals. One of his
students, L’Hopital ended up publishing the first
book on calculus based upon the lectures from
Bernoulli. Though the book did not truly give
him the credit he deserved until 1922 when
papers were found that were deceived as L’Hopital’s but were indeed Bernoulli’s. He died at the
age of 80 in Basel, Switzerland, his birth place as well on January 1st 1748.

Other Primes
Mersenne Primes is a prime number that is one less than a power of two. It is
represented in the form Mn=2^n-1. After many controversy between early writers of the numbers
for the form were not prime for all primes, came along Marin Mersenne who stated that 2^n-1
were prime for n=2 ,3, 4, 7, 13, 17, 19, 31, 67, 127, and 257, which the theorem was than named
after the French monk. . Germain Primes are numbers less than 10^n. It was proven by Sophie
Germain that the first case of Fermat’s last is true for such primes. GIMPS stands for Internet
Mersenne Prime Search. It is a volunteer based project to search for Mersenne prime numbers. It
was founded by George Wolfram.

Series
Arithmetic series is when the terms of an arithmetic sequence are added. The
pattern was discovered by Carl Friedrich Gauss at only the age of seven. Geometric series
is when a series has a constant ratio between terms. The Greek Pythagoras are who
originally discovered the geometric series. You can apply this when dealing with areas
and volumes in certain spaces. Leonardo Fibonacci discovered a sequence that converges
on phi in the 12th century, creating a numerical sequence relating to phi; becoming the
Fibonacci series. You can apply this in nature as it is known also as nature’s numbering
system. Since plants grow in efficient ways the Fibonacci series can be found in the
arrangement of leaves around the stem, pine cones, etc. Edouard Lucas discovered the
Lucas series, an integer sequence, when studying Fibonacci numbers.

Sets
There are three methods to naming a set. The first is the description
method which is identifying the set in a way so we know which elements belong to it.
The second is the roster method which is identifying the set by listing the elements. And
the third is a combination of both called set-builder notation. Subsets are the relations
between other sets. Complements are everything in the universal set that is not in the set
you are considering. Cardinality is often used in surveys, it is the number of elements in a
set. Equal sets are when sets contain the same exact elements. Empty sets are sets that
contain no elements. The union of sets is the set consisting of all elements within the
other sets. The intersection of sets is the elements that are in common within the sets.