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Colonization of South

By: Candy Perez, Sergio Morales, Maximiliano Serrano, Leonardo Avila

Civil Rights
Online Dictionary Definition: The rights
of citizens to have political and social
freedom and equality.

The Inca
When did they start?

The Inca first appeared in what is known as today southeastern Peru in the 12th century A.D.


They believed they were created by the sun god Inti.


They did not expand in power until the early 15th century, when their eighth emperor, Viracocha Inca,
took ahold of power.

Gender Roles:

Both men and women were known to be equal, although they had separate labor duties. Both genders
operated in two separate ways but were known to be important, therefore equal, because both
contributed to their society.


The wealthier men were known as “curacas”, they had the ability to wed many women because they
could afford to sustain these marriages. Although this system led to men taking advantage of their
wives and controlling the women’s everyday tasks.

The Inca
Political Viewpoints:
- As usual the wealthier elite class took a hold of religious and
political matters while the poor were respected very little and
mostly dissed.
- The “Sapa Inca” (aka The Boss) was an absolute ruler, as in his
word was the law and no could defy it.
- The king’s wife was known as the Qoya, she was wed to him, it
could be his own sister. She was known to influence both on her
husband. She had significant wealth which she had complete control

The European Colonies in South

The Spanish Colonies in South
In 1532, the Spaniards captured
the Incan
Emperor, Atahualpa

This was the first step into conquering the Inca

The Spanish soon defeated the Inca Empire
(along with the Aztecs), and expanded
their territory
Adopted the Inca Mit'a system
Forced labor of the indigenous people

Also used the Encomienda system

The Portuguese Colonies in South
Discovered Brazil around the 1500’s
Settled in there soon after

Native Americans were fascinated by the
Portuguese’s technology, beverages, and
Portuguese started to convert Native Americans (to
Roman Catholic)because of their interest

A mestizo population soon emerged because
of the syncretism between the Europeans,
Native Americans, and Africans.
The Portuguese would later start a colonial

Dutch, English, and French colonies in South
The Dutch, English, and French came
into action too late

The Spanish and Portuguese already discovered
most of South America.

They mostly focused on the Caribbean,
where they had their sugar plantations
It wasn’t really necessary for them to expand
into South America

These small colonies served as trading
French - French Guiana

Political Issues
There were conflicts between the newly discovered
Treaty of Tordesillas - An agreement that divided
the lands between the Spanish and the
Brazilian Independence
In 1808, the Portuguese Queen and the Regent fled to Rio to
escape the French invasion of Portugal
After the Napoleonic Wars, Brazil and Portugal
splitted,making Brazil Independent

Other regions in South America also started to rebel
against Spain, resulting in their independence