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**Math 200-101
**

11 November 2014

Johann Bernoulli

Johann Bernoulli was a swiss

mathematician who was born in Switzerland on

August 6th, 1667. He was the tenth child of the

Bernoulli family, and though influenced to go

into math by some of his brothers, his parents

didn’t much encourage it until later on in his

life. He attended the University of Basel to

study medicine, which his father had hoped to

influence him to take over the family business,

but Johann did not feel like that was his chosen

path. His older brother was a mathematics

professor at the university. They began

engaging in conversations in the new area of

calculus, and Johann realized that was his real

passion, though his father disagreed. With the

two of them studying and debating with each

other they became experts in Leibniz’s theories

and ideas on calculus. Bernoulli than began to

teach others of these principals. One of his

students, L’Hopital ended up publishing the first

book on calculus based upon the lectures from

Bernoulli. Though the book did not truly give

him the credit he deserved until 1922 when

papers were found that were deceived as L’Hopital’s but were indeed Bernoulli’s. He died at the

age of 80 in Basel, Switzerland, his birth place as well on January 1st 1748.

Other Primes

Mersenne Primes is a prime number that is one less than a power of two. It is

represented in the form Mn=2^n-1. After many controversy between early writers of the numbers

for the form were not prime for all primes, came along Marin Mersenne who stated that 2^n-1

were prime for n=2 ,3, 4, 7, 13, 17, 19, 31, 67, 127, and 257, which the theorem was than named

after the French monk. . Germain Primes are numbers less than 10^n. It was proven by Sophie

Germain that the first case of Fermat’s last is true for such primes. GIMPS stands for Internet

Mersenne Prime Search. It is a volunteer based project to search for Mersenne prime numbers. It

was founded by George Wolfram.

Series

Arithmetic series is when the terms of an arithmetic sequence are added. The

pattern was discovered by Carl Friedrich Gauss at only the age of seven. Geometric series

is when a series has a constant ratio between terms. The Greek Pythagoras are who

originally discovered the geometric series. You can apply this when dealing with areas

and volumes in certain spaces. Leonardo Fibonacci discovered a sequence that converges

on phi in the 12th century, creating a numerical sequence relating to phi; becoming the

Fibonacci series. You can apply this in nature as it is known also as nature’s numbering

system. Since plants grow in efficient ways the Fibonacci series can be found in the

arrangement of leaves around the stem, pine cones, etc. Edouard Lucas discovered the

Lucas series, an integer sequence, when studying Fibonacci numbers.

Sets

There are three methods to naming a set. The first is the description

method which is identifying the set in a way so we know which elements belong to it.

The second is the roster method which is identifying the set by listing the elements. And

the third is a combination of both called set-builder notation. Subsets are the relations

between other sets. Complements are everything in the universal set that is not in the set

you are considering. Cardinality is often used in surveys, it is the number of elements in a

set. Equal sets are when sets contain the same exact elements. Empty sets are sets that

contain no elements. The union of sets is the set consisting of all elements within the

other sets. The intersection of sets is the elements that are in common within the sets.

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