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ECE451

CoupledLines

Jose E. Schutt-Aine
Electrical & Computer Engineering
University of Illinois
jose@emlab.uiuc.edu

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Crosstalk Noise
Signal Integrity
Crosstalk

Dispersion

Attenuation

Reflection

Distortion

Loss

Delta I Noise

Ground Bounce

Radiation

Drive Line
Sense Line
Drive Line

ECE451 JoseSchuttAine

TEMPROPAGATION
L
I
+
V

z
z
Z1

Zo

Z2

Vs

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Telegraphers Equations
L
I
+
V

V
I

L
z
t
I
V
C
z
t

L: Inductance per unit length.


C: Capacitance per unit length.
ECE451 JoseSchuttAine

Crosstalk noise depends on termination

50

50

line 1

line 1

line 2

50

line 2

line 1
line 1

line 2
line 2

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Crosstalk depends on signal rise time


50
line 1
line 2

50
tr = 1 ns

tr = 7 ns

line 1
line 2

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line 1
line 2

Crosstalk depends on signal rise time


50
line 1
line 2

50
tr = 1 ns

tr = 7 ns

line 1
line 2

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line 1
line 2

Crosstalk depends on signal rise time


50
line 1
line 2

tr = 1 ns

tr = 7 ns

line 1

line 1
line 2

line 2

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Coupled Transmission Lines


w

V1

I1

Cm
I2

Cs

Lm

V2
Cs

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Telegraphers Equations for Coupled Transmission Lines

Maxwellian Form

V1
I1
I2

L11
L12
z
t
t
V2
I1
I2

L21
L22
z
t
t
I1
V1
V2

C11
C12
z
t
t

I2
V
V
C21 1 C22 2
z
t
t

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Telegraphers Equations for Coupled Transmission Lines

Physical form

V1
I1
I2

Ls
Lm
z
t
t

V2
I
I
Lm 1 Ls 2
z
t
t

I1
V1
V1
V2

Cs
Cm
Cm
z
t
t
t
I2
V1
V2
V2

Cm
Cm
Cs
z
t
t
t

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Relations Between Physical


and Maxwellian Parameters
(symmetric lines)
L11 = L22 = Ls
L12 = L21 = Lm
C11 = C22 = Cs+Cm
C12 = C21 = - Cm

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Even Mode
Ve
I e

L11 L12
z
t
I e
I e

C11 C12
z
t

Add voltage
and current
equations

1
Ve : Even mode voltage Ve = (V1 + V2 )
2
1
Ie : Even mode current Ie = (I1 + I2 )
2

Ze =

L11 + L12
=
C11 + C12

Ls + Lm
Cs

ve =

1
=
(L11 + L12 )(C11 + C12 )

Impedance

1
(Ls + Lm )Cs

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velocity
13

Odd Mode
Vd
I d

L11 L12
z
t
I d
I d

C11 C12
z
t

Subtract voltage
and current
equations

Vd : Odd mode voltage


Id : Odd mode current

Zd =

vd =

L11 L12
Ls Lm
=
C11 C12
Cs 2Cm
1
=
( L11 L12 )(C11 C12 )

1
Vd V1 V2
2
1
Id I1 I 2
2

Impedance

1
( Ls Lm )(Cs 2Cm )

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velocity
14

ModeExcitation

+1

+1

EVEN

-1

+1

ODD

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PHYSICAL SIGNIFICANCE OF EVEN- AND


ODD-MODE IMPEDANCES
* Ze and Zd are the wave resistance seen by the even
and odd mode travelling signals respectively.
* The impedance of each line is no longer described
by a single characteristic impedance; instead, we have

V1 = Z11 I1 + Z12 I 2
V2 = Z21 I1 + Z22 I2

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Definitions
Even-Mode Impedance: Ze
Impedance seen by wave propagating through the coupledline system when excitation is symmetric (1, 1).
Odd-Mode Impedance: Zd
Impedance seen by wave propagating through the coupledline system when excitation is anti-symmetric (1, -1).
Common-Mode Impedance: Zc = 0.5Ze
Impedance seen by a pair of line and a common return by a
common signal.
Differential Impedance: Zdiff = 2Zd
Impedance seen across a pair of lines by differential mode
signal.
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EVEN AND ODD-MODE IMPEDANCES


Z11, Z22 : Self Impedances
Z12, Z21 : Mutual Impedances
For symmetrical lines,
Z11 = Z22 and Z12 = Z21

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EXAMPLE
(Microstrip)

r = 4.3
Zs = 56.4

Single Line
Dielectric height = 6 mils
Width = 8 mils
Coupled Lines
Height = 6 mils
Width = 8 mils
Spacing = 12 mils

r = 4.3
Ze = 68.1 Zd = 40.8
Z11 = 54.4 Z12 = 13.6

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Even Mode
Zg

Vf

IT

I1

Zg

+
Vb VT
step
- I2
generator
coaxial line

I tdr

line 1
line 2
reference plane tied to ground

ae (t ,0) ad (t ,0) ae (t ,0) ad (t ,0)

Z
Z
Z
Z
e
d
e
d

Vtdr ae (t ,0) ad (t ,0)


Vtdr Z e
=
I tdr
2

1 e
Ze = 2(
) Zg
1 e

ECE451 JoseSchuttAine

a d (t ,0) 0
ve =

2l

20

Odd Mode
Zg

Vf
Zg

step
generator

Vb

IT
+
V
-T

I1
line 1
line 2

I2

reference plane floating

coaxial line

Vtdr = a e (t,0)+a d (t,0)- a e (t,0)-a d (t,0) V f Vb

I tdr

ae (t ,0) ad (t ,0)
=

Z
Z
e
d

ae (t,0) = 0,

1 1 d
Zd
2 1 d

I tdr

ae (t ,0) ad (t ,0)
=-

Z
Z
e
d

Vtdr
= 2Zd
Itdr

Zg ,

vd =

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2l

d
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EXTRACT INDUCTANCE AND


CAPACITANCE COEFFICIENTS
1 Ze Zd
Ls = +
2 ve
vd

1
Cs
Z e ve
1 Ze Zd
Lm = 2 ve vd
1 1
1
Cm =
2 Z e ve Z d vd

Z d < Zs < Z e
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Measured even-mode impedance

Even-Mode Impedance
h=3 mils

120

h=5 mils
h=7 mils

100

h=10 mils
h=14 mils

Z ( )
e

80

h=21 mils
60
40
20
4

10

12

14

16

18

Spacing (mils)

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Measured odd-mode impedance

h=3 mils

Odd-Mode Impedance

h=5 mils

50

h=7 mils
45

h=10 mils
h=14 mils

Z ( )
d

40

h=21 mils

35
30
25
20
4

10

12

14

16

18

Spacing (mils)

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Measured even-mode velocity

Even-Mode velocity
0.17

h=3 mils
h=5 mils

0.168

h=7 mils
h=10 mils

0.166

h=14 mils
v e(m/ns)

0.164

h=21 mils

0.162
0.16
0.158
4

10

12

14

16

18

Spacing (mils)

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Measured odd-mode velocity

h=3 mils
h=5 mils

Odd-Mode Velocity

h=7 mils

0.21

h=10 mils

0.205

h=14 mils
0.2

h=21 mils

v (m/ns)
d

0.195
0.19
0.185
0.18
0.175
4

10

12

14

16

18

Spacing (mils)

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Measured mutual inductance

Mutual Inductance

h=3 mils
h=5 mils

250

h=7 mils
h=10 mils

200

h=14 mils
h=21 mils

100

(nH/m)

150

50

0
4

10

12

14

16

18

Spacing (mils)

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Measured mutual capacitance

h=3 mils

Mutual Capacitance

h=5 mils

40

h=7 mils
35

h=10 mils
h=14 mils

C (pF/m)

30

h=21 mils

25
20
15
10
4

10

12

14

16

18

Spacing (mils)

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Even&OddModeImpedances
Typical Even & Odd Mode Impedances
110

Zeven
Zodd

Zeven, Zodd (Ohms)

100

90

80

70

60

50

40
10

20

30

40

50

Distance (mils)

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Modal Velocities in Stripline and Microstrip

Microstrip : Inhomogeneous
structure, odd and even-mode velocities
must have different values.

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Stripline : Homogeneous configuration,


odd and even-mode velocities have
approximately the same values.

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Microstrip vs Stripline
50
50

Microstrip (h =8 mils)
w = 8 mils
r = 4.32
Ls = 377 nH/m
Cs = 82 pF/m
Lm = 131 nH/m
Cm = 23 pF/m
ve = 0.155 m/ns
vd = 0.178 m/ns

Stripline (h =16 mils)


w = 8 mils
r = 4.32
Ls = 466 nH/m
Cs = 86 pF/m
Lm = 109 nH/m
Cm = 26 pF/m
ve = 0.142 m/ns
vd = 0.142 m/ns
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Microstrip vs Stripline

50
50

Probe

Sense line response at near end


C

stripline

microstrip
0.4

0.3

0.3

0.2

0.2

-0.1

0.1
Volts

Volts

0.1

0
-0.1

-0.2
-0.3
-0.4

-0.2
-0.3

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General Solution for Voltages

ZL1

Zs1
line 1
line 2

Zs2

ZL2

j z
ve

j z
ve

j z
vd

j z
vd

j z
vd

V1 ( z ) Ae e
Be e
Ad e
Bd e

even

j z
ve

odd

j z
ve

j z
vd

V2 ( z ) Ae e
Be e
Ad e
Bd e

even

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odd

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General Solution for Currents

ZL1

Zs1
line 1
line 2

Zs2

ZL2

j z
j z
j z
j z

1
1
ve
ve
vd
vd
I1 ( z ) Ae e
Be e
Bd e

Ad e

Z e
Z d

even

odd

j z
j z
j z
j z

1
1
ve
ve
vd
vd
I 2 ( z ) Ae e
Be e
Bd e

Ad e

Z e
Z d

even

odd

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Coupling of Modes
(asymmetric load)
ZL1

Zs1
line 1
line 2

Zs2

ZL2

even
odd
even
odd

even

even
odd

even
odd
even
odd

even

odd
odd
First reflection

Second reflection

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Coupling of Modes
(symmetric load)
ZL

Zs
line 1
line 2

Zs

ZL

even

even

even

odd

odd

odd

First reflection

Second reflection

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Sense Line at Near End


Drive Line at Near End

0.2

1
0.15
0.8
0.1

Volts

Volts

0.6

0.4

0.05

-0.05

0.2

-0.1

-0.15
-0.2

0
0

10

15

20

25

30

35

10

15

20

25

30

35

40

40
Time (ns)

Time (ns)

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ThreeLineMicrostrip
1

I
V1
I
I
L11 1 L12 2 L13 3
z
t
t
t

I1
V
V
V
C11 1 C12 2 C13 3
z
t
t
t

I
V2
I
I
L21 1 L22 2 L23 3
z
t
t
t

V
I2
V
V
C21 1 C22 2 C23 3
z
t
t
t

V
I
I
I
3 L31 1 L32 2 L33 3
z
t
t
t

I3
V
V
V
C31 1 C32 2 C33 3
z
t
t
t

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ThreeLine AlphaMode

Subtract (1c) from (1a) and (2c) from (2a), we get


V
I
( L11 L13 )
z
t
I
V
(C11 C13 )
z
t

This defines the Alpha mode with:


V V1 V3

and

I I1 I 3

The wave impedance of that mode is:


Z

and the velocity is

L11 L13
C11 C13

L11 L13 C11 C13

ECE451 JoseSchuttAine

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ThreeLine ModalDecomposition

In order to determine the next mode, assume that


V V1 V2 V3
I I1 I 2 I 3

V
I
I
I
L11 L21 L31 1 L12 L22 L32 2 L13 L23 L33 3
z
t
t
t
I
V
V
V
C11 C21 C31 1 C12 C22 C32 2 C13 C23 C33 3
z
t
t
t

By reciprocity L32 = L23, L21 = L12, L13 = L31


By symmetry, L12 = L23
Also by approximation, L22 L11, L11+L13 L11
ECE451 JoseSchuttAine

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ThreeLine ModalDecomposition

V
I
I I
L11 L12 L13 1 3 2 L12 L11 2
z
t
t
t

In order to balance the right-hand side into I, we need to have


2L12 L11 I 2 L11 L12 L13 I 2 L11 L12 I 2
2L12 2 L12

or

Therefore the other two modes are defined as


The Beta mode with

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ThreeLine BetaMode

The Beta mode with


V V1 2V2 V3
I I1 2 I 2 I 3

The characteristic impedance of the Beta mode is:


L11 2 L12 L13
C11 2C12 C13

and propagation velocity of the Beta mode is


u

11

2 L12 L13 C11 2C12 C13

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ThreeLine DeltaMode

The Delta mode is defined such that


V V1 2V2 V3
I I1 2 I 2 I 3

The characteristic impedance of the Delta mode is


Z

L11 2 L12 L13


C11 2C12 C13

The propagation velocity of the Delta mode is:


u

11

2 L12 L13 C11 2C12 C13

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Symmetric3LineMicrostrip
1

In summary: we have 3 modes for the 3-line system


0
1

2
E 1
1 2

1
1

Alpha mode
Beta mode*
Delta mode*

*neglecting coupling between nonadjacent lines

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CoplanarWaveguide
2

r = 4.3

346 162 67
L(nH / m) 152 683 152

67 162 346

0.45 0.12 0.45


0.5
E 0.5
0

0.45 0.87 0.45

113 17 5
C ( pF / m) 16 53 16

5 17 113

0.44 0.49 0.44


H 0.5
0
0.5

0.10 0.88 0.10

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CoplanarWaveguide
1

r = 4.3

73 0 0
Z m () 0 48 0

0 0 94

56 23 8
Z c () 22 119 22

8 23 56

0
0
0.15
0.17
0
v p (m / ns ) 0

0
0.18

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CoplanarWaveguide
S'

S'

K (k ) : Complete Elliptic Integral of the first kind


S
30 K '(k )
k
Z ocp
(ohm)
S 2W
r 1 K (k )
2
K '(k ) K (k ')
1/ 2

k ' (1 k )

2 1/ 2

2
vcp

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CoplanarStrips

Z ocs

120 K '(k )

(ohm)
r 1 K (k )
2

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QualitativeComparison
Characteristic

Microstrip

Coplanar Wguide

Coplanar strips

eff*

~6.5

~5

Power handling

High

Medium

Medium

Radiation loss

Low

Medium

Medium

Unloaded Q

High

Medium

Low or High

Dispersion

Small

Medium

Medium

Mounting (shunt)

Hard

Easy

Easy

Mounting (series)

Easy

Easy

Easy

~5

* Assuming r=10 and h=0.025 inch

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VTransmissionLine

signal strip

dielectric
h

ground

2p

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VLineCharacteristicImpedance
CHARACTERISTIC IMPEDANCE
250
30
37.5

200

45
52.5
60

Zo (ohms)

150

Microstrip

100

50

0
0

0.1

0.2

0.3

0.4

0.5

0.6

0.7

0.8

0.9

w/h

Calculated values of the characteristic impedance for a single-line v-strip structure as a


function of width-to-height ratio w/h. The relative dielectric constant is r = 2.55.

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VLine EffectivePermittivity
EFFECTIVE PERMITTIVITY
2.2
30
2.15

37.5
45

2.1
Effective Relative Dielectric Constant

52.5
60

2.05

Microstrip
2
1.95
1.9
1.85
1.8
0

0.1

0.2

0.3

0.4

0.5

0.6

0.7

0.8

0.9

w/h

Calculated values of the effective relative dielectric constant for a single-line


v-strip structure as a function of width-to-height ratio w/h.
The relative dielectric constant is r = 2.55

ECE451 JoseSchuttAine

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ThreeLine VTransmissionLine
y

signal strip
2p

h
dielectric
ground surface
x

Region
1

Region
2

Region
3

Region
4

ECE451 JoseSchuttAine

Region
5

Region
6

53

VLineandMicrostrip

Microstrip
C (pF/m) =

L (nH/m)

52.49
-5.90
-0.57

-5.90
53.27
-5.90

609.74
= 113.54
41.79

113.46
607.67
113.46

V-line
-0.57
-5.90
52.49
41.79
113.54
609.74

74.00
-0.97
-0.23

-0.97
74.07
-0.97

-0.23
-0.97
74.00

425.84
=
20.36
7.00

20.35
422.85
20.35

7.00
20.36
425.84

C (pF/m) =

L (nH/m)

signal strip

2p

h
dielectric
ground surface
x

Region
1

Region
2

Region
3

Region
4

Region
5

Region
6

Comparison of the inductance and capacitance matrices


between a three-line v-line and microstrip structures.
The parameters are p/h = 0.8 mils, w/h = 0.6 and r = 4.0.

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VLine:CouplingCoefficients
Mutual Inductance

Mutual Capacitance
40

350
300

35

microstrip

30

V-line

25
C (pF/m)

200

150

(nH/m)

250

V-line

microstrip

20
15

100

10

50

5
0

0
0

0.2

0.4

0.6

0.8

1.2

s/h

0.2

0.4

0.6

0.8

1.2

s/h

Plot of mutual inductance (top) and mutual capacitance (bottom) versus spacing-to-height ratio
for v-line and microstrip configurations. The parameters are w/h = 0.24, r = 4.0.

ECE451 JoseSchuttAine

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VLinevsMicrostrip:CouplingCoefficients
Coupling Coefficient
0.6
0.5

V-line
microstrip

0.4
0.3
0.2
0.1
0
0

0.2

0.4

0.6

0.8

1.2

s/h

Plot of the coupling coefficient versus spacing-to-height ratio for v-line and microstrip configurations.
The parameters are w/h = 0.24, r = 4.0.

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AdvantagesofVLine
ground reference
signal strip

tric
lec e
die strat
sub

signal strip

dielectric
h

ground

2p

ground reference

Propagation Function
1

Advantages of V Line

microstrip
V-60

0.9

V-30

* Lower crosstalk
* Better transition

Linear Attenuation

* Higher bandwidth
0.8

0.7

0.6

0.5

7
9
11
Frequency (GHz)

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13

15

17

57

VLinevsMicrostrip:InsertionLoss

Insertion Loss
0
-1

20*log10*|S21|

-2
-3
-4
Vline
Microstrip

-5
-6
-7
-8
0

10

15

20

25

Frequency (GHz)

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