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1
Two forces are applied to an eye bolt fastened to a beam. Determine
graphically the magnitude and direction of their resultant using (a) the
parallelogram law, (b) the triangle rule.
SOLUTION
(a)
(b)
We measure: 8.4 kN R =
19 α = °
8.4 kN = R 19°
1
PROBLEM 2.2
The cable stays AB and AD help support pole AC. Knowing that the
tension is 500 N in AB and 160 N in AD, determine graphically the
magnitude and direction of the resultant of the forces exerted by the stays
at A using (a) the parallelogram law, (b) the triangle rule.
SOLUTION
We measure: 51.3 , 59 α β = ° = °
(a)
(b)
We measure: 575 N, 67 α = = ° R
575 N = R 67°
2
PROBLEM 2.3
Two forces P and Q are applied as shown at point A of a hook support.
Knowing that P = 15 lb and Q = 25 lb, determine graphically the
magnitude and direction of their resultant using (a) the parallelogram law,
(b) the triangle rule.
SOLUTION
(a)
(b)
We measure: 37 lb, 76 α = = ° R
37 lb = R 76°
3
PROBLEM 2.4
Two forces P and Q are applied as shown at point A of a hook support.
Knowing that P = 45 lb and Q = 15 lb, determine graphically the
magnitude and direction of their resultant using (a) the parallelogram law,
(b) the triangle rule.
SOLUTION
(a)
(b)
We measure: 61.5 lb, 86.5 α = = ° R
61.5 lb = R 86.5°
4
PROBLEM 2.5
Two control rods are attached at A to lever AB. Using trigonometry and
knowing that the force in the lefthand rod is F
1
= 120 N, determine
(a) the required force F
2
in the righthand rod if the resultant R of the
forces exerted by the rods on the lever is to be vertical, (b) the
corresponding magnitude of R.
SOLUTION
Graphically, by the triangle law
We measure:
2
108 N F ≅
77 N R ≅
By trigonometry: Law of Sines
2
120
sin sin38 sin
F R
α β
= =
°
90 28 62 , 180 62 38 80 α β = ° − ° = ° = ° − ° − ° = °
Then:
2
120 N
sin 62 sin38 sin80
F R
= =
° ° °
or (a)
2
107.6 N F =
(b) 75.0 N R =
5
PROBLEM 2.6
Two control rods are attached at A to lever AB. Using trigonometry and
knowing that the force in the righthand rod is F
2
= 80 N, determine
(a) the required force F
1
in the lefthand rod if the resultant R of the
forces exerted by the rods on the lever is to be vertical, (b) the
corresponding magnitude of R.
SOLUTION
Using the Law of Sines
1
80
sin sin38 sin
F R
α β
= =
°
90 10 80 , 180 80 38 62 α β = ° − ° = ° = ° − ° − ° = °
Then:
1
80 N
sin80 sin38 sin62
F R
= =
° ° °
or (a)
1
89.2 N F =
(b) 55.8 N R =
6
PROBLEM 2.7
The 50lb force is to be resolved into components along lines  a a′ and
 . b b′ (a) Using trigonometry, determine the angle α knowing that the
component along  a a′ is 35 lb. (b) What is the corresponding value of
the component along  ? b b′
SOLUTION
Using the triangle rule and the Law of Sines
(a)
sin sin 40
35 lb 50 lb
β °
=
sin 0.44995 β =
26.74 β = °
Then: 40 180 α β + + ° = °
113.3 α = °
(b) Using the Law of Sines:
50 lb
sin sin 40
bb
F
α
′
=
°
71.5 lb
bb
F
′
=
7
PROBLEM 2.8
The 50lb force is to be resolved into components along lines  a a′ and
 . b b′ (a) Using trigonometry, determine the angle α knowing that the
component along  b b′ is 30 lb. (b) What is the corresponding value of
the component along  ? a a′
SOLUTION
Using the triangle rule and the Law of Sines
(a)
sin sin 40
30 lb 50 lb
α °
=
sin 0.3857 α =
22.7 α = °
(b) 40 180 α β + + ° = °
117.31 β = °
50 lb
sin sin 40
aa
F
β
′
=
°
sin
50 lb
sin 40
β
′
=
°
aa
F
69.1lb
aa
F
′
=
8
PROBLEM 2.9
To steady a sign as it is being lowered, two cables are attached to the sign
at A. Using trigonometry and knowing that α = 25°, determine (a) the
required magnitude of the force P if the resultant R of the two forces
applied at A is to be vertical, (b) the corresponding magnitude of R.
SOLUTION
Using the triangle rule and the Law of Sines
Have: ( ) 180 35 25 α = ° − ° + °
120 = °
Then:
360 N
sin35 sin120 sin 25
P R
= =
° ° °
or (a) 489 N P =
(b) 738 N R =
9
PROBLEM 2.10
To steady a sign as it is being lowered, two cables are attached to the sign
at A. Using trigonometry and knowing that the magnitude of P is 300 N,
determine (a) the required angle α if the resultant R of the two forces
applied at A is to be vertical, (b) the corresponding magnitude of R.
SOLUTION
Using the triangle rule and the Law of Sines
(a) Have:
360 N 300 N
sin sin35 α
=
°
sin 0.68829 α =
43.5 α = °
(b) ( ) 180 35 43.5 β = − ° + °
101.5 = °
Then:
300 N
sin101.5 sin35
R
=
° °
or 513 N R =
10
PROBLEM 2.11
Two forces are applied as shown to a hook support. Using trigonometry
and knowing that the magnitude of P is 14 lb, determine (a) the required
angle α if the resultant R of the two forces applied to the support is to be
horizontal, (b) the corresponding magnitude of R.
SOLUTION
Using the triangle rule and the Law of Sines
(a) Have:
20 lb 14 lb
sin sin30 α
=
°
sin 0.71428 α =
45.6 α = °
(b) ( ) 180 30 45.6 β = ° − ° + °
104.4 = °
Then:
14 lb
sin104.4 sin30
R
=
° °
27.1 lb R =
11
PROBLEM 2.12
For the hook support of Problem 2.3, using trigonometry and knowing
that the magnitude of P is 25 lb, determine (a) the required magnitude of
the force Q if the resultant R of the two forces applied at A is to be
vertical, (b) the corresponding magnitude of R.
Problem 2.3: Two forces P and Q are applied as shown at point A of a
hook support. Knowing that P = 15 lb and Q = 25 lb, determine
graphically the magnitude and direction of their resultant using (a) the
parallelogram law, (b) the triangle rule.
SOLUTION
Using the triangle rule and the Law of Sines
(a) Have:
25 lb
sin15 sin30
Q
=
° °
12.94 lb Q =
(b) ( ) 180 15 30 β = ° − ° + °
135 = °
Thus:
25 lb
sin135 sin30
R
=
° °
sin135
25 lb 35.36 lb
sin30
R
°  
= =

°
\ .
35.4 lb R =
12
PROBLEM 2.13
For the hook support of Problem 2.11, determine, using trigonometry,
(a) the magnitude and direction of the smallest force P for which the
resultant R of the two forces applied to the support is horizontal,
(b) the corresponding magnitude of R.
Problem 2.11: Two forces are applied as shown to a hook support. Using
trigonometry and knowing that the magnitude of P is 14 lb, determine
(a) the required angle α if the resultant R of the two forces applied to the
support is to be horizontal, (b) the corresponding magnitude of R.
SOLUTION
(a) The smallest force P will be perpendicular to R, that is, vertical
( ) 20 lb sin30 P = °
10 lb = 10 lb = P
(b) ( ) 20 lb cos30 R = °
17.32 lb = 17.32 lb R =
13
PROBLEM 2.14
As shown in Figure P2.9, two cables are attached to a sign at A to steady
the sign as it is being lowered. Using trigonometry, determine (a) the
magnitude and direction of the smallest force P for which the resultant R
of the two forces applied at A is vertical, (b) the corresponding magnitude
of R.
SOLUTION
We observe that force P is minimum when is 90 , α ° that is, P is horizontal
Then: (a) ( ) 360 N sin35 P = °
or 206 N = P
And: (b) ( ) 360 N cos35 R = °
or 295 N R =
14
PROBLEM 2.15
For the hook support of Problem 2.11, determine, using trigonometry, the
magnitude and direction of the resultant of the two forces applied to the
support knowing that P = 10 lb and α = 40°.
Problem 2.11: Two forces are applied as shown to a hook support. Using
trigonometry and knowing that the magnitude of P is 14 lb, determine
(a) the required angle α if the resultant R of the two forces applied to the
support is to be horizontal, (b) the corresponding magnitude of R.
SOLUTION
Using the force triangle and the Law of Cosines
( ) ( ) ( )( )
2 2
2
10 lb 20 lb 2 10 lb 20 lb cos110 R = + − °
( )
2
100 400 400 0.342 lb = + − −
2
636.8 lb =
25.23 lb R =
Using now the Law of Sines
10 lb 25.23 lb
sin sin110 β
=
°
10 lb
sin sin110
25.23 lb
β
 
= °

\ .
0.3724 =
So: 21.87 β = °
Angle of inclination of R, φ is then such that:
30 φ β + = °
8.13 φ = °
Hence: 25.2 lb = R 8.13°
15
PROBLEM 2.16
Solve Problem 2.1 using trigonometry
Problem 2.1: Two forces are applied to an eye bolt fastened to a beam.
Determine graphically the magnitude and direction of their resultant
using (a) the parallelogram law, (b) the triangle rule.
SOLUTION
Using the force triangle, the Law of Cosines and the Law of Sines
We have: ( ) 180 50 25 α = ° − ° + °
105 = °
Then: ( ) ( ) ( )( )
2 2
2
4.5 kN 6 kN 2 4.5 kN 6 kN cos105 R = + − °
2
70.226 kN =
or 8.3801 kN R =
Now:
8.3801 kN 6 kN
sin105 sin β
=
°
6 kN
sin sin105
8.3801 kN
β
 
= °

\ .
0.6916 =
43.756 β = °
8.38 kN = R 18.76°
16
PROBLEM 2.17
Solve Problem 2.2 using trigonometry
Problem 2.2: The cable stays AB and AD help support pole AC. Knowing
that the tension is 500 N in AB and 160 N in AD, determine graphically
the magnitude and direction of the resultant of the forces exerted by the
stays at A using (a) the parallelogram law, (b) the triangle rule.
SOLUTION
From the geometry of the problem:
1
2
tan 38.66
2.5
α
−
= = °
1
1.5
tan 30.96
2.5
β
−
= = °
Now: ( ) 180 38.66 30.96 110.38 θ = ° − + ° =
And, using the Law of Cosines:
( ) ( ) ( )( )
2 2
2
500 N 160 N 2 500 N 160 N cos110.38 R = + − °
2
331319 N =
575.6 N R =
Using the Law of Sines:
160 N 575.6 N
sin sin110.38 γ
=
°
160 N
sin sin110.38
575.6 N
γ
 
= °

\ .
0.2606 =
15.1 γ = °
( ) 90 66.44 φ α γ = ° − + = °
576 N = R 66.4°
17
PROBLEM 2.18
Solve Problem 2.3 using trigonometry
Problem 2.3: Two forces P and Q are applied as shown at point A of a
hook support. Knowing that P = 15 lb and Q = 25 lb, determine
graphically the magnitude and direction of their resultant using (a) the
parallelogram law, (b) the triangle rule.
SOLUTION
Using the force triangle and the Laws of Cosines and Sines
We have:
( ) 180 15 30 γ = ° − ° + °
135 = °
Then: ( ) ( ) ( )( )
2 2
2
15 lb 25 lb 2 15 lb 25 lb cos135 R = + − °
2
1380.3 lb =
or 37.15 lb R =
and
25 lb 37.15 lb
sin sin135 β
=
°
25 lb
sin sin135
37.15 lb
β
 
= °

\ .
0.4758 =
28.41 β = °
Then: 75 180 α β + + ° = °
76.59 α = °
37.2 lb = R 76.6°
18
PROBLEM 2.19
Two structural members A and B are bolted to a bracket as shown.
Knowing that both members are in compression and that the force is
30 kN in member A and 20 kN in member B, determine, using
trigonometry, the magnitude and direction of the resultant of the forces
applied to the bracket by members A and B.
SOLUTION
Using the force triangle and the Laws of Cosines and Sines
We have: ( ) 180 45 25 110 γ = ° − ° + ° = °
Then: ( ) ( ) ( )( )
2 2
2
30 kN 20 kN 2 30 kN 20 kN cos110 R = + − °
2
1710.4 kN =
41.357 kN R =
and
20 kN 41.357 kN
sin sin110 α
=
°
20 kN
sin sin110
41.357 kN
α
 
= °

\ .
0.4544 =
27.028 α = °
Hence: 45 72.028 φ α = + ° = °
41.4 kN = R 72.0°
19
PROBLEM 2.20
Two structural members A and B are bolted to a bracket as shown.
Knowing that both members are in compression and that the force is
20 kN in member A and 30 kN in member B, determine, using
trigonometry, the magnitude and direction of the resultant of the forces
applied to the bracket by members A and B.
SOLUTION
Using the force triangle and the Laws of Cosines and Sines
We have: ( ) 180 45 25 110 γ = ° − ° + ° = °
Then: ( ) ( ) ( )( )
2 2
2
30 kN 20 kN 2 30 kN 20 kN cos110 R = + − °
2
1710.4 kN =
41.357 kN R =
and
30 kN 41.357 kN
sin sin110 α
=
°
30 kN
sin sin110
41.357 kN
α
 
= °

\ .
0.6816 =
42.97 α = °
Finally: 45 87.97 φ α = + ° = °
41.4 kN = R 88.0°
20
PROBLEM 2.21
Determine the x and y components of each of the forces shown.
SOLUTION
20 kN Force:
( ) 20 kN cos 40 ,
x
F = + ° 15.32 kN
x
F =
( ) 20 kN sin 40 ,
y
F = + ° 12.86 kN
y
F =
30 kN Force:
( ) 30 kN cos70 ,
x
F = − ° 10.26 kN
x
F = −
( ) 30 kN sin70 ,
y
F = + ° 28.2 kN
y
F =
42 kN Force:
( ) 42 kN cos 20 ,
x
F = − ° 39.5 kN
x
F = −
( ) 42 kN sin 20 ,
y
F = + ° 14.36 kN
y
F =
21
PROBLEM 2.22
Determine the x and y components of each of the forces shown.
SOLUTION
40 lb Force:
( ) 40 lb sin50 ,
x
F = − ° 30.6 lb
x
F = −
( ) 40 lb cos50 ,
y
F = − ° 25.7 lb
y
F = −
60 lb Force:
( ) 60 lb cos60 ,
x
F = + ° 30.0 lb
x
F =
( ) 60 lb sin 60 ,
y
F = − ° 52.0 lb
y
F = −
80 lb Force:
( ) 80 lb cos 25 ,
x
F = + ° 72.5 lb
x
F =
( ) 80 lb sin 25 ,
y
F = + ° 33.8 lb
y
F =
22
PROBLEM 2.23
Determine the x and y components of each of the forces shown.
SOLUTION
We compute the following distances:
( ) ( )
( ) ( )
( ) ( )
2 2
2 2
2 2
48 90 102 in.
56 90 106 in.
80 60 100 in.
OA
OB
OC
= + =
= + =
= + =
Then:
204 lb Force:
( )
48
102 lb ,
102
x
F = − 48.0 lb
x
F = −
( )
90
102 lb ,
102
y
F = + 90.0 lb
y
F =
212 lb Force:
( )
56
212 lb ,
106
x
F = + 112.0 lb
x
F =
( )
90
212 lb ,
106
y
F = + 180.0 lb
y
F =
400 lb Force:
( )
80
400 lb ,
100
x
F = − 320 lb
x
F = −
( )
60
400 lb ,
100
y
F = − 240 lb
y
F = −
23
PROBLEM 2.24
Determine the x and y components of each of the forces shown.
SOLUTION
We compute the following distances:
( ) ( )
2 2
70 240 250 mm OA = + =
( ) ( )
2 2
210 200 290 mm OB = + =
( ) ( )
2 2
120 225 255 mm OC = + =
500 N Force:
70
500 N
250
x
F
= −
140.0 N
x
F = −
240
500 N
250
y
F
= +
480 N
y
F =
435 N Force:
210
435 N
290
x
F
= +
315 N
x
F =
200
435 N
290
y
F
= +
300 N
y
F =
510 N Force:
120
510 N
255
x
F
= +
240 N
x
F =
225
510 N
255
y
F
= −
450 N
y
F = −
24
PROBLEM 2.25
While emptying a wheelbarrow, a gardener exerts on each handle AB a
force P directed along line CD. Knowing that P must have a 135N
horizontal component, determine (a) the magnitude of the force P, (b) its
vertical component.
SOLUTION
(a)
cos 40
x
P
P =
°
135 N
cos 40
=
°
or 176.2 N P =
(b) tan 40 sin 40
y x
P P P = ° = °
( ) 135 N tan 40 = °
or 113.3 N
y
P =
25
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