Chapter 5
The Relational Data Model and Relational Database Constraints

Relational Model Concepts
Domains, Attributes, Tuples, and Relations Characteristics of Relations Relational Model Notation

Elmasri and Navathe, Fundamentals of Database Systems, Fourth Edition Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc.

Slide 16-3

Relational Model Constraints and Relational Database Schemas
Domain Constraints Key Constraints and Constraints on Null Values Relational Databases and Relational Database Schemas Entity Integrity, Referential Integrity, and Foreign Keys Other Types of Constraints
Elmasri and Navathe, Fundamentals of Database Systems, Fourth Edition Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc.

Slide 16-4

Update Operations and Dealing with Constraint Violations
The Insert Operation The Delete Operation The Update Operation

Elmasri and Navathe, Fundamentals of Database Systems, Fourth Edition Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc.

Slide 16-5

Summary

Elmasri and Navathe, Fundamentals of Database Systems, Fourth Edition Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc.

Slide 16-6

Chapter 6
The Relational Algebra and Relational Calculus

Unary Relational Operations: SELECT and PROJECT
The SELECT Operation The PROJECT Operation Sequences of Operations and the RENAME Operation

Elmasri and Navathe, Fundamentals of Database Systems, Fourth Edition Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc.

Slide 16-8

Relational Algebra Operations from Set Theory
The UNION, INTERSECTION, and MINUS Operations The CARTESIAN PRODUCT (or CROSS PRODUCT) Operation

Elmasri and Navathe, Fundamentals of Database Systems, Fourth Edition Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc.

Slide 16-9

Binary Relational Operations: JOIN and DIVISION
The JOIN Operation The EQUIJOIN and NATURAL JOIN Variations of JOIN A Complete Set of Relational Algebra Operations The DIVISION Operation

Elmasri and Navathe, Fundamentals of Database Systems, Fourth Edition Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc.

Slide 16-10

Aggregate Functions and Grouping Recursive Closure Operations OUTER JOIN Operations The OUTER JOIN Operation

Elmasri and Navathe, Fundamentals of Database Systems, Fourth Edition Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc.

Slide 16-11

Examples of Queries in Relational Algebra

Elmasri and Navathe, Fundamentals of Database Systems, Fourth Edition Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc.

Slide 16-12

The Tuple Relational Calculus
Tuple Variables and Range Relations Expressions and Formulas in Tuple Relational Calculus The Existential and Universal Quantifiers Example Queries Using the Existential Quantifier Transforming the Universal and Existential Quantifiers Using the Universal Quantifier Safe Expressions
Elmasri and Navathe, Fundamentals of Database Systems, Fourth Edition Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc.

Slide 16-13

The Domain Relational Calculus

Elmasri and Navathe, Fundamentals of Database Systems, Fourth Edition Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc.

Slide 16-14

Summary

Elmasri and Navathe, Fundamentals of Database Systems, Fourth Edition Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc.

Slide 16-15

Chapter 7
Relational Database Design by ER- and EERto-Relational Mapping

Relational Database Design Using ER-to-Relational Mapping
ER-to-Relational Mapping Algorithm Discussion and Summary of Mapping for Model Constructs

Elmasri and Navathe, Fundamentals of Database Systems, Fourth Edition Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc.

Slide 16-17

Mapping EER Model Constructs to Relations
Mapping of Specialization of Generalization Mapping of Shared Subclasses (Multiple Inheritance) Mapping of Categories (Union Types)

Elmasri and Navathe, Fundamentals of Database Systems, Fourth Edition Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc.

Slide 16-18

Summary

Elmasri and Navathe, Fundamentals of Database Systems, Fourth Edition Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc.

Slide 16-19

Chapter 8
SQL-99: Schema Definition, Basic Constraints, and Queries

SQL Data Definition and Data Types
Schema and Catalog Concepts in SQL The CREATE TABLE Command in SQL Attribute Data Types and Domains in SQL

Elmasri and Navathe, Fundamentals of Database Systems, Fourth Edition Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc.

Slide 16-21

Specifying Basic Constraints in SQL
Specifying Attribute Constraints and Attribute Defaults Specifying Key and Referential Integrity Constraints Giving Names to Constraints Specifying Constraints on Tuples Using CHECK
Elmasri and Navathe, Fundamentals of Database Systems, Fourth Edition Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc.

Slide 16-22

Schema Change Statements in SQL
The DROP Command The ALTER Command

Elmasri and Navathe, Fundamentals of Database Systems, Fourth Edition Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc.

Slide 16-23

Basic Queries in SQL
The SELECT-FROM-WHERE Structure of Basic SQL Queries Ambiguous Attribute Names, Aliasing, and Tuple Variables Unspecified WHERE Clause and Use of the Asterisk Tables as Sets in SQL Substring Pattern Matching and Arithmetic Operators Ordering of Query Results
Elmasri and Navathe, Fundamentals of Database Systems, Fourth Edition Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc.

Slide 16-24

More Complex SQL Queries
Comparisons Involving NULL and Three-Valued Logic Nested Queries, Tuples, and Set/Multiset Comparisions Correlated Nested Queries The EXISTS and UNIQUE Functions in SQL Explicit Sets and Renaming of Attributes in SQL Joined Tables in SQL Aggregate Functions in SQL Grouping: The GROUP BY and HAVING Clauses Discussion and Summary of SQL Queries
Elmasri and Navathe, Fundamentals of Database Systems, Fourth Edition Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc.

Slide 16-25

Insert, Delete, and Update Statements in SQL
The INSERT Command The DELETE Command The UPDATE Command

Elmasri and Navathe, Fundamentals of Database Systems, Fourth Edition Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc.

Slide 16-26

Elmasri and Navathe, Fundamentals of Database Systems, Fourth Edition Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc.

Slide 16-27

Summary

Elmasri and Navathe, Fundamentals of Database Systems, Fourth Edition Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc.

Slide 16-28

Chapter 9
More SQL: Assertions, Views, and Programming Techniques

Specifying General Constraints as Assertions

Elmasri and Navathe, Fundamentals of Database Systems, Fourth Edition Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc.

Slide 16-30

Views (Virtual Tables) in SQL
Concept of a View in SQL Specification of Views in SQL View Implementation and View Update

Elmasri and Navathe, Fundamentals of Database Systems, Fourth Edition Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc.

Slide 16-31

Database Programming: Issues and Techniques
Approaches to Database Programming Impedence Mismatch Typical Sequence of Interaction in Database Programming

Elmasri and Navathe, Fundamentals of Database Systems, Fourth Edition Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc.

Slide 16-32

Embedded SQL, Dynamic SQL, and SQLJ
Retrieving Single Tuples with Embedded SQL Retrieving Multiple Tuples with Embedded SQL Using Cursors Specifying Queries at Runtime Using Dynamic SQL SQLJ: Embedding SQL Commands in JAVA Retrieving Multiple Tuples in SQLJ Using Iterators
Elmasri and Navathe, Fundamentals of Database Systems, Fourth Edition Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc.

Slide 16-33

Database Programming with SQL/CLI Using C as the Host Language JDBC: SQL Function Calls for JAVA Programming

Database Programming with Function Calls: SQL/CLI and JDBC

Elmasri and Navathe, Fundamentals of Database Systems, Fourth Edition Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc.

Slide 16-34

Database Stored Procedures and SQL/PSM
Database Stored Procedures and Functions SQL/PSM: Extending SQL for Specifying Persistent Stored Modules

Elmasri and Navathe, Fundamentals of Database Systems, Fourth Edition Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc.

Slide 16-35

Summary

Elmasri and Navathe, Fundamentals of Database Systems, Fourth Edition Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc.

Slide 16-36

Chapter 10
Functional Dependencies and Normalization for Relational Databases

Informal Design Guidelines for Relation Schema
Semantics of the Relation Attributes Redundant Information in Tuples and Update Anomalies Null Values in Tuples Generation of Spurious Tuples Summary and Discussion of Design Guidelines
Elmasri and Navathe, Fundamentals of Database Systems, Fourth Edition Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc.

Slide 16-38

Functional Dependencies
Definition of Functional Dependency Inference Rules for Functional Dependencies Equivalence of Sets of Functional Dependencies Minimal Sets of Functional Dependencies

Elmasri and Navathe, Fundamentals of Database Systems, Fourth Edition Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc.

Slide 16-39

Normal Forms Based on Primary Keys
Normalization of Relations Practical Use of Normal Forms Definition of Keys and Attributes Participating in Keys First Normal Form Second Normal Form Third Normal Form
Elmasri and Navathe, Fundamentals of Database Systems, Fourth Edition Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc.

Slide 16-40

General Definitions of Second and Third Normal Forms
General Definition of Second Normal Form General Definition of Third Normal Form Interpreting the General Definition of Third Normal Form

Elmasri and Navathe, Fundamentals of Database Systems, Fourth Edition Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc.

Slide 16-41

Boyce-Codd Normal

Elmasri and Navathe, Fundamentals of Database Systems, Fourth Edition Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc.

Slide 16-42

Summary

Elmasri and Navathe, Fundamentals of Database Systems, Fourth Edition Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc.

Slide 16-43

Chapter 11
Relational Database Design Algorithms and Further Dependencies

Properties of Relational Decompositions
Relation Decomposition and Insufficiency of Normal Forms Dependency Preservation Property of a Decomposition Lossless (Nonadditive) Join Property of a Decomposition Testing Binary Decomposition for the Nonadditive Join Property Successive Lossless (Nonadditive) Join Decompositions
Elmasri and Navathe, Fundamentals of Database Systems, Fourth Edition Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc.

Slide 16-45

Algorithms for Relational Database Schema Design
Dependency-Preserving Decomposition into 3NF Schemas Lossless (Nonadditive) Join Decomposition into BCNF Schemas Dependency-Preserving and Nonadditive (Lossless) Join Decomposition into 3NF Schemas Problems with Null Values and Dangling Tuples Discussion of Normalization Algorithms
Elmasri and Navathe, Fundamentals of Database Systems, Fourth Edition Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc.

Slide 16-46

Multivalued Dependencies and Fourth Normal Form
Formal Definition of Multivalued Dependency Inference Rules for Functional and Multivalued Dependencies Fourth Normal Form Lossless (Nonadditive) Join Decomposition into 4NF Relations
Elmasri and Navathe, Fundamentals of Database Systems, Fourth Edition Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc.

Slide 16-47

Join Dependencies and Fifth Normal Form

Elmasri and Navathe, Fundamentals of Database Systems, Fourth Edition Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc.

Slide 16-48

Inclusion Dependencies

Elmasri and Navathe, Fundamentals of Database Systems, Fourth Edition Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc.

Slide 16-49

Other Dependencies and Normal Forms
Template Dependencies Domain-Key Normal Form

Elmasri and Navathe, Fundamentals of Database Systems, Fourth Edition Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc.

Slide 16-50

Summary

Elmasri and Navathe, Fundamentals of Database Systems, Fourth Edition Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc.

Slide 16-51

Chapter 12
Practical Database Design Methodology and Use of UML Diagrams

The Role of Information Systems in Organizations
The Organizational Context for Using Database Systems The Information System Life Cycle The Database Application System Life Cycle

Elmasri and Navathe, Fundamentals of Database Systems, Fourth Edition Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc.

Slide 16-53

The Database Design and Implementation Process
Phase 1: Requirements Collection and Analysis Phase 2: Conceptual Database Design Phase 3: Choice of DBMS Phase 4: Data Model Mapping (Logical Database Design) Phase 5: Physical Database Design Phase 6: Database System Implementation and Tuning
Elmasri and Navathe, Fundamentals of Database Systems, Fourth Edition Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc.

Slide 16-54

Use of UML Diagrams as an Aid to Database Design Specification
UML As a Design Specification Standard UML for Database Application Design Different Diagrams in UML A Modeling and Design Example: University Database

Elmasri and Navathe, Fundamentals of Database Systems, Fourth Edition Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc.

Slide 16-55

Relational Rose, A UML Based Design Tool
Relational Rose for Database Design Relational Rose Data Modeler Data Modeling Using Rational Rose Data Modeler

Elmasri and Navathe, Fundamentals of Database Systems, Fourth Edition Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc.

Slide 16-56

Automated Database Design Tools

Elmasri and Navathe, Fundamentals of Database Systems, Fourth Edition Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc.

Slide 16-57

Summary

Elmasri and Navathe, Fundamentals of Database Systems, Fourth Edition Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc.

Slide 16-58

Chapter 13
Disk Storage, Basic File Structures, and Hashing

Introduction
Memory Hierarchies and Storage Devices Storage of Databases

Elmasri and Navathe, Fundamentals of Database Systems, Fourth Edition Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc.

Slide 16-60

Secondary Storage Devices
Hardware Description of Disk Devices Magnetic Tape Storage Devices

Elmasri and Navathe, Fundamentals of Database Systems, Fourth Edition Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc.

Slide 16-61

Buffering Blocks

Elmasri and Navathe, Fundamentals of Database Systems, Fourth Edition Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc.

Slide 16-62

Placing File Records on Disk
Records and Record Types Files, Fixed-Length Records, and VariableLength Records Record Blocking and Spanned Versus Unspanned Records Allocating File Blocks on Disk File Headers
Elmasri and Navathe, Fundamentals of Database Systems, Fourth Edition Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc.

Slide 16-63

Operations on Files

Elmasri and Navathe, Fundamentals of Database Systems, Fourth Edition Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc.

Slide 16-64

Files of Unordered Records (Heap Files)

Elmasri and Navathe, Fundamentals of Database Systems, Fourth Edition Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc.

Slide 16-65

Files of Ordered Records (Sorted Files)

Elmasri and Navathe, Fundamentals of Database Systems, Fourth Edition Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc.

Slide 16-66

Hashing Techniques
Internal Hashing External Hashing for Disk Files Hashing Techniques That Allow Dynamic File Expansion

Elmasri and Navathe, Fundamentals of Database Systems, Fourth Edition Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc.

Slide 16-67

Other Primary File Organizations
Files of Mixed Records B-Trees and Other Data Structures as Primary Organization

Elmasri and Navathe, Fundamentals of Database Systems, Fourth Edition Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc.

Slide 16-68

Parallelizing Disk Access Using RAID Technology
Improving Reliability with RAID Improving Performance with RAID RAID Organizations and Levels

Elmasri and Navathe, Fundamentals of Database Systems, Fourth Edition Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc.

Slide 16-69

Storage Area Networks

Elmasri and Navathe, Fundamentals of Database Systems, Fourth Edition Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc.

Slide 16-70

Summary

Elmasri and Navathe, Fundamentals of Database Systems, Fourth Edition Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc.

Slide 16-71

Chapter 14
Indexing Structures for Files

Types of Single-Level Ordered Indexes
Primary Indexes Clustering Indexes Secondary Indexes Summary

Elmasri and Navathe, Fundamentals of Database Systems, Fourth Edition Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc.

Slide 16-73

Multilevel Indexes

Elmasri and Navathe, Fundamentals of Database Systems, Fourth Edition Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc.

Slide 16-74

Dynamic Multilevel Indexes Using B-Trees and B+-Trees
Search Trees and B-Trees B+-Trees

Elmasri and Navathe, Fundamentals of Database Systems, Fourth Edition Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc.

Slide 16-75

Indexes on Multiple Keys
Ordered Index on Multiple Attributes Partitioned Hashing Grid Files

Elmasri and Navathe, Fundamentals of Database Systems, Fourth Edition Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc.

Slide 16-76

Other Types of Indexes
Using Hashing and Other Data Structures as Indexes Logical versus Physical Indexes Discussion

Elmasri and Navathe, Fundamentals of Database Systems, Fourth Edition Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc.

Slide 16-77

Summary

Elmasri and Navathe, Fundamentals of Database Systems, Fourth Edition Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc.

Slide 16-78

Chapter 15
Algorithms for Query Processing and Optimization

Translating SQL Queries into Relational Algebra

Elmasri and Navathe, Fundamentals of Database Systems, Fourth Edition Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc.

Slide 16-80

Algorithms for External Sorting

Elmasri and Navathe, Fundamentals of Database Systems, Fourth Edition Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc.

Slide 16-81

Algorithms for SELECT and JOIN Operations
Implementing the SELECT Operation Implementing the JOIN Operation

Elmasri and Navathe, Fundamentals of Database Systems, Fourth Edition Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc.

Slide 16-82

Algorithms for PROJECT and SET Operations

Elmasri and Navathe, Fundamentals of Database Systems, Fourth Edition Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc.

Slide 16-83

Implementing Aggregate Operations and Outer Joins
Implementing Aggregate Operations Implementing Outer Join

Elmasri and Navathe, Fundamentals of Database Systems, Fourth Edition Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc.

Slide 16-84

Combining Operations Using Pipelining

Elmasri and Navathe, Fundamentals of Database Systems, Fourth Edition Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc.

Slide 16-85

Using Heuristics in Query Optimization
Notation for Query Trees and Query Graphs Heuristic Optimization of Query Trees Converting Query Trees into Query Execution Plans

Elmasri and Navathe, Fundamentals of Database Systems, Fourth Edition Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc.

Slide 16-86

Using Selectivity and Cost Estimates in Query Optimization
Cost Components for Query Execution Catalog Information Used in Cost Functions Examples of Cost Functions for SELECT Examples of Cost Functions for JOIN Multiple Relation Queries and Join Ordering Examples to Illustrate Cost-Based Query Optimization
Elmasri and Navathe, Fundamentals of Database Systems, Fourth Edition Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc.

Slide 16-87

Overview of Query Optimization in Oracle

Elmasri and Navathe, Fundamentals of Database Systems, Fourth Edition Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc.

Slide 16-88

Semantic Query Optimization

Elmasri and Navathe, Fundamentals of Database Systems, Fourth Edition Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc.

Slide 16-89

Summary

Elmasri and Navathe, Fundamentals of Database Systems, Fourth Edition Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc.

Slide 16-90

Chapter 16
Practical Database Design and Tuning

Factors That Influence Physical Database Design Physical Database Design Decisions

Elmasri and Navathe, Fundamentals of Database Systems, Fourth Edition Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc.

Slide 16-92

An Overview of Database Tuning in Relational Systems
Tuning Indexes Tuning the Database Design Tuning Queries Additional Query Tuning Guidelines

Elmasri and Navathe, Fundamentals of Database Systems, Fourth Edition Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc.

Slide 16-93

Summary

Elmasri and Navathe, Fundamentals of Database Systems, Fourth Edition Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc.

Slide 16-94

Chapter 17
Introduction to Transaction Processing Concepts and Theory

Introduction to Transaction Processing
Single-User Versus Multiuser Systems Transactions, Read and Write Operations, and DBMS Buffers Why Concurrency Control Is Needed Why Recovery Is Needed

Elmasri and Navathe, Fundamentals of Database Systems, Fourth Edition Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc.

Slide 16-96

Transaction and System Concepts
Transaction States and Additional Operations The System Log Commet Point of a Transaction

Elmasri and Navathe, Fundamentals of Database Systems, Fourth Edition Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc.

Slide 16-97

Desirable Properties of Transactions

Elmasri and Navathe, Fundamentals of Database Systems, Fourth Edition Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc.

Slide 16-98

Characterizing Schedules Based on Recoverability
Schedules (Histories) of Transactions Characterizing Schedules Base on Recoverability

Elmasri and Navathe, Fundamentals of Database Systems, Fourth Edition Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc.

Slide 16-99

Characterizing Schedules Based on Serializability
Serial, Nonserial, and Conflict-Serializable Schedules Testing for Conflict Serializability of a Schedule Uses of Serializability View Equivalence and View Serializability Other Types of Equivalence of Schedules
Elmasri and Navathe, Fundamentals of Database Systems, Fourth Edition Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc.

Slide 16-100

Transaction Support in SQL

Elmasri and Navathe, Fundamentals of Database Systems, Fourth Edition Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc.

Slide 16-101

Summary

Elmasri and Navathe, Fundamentals of Database Systems, Fourth Edition Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc.

Slide 16-102

Chapter 18
Concurrency Control Techniques

Two-Phase Locking Techniques for Concurrency Control
Types of Locks and System Lock Tables Guaranteeing Serializability by Two-Phase Locking Dealing with Deadlock and Starvation

Elmasri and Navathe, Fundamentals of Database Systems, Fourth Edition Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc.

Slide 16-104

Concurrency Control Based on Timestamp Ordering
Timestamps The Timestamp Ordering Algorithm

Elmasri and Navathe, Fundamentals of Database Systems, Fourth Edition Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc.

Slide 16-105

Multiversion Concurrency Control Techniques
Multiversion Techniques Based on Timestamp Ordering Multiversion Two-Phase Locking Using Certify Locks

Elmasri and Navathe, Fundamentals of Database Systems, Fourth Edition Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc.

Slide 16-106

Validation (Optimistic) Concurrency Control Techniques

Elmasri and Navathe, Fundamentals of Database Systems, Fourth Edition Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc.

Slide 16-107

Granularity of Data Items and Multiple Granularity Locking
Granularity Level Considerations for Locking Multiple Granularity Level Locking

Elmasri and Navathe, Fundamentals of Database Systems, Fourth Edition Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc.

Slide 16-108

Using Locks for Concurrency Control in Indexes

Elmasri and Navathe, Fundamentals of Database Systems, Fourth Edition Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc.

Slide 16-109

Other Concurrency Control Issues
Insertion, Deletion, and Phantom Records Interactive Transactions Latches

Elmasri and Navathe, Fundamentals of Database Systems, Fourth Edition Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc.

Slide 16-110

Summary

Elmasri and Navathe, Fundamentals of Database Systems, Fourth Edition Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc.

Slide 16-111

Chapter 19
Database Recovery Techniques

Recovery Concepts
Recovery Outline and Categorization of Recovery Algorithms Caching (Buffering) of Disk Blocks Write-Ahead Logging, Steal/No-Steal, and Force/No-Force Checkpoints in the System Log and Fuzzy Checkpointing Transaction Rollback
Elmasri and Navathe, Fundamentals of Database Systems, Fourth Edition Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc.

Slide 16-113

Recovery Techniques Based on Deferred Update
Recovery Using Deferred Update in a Single-User Environment Deferred Update with Concurrent Execution in a Multiuser Environment Transaction Actions That Do Not Affect the Database

Elmasri and Navathe, Fundamentals of Database Systems, Fourth Edition Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc.

Slide 16-114

Recovery Techniques Based on Immediate Update
UNDO/REDO Recovery Based on Immediate Update in a Single-User Environment UNDO/REDO Recovery Based on Immediate Update with Concurrent Execution

Elmasri and Navathe, Fundamentals of Database Systems, Fourth Edition Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc.

Slide 16-115

Elmasri and Navathe, Fundamentals of Database Systems, Fourth Edition Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc.

Slide 16-116

The ARIES Recovery Algorithm

Elmasri and Navathe, Fundamentals of Database Systems, Fourth Edition Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc.

Slide 16-117

Recovery in Multidatabase Systems

Elmasri and Navathe, Fundamentals of Database Systems, Fourth Edition Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc.

Slide 16-118

Database Backup and Recovery from Catastrophic Failures

Elmasri and Navathe, Fundamentals of Database Systems, Fourth Edition Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc.

Slide 16-119

Summary

Elmasri and Navathe, Fundamentals of Database Systems, Fourth Edition Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc.

Slide 16-120

Chapter 20
Concepts for Object Databases

Overview of Object-Oriented Concepts

Elmasri and Navathe, Fundamentals of Database Systems, Fourth Edition Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc.

Slide 16-122

Object Identity, Object Structure, and Type Constructors
Object Identity Object Structure Type Constructors

Elmasri and Navathe, Fundamentals of Database Systems, Fourth Edition Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc.

Slide 16-123

Encapsulation of Operations, Methods, and Persistence
Specifying Object Behavior via Class Operations Specifying Object Persistence via Naming and Reachability

Elmasri and Navathe, Fundamentals of Database Systems, Fourth Edition Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc.

Slide 16-124

Type and Class Hierarchies and Inheritance
Type Hierarchies and Inheritance Constraints on Extents Corresponding to a Type Hierarchy

Elmasri and Navathe, Fundamentals of Database Systems, Fourth Edition Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc.

Slide 16-125

Complex Objects
Unstructured Complex Objects and Type Extensibility Structured Complex Objects

Elmasri and Navathe, Fundamentals of Database Systems, Fourth Edition Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc.

Slide 16-126

Other Objected-Oriented Concepts

Elmasri and Navathe, Fundamentals of Database Systems, Fourth Edition Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc.

Slide 16-127

Summary

Elmasri and Navathe, Fundamentals of Database Systems, Fourth Edition Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc.

Slide 16-128

Chapter 21
Object Database Standards, Languages, and Design

Overview of the Object Model of ODMG
Objects and Literals Built-in Interfaces for Collection Objects Atomic (User-Defined) Objects Interfaces, Classes, and Inheritance Extents, Keys, and Factory Objects

Elmasri and Navathe, Fundamentals of Database Systems, Fourth Edition Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc.

Slide 16-130

The Object Definition Language ODL

Elmasri and Navathe, Fundamentals of Database Systems, Fourth Edition Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc.

Slide 16-131

The Object Query Language OQL
Simple OQL Queries, Database Entry Points, and Iterator Variables Query Results and Path Expressions Other Features of OQL

Elmasri and Navathe, Fundamentals of Database Systems, Fourth Edition Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc.

Slide 16-132

Overview of the C++ Language Binding

Elmasri and Navathe, Fundamentals of Database Systems, Fourth Edition Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc.

Slide 16-133

Object Database Conceptual Design
Differences Between Conceptual Design of ODB and RDB Mapping and EER Schema to an ODB Schema

Elmasri and Navathe, Fundamentals of Database Systems, Fourth Edition Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc.

Slide 16-134

Summary

Elmasri and Navathe, Fundamentals of Database Systems, Fourth Edition Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc.

Slide 16-135

Chapter 22
Object-Relational and Extended-Relational Systems

Overview of SQL and Its Object-Relational Features
The SQL Standard and Its Components Object-Relational Support in SQL-99 Some New Operations and Features in SQL

Elmasri and Navathe, Fundamentals of Database Systems, Fourth Edition Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc.

Slide 16-137

Evolution and Current Trends of Database Technology

Elmasri and Navathe, Fundamentals of Database Systems, Fourth Edition Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc.

Slide 16-138

The Informix Universal Server
Extensible Data Types Support for User-Defined Routines Support for Inheritance Support for Indexing Extensions Support for External Data Sources Support for Data Blades Application Programming Interface
Elmasri and Navathe, Fundamentals of Database Systems, Fourth Edition Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc.

Slide 16-139

Object-Relational Features of Oracle 8
Some Examples of Object-Relational Features of Oracle Managing Large Objects and Other Storage Features

Elmasri and Navathe, Fundamentals of Database Systems, Fourth Edition Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc.

Slide 16-140

Implementation and Related Issues for Extended Type Systems

Elmasri and Navathe, Fundamentals of Database Systems, Fourth Edition Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc.

Slide 16-141

The Nested Relational Model

Elmasri and Navathe, Fundamentals of Database Systems, Fourth Edition Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc.

Slide 16-142

Summary

Elmasri and Navathe, Fundamentals of Database Systems, Fourth Edition Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc.

Slide 16-143

Chapter 23
Database Security and Authorization

Introduction to Database Security Issues
Types of Security Database Security and the DBA Access Protection, User Accounts, and Database Audits

Elmasri and Navathe, Fundamentals of Database Systems, Fourth Edition Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc.

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Discretionary Access Control Based on Granting and Revoking Privileges
Types of Discretionary Privileges Specifying Privileges Using Views Revoking Privileges Propogation of Privileges Using the GRANT OPTION An Example Specifying Limits on Propagation of Privileges
Elmasri and Navathe, Fundamentals of Database Systems, Fourth Edition Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc.

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Mandatory Access Control and Role-Based Access Control for Multilevel Security
Comparing Discretionary Access Control and Mandatory Access Control Role-Based Access Control Access Control Policies for E-Commerce and the Web

Elmasri and Navathe, Fundamentals of Database Systems, Fourth Edition Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc.

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Introduction to Statistical Database Security

Elmasri and Navathe, Fundamentals of Database Systems, Fourth Edition Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc.

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Introduction to Flow Control
Covert Channels

Elmasri and Navathe, Fundamentals of Database Systems, Fourth Edition Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc.

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Encryption and Public Key Infrastructures
The Data and Advanced Encryption Standards Public Key Encryption Digital Signatures

Elmasri and Navathe, Fundamentals of Database Systems, Fourth Edition Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc.

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Summary

Elmasri and Navathe, Fundamentals of Database Systems, Fourth Edition Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc.

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Chapter 24
Enhanced Data Models for Advanced Applications

Active Database Concepts and Triggers
Generalized Model for Active Databases and Oracle Triggers Design and Implementation Issues for Active Databases Examples of Statement-Level Active Rules in STARBURST Potential Applications for Active Databases Triggers in SQL-99
Elmasri and Navathe, Fundamentals of Database Systems, Fourth Edition Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc.

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Temporal Database Concepts
Time Representation, Calendars, and Time Dimensions Incorporating Time in Relational Databases Using Tuple Versioning Incorporating Time in Object-Oriented Databases Using Attribute Versioning Temporal Querying Constructs and the TSQL2 Language Time Series Data
Elmasri and Navathe, Fundamentals of Database Systems, Fourth Edition Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc.

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Multimedia Databases
Introduction to Spatial Database Concepts Introduction to Multimedia Database Concepts

Elmasri and Navathe, Fundamentals of Database Systems, Fourth Edition Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc.

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Introduction to Deductive Databases
Overview of Deductive Databases Prolog/Datalog Notation Datalog Notation Clausal Form and Horn Clauses Interpretation of Rules Datalog Programs and Their Safety Use the Relational Operations Evaluation of Nonrecursive Datalog Queries
Elmasri and Navathe, Fundamentals of Database Systems, Fourth Edition Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc.

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Summary

Elmasri and Navathe, Fundamentals of Database Systems, Fourth Edition Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc.

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Chapter 25
Distributed Databases and Client–Server Architectures

Distributed Database Concepts
Parallel Versus Distributed Technology Advantages of Distributed Databases Additional Functions of Distributed Databases

Elmasri and Navathe, Fundamentals of Database Systems, Fourth Edition Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc.

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Data Fragmentation, Replication, and Allocation Techniques for Distributed Database Design
Data Fragmentation Data Replication and Allocation Example of Fragmentation, Allocation, and Replication

Elmasri and Navathe, Fundamentals of Database Systems, Fourth Edition Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc.

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Types of Distributed Database Systems

Elmasri and Navathe, Fundamentals of Database Systems, Fourth Edition Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc.

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Query Processing in Distributed Databases
Data Transfer Costs of Distributed Query Processing Distributed Query Processing Using Semijoin Query and Update Decomposition

Elmasri and Navathe, Fundamentals of Database Systems, Fourth Edition Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc.

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Overview of Concurrency Control and Recovery in Distributed Databases
Distributed Concurrency Control Based on a Distinguished Copy of a Data Item Distributed Concurrency Control Based on Voting Distributed Recovery

Elmasri and Navathe, Fundamentals of Database Systems, Fourth Edition Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc.

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An Overview of 3-Tier ClientServer Architecture

Elmasri and Navathe, Fundamentals of Database Systems, Fourth Edition Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc.

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Distributed Databases in Oracle

Elmasri and Navathe, Fundamentals of Database Systems, Fourth Edition Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc.

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Summary

Elmasri and Navathe, Fundamentals of Database Systems, Fourth Edition Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc.

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Chapter 26
XML and Internet Databases

XML Hierarchical (Tree) Data Model

Elmasri and Navathe, Fundamentals of Database Systems, Fourth Edition Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc.

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XLM Documents, DTD, and XML Schema
Well-Formed and Valid XML Documents and XML DTD XML Schema

Elmasri and Navathe, Fundamentals of Database Systems, Fourth Edition Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc.

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XML Documents and Databases
Approaches to Storing XML Documents Extracting XML Documents from Relational Databases Breaking Cycles to Convert Graphs into Trees Other Steps for Extracting XML Documents from Databases
Elmasri and Navathe, Fundamentals of Database Systems, Fourth Edition Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc.

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XML Query
XPath: Specifying Path Expressions in XML XQuery: Specifying Queries in XML

Elmasri and Navathe, Fundamentals of Database Systems, Fourth Edition Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc.

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Summary

Elmasri and Navathe, Fundamentals of Database Systems, Fourth Edition Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc.

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Chapter 27
Data Mining Concepts

Overview of Data Mining Technology

Elmasri and Navathe, Fundamentals of Database Systems, Fourth Edition Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc.

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Association Rules
Market-Basket Model, Support, and Confidence Apriori Algorithm Sampling Algorithm Frequent-Pattern Tree Algorithm Partition Algorithm Other Types of Association Rules Additional Considerations for Association Rules

Elmasri and Navathe, Fundamentals of Database Systems, Fourth Edition Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc.

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Classification

Elmasri and Navathe, Fundamentals of Database Systems, Fourth Edition Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc.

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Clustering

Elmasri and Navathe, Fundamentals of Database Systems, Fourth Edition Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc.

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Approaches to Other Data Mining Problems
Discovery of Sequential Patterns Discovery of Patterns in Time Series Regression Neural Networks Genetic Algorithm

Elmasri and Navathe, Fundamentals of Database Systems, Fourth Edition Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc.

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Applications of Data Mining

Elmasri and Navathe, Fundamentals of Database Systems, Fourth Edition Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc.

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Commercial Data Mining Tools

Elmasri and Navathe, Fundamentals of Database Systems, Fourth Edition Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc.

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Summary

Elmasri and Navathe, Fundamentals of Database Systems, Fourth Edition Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc.

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Chapter 28
Overview of Data Warehousing and OLAP

Introduction, Definitions, and Terminology

Elmasri and Navathe, Fundamentals of Database Systems, Fourth Edition Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc.

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Characteristics of Data Warehouses

Elmasri and Navathe, Fundamentals of Database Systems, Fourth Edition Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc.

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Data Modeling for Data Warehouses

Elmasri and Navathe, Fundamentals of Database Systems, Fourth Edition Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc.

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Building a Data Warehouse

Elmasri and Navathe, Fundamentals of Database Systems, Fourth Edition Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc.

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Typical Functionality of a Data Warehouse

Elmasri and Navathe, Fundamentals of Database Systems, Fourth Edition Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc.

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Data Warehouse Versus Views

Elmasri and Navathe, Fundamentals of Database Systems, Fourth Edition Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc.

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Problems and Open Issues in Data Warehouses
Difficulties of Implementing Data Warehouses Open Issues in Data Warehousing

Elmasri and Navathe, Fundamentals of Database Systems, Fourth Edition Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc.

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Summary

Elmasri and Navathe, Fundamentals of Database Systems, Fourth Edition Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc.

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Chapter 29
Emerging Database Technologies and Applications

Mobil Databases
Mobil Computing Architectures Characteristics of Mobile Environments Data Management Issues Application: Intermittently Synchronized Databases Selected Bibliography for Mobil Databases

Elmasri and Navathe, Fundamentals of Database Systems, Fourth Edition Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc.

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Multimedia Databases
The Nature of Multimedia Data and Applications Data Management Issues Open Research Problems Multimedia Database Applications Selected Bibliography on Multimedia Databases
Elmasri and Navathe, Fundamentals of Database Systems, Fourth Edition Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc.

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Geographic Information Systems
GIS Applications Data Management Requirements lof GIS Specific GIS Data Operations An Example of a GIS Software: ARCINFO Problems and Future Issues in GIS Selected Bibliography for GIS
Elmasri and Navathe, Fundamentals of Database Systems, Fourth Edition Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc.

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Genome Data Management
Biological Sciences and Genetics Characteristics of Biological Data The Human Genome Project and Existing Biological Databases Selected Bibliography for Genome Databases

Elmasri and Navathe, Fundamentals of Database Systems, Fourth Edition Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc.

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Appendix A
Alternative Diagrammatic Notations for ER Models