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STAAD BASICS
- NOTES ON THE EFFECTIVE USE OF STAAD-PRO REL 3.1 -

- FOR STRUCTURAL ANALYSIS -

By R. P. Clarke

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TABLE OF CONTENTS

1.0

SKELETAL STRUCTURES – STATIC LOADS 1.1 SIGN CONVENTION 1.2 FUNDAMENTAL COMMANDS 1.3 EXAMPLE

3 5 6

2.0

CONTINUUM STRUCTURES – STATIC LOADS 2.1 2.2 2.3 SIGN CONVENTION FUNDAMENTAL COMMANDS EXAMPLE

9 9 11 11

3.0

SKELETAL STRUCTURES - DYNAMIC LOADS 3.1 3.2 FUNDAMENTAL COMMANDS EXAMPLE

14 14 15

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STAAD BASICS

The following is a description of fundamental considerations for the effective use of STAAD-PRO Release 3.1 for the analysis of structures. It must be mentioned however that since STAAD is a computer program, blind faith should not be placed in STAAD or any other engineering program. This is due to the following factors. (1): The results are only as good as the modeling of the structure in terms of load effects representation, effective structural systems, the connection behavior, and the material idealizations. (2): The procedures used in programs are not transparent to the user. (3): Computer programs usually have bugs. (4): Dependence on software can reduce the engineer's intuition of the actual behavior of the structure. It is therefore strongly recommended that until at least one year's experience of continually using STAAD is obtained, and for important structures, parallel hand calculations for the analysis and design of the structure be done as well. For section 1.0 it is presumed that the reader understands Structural Theory and the Stiffness Matrix Method of Structural Analysis. For section 2.0 it is presumed that the reader understands the fundamentals of Plate Theory, and the Finite Element Method based on the stiffness formulation. For section 3.0 it is presumed that the reader understands Structural Dynamic Analysis by the Lumped Mass Time History Method. 1.0 SKELETAL STRUCTURES – STATIC LOADS 1.1 SIGN CONVENTION

It is vital to understand the STAAD coordinate system in order to properly use STAAD. This is needed to ensure that the input data is as intended, and for the interpretation of the analysis results. Coordinate Systems: Since STAAD uses the Matrix Displacement Method of structural analysis, there are 2 Cartesian coordinate systems - the local and the global. The geometry of the structure as a whole is defined by the nodes at the ends of the various structural members, and each node has a unique number. Each member also has a unique number and the topology of the member is defined relative to the node numbers at its ends. This establishes the "MEMBER INCIDENCES" table. The location of each node is defined relative to a global coordinate system. By default, the origin of the global coordinate system is at node number 1.

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The location of points or sections within each structural member is defined relative to the local coordinate system with the origin at the left end node of the member viewed horizontally. Each member has its own local coordinate system.

A. FORCES AT A SECTION OF A MEMBER This applies to the sign of the quantity in the STAAD member stress diagram such as the bending moment diagram. POSITIVE FORCE AT THE SECTION NEGATIVE FORCE AT THE SECTION Bending: Mz Axial: Fx Shear: Fy

B. FORCES ACTING ON A MEMBER'S END In STAAD this is called the "MEMBER END FORCES"

POSITIVE FORCE ON THE MEMBER NEGATIVE FORCE ON THE MEMBER

Bending: Mz Axial: Fx Shear: Fy Torsion: Mx

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1.2

FUNDAMENTAL ANALYSIS COMMANDS

Regardless of the structure being analysed, the following are fundamental steps and STAAD command keywords shown in the brackets: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. Define whether the problem is 2D or 3D (STAAD PLANE or SPACE) Define the length and force units (UNITS) Define the nodes and their locations (JOINT COORDINATES) Define the member and their nodes (MEMBER INCIDENCES) Define the section properties of the members, Ix, etc (MEMBER PROPERTY) Define the mechanical properties of the members such as the Young's modulus, density, etc (CONSTANTS) Define the support conditions (SUPPORTS) Define the load cases (LOAD) Define the loads of each load case as member loads, joint loads, (or code loads) (MEMBER LOAD or JOINT LOAD) Define the load combinations (LOAD COMB) Analyse the structure (PERFORM ANALYSIS) Define the output format (PRINT) Finish the run (FINISH)

These commands are stored automatically in STAAD in a file with the extension .std. This file is formatted as an ASCII text file which means that it can be edited outside of STAAD with a word processor or any other text editor. Therefore, you can also write the input file independantly of STAAD and just refer to it when you enter STAAD to run the analysis. By using the "File" menu STAAD reads the .std file as its input and automatically creates an output file with the extension .anl. This file is also a text file and is useful for including in calculation reports. STAAD also creates certain other output files for its internal use. STAAD creates a database for your analysis, .dbs, and files for the bending moments .bmd, displacements, .dsp, reactions, .rea, amomg others. The aforementioned STAAD commands are incomplete by themselves - they are the keywords of the commands. The complete commands follow a particular syntax to completely describe the problem. The example problem at the end of this section shows the complete syntax for common commands. Though you can use a totally character-based approach with STAAD, the most effective use of STAAD is when you use the PRE-PROCESSOR of STAAD to write the .std for you. The PRE-PROCESSOR is a set of functions within STAAD that you select from the menus of STAAD's GUI. Each of the command keywords presented in brackets

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earlier has an icon or menu that you click on to create the commands in the .std file. From within STAAD you can see the contents of the .std file at any time, and the .anl file as well after analysis. To do this you just click on the icon for each. This puts the file on the screen and you can edit the file from there if you wish.

1.3

EXAMPLE 1:

The following is the .std file - ex1.std, for the analysis of a 3D 1-bay portal frame carrying a slab under an unfactored floor load of 6 kN/m2 and unfactored joint loads of 30 kN at 2 of the upper joints. The command keywords are in BOLD.

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STAAD SPACE EXAMPLE 1 START JOB INFORMATION JOB NAME EXAMPLE 1 JOB CLIENT UWI STUDENTS JOB NO 024 ENGINEER NAME rpc ENGINEER DATE 09-Aug-03 END JOB INFORMATION INPUT WIDTH 79 UNIT METER KN JOINT COORDINATES 1 0 0 0; 2 0 4.572 0; 3 0 0 4.572; 4 4.572 0 4.572; 5 4.572 0 0; 6 0 4.572 4.572; 7 4.572 4.572 0; 8 4.572 4.572 4.572; MEMBER INCIDENCES 1 1 2; 2 3 6; 3 4 8; 4 5 7; 5 6 8; 6 2 7; 7 2 6; 8 7 8; MEMBER PROPERTY AMERICAN 1 TO 4 PRIS YD 0.35 ZD 0.35 5 TO 8 PRIS YD 0.5 ZD 0.35 CONSTANTS E CONCRETE MEMB 1 TO 8 E 2.5e+007 MEMB 1 TO 8 POISSON 0.17 MEMB 1 TO 8 DENSITY 24 MEMB 1 TO 8 ALPHA 1.2e-011 MEMB 1 TO 8 DENSITY CONCRETE MEMB 1 TO 8 SUPPORTS 1 3 TO 5 FIXED LOAD 1 FLOOR LOAD SELFWEIGHT Y -1 FLOOR LOAD YRANGE 0 6 FLOAD -6 LOAD 2 JOINT LOAD JOINT LOAD 2 6 FX 30 LOAD COMB 3 FLOOR PLUS JOINT 1 1.5 2 1.2 PERFORM ANALYSIS FINISH

Note that the above figure shows the loading for the factored loads. Also, by using the FLOOR LOAD command, STAAD automatically calculates the load on the beams supporting the 2-way spanning slab. The self-weight of the members is automatically calculated by STAAD using the SELFWEIGHT Y -1 command. If we wanted to know the internal forces at the ends of say the members 1 and 5 included in the output data, we would put the following commands after the "PERFORM ANALYSIS" command:
PRINT MEMBER FORCES LIST 1 PRINT MEMBER FORCES LIST 5

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The output data from the file ex1.anl that corresponds to these commands are as follows:
MEMBER END FORCES STRUCTURE TYPE = SPACE ----------------ALL UNITS ARE -- KN METE MEMBER LOAD JT AXIAL SHEAR-Y SHEAR-Z TORSION MOM-Y MOM-Z

1

1 2 3

1 2 1 2 1 2

63.40 -50.21 -14.14 14.14 78.13 -58.34

-2.92 2.92 15.02 -15.02 13.64 -13.64

2.92 -2.92 0.00 0.00 4.38 -4.38

0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00

-4.42 -8.95 0.00 0.00 -6.63 -13.42

-4.42 -8.95 36.31 32.37 36.94 25.42

************** END OF LATEST ANALYSIS RESULT **************

MEMBER END FORCES ----------------ALL UNITS ARE -- KN MEMBER LOAD JT

STRUCTURE TYPE = SPACE METE AXIAL SHEAR-Y SHEAR-Z TORSION MOM-Y MOM-Z

5

1 2 3

6 8 6 8 6 8

2.92 -2.92 14.98 -14.98 22.36 -22.36

25.10 25.10 -14.14 14.14 20.69 54.62

0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00

0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00

0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00

8.95 -8.95 -32.37 -32.29 -25.42 -52.16

************** END OF LATEST ANALYSIS RESULT **************

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2.0

CONTINUUM STRUCTURES – STATIC LOADS

Continuum structures (plates, slabs, walls, shells, tanks, etc) are modelled in STAAD by using finite elements. The following is with respect to the element of the STAAD library which can be quadrilateral or triangular. Common rules for the use of finite element modelling apply and will not be repeated here and it is presumed that section 1.0 has been covered.

2.1

SIGN CONVENTION

The sign convention is as follows:

Fxy

Fx

Fy MEMBRANE FORCES QX MXY QY MYX QX

MY MX MYX QY

MXY

BENDING MOMENTS & TRANSVERSE SHEAR

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The diagrams above show the positive direction of the forces relative to the following local coordinate system.

Z Top surface L Y K I J X Bottom surface
Hence for axial direct forces: tension is positive, for bending moments: hogging is positive, and for transverse shear: down-to-the-left and up-to-the-right is positive. Note that for non-rectangular and triangular elements, the x-y-z axes are not orthogonal to the edges or surfaces of the element. The x-axis is aligned with a line connecting the mid-points of IL and JK, the z-axis is orthogonal to lines connecting the mid-points of ILJK to those connecting the mid-points of IJ-KL, and the y-axis is orthogonal to the x and z axes so defined. ELEMENT FORCE outputs are available at the centre node of the element, all corner nodes of the element, and at any user-specified point within the element. The items included in the ELEMENT FORCE output are: QX, QY Transverse shear forces stated as force per unit length per unit element thickness. Membrane forces stated as force per unit length per unit element thickness. Bending moments stated as moment per unit length. Principal stresses stated as force per unit area. Maximum in-plane shear stress stated as force per unit area.

FX, FY, FXY

MX, MY, MXY SMAX, SMIN TMAX

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ANGLE

The orientation of the principal plane stated in degrees measured anti-clockwise from the local x-axis.

The top and bottom surfaces are identified on the basis of the direction of the local z-axis.

2.2

FUNDAMENTAL COMMANDS

The fundamental commands for finite element analysis using STAAD closely follow those for the skeletal or frame member analysis. The following are the essential differences: • • ELEMENT INCIDENCES command. ELEMENT PROPERTY command.

Both frame members and finite elements can be used together in STAAD but the ELEMENT INCIDENCES command must immediately follow the MEMBER INCIDENCES command. The selfweight of the finite elements is converted to joint loads at the connected nodes and is not used as an element pressure load.

2.3

EXAMPLE 2

Analyse an uncovered reinforced concrete tank of dimensions 6.0m x 6.0m x 6.0m with walls and base 200mm thick. The tank is filled with water and rests on rigid ground. The following is the STAAD .std file for a model of the tank.
STAAD SPACE FINITE ELEMENT MODEL OF TANK STRUCTURE START JOB INFORMATION ENGINEER DATE 10-Feb-04 END JOB INFORMATION UNIT MET KNS JOINT COORDINATES 1 0 0 0; 2 0 1.5 0; 3 0 3.0 0; 4 0 4.5 0; 5 0 6.0 0; 6 1.5 0 0; 7 1.5 1.5 0; 8 1.5 3.0 0; 9 1.5 4.5 0; 10 1.5 6.0 0; 11 3.0 0 0; 12 3.0 1.5 0; 13 3.0 3.0 0; 14 3.0 4.5 0; 15 3.0 6.0 0; 16 4.5 0 0; 17 4.5 1.5 0; 18 4.5 3.0 0; 19 4.5 4.5 0; 20 4.5 6.0 0; 21 6.0 0 0; 22 6.0 1.5 0; 23 6.0 3.0 0; 24 6.0 4.5 0; 25 6.0 6.0 0; 26 6.0 0 1.5; 27 6.0 1.5 1.5; 28 6.0 3.0 1.5; 29 6.0 4.5 1.5; 30 6.0 6.0 1.5; 31 6.0 0 3.0; 32 6.0 1.5 3.0; 33 6.0 3.0 3.0; 34 6.0 4.5 3.0; 35 6.0 6.0 3.0; 36 6.0 0 4.5; 37 6.0 1.5 4.5; 38 6.0 3.0 4.5; 39 6.0 4.5 4.5; 40 6.0 6.0 4.5; 41 6.0 0 6.0; 42 6.0 1.5 6.0; 43 6.0 3.0 6.0; 44 6.0 4.5 6.0; 45 6.0 6.0 6.0; 46 4.5 0 6.0; 47 4.5 1.5 6.0; 48 4.5 3.0 6.0; 49 4.5 4.5 6.0; 50 4.5 6.0 6.0; 51 3.0 0 6.0;

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52 3.0 1.5 6.0; 53 3.0 3.0 6.0; 54 3.0 4.5 6.0; 55 3.0 6.0 6.0; 56 1.5 0 6.0; 57 1.5 1.5 6.0; 58 1.5 3.0 6.0; 59 1.5 4.5 6.0; 60 1.5 6.0 6.0; 61 0 0 6.0; 62 0 1.5 6.0; 63 0 3.0 6.0; 64 0 4.5 6.0; 65 0 6.0 6.0; 66 0 0 4.5; 67 0 1.5 4.5; 68 0 3.0 4.5; 69 0 4.5 4.5; 70 0 6.0 4.5; 71 0 0 3.0; 72 0 1.5 3.0; 73 0 3.0 3.0; 74 0 4.5 3.0; 75 0 6.0 3.0; 76 0 0 1.5; 77 0 1.5 1.5; 78 0 3.0 1.5; 79 0 4.5 1.5; 80 0 6.0 1.5; 81 1.5 0 1.5; 82 1.5 0 3.0; 83 1.5 0 4.5; 84 3.0 0 1.5; 85 3.0 0 3.0; 86 3.0 0 4.5; 87 4.5 0 1.5; 88 4.5 0 3.0; 89 4.5 0 4.5; ELEMENT INCIDENCES SHELL 1 1 2 7 6; 2 2 3 8 7; 3 3 4 9 8; 4 4 5 10 9; 5 6 7 12 11; 6 7 8 13 12; 7 8 9 14 13; 8 9 10 15 14; 9 11 12 17 16; 10 12 13 18 17; 11 13 14 19 18; 12 14 15 20 19; 13 16 17 22 21; 14 17 18 23 22; 15 18 19 24 23; 16 19 20 25 24; 17 21 22 27 26; 18 22 23 28 27; 19 23 24 29 28; 20 24 25 30 29; 21 26 27 32 31; 22 27 28 33 32; 23 28 29 34 33; 24 29 30 35 34; 25 31 32 37 36; 26 32 33 38 37; 27 33 34 39 38; 28 34 35 40 39; 29 36 37 42 41; 30 37 38 43 42; 31 38 39 44 43; 32 39 40 45 44; 33 41 42 47 46; 34 42 43 48 47; 35 43 44 49 48; 36 44 45 50 49; 37 46 47 52 51; 38 47 48 53 52; 39 48 49 54 53; 40 49 50 55 54; 41 51 52 57 56; 42 52 53 58 57; 43 53 54 59 58; 44 54 55 60 59; 45 56 57 62 61; 46 57 58 63 62; 47 58 59 64 63; 48 59 60 65 64; 49 61 62 67 66; 50 62 63 68 67; 51 63 64 69 68; 52 64 65 70 69; 53 66 67 72 71; 54 67 68 73 72; 55 68 69 74 73; 56 69 70 75 74; 57 71 72 77 76; 58 72 73 78 77; 59 73 74 79 78; 60 74 75 80 79; 61 76 77 2 1; 62 77 78 3 2; 63 78 79 4 3; 64 79 80 5 4; 65 1 6 81 76; 66 76 81 82 71; 67 71 82 83 66; 68 66 83 56 61; 69 6 11 84 81; 70 81 84 85 82; 71 82 85 86 83; 72 83 86 51 56; 73 11 16 87 84; 74 84 87 88 85; 75 85 88 89 86; 76 86 89 46 51; 77 16 21 26 87; 78 87 26 31 88; 79 88 31 36 89; 80 89 36 41 46; ELEMENT PROPERTY 1 TO 80 THICKNESS 0.20 CONSTANTS E 20000000.0 ALL SUPPORTS 1 6 11 16 21 26 31 36 41 46 51 56 61 66 71 76 81 TO 89 PINNED LOAD 1 ELEMENT LOAD 4 8 12 16 20 24 28 32 36 40 44 48 52 56 60 64 PR 15. 3 7 11 15 19 23 27 31 35 39 43 47 51 55 59 63 PR 30. 2 6 10 14 18 22 26 30 34 38 42 46 50 54 58 62 PR 45. 1 5 9 13 17 21 25 29 33 37 41 45 49 53 57 61 PR 60. PERFORM ANALYSIS PRINT JOINT DISPLACMENTS LIST 5 25 45 65 PRINT ELEMENT FORCE LIST 9 TO 16 DRAW ROTA X -20 Y 30 Z 20 STR 1 FINISH

The following is part of the STAAD output for the displacements, element forces, stresses, etc, at the locations indicated in the input file.

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63. PRINT JOINT DISPLACMENTS LIST 5 25 45 65
FINITE ELEMENT MODEL OF TANK STRUCTURE

JOINT DISPLACEMENT (CM -----------------JOINT LOAD X-TRANS

RADIANS)

STRUCTURE TYPE = SPACE

Y-TRANS

Z-TRANS

X-ROTAN

Y-ROTAN

Z-ROTAN

5 25 45 65

1 1 1 1

-0.0029 0.0029 0.0029 -0.0029

-0.0003 -0.0003 -0.0003 -0.0003

-0.0029 -0.0029 0.0029 0.0029

0.0001 0.0001 -0.0001 -0.0001

0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000

-0.0001 0.0001 0.0001 -0.0001

64. PRINT ELEMENT FORCE LIST 9 TO 16 FINITE ELEMENT MODEL OF TANK STRUCTURE

ELEMENT FORCES FORCE,LENGTH UNITS= KNS MET -------------FORCE OR STRESS = FORCE/UNIT WIDTH/THICK, MOMENT = FORCE-LENGTH/UNIT WIDTH ELEMENT LOAD QX VONT QY VONB MX FX MY FY MXY FXY

9 TOP : BOTT: 10 TOP : BOTT: 11 TOP : BOTT: 12 TOP : BOTT: 13 TOP : BOTT: 14

1

322.03 2594.11 SMAX= 1631.24 SMAX= 1395.94

24.89 -6.52 2279.42 39.19 SMIN= -1360.09 TMAX= SMIN= -1234.46 TMAX= -104.02 22.55 3841.25 -51.93 SMIN= 2948.25 TMAX= SMIN= -4365.67 TMAX= -101.23 13.25 3607.97 -47.38 SMIN= 1939.18 TMAX= SMIN= -4165.74 TMAX= -88.67 1.04 3580.09 0.30 SMIN= 155.47 TMAX= SMIN= -3654.67 TMAX= -94.45 -5.15 2137.97 -39.19 SMIN= -2319.92 TMAX= SMIN= 142.90 TMAX= -369.04 0.23

6.89 6.55 177.12 58.53 1495.67 ANGLE= -22.0 1315.20 ANGLE= -22.3 27.88 5.06 388.84 28.70 1002.35 ANGLE= -25.9 751.97 ANGLE= -38.1 30.74 -0.05 445.41 -21.84 1558.78 ANGLE= 0.5 1065.81 ANGLE= -0.4 26.72 0.28 354.46 -14.06 2103.71 ANGLE= -0.4 1750.26 ANGLE= -0.9 -9.80 7.19 144.56 145.84 1250.92 ANGLE= 39.1 1031.47 ANGLE= 32.4 -22.18 5.07

1

32.21 4315.25 SMAX= 4952.95 SMAX= -2861.72 -61.01 4418.73 SMAX= 5056.75 SMAX= -2034.12 -39.29 4287.26 SMAX= 4362.88 SMAX= -154.15 -2.80 2416.03 SMAX= 181.92 SMAX= 2205.83 -76.30

1

1

1

1

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TOP : BOTT: 15 TOP : BOTT: 16 TOP : BOTT:

3161.16 SMAX= 286.87 SMAX= 3983.43 1 -17.52 3559.42 SMAX= -781.48 SMAX= 4760.39 4.67 3491.73 SMAX= -1219.29 SMAX= 4612.27

4043.74 51.93 SMIN= -3007.95 TMAX= SMIN= -118.04 TMAX= -326.06 -5.54 4387.81 47.38 SMIN= -3885.23 TMAX= SMIN= 877.91 TMAX= -251.97 -8.13 4139.45 -0.30 SMIN= -3937.89 TMAX= SMIN= 1219.73 TMAX=

520.22 27.13 1647.41 ANGLE= 14.3 2050.74 ANGLE= 10.5 -28.81 -0.23 438.41 -37.17 1551.88 ANGLE= -1.3 1941.24 ANGLE= 0.0 -28.50 -0.26 337.72 -17.83 1359.30 ANGLE= -1.2 1696.27 ANGLE= -0.3

1

********************END OF ELEMENT FORCES********************

3.0

SKELETAL STRUCTURES – DYNAMIC LOAD 3.1 FUNDAMENTAL COMMANDS

The reader must first complete section 1.0. Only Time History dynamic analysis by the application of forcing functions to nodes or members is covered in this section (i.e. not ground motion time history dynamics). There are 2 issues to consider in the use of STAAD for dynamic analysis - how STAAD idealises the distribution of mass and how to apply the forcing function. STAAD distributes the mass via the SELFWEIGHT command. When this is done, the mass is lumped at the nodes. If this is an inadequate model of the mass idealisation, the member concentrated load command CON can be used to tell STAAD that significant masses are located there and their values. Also, the user can split the member into shorter lengths by inserting nodes along the member. In this case, the user can use the JOINT LOAD command to tell STAAD that a significant mass is located there and its mass. The SELFWEIGHT command is placed as the first line (or lines) of the commands under the relevant LOAD command. If the CON or JOINT LOAD commands are used, it is placed after the SELFWEIGHT command. To apply a forcing function in STAAD at the nodes, or at a particular location, you must first define the type of forcing function using the DEFINE TIME HISTORY command. Note that a forcing function can only be applied at a node so if the user wishes to apply the function to a point along a member, a node must be placed there first. You then use the TYPE “i” FORCE command along with its particular syntax requirements. Finally, under the relevant LOAD command and after the mass idealisation commands (i.e. SELFWEIGHT, CON, JOINT LOAD), you use the TIME LOAD command. You can only use the TIME LOAD command in one load case.

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3.2

EXAMPLE 3

A one-storey reinforced concrete structure of plan dimensions 10.0m x 4.572m supports several loads: a mass of 120 kN at the mid-span of one of the long beams, point loads of 30kN at the floor level in the long direction, and a floor load of 6.0 kN/m2 . The columns are 0.3m x 0.3m and the beams are 0.45m deep x 0.3m wide. If the mass vibrates at 2.5 Hz for 10 cycles, estimate the amplification factor for the bending moment in the beam under the mass? The following is a STAAD model of the structure, loads, and assumed load factors.
STAAD SPACE EXAMPLE 3 INPUT WIDTH 79 UNIT METER KN JOINT COORDINATES 1 0 0 0; 2 0 4.572 0; 3 0 0 4.572; 4 10 0 4.572; 5 10 0 0; 6 0 4.572 4.572; 7 10 4.572 0; 8 10 4.572 4.572; 10 5 4.572 4.572; MEMBER INCIDENCES 1 1 2; 2 3 6; 3 4 8; 4 5 7; 6 2 7; 7 2 6; 8 7 8; 10 10 8; 11 6 10; MEMBER PROPERTY AMERICAN 1 TO 4 PRIS YD 0.3 ZD 0.3 6 TO 8 10 11 PRIS YD 0.45 ZD 0.3 CONSTANTS E 2.5e+007 MEMB 1 TO 4 6 TO 8 10 11 POISSON 0.17 MEMB 1 TO 4 6 TO 8 10 11 ALPHA 1.2e-011 MEMB 1 TO 4 6 TO 8 10 11 DENSITY CONCRETE MEMB 1 TO 4 6 TO 8 10 11 SUPPORTS 1 3 TO 5 FIXED *INPUT THE TYPE OF FORCING FUNCTION HERE DEFINE TIME HISTORY TYPE 1 FORCE FUNCTION SINE *THE NEXT LINE IS A FORCE OF AMPLITUDE 120 KN VIBRATING AT 2.5 HZ FOR 10 SEC AMPLITUDE 120 FREQUENCY 2.5 CYCLES 10 ARRIVAL TIME 0 DAMPING 0.05 LOAD 1 FLOOR LOAD SELFWEIGHT Y -1 FLOOR LOAD YRANGE 0 6 FLOAD -6 LOAD 2 JOINT LOAD JOINT LOAD 2 6 FX 30 10 FY -120 *IN THE NEXT LINE YOU MUST INPUT THE LOAD DUE TO THE MASS THOUGH YOU *USE THE JOINT LOAD CMD IN THE TIME HISTORY CMDs TO TELL STAAD THAT A MASS

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*IS THERE AND IN WHAT DIRECTIONS IT IS CAPABLE OF MOVING LOAD 3 TIME HISTORY LOAD SELFWEIGHT X 1 SELFWEIGHT Y 1 SELFWEIGHT Z 1 *THE JOINT LOAD COMMAND IS USED TO TELL STAAD THE ACTIVE MASS AT A JOINT JOINT LOAD 10 FY 120 TIME LOAD *THE FORCING FUNCTION MUST BE APPLIED TO A JOINT HENCE THE FY 10 FY 1 1 LOAD COMB 4 FLOOR PLUS JOINT 1 1.5 2 1.2 LOAD COMB 5 FLOOR PLUS JOINT PLUS VIBRATION 1 1.5 2 1.2 3 1.0 PERFORM ANALYSIS PRINT MEMBER FORCES LIST 11 FINISH

The relevant STAAD output is:
CALCULATED FREQUENCIES FOR LOAD CASE MODE FREQUENCY(CYCLES/SEC) 3 PERIOD(SEC)

1 2 3

3.050 3.796 3.899

0.32782 0.26346 0.25646

MASS PARTICIPATION FACTORS IN PERCENT -------------------------------------MODE 1 2 3 X Y Z SUMM-X 0.000 99.925 99.925 SUMM-Y 58.691 58.691 58.693 SUMM-Z 0.003 0.003 97.576

0.00 58.69 0.00 99.93 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 97.57

61. PRINT MEMBER FORCES LIST 11

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MEMBER END FORCES ----------------ALL UNITS ARE -- KN
MEMBER LOAD JT AXIAL

STRUCTURE TYPE = SPACE METE
SHEAR-Y SHEAR-Z TORSION MOM-Y MOM-Z

11

1 2 3 4 5

6 10 6 10 6 10 6 10 6 10

23.95 -23.95 38.45 -38.45 -90.99 90.99 82.06 -82.06 -8.93 -173.04

68.81 0.00 53.82 -53.82 -232.35 232.35 167.79 -64.58 -64.57 -296.93

0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.13 -0.13 0.00 0.00 0.13 0.13

0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00

0.00 0.00 0.03 -0.03 0.34 -0.30 0.03 -0.03 0.37 0.27

73.21 126.05 63.06 206.01 -364.06 -797.72 185.50 436.29 -178.56 1234.01

************** END OF LATEST ANALYSIS RESULT **************

Hence from the output for load 5 and load 4, and at joint 10, the amplification factor is 1234.01/436.29 = 2.82 This relatively high amplification occurs because the forcing function frequency of 2.5 Hz is not far from the natural frequencies of the structure of 3.050 to 3.899 Hz.

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