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Running head: GLOBAL POLIO ERADICATION INITIATIVE

Global Polio Eradication Initiative: Annotated Bibliography


Miguel Carrillo
The University of Texas at El Paso

Global Polio Eradication Initiative

Introduction:
The Global Polio Eradication Initiative (GPEI) is united with national governments and
distinctly driven forces to tackle the underlying subject matter dedicated towards the eradication
and elimination of polio within the free world. It is an initiative aimed to cease the disease that
once was feared all across the board. The objective of the initiative is to reach the populous
living in the marginalized locations where polio is still alive and provide assistance with vaccines
to ensure the elimination and affirming of eventually a polio-free world across the board. The
Global Eradication Initiative is an issue that should be discussed with the sections of who is
involved in the initiative, raising awareness, the effects of polio, and why should individuals
value the initiative, and show how this topic is a 21st-century issue that is having a great impact
on the world. Therefore, the Global Eradication Initiative (GPEI) is a subject matter that is worth
advocating for and is an issue that is aimed towards the well-being of the worlds poverty
stricken communities with an active affliction of Polio and impacting the world by working for
the eradication of a virus.
Research should analyze certain areas like these following four questions:
1) Who is involved in the Global Polio Eradication Initiative?
2) Why should people be aware of the Global Polio Eradication Initiative?
3) How does polio affect the 1% of the population that is still exposed to this
deadly disease?
4) Why should we value the Global Polio Eradication Initiative?

Global Polio Eradication Initiative

Reference A
Ahmad, S. O., Yousuf, F., Bux, A. S., & Abu-Zaid, A. (2016). Pakistan: the final frontier for
global polio eradication. Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health, Volume 70
(Issue 2), 109-110. Retrieved from http://jech.bmj.com/content/70/2/109.full
Summary: The article titled Pakistan: the final frontier for global polio eradication entails
outlining points over the about the early stages of the polio eradication initiative. The article
encompasses and outlines the oppositional notions that shed light by individuals that believe in
the nefarious concepts the Global Polio Eradication Initiative is encompassing into societies. The
article serves as an oppositional view sharing the voice of the opposing party against the polio
eradication cause.
Evaluation: The article titled Pakistan: the final frontier for global polio eradication
encompasses the oppositional notions brought to light by individuals that believe in the nefarious
ideals the Global Polio Eradication Initiative is incorporating into societies. The article contains
mostly numerical data to back up the essential questions underlying the cause of the polio
eradication initiative. The article encompasses a thorough view over the dark side to the polio
eradication cause. This, in turn, can aid in balancing the research through both contrasting views.
The article serves as an oppositional view entailing the voice and thoughts of the opposing party
against the polio eradication initiative.
Citation: 0
2 Direct Quotes
Direct Quote #1: According to Ahmad et. al., (2016), Religious opposition by Muslim
fundamentalists is a major factor in the failure of immunization programs against polio in

Global Polio Eradication Initiative

Nigeria, Pakistan and Afghanistan. This religious conflict in the tribal areas of Pakistan is one of
the biggest hindrances to effective polio vaccination. (p.109).
Direct Quote #2: According to Ahmad et. al., (2016), campaigns in Nigeria and Afghanistan
have also been hampered by Islamic extremists, especially in the Nigerian province of Kano in
2003, which has resulted in the infection returning to 8 previously polio-free countries in Africa.
(p. 109).
2 Paraphrased Material
Paraphrase Direct Quote #1: According to Ahmad et. al., (2016), Muslim zealots obstruction
due to religious beliefs is a foremost aspect in the fiasco of immunization platforms in
contradiction of polio in Afghanistan, Pakistan, and Nigeria. The religious engagement in the
community regions of Pakistan is one of the prevalent interferences to effectual vaccination
against polio.
Paraphrase Direct Quote #2: According to Ahmad et. al., (2016), Polio eradication movements
through Afghanistan and Nigeria have been obstructed by Islamic radicals, specifically in the
Nigerian sphere of Kano in 2003, which stemmed in the contamination recurring to eight
formerly polio-ridden locations in Africa.
2 Block Quotes
Block Quote #1: According to Ahmad et. al., (2016), Epidemiologists have detected
transmission of wild poliovirus from polio-endemic districts in Afghanistan, most of
which are located in the southern region of this country bordering Pakistan, to tribal areas
of Pakistan. This transmission has resulted in new cases of polio in previously polio-free

Global Polio Eradication Initiative

districts. The local Taliban have issued fatwas denouncing vaccination as an American
ploy to sterilize Muslim populations. (p. 109).
Block Quote #2: According to Ahmad et. al., (2016), Another common superstition
spread by extremists is that vaccination is an attempt to avert the will of Allah. The
Taliban have assassinated vaccination officials, including Abdul Ghani Marwat, who was
the head of the governments vaccination campaign in Bajaur Agency in the Pakistani
tribal areas, on his way back from meeting a religious cleric (5). (p.109).
Definition Word: Fatwas - a ruling on a point of Islamic law given by a recognized authority.
Reference B
Better Health Channel (2015). Polio and Post-Polio Syndrome. Better Health channel. Retrieved
from https://www.betterhealth.vic.gov.au/health/conditionsandtreatments/polio-and-postpolio-syndrome
Summary: The article titled Polio and Post-Polio Syndrome encompasses sections such as
immunization against polio, symptoms of polio, causes of polio, risk factors for polio, diagnosis
of polio, treatment for polio, post-polio syndrome, where to get help, things to remember
entailing a well coverage surrounding the thorough process of being afflicted with the polio
disease. The article entails factual and reliable information regarding the structure of contracting
such a virus and mending its impacts through distinct measures. The article, in turn, answers the
rhetorical query on how the virus impacts individuals.

Global Polio Eradication Initiative

Evaluation: The article titled Polio and Post-Polio Syndrome encompasses over the subject
matter of having individuals be impacted by such a virus. Through factual data, the article
answers the essential inquiry outlining the main sections surrounding the parts of contracting
polio, treatments, and preventions. The article curtails useful information that is essential to
answer the question.
Citation: 0
2 Direct Quotes
Direct Quote #1: According to Polio and Post-Polio Syndrome (2015), Polio symptoms
generally appear between three and 21 days after infection. However, many people infected with
poliovirus have no symptoms and may not even know they are affected. (p. 1).
Direct Quote #2: According to Polio and Post-Polio Syndrome (2015), In mild polio cases,
symptoms include: fever, tiredness and weakness (malaise), headache, nausea and vomiting,
muscle stiffnessThere is no cure for polio. Treatment aims to manage the effects of the
disease. (p. 1).
2 Paraphrased Material
Paraphrase Direct Quote #1: According to Polio and Post-Polio Syndrome (2015), According
to Polio and Post-Polio Syndrome (2015), Polio indicators mundanely emerge amid three to
twenty-one days following contamination. Nevertheless, countless individuals disease-ridden
with polio ensure no indications and might not realize they subsist infection.
Paraphrase Direct Quote #2: According to Polio and Post-Polio Syndrome (2015), In trivial
polio situations, indicators embrace: weakness, tiredness, headaches, vomiting, fever, nausea,

Global Polio Eradication Initiative

and muscle rigidness. Although, there is no cure for polio there are treatments aimed to aid
individuals to cope with the consequences of the virus.
2 Block Quotes
Block Quote #1: According to Polio and Post-Polio Syndrome (2015), Polio is a
preventable life-threatening disease. Symptoms vary from mild, flu-like symptoms to
paralysis and possibly death. The late effects of polio (post-polio syndrome) cause muscle
weakness and fatigue years after a bout of polio. It is important to avoid physical
overexertion if you suffer from post-polio syndrome. Braces, walking sticks and electric
scooters can help relieve the symptoms of the late effects of polio. All adults and children
need to be immunized to protect against polio. (p.1).
Block Quote #2: According to Polio and Post-Polio Syndrome (2015), If the virus
spreads to the nervous system, major illness such as meningitis (brain infection) and
paralysis can occur. The onset of paralysis is generally quite rapid usually within three to
four days. Symptoms include: severe muscle pain, stiffness of the neck and back with or
without paralysis, swallowing and breathing problems, long-term disability due to
paralysis of the muscles, death in severe cases, when breathing and swallowing muscles
are paralyzed. (p. 1).
Definition Word: Physiotherapy - is a healthcare profession that assesses, diagnoses, treats, and
works to prevent disease and disability through physical means.

Global Polio Eradication Initiative

Reference C
Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation. (2015). What We Do Polio Strategy Overview. Bill &
Melinda Gates Foundation. http://www.gatesfoundation.org/What-We-Do/GlobalDevelopment/Polio
Summary: The Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation web page address points of the initiative to
eradicate polio from the countries where it still intact. It encompasses the challenge ahead, the
opportunity, the underlying strategy, the polio vaccine campaign, routine immunization systems,
surveillance and monitoring, product development and market access, data-driven decision
making, containment policy, legacy planning, lastly advocacy and communications. The website
encompasses factual evidence and numerical data over the Global polio eradication Initiative
strategy. The article concentrates on an all-around basis on the way that the Bill & Melinda Gates
Foundation fits into and aids in the surrounding the initiative to eliminate the disease.
Evaluation: As a whole, the website titled What We Do Polio Strategy Overview entails
information that is organized to answer the essential questions individuals have about the global
polio eradication initiative the process and the strategies utilized. The site seems credible by the
sources and information that entails within it encompassing up to date evidence and trustworthy
sources about where the information is obtained. The article entails an overall view of the polio
eradication process.
Citation: 0
2 Direct Quotes

Global Polio Eradication Initiative

Direct Quote #1: According to What We Do Polio Strategy Overview (2015), Polio eradication
is a top priority of the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation. As a major supporter of the GPEI, we
contribute technical and financial resources to our GPEI partners to accelerate efforts to eradicate
polio. (p.1)
Direct Quote #2: According to What We Do Polio Strategy Overview (2015), The foundation
has a unique ability to contribute to polio eradication by taking big risks and by making
nontraditional investments that can lead to valuable program improvements. (p.1)
2 Paraphrased Material
Paraphrase Direct Quote #1: According to What We Do Polio Strategy Overview (2015), the
elimination of polio is an uppermost precedence of the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation. The
Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation is abundant sponsor of the global polio eradication initiative,
the foundation contributes economically and structurally in aid of the initiative to fast-track the
exertions to eliminate the virus.
Paraphrase Direct Quote #2: According to What We Do Polio Strategy Overview (2015), The
foundation has a unique ability to contribute to polio eradication by taking big risks and by
making nontraditional investments that can lead to valuable program improvements.
2 Block Quotes
Block Quote #1: According to What We Do Polio Strategy Overview (2015), We work
closely with GPEI partners to mobilize funding and sustained global and national
political momentum for polio eradication. This involves promoting efforts to increase
polio funding from government donors as well as cultivating new and nontraditional

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donors. We also encourage governments and leaders of polio-affected countries to follow


through on their commitments and be accountable for the success of polio campaigns,
and we help them identify and implement sources of financing to fund those campaigns.
(p.1)
Block Quote #2: According to What We Do Polio Strategy Overview (2015), With
partners that include Rotary International, UNICEF, and the Global Poverty Project, we
use both traditional and social media to build public awareness of and support for polio
eradication and broader immunization activities in both donor countries and countries
where polio still exists or where reintroduction is a risk. (p.1)
Definition Word: (GPEI) Global Polio Eradication Initiative- it is on the verge of achieving a
momentous goal: to completely rid the world of polio so that no child will ever again know the
crippling effects of this preventable disease.
Reference D
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2015, December 11). Updates on CDCs Polio
Eradication Efforts. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Retrieved from
http://www.cdc.gov/polio/updates/
Summary: Updates on CDCs Polio Eradication Efforts article addresses the Center for Disease
Controls involvement in the initiative of Polio eradication. The article describes in detail the
process by which the CDC is aiding the eradication cause through various activities aimed
towards the bigger vision of the cause. The website encompasses a thorough outline of what
polio is, what the CDC is doing, Polios endgame and legacy, and so on.

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Evaluation: As a whole, the website titled Updates on CDCs Polio Eradication Efforts
encompasses information in an organized manner that answers questions at hand individuals
have about the eradication initiative such as the key points of its significance. The site seems
credible by the sources and information that entails within it encompassing up to date evidence
and trustworthy sources about where the information is obtained. Entails an overall view of the
polio eradication process.
Citation: 0
2 Direct Quotes
Direct Quote #1: According to CDCs Polio Eradication Efforts (2015), The eradication of
polio is an important priority for the Center for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). We are
closer than we have ever been to eradicating polio and it is critical that we take advantage of this
opportunity. (p. 1)
Direct Quote #2: According to CDCs Polio Eradication Efforts (2015), More importantly,
without eradication, a resurgence of polio could paralyze more than 200,000 children worldwide
every year within a decade. Now is the time, we must not fail.(p.1).
2 Paraphrased Material
Paraphrase Direct Quote #1: According to CDCs Polio Eradication Efforts (2015), the
elimination of Polio is imperative main concern for the CDC and the eradication of the virus is
nearby to being 100% wipe out, and it is perilous that the CDC should take benefit of the
opportunity.

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Paraphrase Direct Quote #2: According to CDCs Polio Eradication Efforts (2015), it is
imperative that eradication of the virus comes to an end. The continuity of the disease can lead to
a revival of polio meaning more children worldwide could become paralyzed through time if
polio picks up again and spreads. It is essential that the reality of polio spreading is not brought
into existence.
2 Block Quotes
Block Quote #1: According to CDCs Polio Eradication Efforts (2015), the CDC
collaborates, In the final push toward global polio eradication, CDC continues its close
collaboration with partners, including the World Health Organization (WHO), the United
Nations Children's Fund (UNICEF), Rotary International, and the Bill and Melinda Gates
Foundation to ensure a coordinated global and country-level response. (p.1)
Block Quote #2: According to CDCs Polio Eradication Efforts (2015), Polio incidence
has dropped more than 99 percent since the launch of global polio eradication efforts in
1988. According to global polio surveillance data from February 3, 2016, 73 cases of
wild poliovirus have been reported in 2015: 54 from Pakistan and 19 from Afghanistan.
Definition Word: (EOC) Emergency Operations Center- is a central location from which local
governments can provide interagency coordination and executive decision making in support of
incident response and recovery operations
Reference E
Global Polio Eradication Initiative. (2010). Global Polio Eradication Initiative>Home. Key
Publications. Retrieved from http://www.polioeradication.org/

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Summary: The Global Polio Eradication Initiative website describes the manner by which the
initiation is progressing and has progressed. This web page entails key information surrounding
the initiative such as polio and prevention, countries affected by polio, data, post-eradication
actions, research, and financials. This site mostly covers overall pieces of the eradication
initiative leaving only a few details out.
Evaluation: As a whole, the website titled The Global Polio Eradication Initiative encompasses
a sufficient amount of information. The information is organized to answer questions at hand
individuals have about the eradication initiative such as the key points of its significance.
Citation: 0
2 Direct Quotes
Direct Quote #1: According to Global Polio Eradication Initiative (2010), Until poliovirus
transmission is interrupted in these countries, all countries remain at risk of importation of polio,
especially vulnerable countries with weak public health and immunization services and travel or
trade links to endemic countries.(p.1).
Direct Quote #2: According to Global Polio Eradication Initiative (2010), Most infected people
(90%) have no symptoms or very mild symptoms and usually go unrecognized. In others, initial
symptoms include fever, fatigue, headache, vomiting, stiffness in the neck and pain in the
limbs.(p.1).
2 Paraphrased Material
Paraphrase Direct Quote #1: According to Global Polio Eradication Initiative (2010), it is
imperative that Polio is interrupted within the countries it still affects because all countries are at

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peril of being impact by Polio within countries that entail scarce immunization facilities and
public health, and have a link to rampant countries encompassing the virus.
Paraphrase Direct Quote #2: According to Global Polio Eradication Initiative (2010), an
utmost 90% of plague-ridden individuals show no indications or very slight indicators that
generally go unidentified. In early indications in some individuals encompass headaches, fevers,
vomiting, pain in the limbs, fatigue, and stiffness in the neck.
2 Block Quotes
Block Quote #1: According to Global Polio Eradication Initiative (2010) is composed of,
The Global Polio Eradication Initiative is a public-private partnership led by national
governments and spearheaded by the World Health Organization (WHO), Rotary
International, the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), and the United
Nations Childrens Fund (UNICEF). Its goal is to eradicate polio worldwide.
Block Quote #2: According to Global Polio Eradication Initiative (2010), Polio is spread
through person-to-person contact. When a child is infected with wild poliovirus, the virus
enters the body through the mouth and multiplies in the intestine. It is then shed into the
environment through the feces where it can spread rapidly through a community,
especially in situations of poor hygiene and sanitation. If a sufficient number of children
are fully immunized against polio, the virus is unable to find susceptible children to
infect, and dies out.
Definition Word: Acute flaccid paralysis (AFP)- is a clinical syndrome characterized by rapid
onset of weakness, including (less frequently) weakness of the muscles of respiration and
swallowing, progressing to maximum severity within several days to weeks.

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Reference F
Heymann, D. (2006). Global Polio Eradication Initiative. Bulletin of the World Health
Organization, Volume 84 (Issue 8), 595. Retrieved from
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2627439/pdf/16917643.pdf
Summary: The article titled Global Polio Eradication Initiative encompasses the main points
about the early stages of the polio eradication initiative. The article entails information over the
practices that helped to make spark the initiatives success, the lessons learned as progress
through polio eradication was encompassed, and lastly, it entails on about the practices that aided
to make the strategy on Integrated Management of Childhood Illness progress. The article
concentrates on the early stages that in turn evolved and elevated the initiative to reach the
underlying bound of accomplishment that the initiative is as of today.
Evaluation: The article titled the Global Polio Eradication Initiative entails a sufficient amount
of information through factual data to back up the questions revolving around the Global Polio
Eradication Initiation. The article encompasses a thorough view of the progress of the polio
initiative.
Citation: 6
2 Direct Quotes
Direct Quote #1: According to Heymann, D (2006), The Global Polio Eradication Initiative led
by WHO, Rotary International, the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) and
UNICEF was launched in 1988 when the World Health Assembly adopted a resolution to
eradicate polio.(p. 595)

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Direct Quote #2: According to Heymann, D (2006), Polio eradication follows two
major strategies: routine immunization with oral polio vaccine and mass vaccination campaigns
to top off that routine coverage. These strategies are underpinned by networks of medical
personnel and laboratories. (p. 595).
2 Paraphrased Material
Paraphrase Direct Quote #1: According to Heymann, D (2006), The Global Polio Eradication
Initiative was propelled in 1988 when the World Health Assembly assumed a decree to eliminate
polio. The initiative is composed of the World Health Organization, Rotary International, the
United States Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, and UNICEF.
Paraphrase Direct Quote #2: According to Heymann, D (2006), Polio extermination trails two
foremost tactics through monotonous vaccination and heightened amounts of immunization
campaigns. Furthermore, through links laboratories and medical staff uplift the undelaying
elevation to these approaches.
2 Block Quotes
Block Quote #1: According to Heymann, D (2006), At the time, more than 350 000
children were paralyzed by the disease each year, and polio was endemic in more than
125 countries. Since then, tremendous progress has been made and the disease burden has
been reduced by more than 99%. (p.595).
Block Quote #2: According to Heymann, D (2006), Polio eradication depends on
collaboration between four leading partners: WHO, Rotary International, CDC and
UNICEF, and on the implementation of programs by countries with guidance from

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WHOs regional and country offices. Frequent and regular communication is necessary,
whether it be phone conferences to discuss advocacy or fundraising between the four core
partners, or within each organization to discuss planning, budgeting and implementation
among staff at headquarters and those in regional and country offices. (p. 595).

Definition Word: Integrated Management of Childhood Illness (IMCI) - is a systematic


approach to children's health, which focuses on the whole child. This means not only focusing on
curative care but also on prevention of disease.
Reference G
Kaiser Family Foundation. (2015 October, 13). The U.S. Government and Global Polio Effort.
Global Health Policy. Retrieved from http://kff.org/global-health-policy/fact-sheet/the-us-government-and-global-polio-efforts/
Summary: The U.S. Government and Global Polio Effort web page address the main points of
the initiative to eliminate polio from the countries where it still is active. It encompasses the
history, status, impact of polio, effective interventions, challenges, global goals, the U.S.
government response, structure and approach, and the U.S. government funding information. The
article concentrates on an all-around basis by incorporating the many aspects surrounding the
initiative.
Evaluation: The article titled The U.S. Government and Global Polio Effort entails an overall
view of the Polio eradication process. The site seems credible by the sources and information

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that entails within it encompassing up to date evidence and trustworthy sources about where the
information is obtained.
Citation: 0
2 Direct Quotes
Direct Quote #1: According to Kaiser Family Foundation (2015), Polio, a highly infectious and
sometimes deadly disease that has plagued the world since ancient times, is now at its lowest
levels ever, and a global push for polio eradication by 2019 is underway. (p. 1).
Direct Quote #2: According to Kaiser Family Foundation (2015), In addition, polio-free
countries must remain vigilant to prevent reintroduction of the virus, which can lead to reestablishment of polio transmission.18 Importation of the virus from another country is a
continuing threat (p.1).
2 Paraphrased Material
Paraphrase Direct Quote #1: According to Kaiser Family Foundation (2015), polio is a virus
that has been active throughout time, but has been eradicated in a multitude of places and now
has reduced its widespread to a relatively low rate, in which global polio eradication initiative
aims to eliminate the disease by 2019.
Paraphrase Direct Quote #2: According to Kaiser Family Foundation (2015), polio-free
countries should persist on staying alert and observant to avoid restoration of the disease that can
lead to the reinstatement of polio diffusion. Introduction of the disease from an infected country
to another one is continuous threat the world faces.
2 Block Quotes

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Block Quote #1: According to Kaiser Family Foundation (2015) polio is, a disease
affecting the central nervous system that is caused by infection with the poliovirus; it can
lead to partial or full paralysis and sometimes death in a matter of hours. Survivors are
often affected by post-polio syndrome, which causes progressive muscle weakness and
atrophy as well as fatigue. While there is no cure for polio, vaccination against the
disease can prevent infection and its spread. (p.1).
Block Quote #2: According to Kaiser Family Foundation (2015), The disease is most
prevalent among underserved populations in developing countries, typically striking
children under five who live in poverty and who lack access to clean water, good
sanitation, immunization and other health services. Young children are more vulnerable to
and disproportionately affected by polio.
Definition Word: Oral Polio Vaccine (OPV)-contains an attenuated (weakened) vaccine-virus,
activating an immune response in the body. When a child is immunized with OPV, the weakened
vaccine-virus replicates in the intestine for a limited period, thereby developing immunity by
building up antibodies.
Reference H
Patel, M., & Orenstein, W. (2016). A World Free of PolioThe Final Steps. New England
Journal of Medicine, Volume 374 (Issue 6), 501-503. Retrieved from
http://www.nejm.org/doi/full/10.1056/NEJMp1514467

Summary: The article titled A World Free of PolioThe Final Steps entails outlining points
over the about the early stages of the polio eradication initiative. The article entails information

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over the practices that helped to make spark the initiatives success, the lessons learned as
progress through polio eradication was encompassed, and lastly, it entails on about the practices
that aided to make the strategy on Integrated Management of Childhood Illness progress. The
article concentrates on the early stages that in turn evolved and elevated the initiative to reach the
underlying bound of accomplishment that the initiative is as of today.
Evaluation: The article titled A World Free of PolioThe Final Steps encompasses mostly
numerical data to back up the queries underlying the cause of the polio eradication initiative. The
article encompasses a thorough view of the early progress of the polio initiative gaining traction
as time goes by heightening the view of the underlying cause. In turn having the evidence of
progress through the years and the value of the implementation of such an initiative.
Citation: 0
2 Direct Quotes
Direct Quote #1: According to Patel, M., & Orenstein, W. (2016), Global polio-eradication
efforts have led to a dramatic decrease in polio cases, from an estimated 350,000 cases in 125
countries in 1988 to 72 cases in 2015. (p. 501).
Direct Quote #2: According to Patel, M., & Orenstein, W. (2016), As of January 2016, endemic
transmission of polio caused by wild polioviruses (WPVs) had been interrupted in all countries
except Pakistan and Afghanistan. (p. 501).
2 Paraphrased Material

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Paraphrase Direct Quote #1: According to Patel, M., & Orenstein, W. (2016), the global polio
eradication initiative through exertions have directed to an over-the-top drop in polio incidents,
from 125 countries in an assessed 350,000 instances in 1988 to 72 instances in 2015.
Paraphrase Direct Quote #2: According to Patel, M., & Orenstein, W. (2016), Whilst of
January 2016, the widespread diffusion of the virus polio prompted by wild polioviruses have
been subsisted and interfered in throughout a multitude of countries excluding Afghanistan and
Pakistan.
2 Block Quotes
Block Quote #1: According to Patel, M., & Orenstein, W. (2016), But collaboration in
eradication efforts has reached a high point never before achieved by the immunization
community. Getting here has required tireless effort and practical innovation in science,
policy, and implementation. Capitalizing on the gains made to date should push overall
polio eradication over the finish line and may pave the way for measles eradication and
future global health initiatives. (p. 501).
Block Quote #2: According to Patel, M., & Orenstein, W. (2016), Indeed, the Global
Commission for Certification of the Eradication of Poliomyelitis recently certified that
type 2 wild poliovirus, one of three strains responsible for centuries of human paralysis
and disfigurement, has been eradicated. Type 2 poliovirus now exists only in laboratories
and in trivalent oral polio vaccine in an attenuated form, though in rare circumstances it
surfaces in the community, through persistent transmission, in the form of outbreaks of
vaccine-derived viruses. Getting to this point has not been easy. Sustaining our wins and

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traversing the last mile of the eradication journey calls for escalation of global
immunization activities on an unprecedented scale. (p. 501).
Definition Word: Oral Polio Vaccine (OPV) - consists of a mixture of live, attenuated
(weakened) poliovirus strains of all three poliovirus types. The oral polio vaccine is simple to
administer. A few drops, given multiple times, can protect a child for life.
Reference I
The New York Times. (2016 March, 2). Poliomyelitis. The New York Times. Retrieved from
http://www.nytimes.com/health/guides/disease/poliomyelitis/overview.html
Summary: The article titled Poliomyelitis encompasses over the subject matter of the virus
overall. The article entails the underlying causes, symptoms, treatment, possible complications,
and prevention measurements. The article encompasses mostly factual information regarding the
structure of contracting such a disease.
Evaluation: The article titled Poliomyelitis entails outlining the points surrounding the overall
sections of contracting polio, treatments, and preventions through factual data. The article, in
turn, yields to answer the rhetorical query about the how the disease impacts individuals that
contract the virus. The article curtails valuable information that is reliable and factual to answer
the question concerning the virus affects upon the populous.
Citation: 0
2 Direct Quotes
Direct Quote #1: According to Poliomyelitis (2016), Poliomyelitis is a disease caused by

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infection with the poliovirus. The virus spreads by: Direct person-to-person contact, Contact with
infected mucus or phlegm from the nose or mouth, Contact with infected feces (p.1).

Direct Quote #2: According to Poliomyelitis (2016), The virus enters through the mouth and
nose, multiplies in the throat and intestinal tract, and then is absorbed and spread through the
blood and lymph system. Polio immunization (vaccine) effectively prevents poliomyelitis in
most people (immunization is over 90% effective). (p.1).
2 Paraphrased Material
Paraphrase Direct Quote #1: According to Poliomyelitis (2016), Polio spans through straight
forwards individual to individual exchange, connections amongst disease-ridden phlegm or
mucus secretions from the body, and or individual interface with plague-ridden feces.
Paraphrase Direct Quote #2: According to Poliomyelitis (2016), The disease inserts across the
nose and or mouth of an individual and, reproduces in the esophagus and bowel tract, and then is
immersed and extended past the lymph and blood structure. Polio vaccination essentially
counteracts polio in utmost individuals, having 90% immunization effectiveness.
2 Block Quotes
Block Quote #1: According to Poliomyelitis (2016), Symptoms are treated based on their
severity. Treatment may include: Antibiotics for urinary tract infections. Moist heat
(heating pads, warm towels) to reduce muscle pain and spasms. Painkillers to reduce
headache, muscle pain, and spasms (narcotics are not usually given because they increase
the risk of breathing trouble) Physical therapy, braces or corrective shoes, or orthopedic
surgery to help recover muscle strength and function. (p. 1).

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Block Quote #2: According to Poliomyelitis (2016), Outbreaks can still occur in the
developed world, usually in groups of people who have not been vaccinated. Polio often
occurs after someone travels to a region where the disease is common. As a result of a
massive, global vaccination campaign over the past 20 years, polio exists only in a few
countries... (p. 1).
Definition Word: Subclinical - relating to or denoting a disease that is not severe enough to
present definite or readily observable symptoms.
Reference J
World Health Organization. (2015). Poliomyelitis. World Health Organization. Retrieved from
http://www.who.int/mediacentre/factsheets/fs114/en/
Summary: The Poliomyelitis article describes the main concepts of the Polio eradication
initiative such as key facts, polio symptoms, individuals most a risk, prevention, the progress and
history of the Global Polio Eradication Initiative, the future benefits of eradicating Polio and so
forth. The website entails factual evidence and information, and numerical data over the Global
polio eradication Initiative and the underlying Poliovirus. The article concentrates on an all
around basis by incorporating the various aspects surrounding the Polio and the initiative.
Evaluation: The article titled encompasses a sufficient amount of information. This website
entails a sufficient amount of information by encompassing factual and numerical evidence to
back up the essential questions underlying the main notion of the Global Polio Eradication
Initiation.
Citation: 0

Global Polio Eradication Initiative

25

2 Direct Quotes
Direct Quote #1: According to Poliomyelitis (2015), Overall, since the GPEI was launched, the
number of cases has fallen by over 99%. Today, only 2 countries in the world remain polioendemic: Pakistan and Afghanistan. (p. 2)
Direct Quote #2: According to Poliomyelitis (2015), Today, only 2 countries (Afghanistan
and Pakistan) remain polio-endemic, down from more than 125 in 1988In most countries,
the global effort has expanded capacities to tackle other infectious diseases by building
effective surveillance and immunization systems.
2 Paraphrased Material
Paraphrase Direct Quote #1: According to Poliomyelitis (2015), as a success the Global Polio
Eradication Initiative propelled the amount of cases to drop by over 99%, and currently
Afghanistan and Pakistan are two of the countries where Polio still remains active.
Paraphrase Direct Quote #2: According to Poliomyelitis (2015), two countries remain
infected out of 125 that were disease-ridden from 1988 Pakistan and Afghanistan are the
countries that entail the virus polio and is impacting the individuals living in these countries.
In utmost countries, the global eradication initiative exertion has prolonged abilities to
confront other transmittable diseases by the formation of effective immunization and
overshadowing structures.

2 Block Quotes

Global Polio Eradication Initiative

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Block Quote #1: According to Poliomyelitis (2015) polio is, a highly infectious disease
caused by a virus. It invades the nervous system, and can cause total paralysis in a matter
of hours. The virus is transmitted by person-to-person spread mainly through the fecaloral route or, less frequently, by a common vehicle (e.g. contaminated water or food) and
multiplies in the intestine. (p.1)
Block Quote #2: According to Poliomyelitis (2015), Once polio is eradicated, the
world can celebrate the delivery of a major global public good that will benefit all
people equally, no matter where they live. Economic modeling has found that the
eradication of polio would save at least US$ 4050 billion over the next 20 years,
mostly in low-income countries. Most importantly, success will mean that no child
will ever again suffer the terrible effects of lifelong polio-paralysis. (p.1)

Definition Word: Poliomyelitis- an infectious viral disease that affects the central nervous
system and can cause temporary or permanent paralysis.

References

Global Polio Eradication Initiative

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Ahmad, S. O., Yousuf, F., Bux, A. S., & Abu-Zaid, A. (2016). Pakistan: the final frontier for
global polio eradication. Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health, Volume 70
(Issue 2), 109-110. Retrieved from http://jech.bmj.com/content/70/2/109.full

Better Health Channel (2015). Polio and Post-Polio Syndrome. Better Health channel. Retrieved
fromhttps://www.betterhealth.vic.gov.au/health/conditionsandtreatments/polio-and-postpolio-syndrome
Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation. (2015). What We Do Polio Strategy Overview. Bill &
Melinda Gates Foundation. http://www.gatesfoundation.org/What-We-Do/GlobalDevelopment/Polio
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2015, December 11). Updates on CDCs Polio
Eradication Efforts. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Retrieved from
http://www.cdc.gov/polio/updates/
Global Polio Eradication Initiative. (2010). Global Polio Eradication Initiative>Home. Key
Publications. Retrieved from http://www.polioeradication.org/
Heymann, D. (2006). Global Polio Eradication Initiative. Bulletin of the World Health
Organization, Volume 84 (Issue 8), 595. Retrieved from
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2627439/pdf/16917643.pdf

Kaiser Family Foundation. (2015 October, 13). The U.S. Government and Global Polio Effort.

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Global Health Policy. Retrieved from http://kff.org/global-health-policy/fact-sheet/the-us-government-and-global-polio-efforts/


Patel, M., & Orenstein, W. (2016). A World Free of PolioThe Final Steps. New England
Journal of Medicine, Volume 374 (Issue 6), 501-503. Retrieved from
http://www.nejm.org/doi/full/10.1056/NEJMp1514467

The New York Times. (2016 March, 2). Poliomyelitis. The New York Times. Retrieved from
http://www.nytimes.com/health/guides/disease/poliomyelitis/overview.html
World Health Organization. (2015). Poliomyelitis. World Health Organization. Retrieved from
http://www.who.int/mediacentre/factsheets/fs114/en/