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Ear-Training and Sight-singing Applied to Elementary Musical Theory

# Ear-Training and Sight-singing Applied to Elementary Musical Theory

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In measuring distance with a rule, we count from zero. In

music, when measuring the distance on the staff from one note to

another, the first note is counted as one and each line and space

up to the next note as a degree. This is

necejssary, because each

tone is one of the series of seven pitches. To find the distance be-

tween E on the first line of the treble and B on the third line, E is

one; Fin the next space is

two;G on the next line is

three; A in the

next space is

four; and B on the third line is five.

The clock-face is divided into five-minute

periods so that

exactness in time may be the more readily determined. For the

same reason we learn the relative

position on the staff of the third,

fifth and

eighth tones from a line and a space.

If a note is on a line, the third is on the next line.

If a note is in a space, the third is in the next

space.
If a note is on a line, the fifth is on the second line.

If a note is in a

space, the fifth is in the second

space.
If a note is on a line, the eighth is in the fourth space.

If a note is in a

space, the

eighth is on the fourth line.

If the

position of the third, fifth and eighth tones is known,

it is

easy to

place the second, fourth, sixth and seventh tones.

LESSON 2

Section A.

Suggestions for Study:

(1) Write the 8th, 3rd and 5th degrees on the treble or G-staff

from C, G, A, E, B and F.

(2) Write the 8th, 3rd and 5th degrees on the bass or F-staff

from B, D, F, G, E, A and C.

(3) Write the 8th, 3rd and 5th degrees on the Great Staff from

A c1

P* b f1

d a1

" <-

& i u* l

i ui <*

NOTE. This is for drill in

spacing, i.

e., to learn to use the lines and spaces
of the staff so that when a note is on the first line weshall knowthat thethird is
on the next line, the fifth on the second line and the

eighth in the fourth space.
The question of the kind of third and fifth, as in scale and interval relation, will
be treated later.

[61

Measurements of Distances

(4) Learn the name of the 3rd and 5th degrees from every

pitch. From E the third is

G; the fifth is B. From D the third

is F; the fifth is A; etc.

Section B.

In the foregoing directions the expression "think C" has been

used. To think sound means to hear it

mentally, to listen to it

with the inner ear. Most of us can think the tune America with-

out actually singing it, just as we can think the words without

actually saying them. To think sound demands concentration;
and facility in it

requires practice; but it

may be acquired and it

must be by the serious student. The beginner in

ear-training is

always tempted to hum the sound he is

trying to think.

Singing

has a vital

part to

play in

training the ear, but only as a guide

and not as a final

necessity. Use it as a crutch which may be

discarded as ability to think sound develops. In

practising the

work as outlined it

may at first be

necessary to

sing the exercises,
but do not neglect constantly to make the effort to think sound.

NOTE. The above does not refer to

Sight-Singing, which is

quite a different

matter.

(1) Comparison of a given tone with the 5th tone above it,

as C to G.

If c1

is considered 1

, then c2

is 8 because it is the 8th tone above,

and g1

is

similarly the 5th.

Take c1

as 1.

Play 1 8 1

(c1

c1

c1

).

Play 1 8 5

(c1

c*

g1

).

Play these two groups several times and compare the effect

of each.

1 8 1 is

complete and finished. As a contrast, 1 8 5 is

unsatisfactory. Stopping on 5, we expect another tone.

Play 1858and observe that the addition of 8

completes and

finishes the group.

Play 1 8.

Play 1 5 and compare with 1 8.

Repeat, and

listen to determine the difference of

pitch and the difference in

distance between the tones.

(2) Play 8 1

; 85. Play several times and compare.

Ear-Training and

Sight-Singing

(3) Listen carefully as

you play 1 585 1; immediately re-

produce the sounds mentally; in other words, think them. Study

the following groups in the same way.

18518; 18581; 15151; 15158; 85851;

8585 8; 85185 8.

(4) Play 1. Think 8. Think 5.

Sing 5. Test on the piano

Play 8. Think 1. Think 5.

Sing 5 and test.

Play 5. Think 8.

Sing 8 and test.

Play 5. Think 1.

Sing 1 and test.

(5) Play 158. Note the distance from 1 to 5.

Try to

think a sound which may be placed between ; find this sound on the

piano.

You have probably played the tone e1

, which is the third tone

above c1

, and is therefore called 3.

Play 1358. Compare this

with 158. Play each several times. After some study, think the

sounds in each group. Which group has the more pleasing sound?

Play 851 Compare with 8531

"1851

"

"18531

"1558

"

"13558

"

85158 "

"8531358

"

15851 "

"1358531

"

85158 "

"8531358

"8158

"

"81358

Note that the addition of 3 to any combination of 1, 5 and 8

softens and beautifies the effect of the whole

group by filling in

the space between 1 and 5, which alone is hard and hollow.

(6) Study the following groups as indicated:

(a) Play each group, (b) Think it.

(c) Write on the

staff in both clefs.

1358

8535351 31358531 5351531

8531

1335581 58531

51535158

85358 8553318 531358

5113358

85351 358535 5353131
13531 3135358 5858531
1353531 3585851 5158531

These groups should be practised daily. Vary the practice by

singing the

playing them, but always think the

sound first.

Measurements of Distances

(7) Exercises in Sight-Singing, to be practised as follows:

(a) Play 1358.

(b) Read exercise through mentally, thinking, first, the
number-name and sound, next the letter-name and sound.

(c) Sing, with number and letter-names.

(d) Test with piano.

NOTE. It is most important always to think the sound of the pitches be-

fore

singing. Use the piano only to test.

o-

-

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10

11

12

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13

14

15

16

17

18

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o o ~

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20

21

22

23

24

25

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O O

26

27

28

29

30

TT

D

1

2

3

4

10

12

13

14

15

16

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" "

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17

18

19

20

21

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22

23

24

25

26

27

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29

30

10

Ear-Training and Sight-Singing

10

11

12

13

10

11

12

13

10 + u

^

12

Section G.

(1) These groups should also be practised, using G as 1, in

which case B is 3 and D is 5. Also take F as 1, Aas 3 and C as 5.

Play 1.

Think 5.

Sing it.

Test.

i

i

o

r

l

4

f

It

"

o

It

<

l

>

'

Measurements

of Distances

11

Play 5.

Think 3.

Sing it.

Test.

"

3.

"

5

" "

"

(2) Take C as 1.

Play 1358.

Sing a measure or two of the

following songs, and any other
familiar ones. Decide each time whether the first sound is

1, 3, 5

or 8.

America, Star-Spangled Banner, Annie Laurie, Old Black Joe,

Swanee River, Battle

Hymn of the Republic, Glory, Glory, Halle-

lujah, The Marseillaise, Dixie, Yankee Doodle.

(3) Play 1. Think 1358. Think 3.

Sing it. Test it.

Think 1358. Think 5; sing and test.
1358. "8 " " "

Constantly practise this, taking any sound as 1. Think and

sing 1358. Then 1, 3. 5 and 8, in

any order.

An instant

recognition of 1 3 5 and 8 is of the utmost im-

portance. In fact, further

development is hindered until one has

reached some

degree of

proficiency in this

step.

(4) Exercises in

Sight-Singing. Practise as outlined in the

preceding Lesson.

A

F.I

23 45

10

13

14

15

*

4*j

16

17

18

19

20

21

22

23

24

25

12

Ear-Training and Sight-Singing

B

O.i

12

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45

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TT

D

F.I

10

CHAPTER III

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