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PROBLEM 2.

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Two forces are applied to an eye bolt fastened to a beam. Determine
graphically the magnitude and direction of their resultant using (a) the
parallelogram law, (b) the triangle rule.

SOLUTION

(a)

(b)

We measure: R = 8.4 kN

α = 19°
R = 8.4 kN 19°

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PROBLEM 2.2
The cable stays AB and AD help support pole AC. Knowing that the
tension is 500 N in AB and 160 N in AD, determine graphically the
magnitude and direction of the resultant of the forces exerted by the stays
at A using (a) the parallelogram law, (b) the triangle rule.

SOLUTION

We measure: α = 51.3°, β = 59°


(a)

(b)

We measure: R = 575 N, α = 67°

R = 575 N 67°

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PROBLEM 2.3
Two forces P and Q are applied as shown at point A of a hook support.
Knowing that P = 15 lb and Q = 25 lb, determine graphically the
magnitude and direction of their resultant using (a) the parallelogram law,
(b) the triangle rule.

SOLUTION

(a)

(b)

We measure: R = 37 lb, α = 76°

R = 37 lb 76°

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PROBLEM 2.4
Two forces P and Q are applied as shown at point A of a hook support.
Knowing that P = 45 lb and Q = 15 lb, determine graphically the
magnitude and direction of their resultant using (a) the parallelogram law,
(b) the triangle rule.

SOLUTION

(a)

(b)

We measure: R = 61.5 lb, α = 86.5°

R = 61.5 lb 86.5°

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PROBLEM 2.5
Two control rods are attached at A to lever AB. Using trigonometry and
knowing that the force in the left-hand rod is F1 = 120 N, determine
(a) the required force F2 in the right-hand rod if the resultant R of the
forces exerted by the rods on the lever is to be vertical, (b) the
corresponding magnitude of R.

SOLUTION

Graphically, by the triangle law

We measure: F2 ≅ 108 N

R ≅ 77 N

By trigonometry: Law of Sines

F2 R 120
= =
sin α sin 38° sin β

α = 90° − 28° = 62°, β = 180° − 62° − 38° = 80°

Then:

F2 R 120 N
= =
sin 62° sin 38° sin 80°

or (a) F2 = 107.6 N

(b) R = 75.0 N

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PROBLEM 2.6
Two control rods are attached at A to lever AB. Using trigonometry and
knowing that the force in the right-hand rod is F2 = 80 N, determine
(a) the required force F1 in the left-hand rod if the resultant R of the
forces exerted by the rods on the lever is to be vertical, (b) the
corresponding magnitude of R.

SOLUTION

Using the Law of Sines

F1 R 80
= =
sin α sin 38° sin β

α = 90° − 10° = 80°, β = 180° − 80° − 38° = 62°

Then:

F1 R 80 N
= =
sin 80° sin 38° sin 62°

or (a) F1 = 89.2 N

(b) R = 55.8 N

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PROBLEM 2.7
The 50-lb force is to be resolved into components along lines a-a′ and
b-b′. (a) Using trigonometry, determine the angle α knowing that the
component along a-a′ is 35 lb. (b) What is the corresponding value of
the component along b-b′ ?

SOLUTION

Using the triangle rule and the Law of Sines

sin β sin 40°


(a) =
35 lb 50 lb

sin β = 0.44995

β = 26.74°

Then: α + β + 40° = 180°

α = 113.3°

(b) Using the Law of Sines:

Fbb′ 50 lb
=
sin α sin 40°

Fbb′ = 71.5 lb

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PROBLEM 2.8
The 50-lb force is to be resolved into components along lines a-a′ and
b-b′. (a) Using trigonometry, determine the angle α knowing that the
component along b-b′ is 30 lb. (b) What is the corresponding value of
the component along a-a′ ?

SOLUTION

Using the triangle rule and the Law of Sines

sin α sin 40°


(a) =
30 lb 50 lb

sin α = 0.3857

α = 22.7°

(b) α + β + 40° = 180°

β = 117.31°

Faa′ 50 lb
=
sin β sin 40°

 sin β 
Faa′ = 50 lb  
 sin 40° 

Faa′ = 69.1 lb

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PROBLEM 2.9
To steady a sign as it is being lowered, two cables are attached to the sign
at A. Using trigonometry and knowing that α = 25°, determine (a) the
required magnitude of the force P if the resultant R of the two forces
applied at A is to be vertical, (b) the corresponding magnitude of R.

SOLUTION

Using the triangle rule and the Law of Sines

Have: α = 180° − ( 35° + 25° )

= 120°

P R 360 N
Then: = =
sin 35° sin120° sin 25°

or (a) P = 489 N

(b) R = 738 N

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PROBLEM 2.10
To steady a sign as it is being lowered, two cables are attached to the sign
at A. Using trigonometry and knowing that the magnitude of P is 300 N,
determine (a) the required angle α if the resultant R of the two forces
applied at A is to be vertical, (b) the corresponding magnitude of R.

SOLUTION

Using the triangle rule and the Law of Sines

360 N 300 N
(a) Have: =
sin α sin 35°

sin α = 0.68829

α = 43.5°

(b) β = 180 − ( 35° + 43.5° )

= 101.5°

R 300 N
Then: =
sin101.5° sin 35°

or R = 513 N

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PROBLEM 2.11
Two forces are applied as shown to a hook support. Using trigonometry
and knowing that the magnitude of P is 14 lb, determine (a) the required
angle α if the resultant R of the two forces applied to the support is to be
horizontal, (b) the corresponding magnitude of R.

SOLUTION

Using the triangle rule and the Law of Sines

20 lb 14 lb
(a) Have: =
sin α sin 30°

sin α = 0.71428

α = 45.6°
(b) β = 180° − ( 30° + 45.6° )
= 104.4°

R 14 lb
Then: =
sin104.4° sin 30°

R = 27.1 lb

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PROBLEM 2.12
For the hook support of Problem 2.3, using trigonometry and knowing
that the magnitude of P is 25 lb, determine (a) the required magnitude of
the force Q if the resultant R of the two forces applied at A is to be
vertical, (b) the corresponding magnitude of R.
Problem 2.3: Two forces P and Q are applied as shown at point A of a
hook support. Knowing that P = 15 lb and Q = 25 lb, determine
graphically the magnitude and direction of their resultant using (a) the
parallelogram law, (b) the triangle rule.

SOLUTION

Using the triangle rule and the Law of Sines

Q 25 lb
(a) Have: =
sin15° sin 30°

Q = 12.94 lb

(b) β = 180° − (15° + 30° )


= 135°

R 25 lb
Thus: =
sin135° sin 30°

 sin135° 
R = 25 lb   = 35.36 lb
 sin 30° 

R = 35.4 lb

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PROBLEM 2.13
For the hook support of Problem 2.11, determine, using trigonometry,
(a) the magnitude and direction of the smallest force P for which the
resultant R of the two forces applied to the support is horizontal,
(b) the corresponding magnitude of R.
Problem 2.11: Two forces are applied as shown to a hook support. Using
trigonometry and knowing that the magnitude of P is 14 lb, determine
(a) the required angle α if the resultant R of the two forces applied to the
support is to be horizontal, (b) the corresponding magnitude of R.

SOLUTION

(a) The smallest force P will be perpendicular to R, that is, vertical

P = ( 20 lb ) sin 30°

= 10 lb P = 10 lb

(b) R = ( 20 lb ) cos 30°

= 17.32 lb R = 17.32 lb

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PROBLEM 2.14
As shown in Figure P2.9, two cables are attached to a sign at A to steady
the sign as it is being lowered. Using trigonometry, determine (a) the
magnitude and direction of the smallest force P for which the resultant R
of the two forces applied at A is vertical, (b) the corresponding magnitude
of R.

SOLUTION

We observe that force P is minimum when α is 90°, that is, P is horizontal

Then: (a) P = ( 360 N ) sin 35°

or P = 206 N

And: (b) R = ( 360 N ) cos 35°

or R = 295 N

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PROBLEM 2.15
For the hook support of Problem 2.11, determine, using trigonometry, the
magnitude and direction of the resultant of the two forces applied to the
support knowing that P = 10 lb and α = 40°.
Problem 2.11: Two forces are applied as shown to a hook support. Using
trigonometry and knowing that the magnitude of P is 14 lb, determine
(a) the required angle α if the resultant R of the two forces applied to the
support is to be horizontal, (b) the corresponding magnitude of R.

SOLUTION

Using the force triangle and the Law of Cosines

R 2 = (10 lb ) + ( 20 lb ) − 2 (10 lb )( 20 lb ) cos110°


2 2

= 100 + 400 − 400 ( −0.342 )  lb 2

= 636.8 lb 2

R = 25.23 lb

Using now the Law of Sines

10 lb 25.23 lb
=
sin β sin110°

 10 lb 
sin β =   sin110°
 25.23 lb 

= 0.3724

So: β = 21.87°
Angle of inclination of R, φ is then such that:

φ + β = 30°

φ = 8.13°

Hence: R = 25.2 lb 8.13°

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PROBLEM 2.16
Solve Problem 2.1 using trigonometry
Problem 2.1: Two forces are applied to an eye bolt fastened to a beam.
Determine graphically the magnitude and direction of their resultant
using (a) the parallelogram law, (b) the triangle rule.

SOLUTION

Using the force triangle, the Law of Cosines and the Law of Sines

We have: α = 180° − ( 50° + 25° )


= 105°

R 2 = ( 4.5 kN ) + ( 6 kN ) − 2 ( 4.5 kN )( 6 kN ) cos105°


2 2
Then:

= 70.226 kN 2

or R = 8.3801 kN

8.3801 kN 6 kN
Now: =
sin105° sin β

 6 kN 
sin β =   sin105°
 8.3801 kN 

= 0.6916

β = 43.756°

R = 8.38 kN 18.76°

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PROBLEM 2.17
Solve Problem 2.2 using trigonometry
Problem 2.2: The cable stays AB and AD help support pole AC. Knowing
that the tension is 500 N in AB and 160 N in AD, determine graphically
the magnitude and direction of the resultant of the forces exerted by the
stays at A using (a) the parallelogram law, (b) the triangle rule.

SOLUTION

From the geometry of the problem:

2
α = tan −1 = 38.66°
2.5

1.5
β = tan −1 = 30.96°
2.5

Now: θ = 180° − ( 38.66 + 30.96° ) = 110.38


And, using the Law of Cosines:

R 2 = ( 500 N ) + (160 N ) − 2 ( 500 N )(160 N ) cos110.38°


2 2

= 331319 N 2

R = 575.6 N

Using the Law of Sines:

160 N 575.6 N
=
sin γ sin110.38°

 160 N 
sin γ =   sin110.38°
 575.6 N 

= 0.2606

γ = 15.1°

φ = ( 90° − α ) + γ = 66.44°

R = 576 N 66.4°

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PROBLEM 2.18
Solve Problem 2.3 using trigonometry
Problem 2.3: Two forces P and Q are applied as shown at point A of a
hook support. Knowing that P = 15 lb and Q = 25 lb, determine
graphically the magnitude and direction of their resultant using (a) the
parallelogram law, (b) the triangle rule.

SOLUTION

Using the force triangle and the Laws of Cosines and Sines

We have:

γ = 180° − (15° + 30° )

= 135°

R 2 = (15 lb ) + ( 25 lb ) − 2 (15 lb )( 25 lb ) cos135°


2 2
Then:

= 1380.3 lb 2
or R = 37.15 lb

and

25 lb 37.15 lb
=
sin β sin135°

 25 lb 
sin β =   sin135°
 37.15 lb 

= 0.4758

β = 28.41°

Then: α + β + 75° = 180°


α = 76.59°
R = 37.2 lb 76.6°

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PROBLEM 2.19
Two structural members A and B are bolted to a bracket as shown.
Knowing that both members are in compression and that the force is
30 kN in member A and 20 kN in member B, determine, using
trigonometry, the magnitude and direction of the resultant of the forces
applied to the bracket by members A and B.

SOLUTION

Using the force triangle and the Laws of Cosines and Sines

We have: γ = 180° − ( 45° + 25° ) = 110°

R 2 = ( 30 kN ) + ( 20 kN ) − 2 ( 30 kN )( 20 kN ) cos110°
2 2
Then:

= 1710.4 kN 2

R = 41.357 kN

and

20 kN 41.357 kN
=
sin α sin110°

 20 kN 
sin α =   sin110°
 41.357 kN 

= 0.4544

α = 27.028°

Hence: φ = α + 45° = 72.028°


R = 41.4 kN 72.0°

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PROBLEM 2.20
Two structural members A and B are bolted to a bracket as shown.
Knowing that both members are in compression and that the force is
20 kN in member A and 30 kN in member B, determine, using
trigonometry, the magnitude and direction of the resultant of the forces
applied to the bracket by members A and B.

SOLUTION

Using the force triangle and the Laws of Cosines and Sines

We have: γ = 180° − ( 45° + 25° ) = 110°

R 2 = ( 30 kN ) + ( 20 kN ) − 2 ( 30 kN )( 20 kN ) cos110°
2 2
Then:

= 1710.4 kN 2

R = 41.357 kN

and

30 kN 41.357 kN
=
sin α sin110°

 30 kN 
sin α =   sin110°
 41.357 kN 

= 0.6816

α = 42.97°

Finally: φ = α + 45° = 87.97°


R = 41.4 kN 88.0°

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PROBLEM 2.21
Determine the x and y components of each of the forces shown.

SOLUTION
20 kN Force:

Fx = + ( 20 kN ) cos 40°, Fx = 15.32 kN

Fy = + ( 20 kN ) sin 40°, Fy = 12.86 kN

30 kN Force:

Fx = − ( 30 kN ) cos 70°, Fx = −10.26 kN

Fy = + ( 30 kN ) sin 70°, Fy = 28.2 kN

42 kN Force:

Fx = − ( 42 kN ) cos 20°, Fx = −39.5 kN

Fy = + ( 42 kN ) sin 20°, Fy = 14.36 kN

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PROBLEM 2.22
Determine the x and y components of each of the forces shown.

SOLUTION

40 lb Force:

Fx = − ( 40 lb ) sin 50°, Fx = −30.6 lb

Fy = − ( 40 lb ) cos 50°, Fy = −25.7 lb

60 lb Force:

Fx = + ( 60 lb ) cos 60°, Fx = 30.0 lb

Fy = − ( 60 lb ) sin 60°, Fy = −52.0 lb

80 lb Force:

Fx = + ( 80 lb ) cos 25°, Fx = 72.5 lb

Fy = + ( 80 lb ) sin 25°, Fy = 33.8 lb

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PROBLEM 2.23
Determine the x and y components of each of the forces shown.

SOLUTION

We compute the following distances:

OA = ( 48)2 + ( 90 )2 = 102 in.

OB = ( 56 )2 + ( 90 )2 = 106 in.

OC = (80 )2 + ( 60 )2 = 100 in.

Then:

204 lb Force:

48
Fx = − (102 lb ) , Fx = −48.0 lb
102

90
Fy = + (102 lb ) , Fy = 90.0 lb
102

212 lb Force:

56
Fx = + ( 212 lb ) , Fx = 112.0 lb
106

90
Fy = + ( 212 lb ) , Fy = 180.0 lb
106

400 lb Force:

80
Fx = − ( 400 lb ) , Fx = −320 lb
100

60
Fy = − ( 400 lb ) , Fy = −240 lb
100

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PROBLEM 2.24
Determine the x and y components of each of the forces shown.

SOLUTION

We compute the following distances:

OA = ( 70 )2 + ( 240 )2 = 250 mm

OB = ( 210 )2 + ( 200 )2 = 290 mm

OC = (120 )2 + ( 225)2 = 255 mm

500 N Force:
 70 
Fx = −500 N   Fx = −140.0 N
 250 

 240 
Fy = +500 N   Fy = 480 N
 250 
435 N Force:
 210 
Fx = +435 N   Fx = 315 N
 290 

 200 
Fy = +435 N   Fy = 300 N
 290 
510 N Force:
 120 
Fx = +510 N   Fx = 240 N
 255 

 225 
Fy = −510 N   Fy = −450 N
 255 

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PROBLEM 2.25
While emptying a wheelbarrow, a gardener exerts on each handle AB a
force P directed along line CD. Knowing that P must have a 135-N
horizontal component, determine (a) the magnitude of the force P, (b) its
vertical component.

SOLUTION

Px
(a) P=
cos 40°

135 N
=
cos 40°

or P = 176.2 N

(b) Py = Px tan 40° = P sin 40°

= (135 N ) tan 40°

or Py = 113.3 N

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