You are on page 1of 24

Form: "*Subject-Specific Pedagogy - Multiple Subject"

Created with: Taskstream


Author: Benjamin Rodriguez
Date submitted: 03/07/2016 8:27 pm (PDT)

Before beginning this task, read the complete


directions provided in the CTC TPA Candidate
Handbook.
Case Study 1: Subject-Specific and DevelopmentallyAppropriate Pedagogy
A. Contextual Information for Case Study 1
1. Elements of a Learning Experience in a Unit
Grade: Third
Content Area: Language Arts
Subject Matter: Reading and writing
Time Period for the Learning Experience: Two 30-minute sessions in two consecutive days
State-adopted Academic Content Standards for Students
Reading: Comprehension and Analysis of Grade-Level Appropriate Text
2.5 Distinguish the main idea and supporting details in expository text
Writing: Organization and Focus
1.1 Create a single paragraph:
a. Develop a topic sentence
b. Include simple supporting facts and details
Learning Goals for the Learning Experience
Students will be able to do the following with a focus on reading and writing:

Identify the main idea of an expository text


Identify three supporting details from the expository text
Summarize the expository text using the main idea and three supporting details in
one paragraph

Instructional Resources Available


Age-appropriate expository text and writing journals

2. Class Description
Students are in a self-contained third grade class. The school is located in a middle-level,
socio-economic community. It is the middle of the academic year. Most of the students are
eight years old. They particularly need opportunities to learn content in different ways and

to revisit content. Many of the students enjoy the school environment and like to socialize
with each other. Most of the students are active in after-school activities, including sports,
clubs, tutoring, and other community activities, which leaves little time for homework.

3. Developmental Needs of the Students in Grade 3

Experience a structured day


Develop age appropriate literacy skills
Participate in hands-on experience

B. Questions for Case Study 1:


1.
Given the contextual information for Case Study 1, think about a lesson you might
use with these students that addresses the subject matter learning goals and the
developmental needs of the students described. In the columns below describe:
o
o
o

Instructional strategies
Student activities
Instructional resources

Note: Instructional strategies are what the teacher does during instruction and
student activities are what the students do during the lesson. Include how you would
use the instructional resources as you describe your strategies and student activities.

(REQUIRED) 1a. and 1b.


Instructional Strategies

4. I would begin the lesson by saying, 'Today


we are going to explore the world of
writing. Our mission in this exploration is
to find 'the topic sentence' and 'supporting
details'. What is a topic sentence. Think
about it'" Teacher has students share with
their partner.
5. Teacher uses attention getter and takes
responses. Teacher says, 'A topic sentence
is the main idea of your story. We are
going to focus on a short paragraph for
now.'
6. Teacher says, 'If the topic sentence is the
main idea of a paragraph, then what are the
other sentences? Think about it'' Teacher
repeats the question and has them share

Student Activities

18. Students will have an opportunity to


discuss briefly with their neighbor what
they remember or think a topic sentence is.
19. Students participate in a sharing their
responses from the discussion and in a call
and response that clarifies the definition of
a topic sentence.
20. Students think-pair-share and discuss the
function of the remaining sentences in a
paragraph.
21. Students will share with the group the ideas
discussed in their think-pair-share and then
tell their neighbor the other sentences
support the main idea when instructed by
the teacher.
22. Student receive a copy of 5 sentences. One

7.

8.

9.

10.

11.

with partner.
Teacher uses attention getter, and take a
few responses from the student. 'If the topic
sentence is the main idea, then the other
sentence must be supporting ideas or
details about the topic. Tell your neighbor,
'the other sentences support the main idea.''
Teacher waits for the response and
23.
continues.
Teacher displays and distributes 5
sentences about the U.S. flag. Teacher has
the students independently read the
24.
paragraph to themselves then together as a
class. Teacher discusses with class which
25.
sentence is topic and which are supporting.
Teacher has students share with each other.
Teacher indicates the main sentence by
Day 2
underlining and labeling the main idea on
26.
the board and has the students do the same
on their paper. Teacher has students reread
the paragraph and circle supporting words
27.
about the main idea.
Teacher circulates to assess and support.
Teacher takes responses about the
28.
supporting words and sentences. Teacher
draws and fills in a bubble map and
29.
instructs students to do the same on their
paper.
30.
Teacher instructs students to paste the
paper in their journals.
31.

Day 2
12. Teacher instructs the students to take out
their journals and turn to the US Flag
paragraph. Teacher reviews the details of a
topic sentence and supporting sentence.
Teacher says and has statement projected
or written on the board:
'Select a person of interest in your life and write a 5
sentence paragraph about why they are important to
you. Follow the steps below to complete your
writing:
Select the person you want to write about.
Draw a bubble map and brainstorm by
filling the map with details about your
person. (Refer to the US Flag example for
ideas.)
After completing the bubble map, begin
writing sentences using the ideas in your
bubble map. (Remember to use correct

sentence is clearly the topic and the


remaining are supporting sentences.
Students will read the paragraph silently,
then follow as the teacher reads it. The
students will think about what the
paragraph is about and then share with
their neighbor the main and supporting
sentences.
Students will underline the main sentence
in their paragraph and reread the paragraph
and figure out what the supporting
sentences tell them about the main idea.
Students draw and fill in the bubble map on
paper provided.
Students paste the paragraph paper on the
next empty page in their journal.

Students take out their journal and review


the details of a topic sentence, supporting
sentences, and a closing sentence.
Students begin brainstorming on their own
bubble map with information about a
person they are interested in.
Students begin writing sentences using the
information from their bubble map.
Students proofread their work and share the
paragraph with their partner.
Students read each other's work and make
suggestions for improvement.
Students neatly rewrite their paper and read
them aloud to their partner.
32. If time allows, students may volunteer to
read their work to the class.

grammar, spelling, and punctuation'


periods, capitols, etc')
Once you have written your 5 sentences,
proofread them 2 times and trade with your
partner and provide feedback. Make
changes that your partner has suggested on
your paper as needed.
Once you have made your changes, rewrite
your paragraph on the next clean page in
your journal. Read your paragraph out loud
to your partner one last time. If we have
time, we will take a few volunteers to read
their paragraphs to the class.'

2.
Based on your knowledge of the content and of student development, explain why
the instructional strategies, student activities, and resources you listed in question 1:

(REQUIRED) 2a) are appropriate for this class


This lesson is appropriate for this class because it utilizes instructional strategies that
revolve around the state-adapted academic content standards. The portion of reading
(U.S. Flag) is relevant to information studied in a third grade History-Social Science
group. The information learned by reading the passage and reviewing the details within
the passage about the U.S. Flag will reinforce information studied in their social studies
class and serve as the main example for the reading and writing content standard.
Through the student activities the students are able to work responsibly with others and
independently. The think-pair-share activities and peer review work establishes a sense
of community, and promote student effort and engagement by creating structures that
emphasize collaborative activities and joint problem-solving. This gives students the
opportunity to work together and individually so that they can benefit from both and
accel in the one that best fits them. This lesson incorporated graphic organizers, read
aloud, group listening, individual work, and small group social interaction. The
paragraph allowed students to interact with the text by highlighting and underlining for
visual learners and then discussing their findings with their partner to help reinforce
learning. The read aloud allowed for auditory processing of the information for students
who learn best through listening and again discussion. The graphic organizer
reorganizes the information to allows students another way of seeing the information
being presented for students who are visual but may struggle with reading. Individual
work and small group interaction allows students to focus and organize their thoughts
while giving the teacher the opportunity to assess and scaffold for students who are
struggling. These instructional strategies, student activities, and resources covered a
variety of learning strategies which will allow students of many learning styles to succeed
and benefit from instruction.
(REQUIRED) 2b) address the developmental needs of these students

The developmental needs of third grade students are a need to engage content and skills
with a variety of opportunities. This lesson provides opportunities for students struggling
and off-task to be re-engage with peer and teacher assistance. Students are continually
engaging each other as well the content. In this lesson students are able to enhance their
literacy skills through searching for main ideas and supporting details of an expository
text. Students learn to focus, organize, refine and critique theirs and their peers
paragraph made with a topic, supporting, and a closing sentence. The peers provide
additional help through social interaction while the teacher provides scaffolding and
guidance when circulating through the classroom. Students have the teachers examples
from the previous lesson as an immediate reference and are encouraged to refer to it as a
source of information. Through all the opportunities of differentiated learning students
are able to learn the content and succeed in this lesson through the method that best fits
their learning.
(REQUIRED) 2c) help these students make progress toward achieving the
state-adopted academic content standards for students in this content area
This lesson helps students make progress towards achieving the state-adopted academic
content standards through utilizing teacher demonstration and modeling, graphic
organizers, and peer discussion. The lesson required that students distinguish the main
idea and supporting details within an expository text. The teacher walked them through
discovering the components and they discussed the details with their peers to solidify
their learning. Students organized their own thoughts using the graphic organizer and
created their own single paragraph. Student again discuss and share their work with
their peers which allowed for feedback and additional growth. The teacher is able to
circulate and assess understanding during peer discussion and correct or reinforce
learning during assessment. The lesson allows for continual refining and re-aligning of
student learning to state-adopted academic content standards.

END OF CASE STUDY 1


Case Study 2: Assessment Practices
A. Contextual Information for Case Study 2:
1. Elements of a Learning Experience in a Unit
Grade: Second
Content Area: Mathematics
Subject Matter: Money
Time Period for Whole Unit: Three weeks
State-adopted Academic Content Standards for Students
Number Sense
5.0 Students model and solve problems by representing, adding, and subtracting

amounts of money.
5.1 Solve problems using combinations of coins and bills
Mathematical Reasoning
1.0 Students make decisions about how to set up a problem.
1.2 Use tools, such as manipulatives or sketches, to model problems
Learning Goals for Whole Unit
Students will be able to do the following:
o
o
o
o

Identify and describe coins (pennies, nickels, dimes, quarters, half-dollar) and
bills (one and five dollar)
Add two or more coins of different values
Identify multiple ways to show a specific amount
Use coins and bills or sketches to model addition of two amounts

2. Teacher Reflection on Student Assessment for this Unit


I am not satisfied with the assessment plan I used for the last unit of study. I gave
the students a diagnostic test at the beginning of the unit, two quizzes during the
unit, and a final test, all of which came from the teachers guide. I feel, though, that
I need additional information on what students really know and understand, their
misconceptions, what they learned during the instruction, and their progress toward
achieving the learning goals. I am looking for ways to improve my assessment plan
so I can have a more complete understanding of how well these students learned the
subject matter.

3. Assessment Plan
Day 1

Day 6

Day 11

Goals Assessed

Identify the value of


coins and bills

Add two or more


coins of different
values

Use coins and bills or Identify multiple ways


sketches to model
to show a specific
addition of two
amount
amounts

Type

Formal, diagnostic
test from
curriculum guide;
multiple choice;
formative

Formal quiz from


the textbook;
multiple choice;
formative

Formal quiz from


the textbook;
multiple choice;
formative

Purpose

Assess previous
knowledge and
skills

Assess acquired
Assess acquired
Assess acquired
concepts and skills skills and concepts knowledge and skills
from instructional
unit

Implementation Individual
assessment; paper
and pencil; teacher
corrects with an
answer key

Individual
assessment; paper
and pencil; teacher
corrects with an
answer key

Individual
assessment; paper
and pencil; teacher
corrects with an
answer key

Day 15

Formal, final
chapter/unit exam
from textbook;
multiple choice and
fill in the blank;
summative

Individual
assessment; paper
and pencil; teacher
corrects with an
answer key

Feedback
Strategies

Tell students of
Inform students of Inform students of Inform students of
scores and inform correct and
correct and
correct and incorrect
student of correct incorrect items
incorrect items
items
and incorrect items

Informing
Instruction

To determine what To determine who To determine who To determine the


needs to be
has learned the
has learned the
achievement level of
reviewed and
material presented material presented each student towards

where to begin
teaching

the goals

B. Questions for Case Study 2


1. Identifying strengths and weaknesses.
(REQUIRED) 1a) Identify one strength in the assessment plan and explain
why it is a strength in relation to the learning goals of this unit.
The use of a formal diagnostic test at the very beginning of this unit is a strength in
the assessment plan. Determining the skills and abilities level, strengths, and
weakness of the students is a priority when entering any unit. There is the possibility
that students are not versed in the material. Specifically, in this lesson it is possible
that students do not have experience with coins and bills. Especially in the world of
today, people use electronic transfers and credit cards so some students may have
less access to real money at home. Other students may have come from another
country and may have experience with different coins and bill which might mean
they are not familiar with our money. This would be a potential problem for the
lesson is not realized and addressed early on. On the other hand, the students could
be highly experienced in the use of American money which allows the teacher to see
that in her assessment. The biggest benefit to this assessment is that it helps to
develop a framework for which all other assessments can continue to build. This is
key for keeping track of student progress throughout the unit.

(REQUIRED) 1b) Identify one weakness in the assessment plan and explain
why it is a weakness in relation to the learning goals of this unit.
If this is the only assessment done by the teacher then there are many weakness to
address. First, there is not enough assessment being done during the 3 weeks.
Assessment does not only have to be formal. The teacher can perform informal
assessments as students are interacting and discussing their work. Students can use
small individual whiteboards to perform the work over and over while utilizing the
same whiteboard and dry erase marker to show their work and display it for the
teacher to see. This would be done informally but would give the teacher additional
information on how the students are performing and where they are having
difficulties during the lesson. If she is only assessing on the days listed (day 1, day
6, day 11, and day 15) then there is just too much time in between assessments for
the teacher to truly know where the students are having difficulties. If she increases
her variety of assessments and frequency then she will be able to gather more
information about what the students are learning and when they are having difficulty
on specific skills. Secondly, her formal assessments may need to be varied a bit.
Having 4 written tests and quizzes is a bit much for second grade. She can modify
the formal multiple choice exams to be expressed differently. Maybe the students
have to demonstrate with physical coins or explain to the teacher. The teacher could
have the students draw pictures of the problems to help express their understanding.
She could keep the number if she really feels the need or is pressured to keep the
formal assessment, but simply change the format so that students have different
methods and opportunities to express their understanding. Thirdly, her assessment
does not align with her learning goals. Her goal is to "identify and describe coins and

bills". A multiple choice test will make it difficult for students to be able to describe
coins and bills. Some learners would better be able to describe on a different type of
assessment. She also wants to "identify multiple ways to show a specific amount"
and once again the multiple choice test may lend itself to being difficult for students
accomplish this learning goal. "Use coins and bills or sketches to model addition of
two amounts", this goal would be almost impossible to do on a multiple choice test
even with a few fill in the blank. 2nd grade students need more manipulatives and
the opportunity to actually sketch a model as her learning goal is asking. She can
still use the formal multiple choice test but not as frequently. Lastly, her feedback
strategies do not allow for sufficient student learning in the assessment. The
students learn what the correct answer is on their test but do not get feedback on
why their answer is incorrect. The correcting of a test is a crucial time for student
improvement because teachers can incorporate the test into the lesson and make it
less intimidating. By reviewing the test in the class as a group or as small groups,
students can learn from their peers how to solve problems that they are having
difficulty on. They do not have to share their test but could do a similar assignment
in groups and solve the problems with their peers. During this time the teacher could
assign specific problems that were answered incorrectly on the test as means of
feedback on how to solve the answer correctly. She could also go over the answers
with individuals during this time who struggled the most to offer additional support
and feedback and gather more information to see if they understand the information
after receiving feedback or if additional instruction is needed on this topic.

2. Suppose you found the additional assessment in a


supplementary resource. Think about how the additional
assessment could improve the teachers assessment plan.
Additional Assessment
Each student is given a box of plastic coins and bills. The box contains examples of
each type of coin and bill. Students will use various coins and bills to demonstrate
the sum of two given amounts. In addition, students will use coins and bills to show
two different ways to make a given value.
Explain to the teacher how the additional assessment might be used to
improve the assessment plan by answering the following answering the
following questions:

(REQUIRED) 2a) When in the plan would you use this assessment?
I would use this assessment almost daily with the students until I was sure
they grasped the concept. The manipulatives would serve more than just an
assessment but also a learning tool. The assessment would be done daily
allowing the teacher to informally assess her students more frequently. I
wouldn't do it everyday as time might not allow for this to occur. However,
providing manipulatives gives the students the opportunity to engage the
content in multiple ways. When they see the same figures on a multiple
choice test they are able to think back to the experience they had when the
manipulatives were in their hands and better respond to the questions
without the manipulatives. The biggest benefit to the manipulatives is the
visual and physical connection to the coins and bills. Trying to explain that a
coin and bill have 2 sides and that 2 different images on a flat paper are of

the same coin can be a difficult concept for a 2nd grader to remember.
Providing the coins gives the students many more stimuli to connect with
the image of the coins. They feel the texture, see the color, and relate the
size to the image on the paper. By providing the coins more frequently they
will not only learn the material faster but also be more successful on the
multiple choice tests that are already planned in the assessment plan.

(REQUIRED) 2b) What goals would be assessed by this assessment?


This assessment would be used to gather information on the student's
initial background knowledge in the first formative assessment and ongoing
growth throughout the unit. According to the instructions the coins would
be used to assess 2 of the 4 goals, "identify multiple ways to show a specific
amount" and "use coins and bills or sketches to model addition of two
amounts." However, this assessment could be used to assess all four of the
goals: "use coins and bills or sketches to model addition of two
amounts", "identify multiple ways to show a specific amount", "add two or
more coins of different values" and "identify and describe coins and bills."
Since the coins are readily available a student could identify a penny simply
by picking up the penny or pointing to it. Although the coins do not easily
lend themselves to assessing goal number 2 (add two or more coins of
different values) as the students response will not be demonstrated by the
coin they can help in accomplishing it on paper. They use scratch paper and
take two coins of different appearance and values and records the values on
the scratch paper or assessment paper. Then the student would proceed
to add the different values on the paper.

(REQUIRED) 2c) What type of assessment would it be?


This type of assessment would be an informal performance assessment. Since the
students are not formally turning in a written record of their work this would be
informal and since the work is done live in front of the teacher without the need for
paper or pencil this would be considered a performance based assessment. The purpose
of doing an assessment such as this would be to monitor progress on an ongoing basis
and in a different form. This type of assessment allows for the teacher to quick keep
track of the students' progress throughout the unit and enables the students to
demonstrate their learning in an additional manner apart from the formal quizzes and
summative assessment. Although this type of assessment could be incorporated in
addition to the formal test used as a summative assessment in the end of the unit to
increase the information that the teacher gathers in the final assessment.
(REQUIRED) 2d) What would be the purpose of the assessment?
The purpose of doing an assessment such as this would be to monitor progress on an
ongoing basis and in a different form than the formal assess. This informal assessment
allows for the teacher to quickly keep track of the students' progress throughout the
unit and enables to the students to demonstrate their learning in an additional manner
apart from the formal quizzes and summative assessment. Although, this type of
assessment could be added to the formal test used as a summative assessment in the

end of the unit to increase the information that the teacher gathers in the final
assessment. I would not use this to replace the final assessment but it would help the
student show their learning more easily.

(REQUIRED) 2e) How would you implement the assessment?


I would implement this assessment depending on the level of individual ability I am
trying to measure. For a more clear and detailed evaluation of my students' strength
using this assessment, I would pull out students while the whole class is working on
small group or individual assignments. During this time, I would be able to see the
student's individual ability on adding coins and values using manipulatives. I could
modify each assess to meet the need of the individual and rephrase questions so that I
can get a better picture of how well the student understands the concept. This will also
tell me what the student is struggling with specifically as it could be different for each
students. (the coins identification, values of the coins, or adding the values) There are
many variables that could cause a student to perform differently on the formal
assessment. Pulling students out of the main group and assessing them with this
assessment individually would allow me to gather a great deal of data. If I simply
wanted to get a snapshot of how the group is performing or see quickly which students
are having trouble I could do this assessment as a group. Performing this assessment
as a group would not always give me accurate information on individuals as students
could mimic what they see their peers doing. However, if performed as a group I would
be able to tell very quickly if the majority of the class understands the concepts or if the
entire group needs more instruction on demonstrating the sum of two given amounts or
showing two different ways to make a given value with coins and bills.

(REQUIRED) 2f) What feedback strategies would you use?


For this kind of assessment, I could give oral feedback directly to my
students. I could demonstrate for them the correct answer and write values
for them on paper for them to see a different version of the feedback. I
would have them work with a partner and allow partners to give them
feedback as they work together. I could also give them positive feedback if
they are on the right track or even for the effort and motivation.

(REQUIRED) 2g) How would the results of the assessment inform


instruction?
The results of the assessment, depending on the depth of student needs,
would inform me of whether I am able to continue onto the next part of the
unit or if I need to revisit specific parts or even remain on the current
components in that unit. With the group assessment, I would have a general
idea of whether the group is getting the information as a whole. This would
help me quickly assess the severity of the classes understanding. With

individual assessments, I will have a clearer understanding on the skills and


understanding of individual students. This type of assessment with this
material would be more beneficial but time consuming. I would be able to
tell if a student is struggling with concepts in this lesson, previous lesson or
concepts that we will cover again in future lessons and can make informed
decisions on whether I need to supplement the instruction with additional
help or if the students understand and can handle more challenging
concepts.

(REQUIRED) 3)
Explain how using the additional assessment as you described in question 2
improves the teachers assessment plan and what specific information
would be gained about what the students really know and understand about
the content area, their misconceptions, and their progress toward achieving
the learning goals
The additional assessment provides the students with a different form of
learning the material. For the teacher, this is an additional mode of
gathering information from the students. With the additional assessment
both teacher and student have more methods of communicating the
concepts to one another. The students can manipulate the coins and bills
and better demonstrate their ability to understand the math concepts. This
type of assessment is more engaging and interactive for the students. By
allowing the students to using multiple modes of assessment they are able
to communicate more information which allows the teacher to pinpoint the
specific areas of learning that truly need support. Students are less like to
be intimidated by this type of assessment as it seems more like a game.
Allowing them to relax will let them better demonstrate their understanding
in a stress free environment. With more accurate information, the teacher
can be better informed about student progress towards the learning goals
and make decisions accordingly. With inaccurate information, the teacher
may make a decision in spending more time on a specific concept or not
enough time and end up having to backtrack or simply lose out on time she
could have had working on areas that were truly beneficial to the students.

END OF CASE STUDY 2


Case Study 3: Adaptation of Subject-Specific
Pedagogy for English Learners
A. Contextual Information for Case Study 3
1. Elements of a Learning Experience for 2 Days in a Unit
Grade: Fourth
Content Area: Science
Subject Matter: Earth Science

Time Period for Whole Unit: Three weeks


State-adopted Academic Content Standards for Students
Earth Science
4. The properties and minerals reflect the processes that formed them. As a
basis for understanding this concept, students know:
a. how to differentiate among igneous, sedimentary, and metamorphic rocks
by referring to their properties and methods of formation (the rock cycle)
b. how to identify common rock-forming minerals (including quartz, calcite,
feldspar, mica, and hornblende) and ore minerals by using a table of
diagnostic properties
c. moving water erodes landforms, reshaping the land by taking it away
from some places and depositing it as pebbles, sand, silt, and mud in other
places (weathering, transport, and deposition)
Learning Goals for Whole Unit
Students will be able to do the following with a focus on Earth science:
o
o
o
o

Identify and classify igneous, sedimentary, and metamorphic rocks


Use diagnostic properties to identify rock-forming minerals
Define the following vocabulary: weathering, transport, and
deposition
Describe the process of erosion including weathering, transport, and
deposition

Relationship to Preceding and Subsequent Learning Experiences


Science-process skills are important investigation tools, and opportunities
for developing them are provided throughout the unit. Some of the skills,
such as observation and investigation, have been covered in other scientific
units and will again be used in the next unit on ecosystems and living
organisms.

2. Outline of Plans for Days 1 and 2


The following outline addresses some of the academic content standards
and unit goals, but it is not expected that the students will achieve them
during the two days.
Instructional Strategies
o

On Day 1, students will be divided into small cooperative groups. Each


group will be assigned one type of rock (igneous, sedimentary, or
metamorphic). Groups will identify defining characteristics of their
assigned rock using the science textbook, Internet, and
supplementary library resources.
On Day 2 students lead a discussion by presenting the defining
characteristics of igneous, sedimentary, and metamorphic rocks. The
whole class will create a chart listing the characteristics of each type
of rock. Cooperative groups will be given ten rocks to sort into
categories based on their characteristics. Students will draw an

appropriate picture and write a corresponding paragraph in their


science journals about the characteristics of igneous, sedimentary,
and metamorphic rocks.

Student Activities
o

o
o
o

Read the textbook about rock characteristics. Use library resources,


encyclopedias, or the Internet to research the characteristics of the
assigned type of rock (igneous, sedimentary, or metamorphic).
Participate in a group discussion. Groups generate a list of defining
characteristics of the assigned type of rock.
Groups share findings with the whole class. The class will generate a
chart comparing their characteristics.
Students will draw and write in individual science journals.

Progress Monitoring
o

Teacher will use class discussions, oral presentations, journal writing,


quizzes on scientific terms, and written test to determine level of
learning.
Students will receive written and oral feedback from the teacher and
oral feedback from peers.

3. Student Description
Guillermo is a 10-year-old fourth-grade English learner. He is from
Guatemala and lives with a single mother, three younger brothers, and a
younger sister. His mother works long hours and is often not home when he
returns from school. His extended family in the United States includes
aunts, uncles, and cousins. His grandparents live in Guatemala. Guillermos
family immigrated to the United States three years ago. His oral Spanish is
fluent, but he is unable to read or write in Spanish. Guillermo reads English
two years below grade level. He has difficulty using correct grammar when
writing or speaking. Guillermo is somewhat shy socially but is well liked and
works well in small groups. He is seldom absent from school. The CELDT
results indicate an overall score in the early intermediate range, and he has
been identified as an English learner.

Written Response to: What is your favorite family day?


A Special Family Celebration
My grandparents have special celebration. They have married 45 year. My
mother, my brothers and sister and me make long trip to Guatemala to
celebrate. We carry a special gift it is a picture of all family. My tio, tia and
primos going to. We like to visit our grandparents and especial celebration.
Our family cooks special food of Guatemala for celebration. I remember we
all had good time together. I miss my abuelita and abuelito. That is the

name we say for grandparent in my country. The celebration is fun we see


friends and play. My grandparents very happy. I want to stay in Guatemala
but my Mom say we come back to America.

Transcript of Oral Response to: Tell me about your soccer game.


I like to play soccer. Saturday I go to field to play with friends. We put
uniform on for games. I play center field and goal. It is fun to hit ball. My
brothers play. I like it.

B. Questions for Case Study 3


(REQUIRED) 1) Identify two specific learning needs the student has as an
English learner, based on the student description and the responses.
Guillermo needs to improve his grammar, and syntax. He is not consistent
with punctuation and leaves out words that are needed in Standard English.
For example, when he wrote, "The celebration is fun we see friends and
play." He has two thoughts in this sentence. He can either separate the
sentences with a period or combine them with a conjunction. Either way,
some kind of punctuation and/or word needs to be added to this sentence
to improve the fluency of the English. One version of this sentence could be:
The celebration is fun because we see friends and play games. Depending
on his intended meaning the sentence may vary. As for his oral response, he
misuses tenses of words and leaves out words necessary for fluent speech
in Standard English. He leaves out the article "a" and "the" when speaking
and I imagine this is because he is used to using the gender specific article
in Spanish. Since English doesn't have gender specific articles he just leaves
them out. He also doesn't articulate possession with the use of "my" or
"our" and again, this is most likely because in Spanish possession is shown
in the conjugation of the word whereas in English he needs to use an
entirely new word to show possession. Guillermo seems to lack an
understanding of the non-transferable grammatical components of Spanish
and English. He will need to expand his vocabulary, master his syntax, and
master punctuation.

(REQUIRED) 2a) Identify one instructional strategy or student activity from


the outline of plans that could be challenging for the student.
Guillermo is going to struggle with "students will draw and write in individual science
journals." Since according to the student description Guillermo is unable to read and write in
Spanish and reads two years below his grade level in English, he is going to struggle reading
the 4th grade textbooks. It is possible to get library books that are more on his reading level
and find internet resources that are at his reading level. He, however, may have a hard time
doing this on his own. Fortunately, he has been assigned to a group which can support him in
gathering the information, however the science journal writing is an individual assignment
which means he will have less help. He was able to write in his student response but that was
regarding information that he was familiar with. This will be more challenging for him as it is
less familiar.

(REQUIRED) 2b) Explain why the strategy or activity you chose could be
challenging to the student. Use your knowledge of English learners and
your analysis of the students learning needs in your explanation.
Guillermo was able to express his thoughts in his writing and in his oral
response, however it was with some difficulties. He was unable to express
his thoughts fluently according to English Standards. This is all considering
that the topic was based on information with which he was familiar. When
asking him to write and read about information that he most likely does not
have experience in, he is going to struggle even more than he did with the
prior information. Now, take into consideration that the student description
says he does not read or write in Spanish and reads 2 levels below grade
level which is about a 2nd grade reading level. He is going to have a hard
time comprehending his 4th grade textbook. Understanding the textbook
would likely help him in writing the paragraph. However, not understanding
the material will hinder his progress significantly. If he is unable to get the
information out of the textbook then he will not be able to write using
scientific words within the content area which could simply be found in the
resources provided by the teacher.

(REQUIRED) 3a) Describe how you would adapt the strategy or activity you
identified above to meet the learning needs of the student. Consider
specific subject matter pedagogy when writing your description.
In order to adapt the strategy to meet Guillermo's learning needs, I would,
first, explain the directions verbally to ensure and allow for better
comprehension of the instructions. I would orally and visually present the
instructions to the entire class and allow the students to share with one
another their understanding of the instructions so that Guillermo hears it
from me, sees it on the board, and is able to discuss the information with
his partner. In the first parts of the instructions I would draw the students'
attention to illustrations that would enhance their understanding both in the
book and on the board. After providing multiple forms of instruction so that
he and everyone else understands the task at hand, I would then scaffold
the understanding of the material by front loading the vocabulary that they
will encounter as a group. Allowing them to hear the words and discuss the
words prior to reading will help all the students better comprehend their
reading and will prepare Guillermo for words he may have never seen or
heard. By presenting the vocab visually, orally, and allowing for additional
discussion Guillermo will have lots of opportunities to hear the important
vocabulary words prior to beginning the assignment. When he encounters
the words in the textbook and talks to his group they will be able to better
support each other as they will all already have a basic foundation of what
they are looking for and what terminology they will need to incorporate in
their journals. This will also make scaffolding the information with him
individually a little easier as he will have heard me use the vocabulary
words before the project began, would have talked about it with a partner,
may have seen it in the textbook, would have seen me put it on the board
and would have discussed it with his group already. So when I talk to him
individually much of the vocabulary will already be familiar and I can better
support him on his writing and focus less on his comprehension. If this were
my class, I would have also supported the entire group by defining and

highlighting more difficult words in the previous class, prior to this activity.
Along with all the previous work, I would provide him with a guide or more
simplified version of the reading that could support his understanding if I
find the other supports were not sufficient. I would even find a website that
he could utilize that provided the same science material on his reading level
so that he is able to accomplish the work in the same manner as the other
students but on his ability level. Beyond even all of this assistance, I would
like to even bring in some examples of each type of rock so that all the
students could see and touch them. This would enhance even further their
understanding and connect their reading with what they see. This would
further support Guillermo as he would be able to connect the unfamiliar
words with a now familiar object and be better equipped to describe each
rock. I would also demonstrate "weathering, transport, and deposition"
during the class as a group activity. This would offer the entire class an
opportunity to see these words in action and connect the visual to their
reading. Thus allowing Guillermo to connect the experience, visuals,
discussions, readings, and additional scaffolding that I give him to his
writing.

(REQUIRED) 3b) Explain how your adaptation would be effective for the
student in making progress toward the learning goals of the lesson.
(In your explanation of the adaptation, refer to specific aspects of the
student description and to the samples of proficiency in English.)
My adaptation allows for Guillermo to clearly understand the goals before
even beginning the activity. By clearly defining my expectations, putting it
on the board in writing and illustrations, and allowing the students to
discuss the information, Guillermo has multiple opportunities and ways of
hearing, seeing, and discussing the assignment. By providing Guillermo with
physical examples of each rock and property I can support him in
comprehending the concepts and better equip him for his readings and
writing. He then has the opportunity to have stronger conversations with
his group which will reinforce his learning and enhance his understanding of
the concepts and vocabulary. All of the supports will prepare him to be more
successful in his writing and make the activity more engaging. Several
words that I would have defined in my instructions would include words
such as "weathering, transport, and deposition". As the students are
expected to define these words and describe these processes, I would be
sure to demonstrate each one as a group activity prior to reading so that the
words in the text do not hinder Guillermo's or anyone else's understanding
of the scientific concept.

(REQUIRED) 3c) Explain how your adaptation would be effective for the
student in making progress toward English language development.
(In your explanation of the adaptation, refer to specific aspects of the
student description and to the samples of proficiency in English.)
By providing Guillermo with plenty of support prior to the lesson he has a
chance to connect words he is reading to real life situations and visuals. He

will have more meaningful discussions with his group which will enhance
his understanding and ability to communicate with his peers. The
vocabulary visuals and guide will help him anticipate and recognize words
that he would have otherwise be unfamiliar with. The demonstrations and
physical examples provide a visual. All of these supports give Guillermo a
wider variety of tools, words, and experiences for him to use to better
succeed in his reading comprehension and writing.

(REQUIRED) 4a) Which progress monitoring assessment based on the


lesson plan would you choose to monitor this students progress toward
achieving the learning goal(s)?
In order to best assess Guillermo it would be best to use a combination of
all the assessments. By providing him with multiple opportunities to
demonstrate his understanding and myself with more information about his
learning. I understand that the test and quizzes would require
some accommodations in order to accurately assess his abilities. I would
allow him to take the test and discuss the questions with me to ensure that
he answered according to his understanding and not misunderstanding. I
would listen in during class discussion and small group discussion to hear
his input and hear his response so that I am aware of his understanding
prior to the tests. I would review his journal writing before the end of the
unit once again to gather additional information on his progress and
understanding. I would allow him to do the oral presentation but would
practice him and the entire class several times prior to presentation date.
By allowing everyone the opportunity to practice their presentations I
support not only Guillermo but the whole group and allow Guillermo to see
presentations being modeled multiple times before he has to do it in front of
the group. By accommodating the assessments I increase his probability of
being successful and still learn the information that I need to gather from
each assessment.

(REQUIRED) 4b) Give a rationale for your choice of progress monitoring


assessment. Use knowledge of content in this unit, and this students
English language abilities in your rationale.
Guillermo is restricted on his ability to communicate due to his lack of
proficiency in language. By offering him multiple opportunities to complete
different assessments I not only provide myself with the information which
I need to gather about his understanding of the material but also give him
more support in his language learning. I could just select one assessment
but then he would lose out on the experience needed to grow in doing the
other assessment. By scaffolding on each assessment and allowing him to
model what other students are doing during some of them, Guillermo is not
just succeeding on the assessment but learning as well. The assessments
become a learning experience for him to improve his reading and language
proficiency. I will need to communicate with him regarding how to enhance
his grammar, syntax, and vocabulary as he is writing so that he is more
successful in his writing but that will not be the grading point of these

assessments as most of these components focus on science rather than


English. In order for him to communicate well on these assessments his
language proficiency will need improvement. Due to the need for
improvement, I will have to use the assessment as a learning opportunity
and information gathering tool.

(REQUIRED) 5) Based on what you learned about this students English


proficiency, what would be your next steps in planning to facilitate her
English language development?
Consider specific information from the student description and her written
and oral language samples when responding.
Guillermo needs support in reading and writing proficiency. I would have
him write daily about many different subjects while providing him with
vocabulary sheets to enhance his word pool. I would continue to support
him with background information in each lesson. I would continue to assess
his work holistically and provide him with the analytic resources to be able
to self assess his work. Most importantly, I would continue to monitor his
progress, meet with him individually and adjust his support as needed.

END OF CASE STUDY 3


Case Study 4: Adaptation of Subject-Specific
Pedagogy for Students with Special Needs
A. Contextual Information for Case Study 4
1. Elements of a Learning Experience for 3 Days in a Unit
Grade: Fifth
Content Area: History/Social Science
Subject Matter: American Revolution
Time Period for Whole Unit: Three weeks
State-adopted Academic Content Standards for Students
United States History and Geography: Making a New Nation
5.6 Students understand the course and consequences of the American
Revolution.
1. Identify and map the majority of military battles, campaigns, and turning
points of the Revolutionary War, the roles of the American and British
leaders, and the Indian leaders alliances on both sides.
4. Understand the personal impact and economic hardship of the war on
families, problems of financing the war, wartime inflation, and laws against
hoarding goods and materials and profiteering.
5. Explain how state constitutions that were established after 1776
embodied the ideals of the American Revolution and helped serve as models
for the United States Constitution.

Learning Goals for Whole Unit


Students will be able to do the following with a focus on the American
Revolution
o
o
o
o

Locate the major military battles on a map of pre-Revolutionary


America
Identify the turning points of the American Revolution
Describe the roles of the American, British, and Indian leaders
involved in the American Revolution
Compare state constitutions created after 1776 to the United States
Constitution

Relationship to Preceding and Subsequent Learning Experiences


The American Revolutionary War will be covered in a manner similar to
other historical events. Events are being studied in chronological order.
Map-reading skills were covered during the study of other historical events.
Following this unit, students will study the United States Constitution more
in depth.

2. Outline of Plans for Days 3, 4, and 5


The following outline addresses some of the academic content standards
and unit goals, but it is not expected that the students will achieve them
during the three days.
Instructional Strategies
o

On Day 3 the teacher will present information about what life was like
for a 12-year-old boy or girl during pre-Revolutionary time by reading
aloud text from biographies and other primary sources. As a whole
class, students will create a chart to list the defining characteristics of
life during pre-Revolutionary War time. Students will write a journal
entry to compare their own life with the life of children who lived in
the pre-Revolutionary War time.
On Day 4 the teacher will ask students to work in small cooperative
groups to read biographies and other primary sources about what life
was like for a 12 year-old boy or girl during the Revolutionary War.
The small groups will generate a list of five characteristics that they
will then share with the whole class. The whole class will create a
chart that lists the defining characteristics of life during
Revolutionary War time. Then students will use the class-generated
charts to individually complete a Venn diagram comparing the
defining characteristics of life during pre-Revolutionary
On Day 5 students will work in small cooperative groups. Each group
will choose one change in life between pre-Revolutionary War time
and Revolutionary War time. Then the group will use primary
resources, the textbook, the Internet, and other resources to draw

conclusions about what led to this particular change. The groups will
then present these causes to the whole class. Then students will
individually write an essay that explains three causes of lifestyle
changes for a 12 year-old boy or girl between pre-Revolutionary and
Revolutionary War times.

Student Activities
o

Students will listen to excerpts from biographies and other primary


sources. They will participate in class discussions and help to create a
chart listing defining characteristics of life during the preRevolutionary War times. Students will individually complete a
written journal.
Students will work in small cooperative groups to create a chart
listing defining characteristics of life during Revolutionary War times.
Then students will work as a whole class to generate a complete list
of characteristics. Students will individually complete a Venn diagram
comparing the two lists of characteristics.
Students will work in groups to identify the causes of one change in
lifestyle between the pre-Revolutionary War time and Revolutionary
War time. The cooperative groups will present to the whole class.
Students will individually write an essay that demonstrates their
understanding of what aspects of life changed between preRevolutionary and Revolutionary times.

Progress Monitoring
o
o

To monitor student progress, the teacher will use class discussions,


written reflections, cooperative group work, and presentations.
Students will receive written and oral feedback, peer review, and
feedback on group work, as well as individual conferencing with the
teacher when needed.

3. Student Description
Julie is an 11 year-old girl in the fifth grade. She has difficulty focusing,
which has an impact on her ability to complete course work and classroom
activities. In the first grade, Julie was diagnosed with attentiondeficit/hyperactivity disorder by her family physician. She receives
prescribed medication three times per day for ADHD. During first grade, an
Individualized Education Plan was developed to meet Julies needs. Since
then, Julie has been receiving special education support primarily in the
regular education classroom. She is included and participates in all general
education curriculum. The special education teacher provides two hours of
in-class support. She is able to independently read text at grade level. She
struggles with both written and oral communication skills and is currently
performing at a second-grade level. She often tries to dominate whole-class

discussions and group learning situations. On the playground, she attempts


to dominate games, and she struggles with organization. Her peers are
often frustrated by her behavior.

B. Questions for Case Study 4


(REQUIRED) 1a) Identify one instructional strategy or student activity from
the outline of plans that could be challenging for the student, considering
the description of the students learning disability.
As stated in Julie's student description, she has difficulty focusing and struggles
with both written and oral communication skills. She is performing at a secondgrade level. With these things in mind, Julie is going to struggle with the whole
group activities where they "create a chart listing defining characteristics of life
during the pre-Revolutionary War times", listening "to excerpts from biographies
and other primary sources" and the individual "journal writing".

(REQUIRED) 1b) Explain why the strategy or activity you chose could be
challenging for the student, based on specific aspects of the student
description.
These strategies are going to be challenging because the activity requires that she
complete work that is outside her ability level. "She struggles with both written and
oral communication skills and is currently performing at a second-grade level."
Considering her performance level she will have difficulty completing 5th grade level
work. Her difficulty focusing will make it hard for her to "listen to excerpts from
biographies and other primary sources." Since she tends to dominate group learning
and activities, it is going to be hard for her to cooperate in whole and small groups
without her peers getting frustrated.
(REQUIRED) 1c) Describe how you would adapt the strategy or activity you
identified to meet the needs of the student.
One of Julie's biggest strengths is that "She is able to independently read text at grade
level." I would use this strength to help her stay focused during read aloud and during
listening activities. If Julie has a copy of the sources and reading that she can follow
along on and annotate while listening, she should be able to engage with the reading
while staying focused during the listen components. During small groups activities, I
would take advantage of the Special Education Teacher. I would also be sure to have a
behavior contract with Julie and establish appropriate behavior expectations for group
activities. There would need to be a plan for expected positive group behavior. Each
time we had a group activity I would be sure to remind Julie of group expectations so
that she is aware of her behavior. She may even benefit from having a specific
responsibility or task for her group. Giving her a specific task may help keep her on
track. Since her writing is a weak point in her performance I may have her create
diagrams or pictures of the content so that she is better able to communicate her

understanding with me. I would individually conference with her more frequently to
check in on her learning and be sure she is understanding the material.

(REQUIRED) 1d) Explain how your adaptation would be effective for the
student in making progress toward achieving the learning goal(s) of this
unit.
The adaptation will be effective because it utilizes Julie's strengths and
supports her weaknesses. Julie can learn the material in the method that
best supports her learning which is reading. She will be support with RSP
resources and behavior plans during times when she is most vulnerable or
weak which would be in group activities. Clear behavior expectations and a
behavior plan will help Julie better function in the group setting and reduce
group disruptions. Giving her a responsibility will help her stay focused. The
pictures and graphic organizers will give Julie an opportunity to better
communicate her thoughts, and multiple ways to be assessed by the
teacher. By continually conferencing with her and other students, the
teacher is able to closely monitor her progress and the progress of students
working with her. In order to achieve the learning goals the pictures and
reading annotations will support Julie in her communication. Since she
reads well she could identify the turning points within the reading by
underlining and circling key components and then copy those phrase in her
notebook. When comparing the constitutions she could illustrate the
differences and copy the lines that she found in the reading under the
illustrations. Her reading is going to be a big help and motivator in her work
and I would encourage her to use that to help her write and communicate in
her journal.

(REQUIRED) 2a) Identify one additional instructional strategy or student


activity from the lesson plan that could be challenging for the student,
considering the students other learning needs.
Day 5 is going to be a challenge as Julie will need to work in a small cooperative group
to determine changes of pre-Revolutionary War time and Revolutionary War time. The
additional challenge is in the presentation of the causes to the whole class. There will
also be a challenge in the individual writing of the essay that explains three causes of
lifestyle changes for a 12 year-old boy or girl between pre-Revolutionary and
Revolutionary War times.

(REQUIRED) 2b) Explain why the strategy or activity you chose could be
challenging for the student, based on specific aspects of the student
description.

Julie will struggle with the presentation as her student description says that
she struggles with written and oral communication. She has a history of
dominating class discussion so making the presentation equal, sharing the
time with other students, and being respectful to her peers during this time
will be a challenge. On this day she also has to do a rather extensive writing
assignment which will be challenging since her current performance in
writing is at a second grade level and she needs to produce 5th grade work.

(REQUIRED) 2c) Describe how you would adapt the strategy or activity you
identified to meet the needs of the student.
I would adapt this lesson by making sure that all instructions were clear. I
would make sure that the behavior expectations were reviewed prior to the
activity and would have to remind Julie of the expectations throughout the
group activity. Since Julie reads really well, I would script her oral
presentation to support her in what she says. I would have her copy
portions of the text that she found as important to the text and her share
them with her group. I would remind her about group expectations and the
importance of taking turns. In her presentation, I would let her use her
notes and script for sharing a small part of her discoveries in the group
activity. I would modify her writing so that it better fits her ability for the
essay portion of the assignment. Rather than having to write an essay I may
accept her script and notes as her assignment and have her write a short
paragraph rather than a full essay.

(REQUIRED) 2d) Explain how your adaptation would be effective for the
student in making progress toward achieving the learning goal(s) of this
unit.
This adaptation will be successful because Julie is being supported in her
weakest skills which are writing, oral presentation and group work. By
combining her writing with her oral presentation she has less writing to do
in general and will use her reading strength to perform her oral
presentation. The writing will come from the text which she annotated so it
should be easier to write the material for her script and read it out loud for
her presentation. This will help her in enhancing her writing as now she will
be able to model her work after 5th grade textbooks and reading which she
is very familiar with. As she improves we can move away from the text and
allow her to write in her own words what she is reading in the text.
Reminding her of group behavior expectations will help her work with her
peers and allow her to be aware of her attitude and actions in the group
setting. The notes that she annotates will help her locate key details of the
learning goals in the text, and having her copy the information for her
presentation will allow her specific text for her oral presentation. Having
her write a paragraph will reduce the writing pressure and frustration of the
writing assignment and allow the teacher to have some written assessment
of Julie's understanding apart from her annotations and script notes.

(REQUIRED) 3a) What progress monitoring assessment would you choose


to obtain evidence of the students progress toward one or more learning
goal(s)?

Ultimately a combination of all of her work will be the best form of


assessment. The class discussion, written reflection, cooperative group
work, and presentation all fall under weak points in Julie's abilities. I would
still assess those components to see how she is progressing those parts of
her learning but ultimately the conferences or individual checks with her
will be the best forms of assessment. I will use all of the other forms of
assessments to gather information but I will keep in mind that those
assessments may not truly demonstrate what she is capable of producing.
Her progress in the small group and her efforts to participate in the
group activities will be my strongest measure of cooperation. I will add the
annotated notes to her form of assessment as she is good at reading. The
additional information will allow me to see what she is absorbing but having
trouble reproducing orally and in writing.

(REQUIRED) 3b) Give a rationale for your choice of assessment. Use your
knowledge of academic content in this unit, and this students learning
needs in your rationale.
Assuming Julie is able to utilize the annotations to her advantage I will be able to
assess her work through her notes and individual conferences with her. For example,
Julie needs to "Identify and map the majority of military battles, campaigns, and
turning points of the Revolutionary War, the roles of the American and British leaders,
and the Indian leaders alliances on both sides." By having her annotate her text
(which could be a photocopy of the text or supplemental resources) she is able to
communicate that she has found the answer. Using the resource that she has found she
can copy the words onto her diagram or picture. For Explaining "how state
constitutions that were established after 1776 embodied the ideals of the American
Revolution and helped serve as models for the United States Constitution," she could
do the same thing as before and annotate the text but then copy it to the Venn diagram.
By establishing a close reading routine where she locates key details and uses them as
her foundation for writing she will improve her ability to focus and enhance her
writing abilities. Once she has read a text and annotated her copy, I would meet with
her briefly to assess what she has learned. During a written test, would allow her the
opportunity to work on a modified version of the exam so that she can still have the
opportunity to improve but on her level. The oral and group activities will not be the
best form of assessment as she struggles with these activities. Writing is also difficult
but since her reading is strong she may be able to enhance her writing while she reads
and annotates her reading. Ultimately I want to reduce her discomfort in order to best
assess her learning. The best opportunity for this is in a one-on-one conference with
her. Keeping her comfortable in the classroom will allow her the opportunity to
communicate more effectively and take risks in areas that are not as comfortable.

END OF CASE STUDY 4