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1

Two forces are applied to an eye bolt fastened to a beam. Determine

graphically the magnitude and direction of their resultant using (a) the

parallelogram law, (b) the triangle rule.

SOLUTION

(a)

(b)

We measure: R = 8.4 kN

α = 19°

R = 8.4 kN 19°

1

PROBLEM 2.2

The cable stays AB and AD help support pole AC. Knowing that the

tension is 500 N in AB and 160 N in AD, determine graphically the

magnitude and direction of the resultant of the forces exerted by the stays

at A using (a) the parallelogram law, (b) the triangle rule.

SOLUTION

(a)

(b)

R = 575 N 67°

2

PROBLEM 2.3

Two forces P and Q are applied as shown at point A of a hook support.

Knowing that P = 15 lb and Q = 25 lb, determine graphically the

magnitude and direction of their resultant using (a) the parallelogram law,

(b) the triangle rule.

SOLUTION

(a)

(b)

R = 37 lb 76°

3

PROBLEM 2.4

Two forces P and Q are applied as shown at point A of a hook support.

Knowing that P = 45 lb and Q = 15 lb, determine graphically the

magnitude and direction of their resultant using (a) the parallelogram law,

(b) the triangle rule.

SOLUTION

(a)

(b)

R = 61.5 lb 86.5°

4

PROBLEM 2.5

Two control rods are attached at A to lever AB. Using trigonometry and

knowing that the force in the left-hand rod is F1 = 120 N, determine

(a) the required force F2 in the right-hand rod if the resultant R of the

forces exerted by the rods on the lever is to be vertical, (b) the

corresponding magnitude of R.

SOLUTION

We measure: F2 ≅ 108 N

R ≅ 77 N

F2 R 120

= =

sin α sin 38° sin β

Then:

F2 R 120 N

= =

sin 62° sin 38° sin 80°

or (a) F2 = 107.6 N

(b) R = 75.0 N

5

PROBLEM 2.6

Two control rods are attached at A to lever AB. Using trigonometry and

knowing that the force in the right-hand rod is F2 = 80 N, determine

(a) the required force F1 in the left-hand rod if the resultant R of the

forces exerted by the rods on the lever is to be vertical, (b) the

corresponding magnitude of R.

SOLUTION

F1 R 80

= =

sin α sin 38° sin β

Then:

F1 R 80 N

= =

sin 80° sin 38° sin 62°

or (a) F1 = 89.2 N

(b) R = 55.8 N

6

PROBLEM 2.7

The 50-lb force is to be resolved into components along lines a-a′ and

b-b′. (a) Using trigonometry, determine the angle α knowing that the

component along a-a′ is 35 lb. (b) What is the corresponding value of

the component along b-b′ ?

SOLUTION

(a) =

35 lb 50 lb

sin β = 0.44995

β = 26.74°

α = 113.3°

Fbb′ 50 lb

=

sin α sin 40°

Fbb′ = 71.5 lb

7

PROBLEM 2.8

The 50-lb force is to be resolved into components along lines a-a′ and

b-b′. (a) Using trigonometry, determine the angle α knowing that the

component along b-b′ is 30 lb. (b) What is the corresponding value of

the component along a-a′ ?

SOLUTION

(a) =

30 lb 50 lb

sin α = 0.3857

α = 22.7°

β = 117.31°

Faa′ 50 lb

=

sin β sin 40°

sin β

Faa′ = 50 lb

sin 40°

Faa′ = 69.1 lb

8

PROBLEM 2.9

To steady a sign as it is being lowered, two cables are attached to the sign

at A. Using trigonometry and knowing that α = 25°, determine (a) the

required magnitude of the force P if the resultant R of the two forces

applied at A is to be vertical, (b) the corresponding magnitude of R.

SOLUTION

= 120°

P R 360 N

Then: = =

sin 35° sin120° sin 25°

or (a) P = 489 N

(b) R = 738 N

9

PROBLEM 2.10

To steady a sign as it is being lowered, two cables are attached to the sign

at A. Using trigonometry and knowing that the magnitude of P is 300 N,

determine (a) the required angle α if the resultant R of the two forces

applied at A is to be vertical, (b) the corresponding magnitude of R.

SOLUTION

360 N 300 N

(a) Have: =

sin α sin 35°

sin α = 0.68829

α = 43.5°

= 101.5°

R 300 N

Then: =

sin101.5° sin 35°

or R = 513 N

10

PROBLEM 2.11

Two forces are applied as shown to a hook support. Using trigonometry

and knowing that the magnitude of P is 14 lb, determine (a) the required

angle α if the resultant R of the two forces applied to the support is to be

horizontal, (b) the corresponding magnitude of R.

SOLUTION

20 lb 14 lb

(a) Have: =

sin α sin 30°

sin α = 0.71428

α = 45.6°

(b) β = 180° − ( 30° + 45.6° )

= 104.4°

R 14 lb

Then: =

sin104.4° sin 30°

R = 27.1 lb

11

PROBLEM 2.12

For the hook support of Problem 2.3, using trigonometry and knowing

that the magnitude of P is 25 lb, determine (a) the required magnitude of

the force Q if the resultant R of the two forces applied at A is to be

vertical, (b) the corresponding magnitude of R.

Problem 2.3: Two forces P and Q are applied as shown at point A of a

hook support. Knowing that P = 15 lb and Q = 25 lb, determine

graphically the magnitude and direction of their resultant using (a) the

parallelogram law, (b) the triangle rule.

SOLUTION

Q 25 lb

(a) Have: =

sin15° sin 30°

Q = 12.94 lb

= 135°

R 25 lb

Thus: =

sin135° sin 30°

sin135°

R = 25 lb = 35.36 lb

sin 30°

R = 35.4 lb

12

PROBLEM 2.13

For the hook support of Problem 2.11, determine, using trigonometry,

(a) the magnitude and direction of the smallest force P for which the

resultant R of the two forces applied to the support is horizontal,

(b) the corresponding magnitude of R.

Problem 2.11: Two forces are applied as shown to a hook support. Using

trigonometry and knowing that the magnitude of P is 14 lb, determine

(a) the required angle α if the resultant R of the two forces applied to the

support is to be horizontal, (b) the corresponding magnitude of R.

SOLUTION

P = ( 20 lb ) sin 30°

= 10 lb P = 10 lb

= 17.32 lb R = 17.32 lb

13

PROBLEM 2.14

As shown in Figure P2.9, two cables are attached to a sign at A to steady

the sign as it is being lowered. Using trigonometry, determine (a) the

magnitude and direction of the smallest force P for which the resultant R

of the two forces applied at A is vertical, (b) the corresponding magnitude

of R.

SOLUTION

or P = 206 N

or R = 295 N

14

PROBLEM 2.15

For the hook support of Problem 2.11, determine, using trigonometry, the

magnitude and direction of the resultant of the two forces applied to the

support knowing that P = 10 lb and α = 40°.

Problem 2.11: Two forces are applied as shown to a hook support. Using

trigonometry and knowing that the magnitude of P is 14 lb, determine

(a) the required angle α if the resultant R of the two forces applied to the

support is to be horizontal, (b) the corresponding magnitude of R.

SOLUTION

2 2

= 636.8 lb 2

R = 25.23 lb

10 lb 25.23 lb

=

sin β sin110°

10 lb

sin β = sin110°

25.23 lb

= 0.3724

So: β = 21.87°

Angle of inclination of R, φ is then such that:

φ + β = 30°

φ = 8.13°

15

PROBLEM 2.16

Solve Problem 2.1 using trigonometry

Problem 2.1: Two forces are applied to an eye bolt fastened to a beam.

Determine graphically the magnitude and direction of their resultant

using (a) the parallelogram law, (b) the triangle rule.

SOLUTION

Using the force triangle, the Law of Cosines and the Law of Sines

= 105°

2 2

Then:

= 70.226 kN 2

or R = 8.3801 kN

8.3801 kN 6 kN

Now: =

sin105° sin β

6 kN

sin β = sin105°

8.3801 kN

= 0.6916

β = 43.756°

R = 8.38 kN 18.76°

16

PROBLEM 2.17

Solve Problem 2.2 using trigonometry

Problem 2.2: The cable stays AB and AD help support pole AC. Knowing

that the tension is 500 N in AB and 160 N in AD, determine graphically

the magnitude and direction of the resultant of the forces exerted by the

stays at A using (a) the parallelogram law, (b) the triangle rule.

SOLUTION

2

α = tan −1 = 38.66°

2.5

1.5

β = tan −1 = 30.96°

2.5

And, using the Law of Cosines:

2 2

= 331319 N 2

R = 575.6 N

160 N 575.6 N

=

sin γ sin110.38°

160 N

sin γ = sin110.38°

575.6 N

= 0.2606

γ = 15.1°

φ = ( 90° − α ) + γ = 66.44°

R = 576 N 66.4°

17

PROBLEM 2.18

Solve Problem 2.3 using trigonometry

Problem 2.3: Two forces P and Q are applied as shown at point A of a

hook support. Knowing that P = 15 lb and Q = 25 lb, determine

graphically the magnitude and direction of their resultant using (a) the

parallelogram law, (b) the triangle rule.

SOLUTION

Using the force triangle and the Laws of Cosines and Sines

We have:

= 135°

2 2

Then:

= 1380.3 lb 2

or R = 37.15 lb

and

25 lb 37.15 lb

=

sin β sin135°

25 lb

sin β = sin135°

37.15 lb

= 0.4758

β = 28.41°

α = 76.59°

R = 37.2 lb 76.6°

18

PROBLEM 2.19

Two structural members A and B are bolted to a bracket as shown.

Knowing that both members are in compression and that the force is

30 kN in member A and 20 kN in member B, determine, using

trigonometry, the magnitude and direction of the resultant of the forces

applied to the bracket by members A and B.

SOLUTION

Using the force triangle and the Laws of Cosines and Sines

R 2 = ( 30 kN ) + ( 20 kN ) − 2 ( 30 kN )( 20 kN ) cos110°

2 2

Then:

= 1710.4 kN 2

R = 41.357 kN

and

20 kN 41.357 kN

=

sin α sin110°

20 kN

sin α = sin110°

41.357 kN

= 0.4544

α = 27.028°

R = 41.4 kN 72.0°

19

PROBLEM 2.20

Two structural members A and B are bolted to a bracket as shown.

Knowing that both members are in compression and that the force is

20 kN in member A and 30 kN in member B, determine, using

trigonometry, the magnitude and direction of the resultant of the forces

applied to the bracket by members A and B.

SOLUTION

Using the force triangle and the Laws of Cosines and Sines

R 2 = ( 30 kN ) + ( 20 kN ) − 2 ( 30 kN )( 20 kN ) cos110°

2 2

Then:

= 1710.4 kN 2

R = 41.357 kN

and

30 kN 41.357 kN

=

sin α sin110°

30 kN

sin α = sin110°

41.357 kN

= 0.6816

α = 42.97°

R = 41.4 kN 88.0°

20

PROBLEM 2.21

Determine the x and y components of each of the forces shown.

SOLUTION

20 kN Force:

30 kN Force:

42 kN Force:

21

PROBLEM 2.22

Determine the x and y components of each of the forces shown.

SOLUTION

40 lb Force:

60 lb Force:

80 lb Force:

22

PROBLEM 2.23

Determine the x and y components of each of the forces shown.

SOLUTION

OB = ( 56 )2 + ( 90 )2 = 106 in.

Then:

204 lb Force:

48

Fx = − (102 lb ) , Fx = −48.0 lb

102

90

Fy = + (102 lb ) , Fy = 90.0 lb

102

212 lb Force:

56

Fx = + ( 212 lb ) , Fx = 112.0 lb

106

90

Fy = + ( 212 lb ) , Fy = 180.0 lb

106

400 lb Force:

80

Fx = − ( 400 lb ) , Fx = −320 lb

100

60

Fy = − ( 400 lb ) , Fy = −240 lb

100

23

PROBLEM 2.24

Determine the x and y components of each of the forces shown.

SOLUTION

OA = ( 70 )2 + ( 240 )2 = 250 mm

500 N Force:

70

Fx = −500 N Fx = −140.0 N

250

240

Fy = +500 N Fy = 480 N

250

435 N Force:

210

Fx = +435 N Fx = 315 N

290

200

Fy = +435 N Fy = 300 N

290

510 N Force:

120

Fx = +510 N Fx = 240 N

255

225

Fy = −510 N Fy = −450 N

255

24

PROBLEM 2.25

While emptying a wheelbarrow, a gardener exerts on each handle AB a

force P directed along line CD. Knowing that P must have a 135-N

horizontal component, determine (a) the magnitude of the force P, (b) its

vertical component.

SOLUTION

Px

(a) P=

cos 40°

135 N

=

cos 40°

or P = 176.2 N

or Py = 113.3 N

25

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