You are on page 1of 7

Thermochemistry calculations with fH data only

Calculate the enthalpy change, rH for the decomposition of sodium chlorate.


NaClO3(s)

NaCl(s) + 3/2O2(g)

fH (NaClO3(s))= 359 kJ mol1.


fH (NaCl(s)) = 411 kJ mol-1.

rH = -52 kJmol-1
2. Calculate the theoretical value for cHo(C2H5OH, ) using the data below.
C2H5OH() + 3O2(g)
fH (CO2, g) = 393 kJ mol1

2CO2(g) + 3H2O()
fH (C2H5OH, ) = 277 kJ mol1

fH (H2O, ) = 286 kJ mol1

cH = -1367 kJmol-1
3. Barium nitrate is one of the components of sparklers. The standard enthalpy of formation ( fH) of
solid barium nitrate, Ba(NO3)2, is 992 kJ mol1.
Write the balanced equation for the reaction that gives the enthalpy of formation of Ba(NO 3)2. In
clude the state of each species in this reaction.
Ba(s) + N2 (g) + 3 O2 (g)

(b)

Ba(NO3)2 (S)

The reaction that occurs when sparklers burn is:


10Al(s) + 3Ba(NO3)2(s)

3BaO(s) + 3N2(g) + 5Al2O3(s)

Calculate the enthalpy change for this reaction using the data given below.

Compound

fH (kJ mol1)

Ba(NO3)2(s)

992

BaO(s)

554

Al2O3(s)

1676

RH = -7066 kJmol-1

4. Calculate fH(C2H5OH, ) using the following data.


cH(C2H5OH, )

= 1367 kJ mol1

fH(CO2, g)

394 kJ mol1

fH(H2O, )

286 kJ mol1

cH = -279 kJmol-1

5.

Zn (s) + 1/2 O2

(g)

rH = -890 kJmol-1

6.

rH = -1369 kJmol-1

7. rH

= -5476 kJmol-1

ZnO(s)

Thermochemistry calculations with mixed data (Hesss Law)


1. Calculate the enthalpy change for the oxidation of ammonia.
4NH3(g) + 5O2(g)

6H2O(g) + 4NO(g)

given:
N2(g) + 3H2(g)

2NH3(g) H = 92 kJ mol1

2H2(g) + O2(g)

2H2O(g) H = 484 kJ mol1

N2(g) + O2(g)

2NO(g)

H = +180 kJ mol1

H = - 908 kJmol-1
2. Find fH (C2H5OH, g) given the following data:
vapH (C2H5OH)

392 kJ mol1

cH (C2H5OH, l)

1327 kJ mol1

cH (C, graphite)

394 kJ mol1

fH (H2O, g)

245 kJ mol1

H = - 156.8 kJmol-1
3 (a) Write the equation for the heat of formation of methanol
(b) Calculate the heat of formation of methanol given
fH(CO2(g)) = 3935 kJmol1 fH(H2O(l)) = 2558 kJmol1 cH (CH3OH(l)) = 7150 kJ mol1

H = - 190.1 kJmol-1
4. State what is meant by the term standard enthalpy of formation.

(b)

Write the equation for the formation of 1 mol of ammonia.

Calculate the standard enthalpy of formation of gaseous ammonia, given the following infor
mation:
2NH3(g) + 1O2(g)
6H2(g) + 3O2(g)

H = - 46 kJmol-1

3H2O(g) + N2(g)
6H2O(g)

H = 634 kJ mol1
H = 1452 kJ mol1

5. Calculate rH for the reaction 2Ga(s) + 3H2(g)

Ga2H6(g)

H = +112 kJmol-1

given the following reactions:


2Ga(s) + 1O2(g)

Ga2O3(s)

rH = 1188 kJmol1

Ga2H6(g) + 3O2(g)

Ga2O3(s) + 3H2O(l)

rH = 2158 kJmol1

H2(g) + O2(g)
H2O(l)

rH = 242 kJmol1

H2O(g)

vapH = +44 kJmol1

H2O(g)

6. A reaction of sulfur dioxide is shown below


SO2(g)

2H2S(g)

3S(s)

2H2O(g)

Calculate the enthalpy change for this reaction, rH, using the information below.
S(s) +
H2(g) +
H2(g) +
H2O(l)

O2(g)
S(s)
O2(g)
H2O(g)

rH = 279 kJ mol1
rH = 202 kJ mol1
rH = 286 kJ mol1
vapH= +41 kJ mol1

SO2(g)
H2S(g)
H2O(l)

H = - 171.6 kJmol-1
7. In New Zealand ammonia is used in the manufacture of the fertiliser urea, CO(NH 2)2.
2NH3(g)

CO2(g)

CO(NH2)2(s) + H2O(g)

Calculate the enthalpy change for this reaction using the following information:
CO(g) +

H2O(g)

CO2(g)

C(s) + O2(g) + N2(g) + 2H2(g)


N2(g)
C(s)

+ 1H2(g)

+ O2(g)

NH3(g)
CO(g)

H = +5 kJmol-1
8.

H = +58kJmol-1

H2(g)

rHo = 41 kJ mol1

CO(NH2)2(s)

rHo = 239 kJ mol1

rHo = 46 kJ mol1
rHo = 111 kJ mol1

Thermochemistry calculations with experimental data (specific heat capacity)


1. A simple calorimeter was used in the lab to determine the cH(CH3OH(l))
(i)

Write an equation for the reaction represented by cH (CH3OH(l))

(ii)

A diagram of the colorimeter is shown on the right (with


150mL of water).

insulation

When 05 g of methanol was burned in the spirit burner, the


temperature of the water increased from 18 C to 32 C.

150 mL water

Calculate the experimental value of cH (CH3OH(l))

methanol flame

M(CH3OH(l))

= 32 g mol1

Specific heat capacity of water = 418 J g1 C1


methanol

Given that H = mcT

H = -561 kJmol-1
2. A laboratory technician adds 431 mL of 116 mol L1 hydrochloric acid to water to form 500 mL of solu
tion. The temperature of the solution rises 26 C.
(i)

Calculate the enthalpy change for the reaction


c(H2O) = 418 J g1 C1

(ii)

Q = 5434 J

Calculate rH for dissolving one mole of the hydrochloric acid in water.

H = -10.9 kJmol-1

3. 900 g of finely powdered potassium chloride crystals were dissolved in 500 mL of water.
The temperature decreased by 110 C.
Calculate the enthalpy change for the dissolving of potassium chloride.
Specific heat capacity of water = 418 J g1 C1
M(KCl) = 746 g mol1

H = 19.1 kJmol-1

4.

Q = 10.659 kJ
n = 4.65 x 10-3 mol
H = -2292kJmol-1
5.

Answer: Heat is lost to the surroundings in the experiment. This difference could be minimised by insu
lating the container or surrounding the experiment with reflective tin foil etc.

6.

Q = 1.3585 kJ
n = 0.025 mol
H = -54.3 kJmol-1

(i)

fusH = H2O (s) H2O (l)

vapH = H2O (l) H2O (g)

vapH is greater than fusH because fusion relates to the melting point. At this point the
particles (molecules in this case) are being loosenedthe WIF between molecules do not
bind the molecules tightly into a lattice anymore, instead the molecules have gained
enough kinetic energy to be in a liquid form. Vaporisation relates to boiling point, at this
point the WIF (H-bonds, pd-pd and td-td) are being completely broken to allow the mole
cules to enter the gas phase with NO bonds between particles. Breaking bonds requires
more energy than loosening bonds, hence vapH is greater than fusH .