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Slide 1

INFORMATION ORGANIZATION:
TAILORING TO CHILDREN’S NEEDS
GROUP #8
EMILY DIPAULO
ALEXANDRA FERNANDES HALL
TRESS KLASSEN
BENJAMIN WIGHTMAN

Press “F5” to begin the slideshow. Narration and slides will advance automatically.
Transcript:
Hello, and welcome to our presentation on Information Organization for Children. I’m Tress
Klassen, here with my group members, Alexandra Fernandes Hall, Emily DiPaulo, and Benjamin
Wightman.
Libraries face a crucial challenge in meeting the needs of its youngest patrons. Ensuring that
children feel welcome in the library, and are able to use its resources is critical in order to keep
these patrons coming back.
Encouraging childhood literacy, curiosity, and promoting the joy of reading is one of the most
important tasks for public libraries, and accordingly, it’s vital that libraries’ systems of
organization are developed in a way that cater to children, particularly in regards to spaces and
materials dedicated specifically to these young patrons.

Slide 2

CHILDREN AS UNIQUE LIBRARY USERS

The library community has long recognized that children have their own unique
characteristics and requirements as library users. They are considered a
different enough audience, as users of both print and nonprint materials, that
special bibliographic treatment of library materials is warranted to meet their
developmental needs.

- ALA Guidelines for Standardized Cataloging for Children

Transcript:
The American Library Association recognizes the importance of this subset of patrons, stating
that:
“The library community has long recognized that children have their own unique characteristics
and requirements as library users. They are considered a different enough audience, as users of
both print and nonprint materials, that special bibliographic treatment of library materials is
warranted to meet their developmental needs.”
In order to provide context for the current status of information organization and the extent to
which it addresses the specific needs of children, we will be starting with a discussion of the
history of children in libraries.

Slide 3

A HISTORY OF CHILDREN IN LIBRARIES
-

Progressive Era social reforms
inspired libraries

-

Public libraries in the U.S.
started establishing children’s
services

-

In 1895, the first library was
built featuring a room designed
specifically for children.
Outcry against child labor increased support for educational
resources and the importance of literacy

Photo source: “Juvenile Textile Workers on Strike in Philadelphia,” 1903. From The Bitter Cry of the Children (J. Spargo 1906)

Transcript:
Libraries began catering specifically to the needs of children in the late nineteenth century, in
response to the Progressive social reforms of the time. It was during this time that public
libraries in the U.S. established children’s services in terms of programming, outreach, and
library spaces.
In 1895, the first library was built featuring a room designed specifically for children. This quickly
became the new standard for libraries, which were being built throughout the country at a rapid
pace in the early 20th century.
At this stage in history, there clearly was not the same sort of information design that we think
of today. Computerized catalogues and internet searching did not yet need to be adjusted for
children to navigate. Libraries recognized the importance of considering children’s perspectives
and need when determining the organization of the physical spaces of libraries, and the
cataloging of physical books.

Slide 4

CHILDREN’S LIBRARIANS’ GUIDING PRINCIPLES IN
THE EARLY 20TH CENTURY
- Belief in the uniqueness of each child
- Belief in the crucial importance of each child's personal selection of reading
materials

- Belief in the children's room as ‘an egalitarian republic of readers.’

Transcript:
Librarians at the time developed guiding principles to keep in mind when working with children,
including a “belief in the uniqueness of each child; a belief in the crucial importance of each
child's personal selection of reading materials; and a belief in the children's room as ‘an
egalitarian republic of readers.’”
These principles remain true today, as the processes of classification and organization of
children’s material allow for children to browse and select materials independently, and with
libraries continuing to dedicate physical space specifically catered to their younger patrons.

Slide 5

DITCHING DEWEY
In 1930, Toronto Public Library adapted
“an arrangement which is more intelligible
and attractive to boys and girls and which
has grown out of years of observation of
their reading interests."

Transcript:
In terms of classification, like many libraries today, libraries in the past century have taken issue
with the Dewey Decimal system, as children struggled to navigate materials. For example, in
1930 Toronto Public Library abandoned Dewey. Lillian H. Smith, who ran the library’s Children’s
Department stated that the library switched to “ an arrangement which is more intelligible and
attractive to boys and girls and which has grown out of years of observation of their reading
interests." Many other libraries in Canada soon followed suit. Their new classification system is
pictured here.
The challenge of adapting classification systems for young user continued as technology used in
libraries evolved. As libraries began to develop their own catalog designs for children, an ALA
study noted that this was leading to widespread inconsistency among the nation’s libraries.

Slide 6

THE ANNOTATED CARD PROGRAM
- In 1966, the Library of Congress established the Annotated Card program
- This was designed to help librarians accommodate younger patrons
- The program allowed for standardization of cataloging for children’s materials
- Encourages using annotations, modified subject headings, and offers additional classification
options

- In 1969, the ALA adopted the Annotated Card program as the new national
standard

- The program remains in place today, and was last revised in 1996

Transcript:
In 1966, the Library of Congress recognized the challenges that libraries faced in
accommodating their younger users, and initiated the the Annotated Card program, run by the
History and Literature Cataloging Division of the Children’s Literature Team. As described by the
ALA:
“The program has adapted the Library’s cataloging policies and practices to include annotations,
modified subject heading usage, and some special classification options. The Annotated Card
program was originally accessed through catalog cards from the Library of Congress and is now
available through MARC (Machine-Readable Cataloging) records and LC’s Cataloging-inPublication (CIP) program.”
In 1969, the ALA’s Cataloging of Children’s Materials Committee recommended the Library of
Congress’s Annotated Card program as the new national standard, and they remain in place
today, with revisions being made as required.

Slide 7

WHAT MAKES CHILDREN’S SEARCH NEEDS UNIQUE?
- Physical Access
Restrictions

- Limited Motor
Skills

- Numerical
Organization
Seems Abstract

- No Clear-Cut
Grouping of Similar
Topics is Confusing
- Special Needs
Children Require
Additional
Considerations

Transcript:
Children, as a user group, have a variety of unique needs for successful information retrieval,
both physical and otherwise. When assessing these needs, it is primarily important to consider
the limitations of a simply being a child. For one thing, height and other obvious physical access
restrictions limit them from being able to perform ordinary functions as the average library user
would, since they for example cannot see high shelves or have clear lines of sight. In the case of
very young children, they even lack the tactile ability to leaf through thin pages, successfully
control (or even understand the control functionality)of a mouse or keyboard, or perform other
fine-motor requirements. Numerical systems of organization can be confusing for children as
well, and classification systems can be bewildering when two books of seemingly the same
genre end up scattered around the collection, as by their formal classifications that cataloging
traditionally requires. Furthermore, children with special needs are even further along this
scope of specific requirement, where every variety of disability has a different set of
considerations. While these points may seems obvious, they all do come into play when
designing a system that caters to the young.

Slide 8

WHAT’S SO HARD
ABOUT ASKING?

- Differing language capabilities correspond
to cognitive development

- Difficulty formulating search queries
- Antiquated terminologies can present
barriers

- A lacking vernacular doesn’t allow for
appropriate descriptions be given for what
is actually needed

Transcript:
Once the physical needs of children are addressed, how about the ramifications of their other
search limitations? Children clearly have different language capabilities that correspond to their
cognitive development, not only across the variety of different age groups, but also because
language is acquired at different developmental stages at different rates by each individual
within those groups. Children also generally have difficulty formulating search queries.
Therefore, ideally, a system would have to transcend this array of communicative ability. Even if
a child is on the same communicative plane as an adult in their ability to express themselves
and their needs, antiquated terminologies can still present further barriers - consider as an
adult the first time you ever came across a category labeled with something like “cookery” or
“realia.” Metadata elements are usually designed by and for adults, and reflect the full variety
of our developed language. If genres or subject terms aren’t part of a person’s regular
vernacular, regardless of age, how can they, as a library user, even begin to formulate the
question? For a child, this challenge is further intensified the younger they are in age.

Slide 9

- Children rarely search by keywords; tend to
browse

WHAT’S SO HARD
ABOUT ASKING? (CONT.)

- Queries are formulated based on memory
limitations

- There is a lack of a contextual framework
for any meaningful analysis of search results

- Visual cues appeal to the process of thinking
in images that is relied on before children
can successfully read

- Too many results are frustrating

Transcript:
Beyond the vocabulary words themselves, children rarely search by keywords anyway; they tend
to browse. Analytical searching requires a user to remember relevant search terms and
assemble them accordingly into coherent queries, whereas browsing requires simple structures
of basic recognition. Though they may be unaware of it, children will use basic search terms to
formulate their queries because of their memory limits, and also since they lack the contextual
framework for any meaningful analysis of their search results. They are attracted to books and
materials usually by general topics and are heavily reliant on visual cues, since they can think in
images before they are able to actually read. Beyond that, they have little analytical skill to
assess the relevance of their findings, and often get frustrated by too many results. The
capacities of our memory and the speed in which we process thought increases with age, and
accordingly so do our subconscious approaches to basic information searching.

Slide 10

CHALLENGES IN SERVING CHILDREN
- Information systems designed for adults are unsuitable for children
- Metadata designed for adults

- Incomplete understanding of children as users
- Differing cognitive abilities, developmental levels, system knowledge and motor
coordination skills

- Children search differently than adults
- Prefer browsing
- Skills always changing and developing

http://siteaboutchildren.com/childrens-books.html

Slide 11

STAGES IN CHILDREN’S DEVELOPMENT
- Early Childhood
- Ages 2-7, not able to classify items, concrete thinking

- Middle Childhood
- Ages 6-8, understand basic classification

- Pre-Adolescence
- Ages 11-15, abstract and critical thinking, complete basic research

- Adolescence
- Can think abstractly and are aware of own information needs

https://theartofteachingenglish.wordpress.com/esl-ucv/childrensdevelopment-behavioural-characteristics/

Slide 12

DIGITAL DESIGN
- Children recognize pictures before they learn how to read
- Select books based on cover, pictures and title

- Use of graphics and icons helpful
- Challenging to construct for global audience

- Motor skills
- Struggle with keyboard searches and mouse movement

http://www.kiddle.co/kiddle-logo-v.png

http://autism.lovetoknow.com/Motor_Skills_in_Autistic_Children

Slide 13

COMPLICATIONS IN SERVING CHILDREN

http://financialtribune.com/articles/people/22617/national-plan-children%E2%80%99s-developmen

Due to “...children’s distinct developmental states, what is considered
“age appropriate” for one group may not be for another, which in
turn complicates design of digital libraries for children.”
(Martens, 2012, p. 165)

Slide 14

SUCCESSFUL INFORMATION SYSTEMS FOR CHILDREN
- No perfect system

- Many poor designs
- Research-supported
systems not widely
available

- Complicating age
differences
“At the computer” by Lars Ploughmann is licensed under CC BY-SA 2.0

Transcript:
Now that we have examined the history, needs, and challenges of designing information
systems for children, let’s look at some characteristics and examples of strong systems. Before
we do, however, a few cautions. First, there is no perfect system, or even scholarly consensus on
what an ideal information system for children should include. “The research on information
retrieval for young users is still in its infancy” (Gossen & Nurnberger, 2013, p. 754) and best
practices are still developing. With that in mind, however, we can say that several existing
systems supposedly created for children are actually not well designed to meet the needs of
young users. In addition, many systems that are based on research are not publically accessible.
It is also important to remember what Emily said about “children” not being a homogeneous
user group.
Despite these challenges, research has identified numerous information system features that
are generally helpful for children, and several publicly-available systems attempt to implement
them.

Slide 15

THE BASICS OF INFORMATION SYSTEMS FOR CHILDREN

Browsing-capability
Appropriateness,

Simplicity,
Illustrations,
Cognitive

Support
“Children reading on the couch” by San Jose Library is licensed under CC BY-SA 2.0

Transcript:
Research suggests that children benefit from information systems that adhere to certain BASICS,
including browsing capability, appropriateness, simplicity, illustrations, and cognitive support.

Slide 16

BASICS: BROWSING CAPABILITY
The system should allow
children to:

Navigate by making
choices

Retrace familiar steps

Easily find the entry
points

Untitled image by Ben_Kerckx is public domain

Transcript:
Browsing is finding information by making choices and following familiar pathways. Scholarly
literature widely agrees that information systems should allow children to browse, because that
is how children find information best (Hutchinson et. al., 2005; Beheshti et. al., 2006, p. 153;
Beheshti, Large, & Tan, 2010, p. 398; Gossen, Hempel, & Nurnberger, 2013, p. 1595; Gossen &
Nurnberger, 2013, p. 745; Martens, 2012, p. 163). Children as young as seven can use taxonomic
categories (Gossen, Hempel & Nurnberger, 2013, p. 1595), as long as the entry points are clear
and the language of the labels accessible (Beheshti, Large, & Tam, 2010, p. 398), and even a
simple alphabetical list of topics may be preferred over keyword searching (Beheshti, Large &
Tam, 2010, p. 399), although having the flexibility to support keyword searching alongside
browsing is still helpful for older children and adult users (Gossen, Hempel, & Nurnberger, 2013,
p. 1595).

Slide 17

BASICS: APPROPRIATENESS, SIMPLICITY, AND ILLUSTRATIONS
An appropriate system
includes:

 Point-and-click

A simple system
includes:

 Clean, consistent

navigation


No drag & drop
No scrolling
Voice search capability

Big buttons

 14-point font

An illustrated system
includes:

 Pictures, icons,

interface

One window

Intuitive ways to
go back and go
home

and multimedia


Concrete
Meaningful
In moderation

 Fun, virtual reality
environment

Transcript:
User interface (UI) design is where many information systems fall short of meeting children’s
needs. Because their motor coordination and mental processing are still developing, young
children often struggle to perform functions adults take for granted, like typing, clicking small
targets with a mouse, and using multiple mouse buttons. For this reason, researchers
recommend that information systems for children rely on point-and-click navigation
(Hutchinson et. al., 2010; Gossen, Hempel, & Nurnberger, 2013, p. 1594). Essential buttons
should be big (Hutchinson et. al., 2010, p. 2; Gossen & Nurnberger, 2013, p. 743), so the
children have a greater margin for error when selecting them. Font sizes for beginning readers
should also be relatively large, 14-point or larger (Gossen, Hempel, & Nurnberger, 2013, p.
1596).
Since children can easily become overwhelmed with information (Beheshti et. al., 2006, p. 147),
it is also important for the UI to have an uncluttered appearance, which remains consistent
throughout the search or browsing process (Gossen & Nurnberger, 2013, p. 743). Buttons for
going back and starting over should be easy to find, because children tend to have a “loopy”
browsing style that tends to backtrack and revisit previous findings (Gossen & Nurnberger, 2013,
p. 747). New windows, and those annoying “confirm form resubmission” dialogue boxes tend to
confuse them, so if possible the system should keep everything in one window, and function in
a way that enables web browsers’ back buttons to work as intended (Gossen, Hempel, &
Nurnberger, 2013, p. 1596).

Pictures, icons, and multimedia are also incredibly helpful for children. Children learn to read
between ages 4 and 7, but they can recognize images as early as age 2 (Gossen, Hempel, &
Nurnberger, 2013, p. 1596). Furthermore, they often continue to prefer visual cues over textual
information into adolescence (Beheshti et. al., 2005, p. 155). Small children may even select
materials on the basis of unconventional visual characteristics (Hutchinson et. al., 2005), like
specific illustrations or the color of the cover. While these attributes may seem superficial to
adults, it is important for systems truly aimed at serving children to represent them.
In general, graphics and icons in children’s information systems should be concrete,
recognizable to children even with their limited world knowledge (Gossen & Nurnberger, 2013,
p. 743). When possible, they should retain their meaning across language and cultural groups
(which can be a difficult task, Martens, 2012, p. 166). They should be used in moderation
(Gossen & Nurnberger, 2013, p. 746), so as not to cause confusion or sensory overload. Yet, at
the same time an ideal system would take full advantage of Web 2.0’s potential, with features
that allow for personalization (Martens, 2012, p. 167; Gossen & Nurnberger, 2013, p. 746),
social interaction (Martens, 2012, p. 166), and even a fully immersive virtual, video-game-like
environment (Beheshti et. al., 2006, p. 160). Pie-in-the-sky I know, but we can dream, can’t we?
For the less ambitious, images may even be used to good effect in physical systems. Ever been
in a library that uses small cue-cards with pictures to remind children which Dewey areas
correspond to which topics?

Slide 18

BASICS: COGNITIVE SUPPORT
The system should include:

Instructions, tutorials, and perhaps an
emotionally-responsive “search pal.”

 Automatic output ranking
 A limited number of results
 Built-in search history and results storage.
 Natural language capability
 Spell check
“iPad mounted in the Children's library“ by Gretchen Caserotti is licensed under CC BY 2.0

Transcript:
Information systems for children should accommodate and support their developing cognitive abilities.
There should be accessible “how to” features, ideally including an interactive “search pal” that can pop
up to show empathy and provide guidance when they inevitably reach those frustrating moments in the
information search process (Beheshti et. al., 2006, p. 158). (Gossen & Nurnberger (2013) suggest
something analogous to the Microsoft Word paperclip, although anyone who grew up in the 90s would
probably prefer to develop something less annoying.)
The system should also be able to limit and prioritize results, since young users typically cannot do this
on their own. Children rarely look at more than the first few results of a search, and devote even less
effort to trying to understand them (Gossen & Nurnberger, 2013, p. 746), not that they should be
expected to developmentally. The Empire State Information Fluency Continuum
(http://schools.nyc.gov/NR/rdonlyres/B45EB935-6807-4CA1-9FE5518EB48EFBF3/0/EmpireStateIFCColorBrochure.pdf) does not call for children to be proficient in
evaluating sources until 7th grade. Accordingly, it is important for children’s information systems to
make the first few hits count. By extension, it is also safe to discard results that extend beyond the first
page, since users are unlikely to navigate to them anyway.
Since children tend to remember visual locations and pathways, but forget specific results and search
terms, it is also helpful for the information system “to have built-in history and results storage
functionality” (Gossen & Nurnberger, 2013, p. 743). Keyword searching, if available, must absolutely
accommodate natural language queries (Hutchinson et. al., 2005; Beheshti et. al., 2006, p. 159; Gossen,
Hempel, & Nurnberger, 2013, p. 1595) and include spell check support (Beheshti et. al., 2006, p. 159;
Martens, 2012, p. 167; Gossen, Hempel, & Nurnberger, 2013, p. 1594).

Slide 19

CHARACTERISTICS OF AN EFFECTIVE CHILDREN’S
INFORMATION SYSTEM
Browsing

Appropriateness/
Simplicity

Illustrations

❏ Allows
users to
navigate
by making
choices.
❏ Allows
users to
retrace their
steps.
❏ Includes
easy-tofind entry
points.

❏ Primarily uses
point- and-click
navigation.
❏ Uses big buttons
❏ Uses 14-point or
larger font
❏ Has a clean,
consistent interface
❏ Uses one window
❏ Includes intuitive
ways to go back
and go home

❏ Uses pictures,
icons, and
multimedia
❏ Illustrations
have concrete
meaning
❏ Illustrations are
engaging
❏ Includes an
immersive
virtual reality
environment

Cognitive Support
❏ Includes instructions, tutorials,
and/or an emotionallyresponsive “search pal.”
❏ Ranks results automatically
❏ Limits the number of results
❏ Includes built-in search history
and results storage.
❏ Includes natural language
capability
❏ Includes spell check

Transcript:
Put all these characteristics together and we have a rubric for assessment, loosely based on the
one used by Gossen, Hempel, & Nurnberger in their 2013 study of child-oriented search
engines.

Slide 20

POOR EXAMPLES OF INFORMATION RETRIEVAL
SYSTEMS FOR CHILDREN

Click on thumbnails to visit sites. Click here for data tables.

Read the full article here:
http://search.ebscohost.com.gate.lib.buffalo.edu/login.aspx?direct=true&db=aci&AN=9199709
1&site=ehost-live&scope=site
Gossen, T., Hempel, J., & Nürnberger, A. (2013). Find it if you can: Usability case study of search
engines for young users. Personal and Ubiquitous Computing, 17(8), 1593-1603.

Transcript:
The German researchers were not impressed with what they found. They concluded “most
search engines for children do not offer observable advantages over the common search engine
Google. This lack of adaption can lead to children’s frustration during the search. In order to
avoid these problems, it is important not only to take child-friendly content into account, but
also the search interface itself has to be child friendly, so that children are able to use it without
problems” (p. 1602). Take a look at one of the sites above and see if you agree. You can access
the site by following the link attached to the thumbnail. The full study is highly enlightening. If
you’re interested in learning more, follow the link in the notes of this slide (above).

Slide 21

POOR EXAMPLES OF INFORMATION RETRIEVAL
SYSTEMS FOR CHILDREN

[Slide will be hidden and accessed through an optional link from previous slide in PowerPoint]
Note: Several of these sites, including kids.yahoo.com, askkids.com, and kids.aol.com are now
(unsurprisingly) defunct.

Slide 22

THE INTERNATIONAL CHILDREN’S DIGITAL LIBRARY: A GOOD
INFORMATION RETRIEVAL SYSTEM FOR CHILDREN

Transcript:
The International Children’s Digital Library was founded in 2002 by an interdisciplinary team of
computer scientists, librarians, educational technologists, classroom teachers, graphic
designers, graduate students, and 7-11 year olds at the University of Maryland. Its goal was to
facilitate the searching, browsing, reading, and sharing of at least 10,000 children’s books in at
least 100 languages, for both children ages 3-13 and international scholars who study children’s
literature (Hutchinson et. al., 2005). Although it was not the first system of its kind, it was one of
the first designed to be publicly available online in html format.
The ICDL is by no means a perfect system, but it has been praised by many different scholarly
commentators for its child-friendly features (Beheshti et. al., 2006, p. 155; Gossen &
Nurnberger, 2013, p. 750; Martens, 2012, p. 162). See if you can figure out what they appreciate
about it. Using the checklist from two slides ago, and the link above, evaluate the site. You can
pause the video while you’re examining the site, and resume when you’re ready to discuss
results.

Slide 23

THE INTERNATIONAL CHILDREN’S DIGITAL LIBRARY: A GOOD
INFORMATION RETRIEVAL SYSTEM FOR CHILDREN
Categories acknowledge attributes significant
to children

Pictographic
icons

Children can click buttons
to make choices

Consistent
one-page
interface

Search bar does not support spell
check or natural language

Transcript:
The first features that jumped out at me were the pictographic icons, which children can browse
by clicking to make or refine choices. I also noticed that row of icons up top, which allows users
to select books based on the color of the cover. That’s a distinctly childish attribute to include in
the system. I appreciate how all the action takes place on one page that consistently maintains
the same appearance. At the same time, though, I can definitely see some of the site’s
limitations. That search bar does not handle natural language queries well, and also does not
include spell check. Try searching for “kats,” k-a-t-s and see what you find.

Slide 24

CHARACTERISTICS OF AN EFFECTIVE CHILDREN’S
INFORMATION SYSTEM
Browsing

Appropriateness/
Simplicity

Illustrations

❏ Allows
users to
navigate
by
making
choices.
❏ Allows
users to
retrace
their
steps.
❏ Includes
easy-tofind entry
points.

❏ Primarily uses
point- and-click
navigation.
❏ Uses big
buttons
❏ Uses 14-point or
larger font
❏ Has a clean,
consistent
interface
❏ Uses one
window
❏ Includes
intuitive ways to
go back and go
home

❏ Uses
pictures,
icons, and
multimedia
❏ Illustrations
have
concrete
meaning
❏ Illustrations
are engaging
❏ Includes an
immersive
virtual reality
environment

Cognitive Support
❏ Includes instructions,
tutorials, and/or an
emotionally- responsive
“search pal.”
❏ Ranks results automatically
❏ Limits the number of results
❏ Includes built-in search
history and results storage.

❏ Includes natural language
capability
❏ Includes spell check

Transcript:
Here are the results of my evaluation. Blue features are the ones I found, red features are the
ones I did not. I’m on the fence about “illustrations are engaging.” I think it depends on the user.
How do my findings compare to yours?

Slide 25

HISTORY TREK

Transcript:
History Trek is another information retrieval site designed by LIS researchers (in this case former
colleagues of Professor Valerie Nesset at McGill) working in concert with elementary school
students. Whereas the ICDL was book-oriented, History Trek is intended to serve as a structured
search engine, pairing child users with helpful websites. Take it for a spin and see what you
think. Can you imagine what the experience would be like if you were a child?

Slide 26

APPLY IT!

Transcript:
This concludes our presentation. We hope you have found it helpful, and that it has prompted
you to take a more critical look at some of the information systems your library provides for
children. If you are a school librarian, parent, or someone interested in children’s services, we
encourage you to examine your students’ own catalogs and databases using the rubric from a
few slides ago. See which of your vendors are on the cutting edge of best practice, and perhaps
contact them with feedback. The LIS field is a collaborative one, and together we can all help
develop information systems that better meet the needs of our youngest users.

Slide 27

REFERENCES
Beheshti, J., Bilal, D., Druin, A., & Large, A. (2010). Testing Children’s Information Retrieval Systems: Challenges in a New Era. Proceedings of the American Society
for Information Science and Technology 47(1), 1-4.
Beheshti, J., Bowler, L., Large, A., & Nesset, V. (2005). Towards an alternative information retrieval system for children. In New Directions in Cognitive Information
Retrieval (pp. 139-165). Dordrecht: Springer.
Beheshti, J., Large, A., & Tam, M. (2010). Transaction Logs and Search Patterns on a Children's Portal / Journaux de transaction et modes de recherche sur un
portail web destiné aux enfants. Canadian Journal of Information and Library Science, 34(4), 391-402.
Fountain, J.F., Intner, S., & Weihs, J. (eds.) (2010). Chapter 1 - Guidelines for standardized cataloging for children. In Cataloging correctly for kids: An
Introduction to the tools, fifth edition. ALA Editions. Retrieved from http://www.ala.org/alcts/resources/org/cat/ccfkch1
Gossen, T., Hempel, J., & Nürnberger, A. (2013). Find it if you can: Usability case study of search engines for young users. Personal and Ubiquitous Computing,
17(8), 1593-1603.
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