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GUIA

DE RECURSOS
DO PROFESSOR
Desenvolvimento
curricular
Porteflio
Avaliao
Fichas de trabalho
Esquemas mudos
Recursos para
o aluno
Apoio cientfico
Vocabulrio escolar
Tcnicas e mtodos
de estudo
Ferramentas TIC
Registos

Todo o material deste livro


est disponvel no Manual
Interactivo Multimdia
do professor.

Cincias
da Natureza

ano

EDUCATECA

Cincias
da Natureza
GUIA DE RECURSOS DO PROFESSOR

ano

EDUCATECA

OEJDF
Apresentao do Projecto Desafios
t Materiais do aluno
t Materiais do professor





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Desenvolvimento
curricular

t  Currculo Nacional do Ensino Bsico


t Planificao anual





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Porteflio

Introduo
Por detrs do porteflio
O que o porteflio do aluno?
Avaliar porteflios
Recursos para o aluno

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Avaliao

 JDIBEFBWBMJBPEJBHOTUJDB
'
'JDIBEFBWBMJBP
'JDIBEFBWBMJBP
'JDIBEFBWBMJBP
'JDIBEFBWBMJBP
'JDIBEFBWBMJBP
'JDIBEFBWBMJBP

3FGPSP Importncia da gua para os seres vivos


"NQMJBP Importncia da gua para os seres vivos
3FGPSP Importncia do ar para os seres vivos
"NQMJBP Importncia do ar para os seres vivos
3FGPSP As rochas, o solo e os seres vivos
"SUJDVMBP Cincias da Natureza Portugus
"SUJDVMBP Cincias da Natureza Matemtica
$PNFNPSBP 4 de Outubro: Dia Mundial dos Animais
$PNFNPSBP 16 de Novembro: Dia Nacional do Mar
$PNFNPSBP 21 de Maro: Dia Mundial da Floresta
$PNFNPSBP 22 de Maro: Dia Mundial da gua
$PNFNPSBP 22 de Abril: Dia Mundial da Terra
$PNFNPSBP 22 de Maio: Dia Internacional
da Biodiversidade
t $PNFNPSBP 5 de Junho: Dia Mundial do Ambiente








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3FGPSP Terra Ambiente de vida


"NQMJBP Terra Ambiente de vida
3FGPSP Forma, revestimento e locomoo nos animais
"NQMJBP Forma, revestimento e locomoo
nos animais
3FGPSP Alimentao e reproduo nos animais
"NQMJBP Alimentao e reproduo nos animais
3FGPSP Influncia do ambiente nos animais
"NQMJBP Influncia do ambiente nos animais
*OUFHSBP Diversidade nos animais
3FGPSP As plantas com flor. A raiz e o caule
"NQMJBP As plantas com flor. A raiz e o caule
3FGPSP As plantas com flor. A folha e a flor
"NQMJBP As plantas com flor. A folha e a flor
3FGPSP As plantas sem flor
"NQMJBP As plantas sem flor
3FGPSP Influncia do ambiente nas plantas
"NQMJBP Influncia do ambiente nas plantas
*OUFHSBP Diversidade nas plantas
3FGPSP A clula: unidade dos seres vivos
"NQMJBP A clula: unidade dos seres vivos


 


 




















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Esquemas
mudos

Terra Ambiente de vida


Forma, revestimento e locomoo nos animais
Alimentao e reproduo nos animais
Influncia do ambiente nos animais
As plantas com flor. A raiz e o caule
As plantas com flor. A folha e a flor
As plantas sem flor
Influncia do ambiente nas plantas
A clula: unidade dos seres vivos
Classificao dos seres vivos
Importncia da gua para os seres vivos
Importncia do ar para os seres vivos
As rochas, o solo e os seres vivos
















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Fichas
de trabalho














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Recursos
para o aluno

Pequeno glossrio
Trabalho de projecto
Guia de campo
Contedos em esquema
Curiosidades das Cincias Naturais
Propostas de trabalho



 





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Apoio
cientfico

 JWFSTJEBEFEBWJEB
%
t O limite da vida: os vrus
t O reino Monera
t O reino Protista
t O reino Fungi
t O reino Plantae
t As plantas sem flores: plantas criptogmicas
t As gimnosprmicas: a descoberta da semente
t As angiosprmicas: fanerogmicas com fruto
t A classificao das angiosprmicas
t O reino Animalia
t As esponjas e os cnidrios















t  Os vermes e os equinodermes
t Os moluscos
t Os artrpodes: animais encouraados
t Os insectos
t Os vertebrados
t Os peixes e os anfbios
t Os rpteis e as aves: a conquista da terra
t Os mamferos: cuidar das crias
&TQDJFTBNFBBEBT
t Monotrematas
t Marsupiais
t Primatas
t Desdentados
t Cetceos
t Candeos
t Ursos
t Felinos
t Elefantes
t Manatins
t Equdeos
t Rinocerontes
t Ciconiformes
t Flamingos
t Aves de rapina
t Tetrazes
t Grous
t Aves tropicais
t Quelnios
t Ofdios
t Surios
t Crocodilos
t Anfbios
t Peixes
t Invertebrados em perigo na Pennsula Ibrica
t Fetos
t Gimnosprmicas
t Cactos
t Orqudeas
t Plantas carnvoras
t rvores ameaadas na Pennsula Ibrica










































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Apresentao de trabalhos
Pesquisar informao
Elaborar trabalhos escritos
Apresentar exposies orais






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Ferramentas TIC

Conceitos de Internet
O que um blogue?
Google
Internet. Google Earth
A folha clculo. Excel
Apresentaes com o PowerPoint
Sistema operativos. Windows
Sistemas operativos. Linux











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Registos

Auto-avaliao
Trabalho de pesquisa
Conselho de turma
Identificao do aluno
Plano de aula
Registos/sumrios
Desenho e classificao de folhas










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Vocabulrio
escolar

t  Introduo
t Verbos instrucionais





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Tcnicas e mtodos
de estudo

Tcnicas de estudo
Sublinhar
Inferir as ideias principais
Resumir
Organizar graficamente a informao: esquemas e tabelas
Preparao de avaliaes
Rever contedos
Rever procedimentos
Reflectir sobre a prpria aprendizagem













O Projecto Desafios
Bastian olhou para o livro:
Gostava de saber, disse a ss consigo, o que se passa dentro de um livro quando ele est fechado. claro que s l
tem dentro letras impressas em papel mas alguma coisa se deve l passar, porque, mal eu o abro, a histria surge
imediatamente. H personagens que eu no conheo ainda, h todas as aventuras, todas as faanhas e todos os combates
possveis h por vezes tempestades e no faltam cidades e pases estrangeiros. Tudo isso est de um ou de outro modo
dentro do livro, antes de ele ser aberto. Tem de se ler primeiro, claro. Mas, de facto, est l tudo. S queria saber como.
E, de sbito, sentiu-se a viver um momento de certa solenidade.
Sentou-se confortavelmente, pegou no livro, abriu-o na primeira pgina e comeou a ler.
A Histria Interminvel, MICHAEL ENDE

De sa fia r
Lanar uma
provocao; provocar
para desafio; espicaar;
incitar; estimular;
convidar; enfrentar;
afrontar; questionar;
tirar o fio a;

O Projecto Desafios nasce com o esprito de uma proposta educativa concebida para
aprender, para sonhar e para crescer. Temos conscincia das limitaes que a educao actual
enfrenta e da grande quantidade de alternativas com que os nossos alunos deparam quando
procuram motivaes fora da escola. No entanto, temos tambm conscincia da enorme
responsabilidade que ns, enquanto agentes da educao, temos na construo de uma
sociedade melhor, numa preparao adequada dos alunos para o mercado laboral, na garantia
da universalidade da educao e na adaptao da educao s novas realidades que a cincia,
a tecnologia e a sociedade fazem surgir a uma velocidade cada vez maior.
Trata-se de um QSPKFDUPUSBOTWFSTBM EPTBPTBOPT FJOUFSEJTDJQMJOBSque permite
um acompanhamento integral do aluno e proporciona ferramentas didcticas coerentes
e sempre actuais para garantir a sua eficcia. um QSPKFDUPGMFYWFMque se adapta realidade
e lgica evolutiva, cientfica e curricular de cada nvel de ensino e de cada disciplina, sem,
no entanto, esquecer uma viso de conjunto que enriquece a educao, permite avaliar com
rigor e eficcia os resultados obtidos e tomar as medidas de correco necessrias ao longo
do processo.

Os desafios do projecto

Aprender
O nosso projecto assenta
em contedos slidos, de
qualidade garantida e que
proporcionam as
ferramentas didcticas para
ensinar o aluno a aprender,
a ser capaz de construir o
seu prprio conhecimento
e, desta forma, enfrentar
melhor a sociedade actual.
4PNBUFSJBJTFEVDBUJWPT
RVFSFRVFSFNFTGPSP
FUSBCBMIP

Sonhar
Apresentamos uma proposta
motivadora, com uma
linguagem grfica moderna,
actual e de alta qualidade.
O projecto conta ainda
com inmeras referncias
a leituras, documentos,
experincias, animaes,
pginas da Internet, etc.
"QFOBTBJNBHJOBP
QPEFDPOTUJUVJSVNMJNJUF
FYQBOTPEPT
DPOIFDJNFOUPT

Crescer
Por um lado, queremos formar cidados
responsveis e, nesse sentido, a educao
de valores apresenta-se como um eixo
transversal que d especial ateno ao
respeito pela diversidade em todas as suas
dimenses. Por outro lado, RVFSFNPT
BKVEBSPTQSPGFTTPSFTOPTFVUSBCBMIP
EFBDUVBMJ[BPFGPSNBPDPOUOVB
e proporcionar-lhes todas as ferramentas
que estejam ao nosso alcance para tal fim
e, sempre que seja possvel, torn-las
QFSTPOBMJ[WFJT para que os materiais
possam crescer ainda mais.

Rigor
e qualidade

Asseguramos uma
seleco cuidada
e o controlo dos
contedos e do
processo de criao.
Todos os contedos
so avaliados por uma
equipa de autores
e consultores
cientficos e certificados
pelo Ministrio
da Educao.

Desenvolvimento
das competncias

Os contedos
apresentados
respeitam
a hierarquizao
da informao,
a identificao
inequvoca dos
recursos didcticos e a
relao texto-imagem,
no havendo
interferncia
de elementos
perturbadores.

A nossa meta
a segurana
educativa.

Ordem
e organizao

Integrao
das TIC

Incorporamos
programas, seces
e recursos que
desenvolvem
as competncias
e proporcionam
a educao integral dos
alunos, com especial
ateno para a
competncia de leitura,
para a competncia
cientfica e matemtica
e para a educao
para a cidadania.

Propomos
um mtodo realista
e simples que integra
as novas tecnologias
no processo de
ensino-aprendizagem
por meio de recursos
multimdia modernos,
motivadores,
personalizados
e acessveis.

"OPTTBNFUB
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A nossa meta
a eficcia
educativa.

Recursos para
o professor
Oferecemos ao
professor a mais ampla
gama de recursos
educativos
complementares para
serem utilizados nas
aulas e para a sua
formao como
docente, em formatos
de alta qualidade e,
sempre que possvel,
personalizados.

"OPTTBNFUB
BSJRVF[B
FEVDBUJWB

Linguagem
grfica moderna
Utilizamos as ltimas
tcnicas de ilustrao
digital e uma
cartografia
actualizada.
A infografia como
recurso educativo
incorporada
de uma forma
coerente e racional,
garantido sempre
o equilbrio entre
o seu carcter apelativo
e o rigor cientfico.

Proporcionamos
uma grande variedade
de ferramentas para
a aprendizagem dos
contedos e dos
procedimentos,
propostas variadas
para a avaliao nas
suas diferentes fases
e programas de
actividades de reviso,
de reforo e de
ampliao.

A nossa meta
a autonomia
educativa.

Recursos
didcticos
complementares

A nossa meta
a motivao de
alunos e professores.

Servio de apoio
aos professores
Crimos um servio
moderno de apoio
aos professores para
garantir a disponibilidade
de todos os materiais,
responder s suas
questes, atender aos
seus pedidos, receber
as suas sugestes
e oferecer-lhes uma
plataforma moderna
e prtica de contacto
permanente com
a editora.
"OPTTBNFUB
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FEVDBUJWP

Agora, propomos-lhe um desafio:


partilhar e desenvolver um projecto educativo de qualidade e inovador.
Aceite-o!

M a te r ia is d o
a lu n o

Projecto Desafios

OBT$JODJBTEB/BUVSF[BEFP BOP

.BOVBMEPBMVOP DBEFSOPEFBDUJWJEBEFTe .BOVBM*OUFSBDUJWP.VMUJNEJB apresentam um conjunto


de DESAFIOS e ESTRATGIAS motivadores e facilitadores da aprendizagem.

Manual do aluno

* Caderno de actividades
* Manual Interactivo Multimdia

*Estes elementos formam parte do bloco pedaggico. Santillana-Constncia recomenda o seu uso
em conjunto, mas podem ser adquiridos separadamente.

Desaf os
Desafios
Desafios

%FTFOWPMWFSBDVSJPTJEBEF
FPFTQSJUPDJFOUGJDP,
questionando, pesquisando
e seleccionando informao.

6UJMJ[BSMJOHVBHFNDJFOUGJDB,
integrando em simultneo
o desenvolvimento de
competncias na rea do
Portugus e da Matemtica.

"QMJDBSPTDPOIFDJNFOUPT
WJWODJBEPRVPUJEJBOP,
reconhecendo o papel da
Cincia na melhoria contnua
da qualidade de vida.

$SFTDFSDPNPDJEBEP,
indivduo responsvel perante
a sociedade e o Ambiente.

5SBCBMIBSFNMBCPSBUSJP 
reconhecendo a experimentao
como uma etapa do mtodo
cientfico e respeitando as regras
de segurana em laboratrio.

6UJMJ[BSGPOUFTEFJOGPSNBP
EJWFSTJGJDBEBT, recorrendo com
-vontade s ferramentas TIC,
e outras, no desenvolvimento de
trabalhos individuais e de grupo.

Para motivar o aluno e estimular a sua curiosidade

"DUJWBP
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T
preexistentes
do Primeiro Ciclo,
evidenciando
o muito que
j aprendeu.

2VFTUPHFSBEPSB, que surge como


um problema que o aluno ter de resolver
ao longo da subunidade.

*NBHFOTBQFMBUJWBT, que
funcionam com fonte de
informao complementar
ao texto.

)JQFSQHJOBT, pginas onde


se apresentam e relacionam
visualmente os contedos,
com rigor e pormenor.

Para potenciar a aquisio de conhecimentos

&TUSFJUBMJHBPentre os textos
e as imagens.

"QSFTFOUBPPSHBOJ[BEB
de contedos.

%FTUBRVF dos
conceitos e termos
mais importantes.

-JOHVBHFNBDFTTWFM,
mas DJFOUJGJDBNFOUF
DPSSFDUB.


M a te r ia is d o
a lu n o

"DUJWJEBEFTEJWFSTJGJDBEBT, noDBEFSOP
FBPMPOHPEPNBOVBM, para verificao
das aprendizagens e aplicao dos
conhecimentos.

4JTUFNBUJ[BP dos contedos


e organizao dos conceitos.

Para estimular o uso da linguagem e desenvolver a literacia cientfica

Propostas de
articulao dos
contedos com
outras disciplinas
e reas
curriculares.

Leitura de
documentos
relacionados
com os
contedos.
Propostas variadas
de investigao.

Breves ampliaes
dos contedos.

So propostos trabalhos prticos variados


(de comprovao ou experimentais) com
protocolo completo e concluso orientada.

Para promover atitudes e valores


de cidadania

A apresentao dos contedos


feita tendo em considerao
a necessidade daQSPUFDP
EBCJPEJWFSTJEBEFFEP
"NCJFOUF

Interveno
na comunidade
escolar.

Propem-se
USBCBMIPT
EFHSVQP
e EFCBUFT
variados,
no NBOVBM
e no DBEFSOP,
incentivando
o confronto
de ideias
e o respeito
pelas opinies
divergentes.

Para incorporar as novas tecnologias no processo de ensino-aprendizagem


O .BOVBM*OUFSBDUJWP.VMUJNEJB uma poderosa ferramenta de aprendizagem,
que enriquece o manual do aluno atravs de uma proposta diversificada de recursos interactivos
e multimdia.
Pode ser adquirido pelos alunos com o bloco pedaggico, garantindo assim a perfeita
integrao de todos os componentes do Projecto Desafios, e pode ser utilizado quer na sala de aula,
quer em casa no seu trabalho individual.

M a te r ia is d o
p r o f e ss o r

Projecto Desafios

OBT$JODJBTEB/BUVSF[BEFP BOP

Conjunto de materiais desenvolvidos para facilitar a actividade docente, na programao e preparao


das aulas MJWSPEPQSPGFTTPS FEVDBUFDBHVJBEFSFDVSTPTEPQSPGFTTPSF.BOVBM*OUFSBDUJWP
.VMUJNEJB .*.
EPQSPGFTTPS
Apresentam grande nmero de recursos diversificados, que possibilitam ao professor a personalizao
dos mesmos e o uso de estratgias alternativas na sua prtica lectiva.

Livro do professor

Educateca guia
de recursos do professor
Manual Interactivo Multimdia

LIVRO DO PROFESSOR

Apresenta a reproduo
do manual do aluno e,
simultaneamente,
os cones dos materiais
disponveis no MIM.

/05"
0TDPOFTNVMUJNEJB
OPTFFODPOUSBN
SFQSPEV[JEPTOP
NBOVBMEPBMVOP



Pensado para ser usado em sala de aula, acrescenta ao manual do aluno


um conjunto de propostas e sugestes para apresentao e desenvolvimento
dos contedos.

&YQPOEP
OBTMBUFSBJTy
sugestes
metodolgicas
propostas de
articulao com
diferentes reas
curriculares

sugestes
de mais actividades
e trabalhos prticos
remiso para
fichas de
ampliao ou de
reforo
remisso para
as fichas de
articulao com
as disciplinas de
Portugus e
Matemtica

interligao com
o caderno
de actividades

propostas
de avaliao

Propostas
diversificadas
de explorao dos
recursos digitais,
comuns ao
Manual Interactivo
Multimdia
do aluno.

solues das
actividades

links para
pginas de
interesse

Exclusivos
do Manual
Interactivo
Multimdia
do professor.

recursos e
actividades
interactivas,
apresentaes
em PowerPoint

Breve descrio dos


recursos multimdia
sugeridos.

vdeos
mais recursos
e actividades.



M a te r ia is d o
p r o f e ss o r

EDUCATECA

Desenvolvimento
curricular

"WBMJBP

'JDIBTEFUSBCBMIP
propostas variadas para
trabalhar com a diversidade
de alunos.



Com uma organizao evidente, um banco de recursos para o docente,


em que todos os materiais tm hiperligao ao Manual Interactivo Multimdia
do professor, permitindo a impresso a partir do CD.

1PSUFGMJP materiais
auxiliares para
o desenvolvimento
do porteflio do aluno.

Esquemas mudos.

5DOJDBTFNUPEPTEFFTUVEP tcnicas
facilitadoras do processo ensino-aprendizagem.

"QPJPDJFOUGJDP suporte
cientfico do professor.

Recursos para
o aluno.
'FSSBNFOUBT5*$ noes e dicas
para explorar as tecnologias de
informao e comunicao.

3FHJTUPT



M a te r ia is d o
p r o f e ss o r

Projecto Desafios

.VMUJNEJB

A tarefa do ensino desenvolver ferramentas para aprender e continuar a aprender durante toda a vida,
uma tarefa que vai alm dos contedos curriculares e que se estende ao desenvolvimento de capacidades bsicas,
como o pensamento lgico, a orientao espaciotemporal, a expresso oral, escrita, icnica e informtica
e a socializao.
Aos professores coloca-se actualmente o desafio de introduzir as novas tecnologias de informao
e comunicao (TIC) no processo ensino-aprendizagem, desafio que surge desde logo nos primeiros anos de ensino.
Mais do que integrar as TIC, ou seja, ser-se capaz de manipular as tecnologias de informao e comunicao
disponveis, importa integr-las curricularmente. Quer isto dizer: utilizar as TIC para apoiar contedos curriculares,
incorporadas com um propsito educativo, cujo ncleo a aprendizagem e o objectivo o desenvolvimento
de capacidades.
O Projecto Desafios vem, por isso, oferecer aos professores e alunos uma resposta eficaz necessidade
de integrar as novas tecnologias no processo de ensino-aprendizagem. Uma resposta completa, moderna,
adaptada realidade das aulas e que contempla as sugestes de profissionais da educao ao longo
dos ltimos anos.

Desafios

Pertinncia

Utilidade

Complementaridade



Uma oferta que responde


s novas necessidades,
tirando partido da
utilizao das novas
tecnologias para
melhorar a aprendizagem.

Recursos que permitem


enriquecer o ensino
e a aprendizagem, melhorar
a compreenso de contedos
fundamentais e reforar
competncias bsicas
para a vida

Uma proposta que enriquece


o conjunto de materiais
que constituem o Projecto
Desafios, com os quais se
articula, e que permite uma
utilizao racional dos diferentes
recursos.

Realismo
Uma proposta
ajustada
realidade
das escolas,
dos alunos
e professores.

Variedade
Uma gama
de recursos
diversificados
que constitui uma
verdadeira oferta
multimdia.

Proximidade

Contextualizao

Um desenho grfico
e uma interface visual prxima
da realidade dos alunos actuais,
verdadeiros nativos digitais,
habituados ao contacto com
as novas tecnologias desde
muito cedo.

Uma preocupao contnua


por integrar os recursos
multimdia e interactivos no
contexto dos contedos, para
que possam ser utilizados em
simultneo com o material
impresso.

10

Interactividade
Um conjunto de
instrumentos que permite
a professores e alunos
interagir com os contedos,
para deles obter um maior
aproveitamento.

Coerncia
Uma avaliao rigorosa
da pertinncia dos recursos
propostos em cada disciplina,
adequados ao nvel requerido
em cada ano e de acordo
com as exigncias dos
programas.

Personalizao
O empenho em permitir que
alunos e professores possam
enriquecer estes recursos com
as suas contribuies, atravs
de ferramentas de criao
e edio que permitem
desenvolver ainda mais o projecto.

MANUAL INTERACTIVO MULTIMDIA (MIM)

cones multimdia
Actividade interactiva
multimdia.

Actividade interactiva
da Internet, adequada
ao programa e nvel
curriculares.
Animao interactiva;
vdeo; apresentao
em PowerPoint; banco
de imagens.
Recurso expositivo
existente na Internet,
adequado ao programa
e nvel curriculares.

Paralelamente aos recursos que integram o manual


digital do aluno, a verso do professor do .BOVBM
*OUFSBDUJWP.VMUJNEJB .*.
integra meios
prprios a partir dos quais o professor poder
enriquecer o seu trabalho.

Ligao da Internet
com interesse para
o desenvolvimento
curricular da disciplina.

Ligao exclusiva
do Manual Interactivo
Multimdia do
professor, atravs do
qual poder aceder a
ficheiros cujo contedo
pode ser informativo
ou tratar-se de
fotocopiveis, como
as fichas da educateca.

O .BOVBM*OUFSBDUJWP.VMUJNEJB reproduz na ntegra


o livro do professor em suporte de papel, com todas as
sugestes metodolgicas, permitindo aceder aos recursos
TIC atravs de um clique sobre os cones multimdia.

O professor vai
encontrar sua
disposio SFDVSTPT
QSQSJPT, que
servem de apoio
s suas actividades
normais de
trabalho, como as
fichas da educateca
preparadas para
impresso.

Os SFDVSTPT5*$
permitem uma
explorao
alternativa dos temas
e uma introduo
s actividades
interactivas, tanto
em registo de aula,
como no trabalho
individual dos alunos.

O software que incorpora o manual


possuiGFSSBNFOUBTRVFGBDJMJUBN
BOBWFHBPe permite outras funes,
como sublinhar, aumentar imagens
ou procurar palavras-chave.
semelhana do MIM do aluno, o MIM
do professor integra GFSSBNFOUBT
EFQFSTPOBMJ[BP, que permitem
enriquecer a prpria utilizao do
manual e apoiar o trabalho. Recorrendo
a estas ferramentas, o professor poder
fazer anotaes e introduzir os seus
prprios recursos e documentos.

Indicador
de pgina.

Folhear
as pginas
de modo
automtico.

Ampliao
Imprimir.
da rea
seleccionada.

Visualizar
em miniaturas.

Download
do manual
em PDF.

Criao
de bookmarks
que permitem
introduzir
ficheiros.

Pesquisa
Marcador.
por palavra.

Ligao
ao Twitter.

Ligao
ao Facebook.



PARTE

1
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curricular

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BPTBMVOPTPQPSUVOJEBEFTQBSBVNBBRVJTJPQSPHSFTTJWBEFDPOIFDJNFOUPT FORVBESBEBQFMPEFTFOWPMWJNFOUP
EFDBQBDJEBEFTEFQFOTBNFOUPFEFBUJUVEFTGBWPSWFJTBQSFOEJ[BHFN
%FTUFNPEP jBDVMUVSBHFSBMRVFUPEPTPTBMVOPTEFWFNEFTFOWPMWFSDPNPSFTVMUBEPEBTVBQBTTBHFNQFMP
&OTJOP#TJDPJODMVJBBQSPQSJBPEFVNDPOKVOUPEFDPODFJUPTFQSPDFTTPTGVOEBNFOUBJTNBTOPTFJEFOUJGJDB
DPNPPDPOIFDJNFOUPNFNPSJ[BEPEFUFSNPT GBDUPTFQSPDFEJNFOUPTiCTJDPTw EFTQSPWJEPTEFFMFNFOUPTEF
DPNQSFFOTP JOUFSQSFUBPFSFTPMVPEFQSPCMFNBT"BRVJTJPQSPHSFTTJWBEFDPOIFDJNFOUPTEFWFTFS
FORVBESBEBQFMPEFTFOWPMWJNFOUPEFDBQBDJEBEFTEFQFOTBNFOUPFEFBUJUVEFTGBWPSWFJTBQSFOEJ[BHFNx
in1SPQPTUBEF3FPSHBOJ[BP$VSSJDVMBSEP&OTJOP#TJDP .JO&E %&#


1SJODQJPTFWBMPSFTPSJFOUBEPSFTEPDVSSDVMP
"DMBSJGJDBPEBTDPNQFUODJBTBBMDBOBSOPGJOBMEBFEVDBPCTJDBUPNBDPNPSFGFSFOUFTPTQSFTTVQPTUPTEB-FJ
EF#BTFTEP4JTUFNB&EVDBUJWP TVTUFOUBOEPTFOVNDPOKVOUPEFWBMPSFTFEFQSJODQJPTRVFBTFHVJSTFFOVODJBN
t
t
t
t
t
t
t

"DPOTUSVPFBUPNBEBEFDPOTDJODJBEBJEFOUJEBEFQFTTPBMFTPDJBM
"QBSUJDJQBPOBWJEBDWJDBEFGPSNBMJWSF SFTQPOTWFM TPMJESJBFDSUJDB
0SFTQFJUPFBWBMPSJ[BPEBEJWFSTJEBEFEPTJOEJWEVPTFEPTHSVQPTRVBOUPTTVBTQFSUFOBTFPQFT
"WBMPSJ[BPEFEJGFSFOUFTGPSNBTEFDPOIFDJNFOUP DPNVOJDBPFFYQSFTTP
0EFTFOWPMWJNFOUPEPTFOUJEPEFBQSFDJBPFTUUJDBEPNVOEP
0EFTFOWPMWJNFOUPEBDVSJPTJEBEFJOUFMFDUVBM EPHPTUPQFMPTBCFS QFMPUSBCBMIPFQFMPFTUVEP
"DPOTUSVPEFVNBDPOTDJODJBFDPMHJDBDPOEVDFOUFWBMPSJ[BPFQSFTFSWBPEPQBUSJNOJPOBUVSBM
FDVMUVSBM
t "WBMPSJ[BPEBTEJNFOTFTSFMBDJPOBJTEBBQSFOEJ[BHFNFEPTQSJODQJPTUJDPTRVFSFHVMBNPSFMBDJPOBNFOUP
DPNPTBCFSFDPNPTPVUSPT
&RVBDJPOBSBNTFMV[EFTUFTQSJODQJPTBTDPNQFUODJBT OFDFTTSJBTRVBMJEBEFEBWJEBQFTTPBMFTPDJBMEFUPEPTPT
DJEBEPT BQSPNPWFSHSBEVBMNFOUFBPMPOHPEBFEVDBPCTJDB

$PNQFUODJBTHFSBJTQBSBP&OTJOP#TJDP
TBEBEBFEVDBPCTJDB PBMVOPEFWFSTFSDBQB[EF

.PCJMJ[BSTBCFSFTDVMUVSBJT DJFOUGJDPTFUFDOPMHJDPTQBSBDPNQSFFOEFSBSFBMJEBEFFQBSBBCPSEBSTJUVBFT
FQSPCMFNBTEPRVPUJEJBOP

6TBSBEFRVBEBNFOUFMJOHVBHFOTEBTEJGFSFOUFTSFBTEPTBCFSDVMUVSBM DJFOUGJDPFUFDOPMHJDPQBSBTFFYQSFTTBS

6TBSDPSSFDUBNFOUFBMOHVBQPSUVHVFTBQBSBDPNVOJDBSEFGPSNBBEFRVBEBFQBSBFTUSVUVSBSQFOTBNFOUPQSQSJP

6TBSMOHVBTFTUSBOHFJSBTQBSBDPNVOJDBSBEFRVBEBNFOUFFNTJUVBFTEPRVPUJEJBOPFQBSBBQSPQSJBPEF
JOGPSNBP

"EPQUBSNFUPEPMPHJBTQFSTPOBMJ[BEBTEFUSBCBMIPFEFBQSFOEJ[BHFNBEFRVBEBTBPCKFDUJWPTWJTBEPT

1FTRVJTBS TFMFDDJPOBSFPSHBOJ[BSJOGPSNBPQBSBBUSBOTGPSNBSFNDPOIFDJNFOUPNPCJMJ[WFM

"EPQUBSFTUSBUHJBTBEFRVBEBTSFTPMVPEFQSPCMFNBTFUPNBEBEFEFDJTFT

3FBMJ[BSBDUJWJEBEFTEFGPSNBBVUOPNB SFTQPOTWFMFDSJBUJWB


%&4"'*04 t $JODJBTEB/BUVSF[B t oBOP t 4BOUJMMBOB$POTUODJB

PARTE

1
Desenvolvimento curricular


$PPQFSBSDPNPVUSPTFNUBSFGBTFQSPKFDUPTDPNVOT

3FMBDJPOBSIBSNPOJPTBNFOUFPDPSQPDPNPFTQBP OVNBQFSTQFDUJWBQFTTPBMFJOUFSQFTTPBMQSPNPUPSB
EBTBEFFEBRVBMJEBEFEFWJEB

$POUSJCVUPEBT$JODJBTEB/BUVSF[BQBSBPEFTFOWPMWJNFOUP
EBTDPNQFUODJBT
"T$JODJBTEB/BUVSF[B BUSBWTEPTDPOUFEPTDJFOUGJDPTRVFFYQMPSB JODJEFFNDBNQPTEJWFSTJGJDBEPTEPTBCFS
"MFDDJPOBPFEFTFOWPMWJNFOUPEPTDPOUFEPTGB[TFOVNBQFSTQFDUJWBEFDJDMP"QFMBTFBTTJNQBSB
PEFTFOWPMWJNFOUPEFDPNQFUODJBTWSJBT TVHFSJOEPBNCJFOUFTEFBQSFOEJ[BHFNEJWFSTPT
1SFUFOEFTFDPOUSJCVJSQBSBPEFTFOWPMWJNFOUPEBMJUFSBDJBDJFOUGJDBEPTBMVOPT1PSPVUSBTQBMBWSBT PTKPWFOT
UNRVFBQSFOEFSBSFMBDJPOBSTFDPNBOBUVSF[BEBTEJGFSFOUFTSFBTEPDPOIFDJNFOUP UBOUPDPNEJWFSTBT
EFTDPCFSUBDJFOUGJDBTFQSPDFTTPTUFDOPMHJDPT DPNPDPNBTTVBTJNQMJDBFTTPDJBJT/PGJOBMEP&OTJOP#TJDP 
PTBMVOPTEFWFSPQPTTVJSDPOIFDJNFOUPFDPNQSFFOTPTVGJDJFOUFTQBSBFOUFOEFSFTFHVJSEFCBUFTTPCSFUFNBT
DJFOUGJDPTFUFDOPMHJDPT FFOWPMWFSTFFNRVFTUFTRVFFTUFTUFNBTDPMPDBN RVFSQBSBFMFTDPNPJOEJWEVPT 
RVFSQBSBBTPDJFEBEFDPNPVNUPEP
"MJUFSBDJBDJFOUGJDBBTTJNGVOEBNFOUBMQBSBPFYFSDDJPQMFOPEBDJEBEBOJB0EFTFOWPMWJNFOUPEFVNDPOKVOUP
EFDPNQFUODJBTRVFTFSFWFMBNFNEJGFSFOUFTEPNOJPT UBJTDPNPPDPOIFDJNFOUP TVCTUBOUJWP QSPDFTTVBMPV
NFUPEPMHJDP FQJTUFNPMHJDP
PSBDJPDOJP BDPNVOJDBPFBTBUJUVEFT FTTFODJBMQBSBBMJUFSBDJBDJFOUGJDB
%FTBMJFOUBSRVFBTDPNQFUODJBTOPEFWFNTFSFOUFOEJEBTDBEBVNBQPSTJ NBTOPTFVDPOKVOUP EFTFOWPMWFOEP
TFUSBOTWFSTBMNFOUF FFNTJNVMUOFP OBFYQMPSBPEBTFYQFSJODJBTFEVDBUJWBT.BT EFWFTFUFSFNBUFOP
RVFPEFTFOWPMWJNFOUPEFDPNQFUODJBTOFTUFTEJGFSFOUFTEPNOJPTFYJHFPFOWPMWJNFOUPEPBMVOPOPQSPDFTTP
FOTJOPBQSFOEJ[BHFN PRVFMIFQSPQPSDJPOBEPQFMBWJWODJBEFFYQFSJODJBTFEVDBUJWBTEJGFSFODJBEBT&TUBT
WPBPFODPOUSP QPSVNMBEP EPTTFVTJOUFSFTTFTQFTTPBJTF QPSPVUSP FTUPFNDPOGPSNJEBEFDPNPRVF
TFQBTTBTVBWPMUB
/PFOUBOUP PDPOIFDJNFOUPDJFOUGJDPOPTFBERVJSFTJNQMFTNFOUFQFMBWJWODJBEFTJUVBFTRVPUJEJBOBTQFMPT
BMVOPT)OFDFTTJEBEFEFVNBJOUFSWFOPQMBOFBEBEPQSPGFTTPS BRVFNDBCFBSFTQPOTBCJMJEBEFEFTJTUFNBUJ[BS
PDPOIFDJNFOUP EFBDPSEPDPNPOWFMFUSJPEPTBMVOPTFEPTDPOUFYUPTFTDPMBSFT0VTFKB EFFYFDVUPSFT PT
QSPGFTTPSFTQBTTBNBEFDJTPSFTFHFTUPSFTEFVNDVSSDVMP FYFSDFOEPBBDUJWJEBEFRVFMIFTQSQSJBoFOTJOBS 
JTUP GB[FSBQSFOEFS
&NTVNB BUFOEFOEPTSB[FTFYQPTUBT BEWPHBTFPFOTJOPEB$JODJBDPNPGVOEBNFOUBM&TUF OP&OTJOP#TJDP 
DPSSFTQPOEFBVNBQSFQBSBPJOJDJBM BTFSBQSPGVOEBEB OP&OTJOP4FDVOESJP
FWJTBQSPQPSDJPOBSBPTBMVOPT
QPTTJCJMJEBEFTEF
t %
 FTQFSUBSBDVSJPTJEBEFBDFSDBEPNVOEPOBUVSBMTVBWPMUBFDSJBSVNTFOUJNFOUPEFBENJSBP FOUVTJBTNP
FJOUFSFTTFQFMB$JODJB
t "ERVJSJSVNBDPNQSFFOTPHFSBMFBMBSHBEBEBTJEFJBTJNQPSUBOUFTFEBTFTUSVUVSBTFYQMJDBUJWBTEB$JODJB CFN
DPNPEPTQSPDFEJNFOUPTEBJOWFTUJHBPDJFOUGJDB EFNPEPBTFOUJSDPOGJBOBOBBCPSEBHFNEFRVFTUFT
DJFOUGJDBTFUFDOPMHJDBT
t 2VFTUJPOBSPDPNQPSUBNFOUPIVNBOPQFSBOUFPNVOEP CFNDPNPPJNQBDUPEB$JODJBFEB5FDOPMPHJB
OPOPTTPBNCJFOUFFOBOPTTBDVMUVSBFNHFSBM

%&4"'*04 t $JODJBTEB/BUVSF[B t oBOP t 4BOUJMMBOB$POTUODJB



PARTE

%FTFOWPMWJNFOUPEBTDPNQFUODJBTHFSBJT

Desenvolvimento curricular


.PCJMJ[BSTBCFSFTDVMUVSBJT DJFOUGJDPTFUFDOPMHJDPTQBSBDPNQSFFOEFSBSFBMJEBEF
FQBSBBCPSEBSTJUVBFTFQSPCMFNBTEPRVPUJEJBOP
01&3"$*0/"-*;"053"/47&34"t 1SFTUBSBUFOPBTJUVBFTFQSPCMFNBTNBOJGFTUBOEPFOWPMWJNFOUPFDVSJPTJEBEF
t 2VFTUJPOBSBSFBMJEBEFPCTFSWBEB
t *EFOUJGJDBSFBSUJDVMBSTBCFSFTFDPOIFDJNFOUPTQBSBDPNQSFFOEFSVNBTJUVBPPVQSPCMFNB
t 1SFNBDPQSPDFEJNFOUPTOFDFTTSJPTQBSBBDPNQSFFOTPEBSFBMJEBEFFQBSBBSFTPMVPEFQSPCMFNBT
t "WBMJBSBBEFRVBPEPTTBCFSFTFQSPDFEJNFOUPTNPCJMJ[BEPTFQSPDFEFSBBKVTUBNFOUPTOFDFTTSJPT
01&3"$*0/"-*;"0/"4$*/$*"4%"/"563&;"
t "OBMJTBSFEJTDVUJSFWJEODJBT TJUVBFTQSPCMFNUJDBT RVFQFSNJUBNBERVJSJSDPOIFDJNFOUPDJFOUGJDPBQSPQSJBEP 
EFNPEPBJOUFSQSFUBSFDPNQSFFOEFSMFJTFNPEFMPTDJFOUGJDPT SFDPOIFDFOEPBTMJNJUBFTEB$JODJBFEB
5FDOPMPHJBOBSFTPMVPEFQSPCMFNBTQFTTPBJT TPDJBJTFBNCJFOUBJT
"$&4"%&4&/70-7&3103$"%"130'&4403
t "CPSEBSPTDPOUFEPTEBSFBEPTBCFSDPNCBTFFNTJUVBFTFQSPCMFNBT
t 3FOEJCJMJ[BSBTRVFTUFTFNFSHFOUFTEPRVPUJEJBOPFEBWJEBEPBMVOP
t 0SHBOJ[BSPFOTJOPDPNCBTFFNNBUFSJBJTFSFDVSTPTEJWFSTJGJDBEPT EBOEPBUFOPBTJUVBFTEPRVPUJEJBOP
t 0SHBOJ[BSPFOTJOPQSFWFOEPBFYQFSJNFOUBPEFUDOJDBT JOTUSVNFOUPTFGPSNBTEFUSBCBMIPEJWFSTJGJDBEPT
t 1SPNPWFSJOUFODJPOBMNFOUF OBTBMBEFBVMBFGPSBEFMB BDUJWJEBEFTEJSJHJEBTPCTFSWBPFBPRVFTUJPOBNFOUP
EBSFBMJEBEF FJOUFHSBPEFTBCFSFT
t 0SHBOJ[BSBDUJWJEBEFTDPPQFSBUJWBTEFBQSFOEJ[BHFN PSJFOUBEBTQBSBBJOUFHSBPFUSPDBEFTBCFSFT
t %FTFOWPMWFSBDUJWJEBEFTJOUFHSBEPSBTEFEJGFSFOUFTTBCFSFT OPNFBEBNFOUFBSFBMJ[BPEFQSPKFDUPT

6TBSBEFRVBEBNFOUFMJOHVBHFOTEBTEJGFSFOUFTSFBTEPTBCFSDVMUVSBM DJFOUGJDPFUFDOPMHJDP
QBSBTFFYQSFTTBS
01&3"$*0/"-*;"053"/47&34"t 3FDPOIFDFS DPOGSPOUBSFIBSNPOJ[BSEJWFSTBTMJOHVBHFOTQBSBBDPNVOJDBPEFVNBJOGPSNBP EFVNBJEFJB 
EFVNBJOUFOP
t 6UJMJ[BSGPSNBTEFDPNVOJDBPEJWFSTJGJDBEBT BEFRVBOEPMJOHVBHFOTFUDOJDBTBPTDPOUFYUPTFTOFDFTTJEBEFT
t $PNVOJDBS EJTDVUJSFEFGFOEFSJEFJBTQSQSJBTNPCJMJ[BOEPBEFRVBEBNFOUFEJGFSFOUFTMJOHVBHFOT
t 5SBEV[JSJEFJBTFJOGPSNBFTFYQSFTTBTOVNBMJOHVBHFNQBSBPVUSBTMJOHVBHFOT
t 7BMPSJ[BSBTEJGFSFOUFTGPSNBTEFMJOHVBHFN
01&3"$*0/"-*;"0/"4$*/$*"4%"/"563&;"
t 6TBSMJOHVBHFNDJFOUGJDB NFEJBOUFBJOUFSQSFUBPEFGPOUFTEFJOGPSNBPEJWFSTBTDPNEJTUJOPFOUSF
PFTTFODJBMFPBDFTTSJP FBVUJMJ[BPEFNPEPTEJGFSFOUFTEFSFQSFTFOUBSFTTBJOGPSNBP
"$&4"%&4&/70-7&3103$"%"130'&4403
t 0SHBOJ[BSPFOTJOPQSFWFOEPBVUJMJ[BPEFMJOHVBHFOTEFDPNVOJDBPEJWFSTJGJDBEBT
t 0SHBOJ[BSPFOTJOPDPNCBTFFNNBUFSJBJTFSFDVSTPTFNRVFTPVUJMJ[BEBTMJOHVBHFOTFTQFDGJDBT
t 1SPNPWFS JOUFODJPOBMNFOUF  OB TBMB EF BVMB F GPSB EFMB  BDUJWJEBEFT EJGFSFODJBEBT EF DPNVOJDBP
FEFFYQSFTTP
t 3FOEJCJMJ[BSPTNFJPTEFDPNVOJDBPTPDJBMFPNFJPFOWPMWFOUF
t 3FOEJCJMJ[BSBTQPUFODJBMJEBEFTEBTUFDOPMPHJBTEFJOGPSNBPFEFDPNVOJDBPOPVTPBEFRVBEPEFEJGFSFOUFT
MJOHVBHFOT
t "
 QPJBSPBMVOPOBFTDPMIBEFMJOHVBHFOTRVFNFMIPSTFBEFRFNBPTPCKFDUJWPTWJTBEPT FNBSUJDVMBPDPN
PTTFVTJOUFSFTTFT
t %FTFOWPMWFSBSFBMJ[BPEFQSPKFDUPTRVFJNQMJRVFNPVTPEFEJGFSFOUFTMJOHVBHFOT



%&4"'*04 t $JODJBTEB/BUVSF[B t oBOP t 4BOUJMMBOB$POTUODJB

PARTE


6TBSDPSSFDUBNFOUFBMOHVBQPSUVHVFTBQBSBDPNVOJDBSEFGPSNBBEFRVBEBFQBSBFTUSVUVSBS
QFOTBNFOUPQSQSJP

1
Desenvolvimento curricular

01&3"$*0/"-*;"053"/47&34"t 7BMPSJ[BSFBQSFDJBSBMOHVBQPSUVHVFTB RVFSDPNPMOHVBNBUFSOBRVFSDPNPMOHVBEFBDPMIJNFOUP


t 6TBSBMOHVBQPSUVHVFTBEFGPSNBBEFRVBEBTTJUVBFTEFDPNVOJDBPDSJBEBTOBTEJWFSTBTSFBTEPTBCFS 
OVNBQFSTQFDUJWBEFDPOTUSVPQFTTPBMEPDPOIFDJNFOUP
t 6TBSBMOHVBQPSUVHVFTBOPSFTQFJUPEFSFHSBTEPTFVGVODJPOBNFOUP
t 1SPNPWFSPHPTUPQFMPVTPDPSSFDUPFBEFRVBEPEBMOHVBQPSUVHVFTB
t "VUPBWBMJBSBDPSSFDPFBBEFRVBPEPTEFTFNQFOIPTMJOHVTUJDPT OBQFSTQFDUJWBEPTFVBQFSGFJPBNFOUP
01&3"$*0/"-*;"0/"4$*/$*"4%"/"563&;"
t 6TBSDPSSFDUBNFOUFBMOHVBQPSUVHVFTB OPNFBEBNFOUFBUSBWTEBWJWODJBEFTJUVBFTEFEFCBUFRVF
QFSNJUBNPEFTFOWPMWJNFOUPEBTDBQBDJEBEFTEFFYQPTJPEFJEFJBTFBSHVNFOUBP PQPEFSEFBOMJTFF
EFTOUFTFFBQSPEVPEFUFYUPTFTDSJUPTFPVPSBJTPOEFTFFWJEFODJFBFTUSVUVSBMHJDBEPUFYUPFNGVOP
EBBCPSEBHFNEPBTTVOUP
"$&4"%&4&/70-7&3103$"%"130'&4403
t 0SHBOJ[BSPFOTJOPQSFWFOEPTJUVBFTEFSFGMFYPFEFVTPEBMOHVBQPSUVHVFTB DPOTJEFSBOEPBIFUFSPHFOFJEBEF
MJOHVTUJDBEPTBMVOPT
t 1SPNPWFSBJEFOUJGJDBPFBBSUJDVMBPEPTDPOUSJCVUPTEFDBEBSFBEPTBCFSDPNWJTUBBPVTPDPSSFDUBNFOUF
FTUSVUVSBEPEBMOHVBQPSUVHVFTB
t 0
 SHBOJ[BSPFOTJOPWBMPSJ[BOEPTJUVBFTEFJOUFSBDPFEFFYQSFTTPPSBMFFTDSJUBRVFQFSNJUBNBPBMVOP
JOUFSWFOFTQFSTPOBMJ[BEBT BVUOPNBTFDSUJDBT
t 3FOEJCJMJ[BSPTNFJPTEFDPNVOJDBPTPDJBMFPNFJPFOWPMWFOUFOBBQSFOEJ[BHFNEBMOHVBQPSUVHVFTB
t 3FOEJCJMJ[BSBTQPUFODJBMJEBEFTEBTUFDOPMPHJBTEFJOGPSNBPFEFDPNVOJDBPOPVTPBEFRVBEPEBMOHVB
QPSUVHVFTB

6TBSMOHVBTFTUSBOHFJSBTQBSBDPNVOJDBSBEFRVBEBNFOUFFNTJUVBFTEPRVPUJEJBOP
FQBSBBQSPQSJBPEFJOGPSNBP
01&3"$*0/"-*;"053"/47&34"t $PNQSFFOEFSUFYUPTPSBJTFFTDSJUPTFNMOHVBTFTUSBOHFJSBTQBSBEJWFSTJGJDBPEBTGPOUFTEPTTBCFSFTDVMUVSBJT 
DJFOUGJDPTFUFDOPMHJDPT
t *OUFSBHJS PSBMNFOUFFQPSFTDSJUP FNMOHVBTFTUSBOHFJSBT QBSBBMBSHBSFDPOTPMJEBSSFMBDJPOBNFOUPTDPN
JOUFSMPDVUPSFTQBSDFJSPTFTUSBOHFJSPT
t 6
 TBSBJOGPSNBPTPCSFDVMUVSBTFTUSBOHFJSBTEJTQPOJCJMJ[BEBQFMPNFJPFOWPMWFOUFF QBSUJDVMBSNFOUF QFMPT
media DPNWJTUBSFBMJ[BPEFUSPDBTJOUFSDVMUVSBJT
t "VUPBWBMJBSPTEFTFNQFOIPTMJOHVTUJDPTFNMOHVBTFTUSBOHFJSBTRVBOUPBEFRVBPFFGJDDJB
01&3"$*0/"-*;"0/"4$*/$*"4%"/"563&;"
t 6TBSMOHVBTFTUSBOHFJSBTQBSBDPNVOJDBSBEFRVBEBNFOUFFNTJUVBFTEPRVPUJEJBOPFQBSBBBQSPQSJBP
EFJOGPSNBP OPNFBEBNFOUF OPBDFTTPBJOGPSNBPRVFTTFFODPOUSBEJTQPOWFMTPCFTTBGPSNB DPNP
BDPOUFDFDPNQHJOBTEB*OUFSOFU QPSFYFNQMP

"$&4"%&4&/70-7&3103$"%"130'&4403
t 0SHBOJ[BSPFOTJOPQSFWFOEPPSFDVSTPBNBUFSJBJTQFEBHHJDPTFNMOHVBFTUSBOHFJSB
t 3FOEJCJMJ[BSPSFDVSTPBJOGPSNBPFNMOHVBFTUSBOHFJSBBDFTTWFMOB*OUFSOFUFOPVUSPTSFDVSTPTJOGPSNUJDPT
t 0SHBOJ[BSBDUJWJEBEFTDPPQFSBUJWBTEFBQSFOEJ[BHFNFNTJUVBFTEFJOUFSBDPFOUSFEJWFSTBTMOHVBT
FDVMUVSBT
t 1SPNPWFSBDUJWJEBEFTEFJOUFSDNCJPQSFTFODJBMPVWJSUVBM DPNVUJMJ[BP DBEBWF[NBJTJOUFOTB EBTUFDOPMPHJBT
EFJOGPSNBPFDPNVOJDBP
t 1SPNPWFSBSFBMJ[BPEFQSPKFDUPTFNRVFTFKBOFDFTTSJPVUJMJ[BSMOHVBTFTUSBOHFJSBT

%&4"'*04 t $JODJBTEB/BUVSF[B t oBOP t 4BOUJMMBOB$POTUODJB



PARTE


"EPQUBSNFUPEPMPHJBTQFSTPOBMJ[BEBTEFUSBCBMIPFEFBQSFOEJ[BHFNBEFRVBEBTBPCKFDUJWPT
WJTBEPT

Desenvolvimento curricular

01&3"$*0/"-*;"053"/47&34"t &YQSJNJSEWJEBTFEJGJDVMEBEFT
t 1MBOFBSFPSHBOJ[BSBTTVBTBDUJWJEBEFTEFBQSFOEJ[BHFN
t *EFOUJGJDBS TFMFDDJPOBSFBQMJDBSNUPEPTEFUSBCBMIP
t $POGSPOUBSEJGFSFOUFTNUPEPTEFUSBCBMIPQBSBBSFBMJ[BPEBNFTNBUBSFGB
t "VUPBWBMJBSFBKVTUBSPTNUPEPTEFUSBCBMIPTVBGPSNBEFBQSFOEFSFBPTPCKFDUJWPTWJTBEPT
01&3"$*0/"-*;"0/"4$*/$*"4%"/"563&;"
t "OBMJTBSFEFCBUFSSFMBUPTEFEFTDPCFSUBTDJFOUGJDBT OPTRVBJTTFWJWFODJFNYJUPTFGSBDBTTPT QFSTJTUODJB
FGPSNBTEFUSBCBMIPEFEJGFSFOUFTDJFOUJTUBT JOGMVODJBTEBTPDJFEBEFTPCSFB$JODJB QPTTJCJMJUBOEPDPOGSPOUBS
BTFYQMJDBFTDJFOUGJDBTDPNBTEPTFOTPDPNVN EBBSUFFEBSFMJHJP
t 3FBMJ[BSPCTFSWBFT FYFDVUBSFYQFSJODJBT JOEJWJEVBMNFOUFPVFNHSVQP BWBMJBSPTSFTVMUBEPTPCUJEPT QMBOFBS
FSFBMJ[BSJOWFTUJHBFT FMBCPSBSFJOUFSQSFUBSEJGFSFOUFTSFQSFTFOUBFTHSGJDBT
t "
 EPQUBSBUJUVEFTJOFSFOUFTBPUSBCBMIPFN$JODJB DPNPTFKBN BDVSJPTJEBEF BQFSTFWFSBOBFBTFSFOJEBEF
OPUSBCBMIP SFTQFJUBOEPFRVFTUJPOBOEPPTSFTVMUBEPTPCUJEPT
"$&4"%&4&/70-7&3103$"%"130'&4403
t 0SHBOJ[BSPFOTJOPQSFWFOEPBFYQFSJNFOUBPEFUDOJDBT JOTUSVNFOUPTFGPSNBTEFUSBCBMIPEJWFSTJGJDBEPT
t 1SPNPWFSJOUFODJPOBMNFOUF OBTBMBEFBVMBFGPSBEFMB BDUJWJEBEFTEJSJHJEBTFYQSFTTPFBPFTDMBSFDJNFOUP
EFEWJEBTFEFEJGJDVMEBEFT
t 0SHBOJ[BSBDUJWJEBEFTDPPQFSBUJWBTEFBQSFOEJ[BHFN
t 0SHBOJ[BSPFOTJOPDPNCBTFFNNBUFSJBJTFSFDVSTPTEJWFSTJGJDBEPT BEFRVBEPTTEJGFSFOUFTGPSNBT
EFBQSFOEJ[BHFN
t "QPJBSPBMVOPOBEFTDPCFSUBEBTEJWFSTBTGPSNBTEFPSHBOJ[BPEBTVBBQSFOEJ[BHFN

1FTRVJTBS TFMFDDJPOBSFPSHBOJ[BSJOGPSNBPQBSBBUSBOTGPSNBSFNDPOIFDJNFOUPNPCJMJ[WFM
01&3"$*0/"-*;"053"/47&34"t 1FTRVJTBS TFMFDDJPOBS PSHBOJ[BSFJOUFSQSFUBSJOGPSNBPEFGPSNBDSUJDBFNGVOPEFRVFTUFT OFDFTTJEBEFT
PVQSPCMFNBTBSFTPMWFSFSFTQFDUJWPTDPOUFYUPT
t 3FOEJCJMJ[BSBTUFDOPMPHJBTEBJOGPSNBPFDPNVOJDBPOBTUBSFGBTEFDPOTUSVPEFDPOIFDJNFOUP
t $PNVOJDBS VUJMJ[BOEPGPSNBTEJWFSTJGJDBEBT PDPOIFDJNFOUPSFTVMUBOUFEBJOUFSQSFUBPEBJOGPSNBP
t "VUPBWBMJBSBTBQSFOEJ[BHFOT DPOGSPOUBOEPPDPOIFDJNFOUPQSPEV[JEPDPNPTPCKFDUJWPTWJTBEPTFDPN
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01&3"$*0/"-*;"0/"4$*/$*"4%"/"563&;"
t 1FTRVJTBS TFMFDDJPOBSFPSHBOJ[BSJOGPSNBPQBSBBUSBOTGPSNBSFNDPOIFDJNFOUPNPCJMJ[WFM OPNFBEBNFOUF
BUSBWTEFQFTRVJTBCJCMJPHSGJDBFFNGPOUFTEFJOGPSNBPFMFDUSOJDBT
t 0SHBOJ[BPFBQSFTFOUBPEPTSFTVMUBEPTEBQFTRVJTB VUJMJ[BOEPEJWFSTPTNFJPT OPNFBEBNFOUFSFDPSSFOEP
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t 0SHBOJ[BSPFOTJOPQSFWFOEPBQFTRVJTB TFMFDPFUSBUBNFOUPEFJOGPSNBP
t 1SPNPWFSJOUFODJPOBMNFOUF OBTBMBEFBVMBFGPSBEFMB BDUJWJEBEFTEJSJHJEBTQFTRVJTB TFMFDP PSHBOJ[BP
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t 0SHBOJ[BSPFOTJOPQSFWFOEPBVUJMJ[BPEFGPOUFTEFJOGPSNBPEJWFSTBTFEBTUFDOPMPHJBTEBJOGPSNBP
FDPNVOJDBP
t 1SPNPWFSBDUJWJEBEFTJOUFHSBEPSBTEPTDPOIFDJNFOUPT OPNFBEBNFOUFBSFBMJ[BPEFQSPKFDUPT

"EPQUBSFTUSBUHJBTBEFRVBEBTSFTPMVPEFQSPCMFNBTFUPNBEBEFEFDJTFT
01&3"$*0/"-*;"053"/47&34"t *EFOUJGJDBSTJUVBFTQSPCMFNUJDBTFNUFSNPTEFMFWBOUBNFOUPEFRVFTUFT
t 4FMFDDJPOBSJOGPSNBPFPSHBOJ[BSFTUSBUHJBTDSJBUJWBTGBDFTRVFTUFTDPMPDBEBTQPSVNQSPCMFNB
t %
 FCBUFSBQFSUJOODJBEBTFTUSBUHJBTBEPQUBEBTFNGVOPEFVNQSPCMFNB



%&4"'*04 t $JODJBTEB/BUVSF[B t oBOP t 4BOUJMMBOB$POTUODJB

PARTE

1
Desenvolvimento curricular

t $
 POGSPOUBSEJGFSFOUFTQFSTQFDUJWBTGBDFBVNQSPCMFNB EFNPEPBUPNBSEFDJTFTBEFRVBEBT
t 1SPQPSTJUVBFTEFJOUFSWFOP JOEJWJEVBMFPVDPMFDUJWB RVFDPOTUJUVBNUPNBEBTEFEFDJTPGBDFBVNQSPCMFNB 
FNDPOUFYUP
01&3"$*0/"-*;"0/"4$*/$*"4%"/"563&;"
t "EPQUBSFTUSBUHJBTBEFRVBEBTSFTPMVPEFQSPCMFNBTFUPNBEBEFEFDJTFT DPNPBJOUFSQSFUBPEFEBEPT 
BGPSNVMBPEFQSPCMFNBTFEFIJQUFTFT PQMBOFBNFOUPEFJOWFTUJHBFT BQSFWJTPFBBWBMJBPEFSFTVMUBEPT
"$&4"%&4&/70-7&3103$"%"130'&4403
t 1SPNPWFSJOUFODJPOBMNFOUF OBTBMBEFBVMBFGPSBEFMB BDUJWJEBEFTRVFQFSNJUBNBPBMVOPGB[FSFTDPMIBT 
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t 0SHBOJ[BSPFOTJOPQSFWFOEPBVUJMJ[BPEFGPOUFTEFJOGPSNBPEJWFSTBTFEBTUFDOPMPHJBTEBJOGPSNBP
FDPNVOJDBPQBSBPEFTFOWPMWJNFOUPEFFTUSBUHJBTEFSFTPMVPEFQSPCMFNBT
t 1SPNPWFSJOUFODJPOBMNFOUF OBTBMBEFBVMBFGPSBEFMB BDUJWJEBEFTEFTJNVMBPFKPHPTEFQBQJTRVFQFSNJUBN
BQFSDFQPEFEJGFSFOUFTQPOUPTEFWJTUB
t 1SPNPWFSBSFBMJ[BPEFQSPKFDUPTRVFFOWPMWBNBSFTPMVPEFQSPCMFNBTFBUPNBEBEFEFDJTFT

3FBMJ[BSBDUJWJEBEFTEFGPSNBBVUOPNB SFTQPOTWFMFDSJBUJWB
01&3"$*0/"-*;"053"/47&34"t 3FBMJ[BSUBSFGBTQPSJOJDJBUJWBQSQSJB
t *EFOUJGJDBS TFMFDDJPOBSFBQMJDBSNUPEPTEFUSBCBMIP OVNBQFSTQFDUJWBDSUJDBFDSJBUJWB
t 3FTQPOTBCJMJ[BSTFQPSSFBMJ[BSJOUFHSBMNFOUFVNBUBSFGB
t 7BMPSJ[BSBSFBMJ[BPEFBDUJWJEBEFTJOUFMFDUVBJT BSUTUJDBTFNPUPSBTRVFFOWPMWBNFTGPSP QFSTJTUODJB 
JOJDJBUJWBFDSJBUJWJEBEF
t "WBMJBSFDPOUSPMBSPEFTFOWPMWJNFOUPEBTUBSFGBTRVFTFQSPQFSFBMJ[BS
01&3"$*0/"-*;"0/"4$*/$*"4%"/"563&;"
t "EPQUBSBUJUVEFTJOFSFOUFBPUSBCBMIPFN$JODJB OPNFBEBNFOUF RVFTUJPOBOEPPTSFTVMUBEPTPCUJEPT 
FBUSBWTEBSFGMFYPDSUJDBTPCSFPUSBCBMIPFGFDUVBEP
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t 0
 SHBOJ[BSPFOTJOPQSFWFOEPBSFBMJ[BPEFBDUJWJEBEFTQPSJOJDJBUJWBEPBMVOP
t 1SPNPWFSJOUFODJPOBMNFOUF OBTBMBEFBVMBFGPSBEFMB BDUJWJEBEFTEJSJHJEBTFYQFSJNFOUBPEFTJUVBFT
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t 0SHBOJ[BSBDUJWJEBEFTDPPQFSBUJWBTEFBQSFOEJ[BHFNSFOEJCJMJ[BEPSBTEBBVUPOPNJB SFTQPOTBCJMJ[BP
FDSJBUJWJEBEFEFDBEBBMVOP
t 0SHBOJ[BSPFOTJOPDPNCBTFFNNBUFSJBJTFSFDVSTPTEJWFSTJGJDBEPTRVFGBWPSFBNBBVUPOPNJBFBDSJBUJWJEBEF
EPBMVOP
t "QPJBSPBMVOPOBEFTDPCFSUBEBTEJWFSTBTGPSNBTEFPSHBOJ[BPEBTVBBQSFOEJ[BHFNFOBDPOTUSVP
EBTVBBVUPOPNJBQBSBBQSFOEFS
t $SJBSOBFTDPMBFTQBPTFUFNQPTQBSBJOUFSWFOPMJWSFEPBMVOP
t 7BMPSJ[BS OBBWBMJBPEBBQSFOEJ[BHFNEPBMVOP BQSPEVPEFUSBCBMIPTMJWSFTFDPODFCJEPTQFMPQSQSJP

$PPQFSBSDPNPVUSPTFNUBSFGBTFQSPKFDUPTDPNVOT
01&3"$*0/"-*;"053"/47&34"t 1BSUJDJQBSFNBDUJWJEBEFTJOUFSQFTTPBJTFEFHSVQP SFTQFJUBOEPOPSNBT SFHSBTFDSJUSJPTEFBDUVBP 
EFDPOWJWODJBFEFUSBCBMIPFNWSJPTDPOUFYUPT
t .BOJGFTUBSTFOUJEPEFSFTQPOTBCJMJEBEF EFGMFYJCJMJEBEFFEFSFTQFJUPQFMPTFVUSBCBMIPFQFMPEPTPVUSPT
t $PNVOJDBS  EJTDVUJS F EFGFOEFS EFTDPCFSUBT F JEFJBT QSQSJBT  EBOEP FTQBPT EF JOUFSWFOP BPT TFVT
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t "WBMJBSFBKVTUBSPTNUPEPTEFUSBCBMIPTVBGPSNBEFBQSFOEFS TOFDFTTJEBEFTEPHSVQPFBPTPCKFDUJWPT
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t "EPQUBSVNBQPTUVSBEFBCFSUVSBNVEBOBFDPPQFSBUJWB QSPNPWFOEPBQBSUJMIBEFJOGPSNBPFEFTFOWPMWFOEP
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%&4"'*04 t $JODJBTEB/BUVSF[B t oBOP t 4BOUJMMBOB$POTUODJB



PARTE

Desenvolvimento curricular

"$&4"%&4&/70-7&3103$"%"130'&4403
t 0SHBOJ[BS PFOTJOP QSFWFOEP FPSJFOUBOEP BFYFDVP EF BDUJWJEBEFT JOEJWJEVBJT  BQBSFT FNHSVQPT
FDPMFDUJWBT
t 1SPNPWFSJOUFODJPOBMNFOUF OBTBMBEFBVMBFGPSBEFMB BDUJWJEBEFTEJSJHJEBTQBSBPUSBCBMIPDPPQFSBUJWP EFTEF
BTVBDPODFQPTVBBWBMJBPFDPNVOJDBPBPTPVUSPT
t 1
 SPQJDJBSTJUVBFTEFBQSFOEJ[BHFNDPOEVDFOUFTQSPNPPEBBVUPFTUJNBFEBBVUPDPOGJBOB
t 'PNFOUBSBDUJWJEBEFTDPPQFSBUJWBTEFBQSFOEJ[BHFNDPNFYQMJDJUBPEFQBQJTFSFTQPOTBCJMJEBEFT
t 0SHBOJ[BSPFOTJOPDPNCBTFFNNBUFSJBJTFSFDVSTPTEJWFSTJGJDBEPTBEFRVBEPTBGPSNBTEFUSBCBMIPDPPQFSBUJWP
t "QPJBSPBMVOPOBEFTDPCFSUBEBTEJWFSTBTGPSNBTEFPSHBOJ[BPEBTVBBQSFOEJ[BHFNFNJOUFSBDPDPN
PVUSPT
t %FTFOWPMWFSBSFBMJ[BPDPPQFSBUJWBEFQSPKFDUPT

3FMBDJPOBSIBSNPOJPTBNFOUFPDPSQPDPNPFTQBP OVNBQFSTQFDUJWBQFTTPBMFJOUFSQFTTPBM
QSPNPUPSBEBTBEFFEBRVBMJEBEFEFWJEB
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 PCJMJ[BSFDPPSEFOBSPTBTQFDUPTQTJDPNPUPSFTOFDFTTSJPTBPEFTFNQFOIPEFUBSFGBT
t &TUBCFMFDFSFSFTQFJUBSSFHSBTQBSBPVTPDPMFDUJWPEFFTQBPT
t 3FBMJ[BSEJGFSFOUFTUJQPTEFBDUJWJEBEFTGTJDBT QSPNPUPSBTEFTBEF EPCFNFTUBSFEBRVBMJEBEFEFWJEB
t .BOJGFTUBSSFTQFJUPQPSOPSNBTEFTFHVSBOBQFTTPBMFDPMFDUJWB
01&3"$*0/"-*;"0/"4$*/$*"4%"/"563&;"
t "
 EPQUBSBUJUVEFTJOFSFOUFTBPEFTFOWPMWJNFOUPEPTFOUJEPFTUUJDPEFNPEPBBQSFDJBSBCFMF[BEPTPCKFDUPT
FEPTGFONFOPTOBUVSBJT
t "EPQUBSBUJUVEFTJOFSFOUFTBICJUPTEFWJEBTBVEWFM OPNFBEBNFOUF SFTQPOTBCJMJ[BOEPTFFNSFMBPTVB
QSQSJBTFHVSBOBFEPTPVUSPT FBWBMJBOEPPJNQBDUPEBTTVBTBUJUVEFTOBTPDJFEBEFFOPBNCJFOUF
"$&4"%&4&/70-7&3103$"%"130'&4403
t 0SHBOJ[BSPFOTJOPQSFWFOEPBSFBMJ[BPEFBDUJWJEBEFTFNRVFOFDFTTSJPFTUBCFMFDFSSFHSBTFDSJUSJPT
EFBDUVBP
t 0SHBOJ[BSPFOTJOPQSFWFOEPBSFBMJ[BPEFKPHPTEJWFSTJGJDBEPTEFNPEPBQSPNPWFSPEFTFOWPMWJNFOUP
IBSNPOJPTPEPDPSQPFNSFMBPBPFTQBPFBPUFNQP
t 1SPNPWFSJOUFODJPOBMNFOUF OBTBMBEFBVMBFGPSBEFMB BDUJWJEBEFTEJSJHJEBTBQSPQSJBPEFICJUPTEFWJEB
TBVEWFJTFSFTQPOTBCJMJ[BPGBDFTVBQSQSJBTFHVSBOBFEPTPVUSPT
t 0SHBOJ[BSBDUJWJEBEFTEJWFSTJGJDBEBTRVFQSPNPWBNPEFTFOWPMWJNFOUPQTJDPNPUPSJNQMJDBEPOPEFTFNQFOIP
EFEJGFSFOUFTUBSFGBT
t 0SHBOJ[BSBDUJWJEBEFTDPPQFSBUJWBTEFBQSFOEJ[BHFNFQSPKFDUPTDPOEVDFOUFTUPNBEBEFDPOTDJODJB
EFTJ EPTPVUSPTFEPNFJP
t 0SHBOJ[BSPFOTJOPDPNCBTFFNNBUFSJBJTFSFDVSTPTEJWFSTJGJDBEPT



%&4"'*04 t $JODJBTEB/BUVSF[B t oBOP t 4BOUJMMBOB$POTUODJB

PARTE

1
Desenvolvimento curricular

$PNQFUODJBTFTQFDGJDBTBEFTFOWPMWFSQFMPTBMVOPTEPBOP
OBEJTDJQMJOBEF$JODJBTEB/BUVSF[B
$PNPKGPJSFGFSJEP PEFTFOWPMWJNFOUPEFVNDPOKVOUPEFDPNQFUODJBTFNEJGFSFOUFTEPNOJPTFTTFODJBM
QBSBBMJUFSBDJBDJFOUGJDB
%FSFGFSJSRVFPEFTFOWPMWJNFOUPEBTDPNQFUODJBTHFSBJTQSFTTVQFRVFUPEBTBTSFBTDVSSJDVMBSFTBDUVFN
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QBSBPEFTFOWPMWJNFOUPEBTDPNQFUODJBTHFSBJT4VSHFNFOUPBTDPNQFUODJBTFTQFDGJDBT EFTFOWPMWJEBT
FNEJGFSFOUFTEPNOJPT DPNPPEPDPOIFDJNFOUP EPSBDJPDOJP EBDPNVOJDBP EBTBUJUVEFT"USBWTEFTUBT
QSFUFOEFTFPQFSBDJPOBMJ[BSBTDPNQFUODJBTHFSBJT/PFOUBOUP EFWFTFSFGFSJSRVFPTEJGFSFOUFTEPNOJPT
OPTPDPNQBSUJNFOUPTFTUBORVFTPVJTPMBEPT FOPEFWFNTFSFOUFOEJEPTDBEBVNQPSTJ NBTOPTFVDPOKVOUP
%FTFOWPMWFNTF FN TJNVMUOFP F EF VNB GPSNB USBOTWFSTBM  OB FYQMPSBP EBT EJGFSFOUFT FYQFSJODJBT
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$POIFDJNFOUP
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$POIFDJNFOUPQSPDFTTVBMQPEFTFSWJWFODJBEPBUSBWTEBSFBMJ[BPEFQFTRVJTBCJCMJPHSGJDB PCTFSWBP 
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TFFWJEFODJFNYJUPTFGSBDBTTPT QFSTJTUODJBFNPEPTEFUSBCBMIPEFEJGFSFOUFTDJFOUJTUBT JOGMVODJBTEBTPDJFEBEF
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t %JTDVUFFWJEODJBTFTJUVBFTQSPCMFNUJDBTEPEPNOJPDJFOUGJDP
t *OUFSQSFUBMFJTFNPEFMPTDJFOUGJDPTTJNQMFT
t 3FDPOIFDF BT MJNJUBFT EB $JODJB F EB 5FDOPMPHJB OB SFTPMVP EF QSPCMFNBT QFTTPBJT  TPDJBJT
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t 3FBMJ[BQFTRVJTBCJCMJPHSGJDB JOEJWJEVBMNFOUFPVFNHSVQP
t 3FBMJ[BPCTFSWBFT FYFDVUBFYQFSJODJBTFJOUFSQSFUBSFTVMUBEPT
t &MBCPSBFJOUFSQSFUBSFQSFTFOUBFTHSGJDBT VUJMJ[BOEPEBEPTNBUFNUJDPT
t %FCBUFSFMBUPTEFEFTDPCFSUBTDJFOUGJDBT
t 3FWFMBDPOIFDJNFOUPTTPCSFPTDPOUFEPTBCPSEBEPT
3BDJPDOJP
4VHFSFTFTJUVBFTEFBQSFOEJ[BHFNDFOUSBEBTOBSFTPMVPEFQSPCMFNBT DPNJOUFSQSFUBPEFEBEPT 
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t 3FTPMWFQSPCMFNBTDPNJOUFSQSFUBPEFEBEPT
t &TUBCFMFDFDPNQBSBFTFOUSFEJGFSFOUFTEBEPT
t 3FBMJ[BJOGFSODJBTBQBSUJSEFEBEPTTJNQMFT

%&4"'*04 t $JODJBTEB/BUVSF[B t oBOP t 4BOUJMMBOB$POTUODJB



PARTE

Desenvolvimento curricular

$PNVOJDBP
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t &YQSJNFTFEFGPSNBDMBSB PSBMNFOUFFQPSFTDSJUPFEFBDPSEPDPNBMJOHVBHFNDJFOUGJDB
t 6UJMJ[BEJGFSFOUFTNPEPTEFSFQSFTFOUBSBJOGPSNBPSFDPMIJEB USBCBMIPT DBSUB[FT CBOEBEFTFOIBEB FUD

t 1SPEV[UFYUPTFNGVOPEBBCPSEBHFNEPTBTTVOUPT SFTVNPT SFMBUSJPT SFMBUPTEFBDUJWJEBEFT EFWJTJUBT
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t $PPQFSBFNBDUJWJEBEFTEFHSVQP QBSUJMIBOEPBJOGPSNBP
t "QSFTFOUBSFTVMUBEPTEFQFTRVJTBVUJMJ[BOEPBTOPWBTUFDOPMPHJBTEFJOGPSNBPFDPNVOJDBP
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t
t
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%&4"'*04 t $JODJBTEB/BUVSF[B t oBOP t 4BOUJMMBOB$POTUODJB

PARTE

COMPETNCIAS GERAIS

$POIFDJNFOUP

COMPETNCIAS ESPECFICAS

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X
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X
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USBCBMIPT DBSUB[FT CBOEBEFTFOIBEB FUD


1SPEV[UFYUPTFNGVOPEBBCPSEBHFNEPTBTTVOUPT SFTVNPT 
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X
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1
Desenvolvimento curricular

$SV[BNFOUPFOUSFBTDPNQFUODJBTFTQFDGJDBTBEFTFOWPMWFSQFMPT
BMVOPTEPBOPOBEJTDJQMJOBEF$JODJBTEB/BUVSF[BFBTDPNQFUODJBT
HFSBJTEP&OTJOP#TJDP

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"NQMJBBEJWFSTJEBEFEFJOUFSFTTFT

"TTVNFVNBBUJUVEFSFTQPOTWFMOBSFBMJ[BPEBTUBSFGBTEJSJBT 
NBOJGFTUBOEPBUJUVEFTFICJUPTEFUSBCBMIP GJDIBTEFUSBCBMIP GJDIBT
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31

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Desenvolvimento curricular

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PARTE

Desenvolvimento curricular

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33

PARTE

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Desenvolvimento curricular
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t 3
 FBMJ[BPEFVNBTBEB t *OWFTUJHBS
EFDBNQPQMVSJEJTDJQMJOBS
FYQFSJNFOUBMNFOUF
QBSBBBCPSEBHFN
TJUVBFTRVFFWJEFODJFN
TJTUNJDBEPTQSPCMFNBT
BJOUFSBDPBOJNBJTNFJP
FSFDPMIBEFEBEPTDPN t 1FTRVJTBSBTNJHSBFTEBT
WJTUBBBDUJWJEBEFTGVUVSBT
DFHPOIBTFBOEPSJOIBT
IJCFSOBPEPTPVSJPT 
t 0CTFSWBPEFVN
WEFP POEFTFKBN
FUD
WJTWFJTEJGFSFOUFTUJQPT t $SJBSCJDIPTEBTFEB
EFSFWFTUJNFOUP EF
PVHJSJOPT
MPDPNPPFEFSFHJNFT
0CTFSWBSFSFHJTUBS
FDPNQPSUBNFOUPT
BTUSBOTGPSNBFT
BMJNFOUBSFT FUD
PDPSSJEBTBPMPOHP

&TTFODJBJT

SUGESTES/EXPERINCIAS EDUCATIVAS

&EVDBPQBSB
BDJEBEBOJB

&EVDBPQBSB
BTBEF
FRVBMJEBEF
EFWJEB

&EVDBPQBSB
PTWBMPSFT

&EVDBP
BNCJFOUBM

TEMAS
TRANSVERSAIS

Desenvolvimento curricular

CONTEDOS
TEMAS
ESPECFICOS

PARTE

37

38

"MHVOTBTQFDUPT
EBNPSGPMPHJBEBT
QMBOUBTTFNGMPS

.PSGPMPHJBEBT
QMBOUBTDPNGMPS



N. AULAS
PREVISTAS
(X 45 MIN)
4VTUFOUBCJMJEBEFOB
5FSSB

TEMA(S)
ORGANIZADOR(ES)

%&4"'*04 t $JODJBTEB/BUVSF[B t oBOP t 4BOUJMMBOB$POTUODJB

t 1
 MBOJGJDBPFJNQMFNFOUBPEFBDFT
WJTBOEPBQSPUFDPEPBNCJFOUF 
BQSFTFSWBPEPQBUSJNOJPFPFRVJMCSJP
FOUSFB/BUVSF[BFBTPDJFEBEF

t *EFOUJGJDBPEFNFEJEBTBUPNBSQBSB
BFYQMPSBPTVTUFOUWFMEPTSFDVSTPT

t %
 JTDVTTPEBOFDFTTJEBEFEFVUJMJ[BPEPT
SFDVSTPTIESJDPTFHFPMHJDPTEFVNBGPSNB
TVTUFOUWFM

t $
 PNQSFFOTPEFDPNPBJOUFSWFOP
IVNBOBOB5FSSBQPEFBGFDUBSBRVBMJEBEF
EBHVB EPTPMPFEPBS DPNJNQMJDBFT
QBSBBWJEBEBTQFTTPBT

t 3
 FDPOIFDJNFOUPEFRVFBJOUFSWFOP
IVNBOBOB5FSSBGVOEBNFOUBMQBSB
BPCUFOPEPTBMJNFOUPTFEBFOFSHJB
OFDFTTSJBWJEB

COMPETNCIAS ESPECFICAS

t %
 JTDVUJSPUFNB
jFTQDJFTBNFBBEBTx
FTFOTJCJMJ[BPSFMBUJWB
BPWBMPSEPDPOUSJCVUP
QFTTPBMOBQSPUFDP
EPTTFSFTWJWPT

&OSJRVFDJNFOUP

&EVDBP
BNCJFOUBM

&EVDBPQBSB
PDPOTVNJEPS

&EVDBPQBSB
BDJEBEBOJB

TEMAS
TRANSVERSAIS

t 3
 FBMJ[BSFYQFSJODJBT
&EVDBPQBSB
QBSBJOWFTUJHBS
PTWBMPSFT
BJOGMVODJBEPT
GBDUPSFTEPNFJP
MV[ UFNQFSBUVSB 
IVNJEBEF
OBTWBSJBFT
t 3FBMJ[BPEFQFRVFOBT
EBTDBSBDUFSTUJDBT
BDUJWJEBEFTFYQFSJNFOUBJT
FDPNQPSUBNFOUP
QPSFYPCTFSWBP
EBTQMBOUBT
EFQMBOUBTDPNGMPS
PCTFSWBPEFEJGFSFOUF t &MBCPSBSUSBCBMIP
EFQFTRVJTBTPCSF
UJQPTEFSB[FT FUD
QMBOUBTFNQFSJHP
EFFYUJOP

t 0
 CTFSWBP
EF1PXFS1PJOUPOEF
TFWFKBBEJWFSTJEBEF
EFGMPSFT DBVMFT SB[FT 
GPMIBTFQMBOUBT
FNEJWFSTPTNFJPT

t & MBCPSBP
EFVNIFSCSJP
FBQSFOEJ[BHFN
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&TTFODJBJT

SUGESTES/EXPERINCIAS EDUCATIVAS

%*7&34*%"%&
/"41-"/5"4

CONTEDOS
TEMAS
ESPECFICOS

Desenvolvimento curricular
PARTE

%&4"'*04 t $JODJBTEB/BUVSF[B t oBOP t 4BOUJMMBOB$POTUODJB

$-"44*'*$"0
%044&3&47*704

"$-6-"
6/*%"%&/"
$0/45*56*0
%044&3&47*704

6/*%"%&
/"%*7&34*%"%&
%044&3&47*704



N. AULAS
PREVISTAS
(X 45 MIN)

4VTUFOUBCJMJEBEFOB
5FSSB

5FSSBFN
USBOTGPSNBP

TEMA(S)
ORGANIZADOR(ES)
t $
 PNQSFFOTPEFRVFPCPNGVODJPOBNFOUP
EPPSHBOJTNPEFDPSSFEBJOUFSBDPEF
EJGFSFOUFTTJTUFNBTEFSHPTRVFBTTFHVSBN
BSFBMJ[BPEBTGVOFTFTTFODJBJTWJEB

COMPETNCIAS ESPECFICAS
&OSJRVFDJNFOUP

t 6
 UJMJ[BPEFDIBWFT
EJDPUNJDBTQBSB
BDMBTTJGJDBPEFTFSFT
WJWPT

t $
 MBTTJGJDBSPTTFSFTWJWPT
FNDJODPSFJOPT

t *EFOUJGJDBP
EPTEJGFSFOUFTUJQPT
EFDMBTTJGJDBP

BPCTFSWBPEJSFDUB 
FGFDUVBSDMBTTJGJDBFT
SFMBUJWPTBPTSFJOPTEPT
BOJNBJTFEBTQMBOUBT 
DPNPBQPJPEFDIBWFT
EJDPUNJDBT RVF
QFSNJUBNBJEFOUJGJDBP
EFBMHVOTGJMPT BMHVNBT
DMBTTFTEFWFSUFCSBEPT
FEFBSUSQPEFT

t 0
 CTFSWBP
t 1FTRVJTBSBFWPMVP
EBEJWFSTJEBEF
EPNJDSPTDQJPBPMPOHP
EPNVOEPNJDSPTDQJDP  EPTUFNQPT
SFMBDJPOBOEPPTFV
t 0CTFSWBSJOGVTFTBP
DPOIFDJNFOUPDPN
NJDSPTDQJP QH

BJOWFOPEP
t 0CTFSWBSEJGFSFOBT
NJDSPTDQJP
FOUSFBTDMVMBT
t 0CTFSWBPEFVN
PCTFSWBEBT GPSNB 
NJDSPTDQJPQUJDP
UBNBOIP DPOTUJUVJOUFT 
FJEFOUJGJDBPEPTTFVT
FUD
JNQPSUBOUFRVF
DPOTUJUVJOUFT
PTBMVOPTEFTFOIFN
t 0CTFSWBP
PRVFPCTFSWBN GBBN
BMFHFOEBFJOEJRVFN
BPNJDSPTDQJPQUJDP
EFDMVMBTBOJNBJT
BBNQMJBP
FWFHFUBJT
t 1SJWJMFHJBOEP

&TTFODJBJT

SUGESTES/EXPERINCIAS EDUCATIVAS

TEMAS
TRANSVERSAIS

Desenvolvimento curricular

CONTEDOS
TEMAS
ESPECFICOS

PARTE

39



%&4"'*04 t $JODJBTEB/BUVSF[B t oBOP t 4BOUJMMBOB$POTUODJB

"HVBF
BDUJWJEBEFT
IVNBOBT

%JTUSJCVJPEB
HVBOB/BUVSF[B

t 1
 MBOJGJDBPFJNQMFNFOUBPEFBDFT
WJTBOEPBQSPUFDPEPBNCJFOUF 
BQSFTFSWBPEPQBUSJNOJPFPFRVJMCSJP
FOUSFB/BUVSF[BFBTPDJFEBEF

"RVBMJEBEF
EBHVB

&OSJRVFDJNFOUP

t 0
 CTFSWBSBHVB
EFVNDIBSDPjBPMIP
OVxFBPNJDSPTDQJP
t 0
 CTFSWBPEFVNWEFP t &YFDVUBSEFDBOUBFT
FGJMUSBFT
TPCSFBQPMVJPEBHVB
t
1FTRVJTBSBTBDUJWJEBEFT
t -FJUVSBFBOMJTFEB$BSUB
IVNBOBTFNRVF
&VSPQFJBEBHVB
VUJMJ[BEBHVB

t *EFOUJGJDBP
FYQFSJNFOUBMEPT
FTUBEPTGTJDPTEBHVB

t 0
 CTFSWBPEFslides
GPUPHSBGJBTSFMBUJWPTBPT
UJQPTEFHVBQPMVJP
EBHVBFTUBEPTGTJDPT
EBHVB FUD

t 3
 FBMJ[BSQFRVFOBT
BDUJWJEBEFTQSUJDBT
FYQFSJNFOUBJTWFSJGJDBS
BQSFTFOBEFHVB
FNSHPTEFTFSFT
WJWPTJEFOUJGJDBS
FYQFSJNFOUBMNFOUF
BTQSPQSJFEBEFTEBHVB

t 1
 FTRVJTBSOB*OUFSOFU
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OPDPODFMIPFNBFTDPMB
TFJOTFSF

t $
 POTVMUBEFEPDVNFOUPT t &MBCPSBSVNdossier
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FYJTUODJBEFHVBFN
TPCSFBHVB
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&TTFODJBJT

SUGESTES/EXPERINCIAS EDUCATIVAS

t $
 PNQSFFOTPEFDPNPBJOUFSWFOPIVNBOB t &YQMPSBPEPDJDMP
OB5FSSBQPEFBGFDUBSBRVBMJEBEFEBHVB 
EBHVB
EPTPMPFEPBS DPNJNQMJDBFTQBSBBWJEB
t -FJUVSBEFFYUSBDUPT
EBTQFTTPBT
EFSFWJTUBTFKPSOBJT
t %JTDVTTPEBOFDFTTJEBEFEFVUJMJ[BPEPT
SFMBUJWPTJOGMVODJB
SFDVSTPTIESJDPTFHFPMHJDPTEFVNBGPSNB
EBQPMVJPEBHVB
TVTUFOUWFM
OBWJEBEPTTFSFTWJWPT

t 3
 FDPOIFDJNFOUPEFRVFBJOUFSWFOP
IVNBOBOB5FSSBGVOEBNFOUBMQBSB
BPCUFOPEPTBMJNFOUPTFEBFOFSHJB
OFDFTTSJBWJEB

COMPETNCIAS ESPECFICAS

t *EFOUJGJDBPEFNFEJEBTBUPNBSQBSB
BFYQMPSBPTVTUFOUWFMEPTSFDVSTPT

7JWFSNFMIPS
OB5FSSB

4VTUFOUBCJMJEBEFOB
5FSSB

TEMA(S)
ORGANIZADOR(ES)

"HVBDPNP
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"HVB JNQPSUBOUF
DPNQPOFOUFEPT
TFSFTWJWPT

*.1035/$*"%"
(6"1"3"
044&3&47*704



N. AULAS
PREVISTAS
(X 45 MIN)

&EVDBPQBSB
PDPOTVNJEPS

&EVDBPQBSB
BDJEBEBOJB

&EVDBP
BMJNFOUBS

&EVDBPQBSB
BTBEF
FRVBMJEBEF
EFWJEB

&EVDBPQBSB
PTWBMPSFT

&EVDBP
BNCJFOUBM

TEMAS
TRANSVERSAIS

"(6" 0"3 
"430$)"4
&040-0
."5&3*"*4
TERRESTRES

CONTEDOS
TEMAS
ESPECFICOS

Desenvolvimento curricular
PARTE

%&4"'*04 t $JODJBTEB/BUVSF[B t oBOP t 4BOUJMMBOB$POTUODJB



*.1035/$*"%0
AR PARA
044&3&47*704

'BDUPSFTRVF
BMUFSBNBRVBMJEBEF
EPBS

*NQPSUODJBEPT
HBTFTBUNPTGSJDPT

$POTUJUVJOUFT
EPBSTVBT
QSPQSJFEBEFT

N. AULAS
PREVISTAS
(X 45 MIN)

7JWFSNFMIPS
OB5FSSB

4VTUFOUBCJMJEBEF
OB5FSSB

5FSSBOPFTQBP

TEMA(S)
ORGANIZADOR(ES)
t 4 BMJFOUBSBJNQPSUODJB
EPTHBTFTBUNPTGSJDPT
OBWJEBEPTTFSFT OB
NFEJDJOBFOBJOETUSJB

&TTFODJBJT

t 1
 MBOJGJDBPFJNQMFNFOUBPEFBDFT
WJTBOEPBQSPUFDPEPBNCJFOUF 
BQSFTFSWBPEPQBUSJNOJP
FPFRVJMCSJPFOUSFB/BUVSF[B
FBTPDJFEBEF

t 0
 CTFSWBPEFVN
WEFPTPCSFBQPMVJP
EPBS

TEMAS
TRANSVERSAIS

t 3
 FBMJ[BPEFUSBCBMIPT
EFHSVQPTPCSF
BQSPWFJUBNFOUPEBFOFSHJB
FMJDBFN1PSUVHBM
BTDIVWBTDJEBTFTVBT
DPOTFRVODJBTQBSB
PTFDPTTJTUFNBTFGFJUP
EFFTUVGBEFTUSVJP
EBDBNBEBEFP[POP
BMUFSBFTDMJNUJDBT
BTBQMJDBFTEPBS
DPNQSJNJEPOPEJBBEJB
EFTQPSUP JOETUSJB FUD


t 1
 FTRVJTBSOB*OUFSOFURVBM
BRVBMJEBEFEPBSOBSFHJP
POEFBFTDPMBTFJOTFSF

t 0
 SHBOJ[BS BOWFMEF
UVSNB VNQBJOFMDPN
EPDVNFOUBPEJWFSTB
GPUPHSBGJBT OPUDJBT FUD

TPCSFDBTPTEFQPMVJP
FQPTUFSJPSEFCBUFQBSB
BQSFTFOUBPEFTPMVFT

&EVDBPQBSB
BDJEBEBOJB

EFWJEB

t 1
 FTRVJTBSBSFMBPFOUSF
&EVDBP
PHSBVEFQPMVJPBUNPTGSJDB "NCJFOUBM
FPBQBSFDJNFOUPEFMRVFOFT &EVDBPQBSB
t 7FSJGJDBS FYQFSJNFOUBMNFOUF  PTWBMPSFT
BTQSPQSJFEBEFTEPT
&EVDBPQBSB
QSJODJQBJTDPOTUJUVJOUFT
BTBEF
EPBS
FRVBMJEBEF

&OSJRVFDJNFOUP

SUGESTES/EXPERINCIAS EDUCATIVAS

t 0
 CTFSWBPEFTMJEFT
RVFEFNPTUSFN
BBDPEPWFOUP
SFMBDJPOBSPWFOUPDPN
PNPWJNFOUPEPBS
t %JTDVTTPEBOFDFTTJEBEFEFVUJMJ[BPEPT
SFDVSTPTIESJDPTFHFPMHJDPT
t 3FBMJ[BPEF
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QFRVFOBTBDUJWJEBEFT
FYQFSJNFOUBJTTPCSF
t *EFOUJGJDBPEFNFEJEBTBUPNBSQBSB
BTQSPQSJFEBEFTEPBS
BFYQMPSBPTVTUFOUWFMEPTSFDVSTPT

t $
 PNQSFFOTPEFDPNPBJOUFSWFOP
IVNBOBOB5FSSBQPEFBGFDUBSBRVBMJEBEF
EBHVB EPTPMPFEPBS DPNJNQMJDBFT
QBSBBWJEBEBTQFTTPBT

t 3
 FDPOIFDJNFOUPEFRVFBJOUFSWFOP
IVNBOBOB5FSSBGVOEBNFOUBMQBSB
BPCUFOPEPTBMJNFOUPTFEBFOFSHJB
OFDFTTSJBWJEB

COMPETNCIAS ESPECFICAS

Desenvolvimento curricular

CONTEDOS
TEMAS
ESPECFICOS

PARTE







"430$)"4 
040-0&044&3&4
7*704

%&4"'*04 t $JODJBTEB/BUVSF[B t oBOP t 4BOUJMMBOB$POTUODJB

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"MHVOTUJQPT
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3PDIBT NJOFSBJT
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IVNBOBT

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N. AULAS
PREVISTAS
(X 45 MIN)

7JWFSNFMIPS
OB5FSSB

4VTUFOUBCJMJEBEF
OB5FSSB

5FSSBFN
5SBOTGPSNBP

TEMA(S)
ORGANIZADOR(ES)

t 1
 MBOJGJDBPFJNQMFNFOUBP
EFBDFTWJTBOEPBQSPUFDP
EPBNCJFOUF BQSFTFSWBP
EPQBUSJNOJPFPFRVJMCSJPFOUSF
BOBUVSF[BFBTPDJFEBEF

t *EFOUJGJDBPEFNFEJEBTBUPNBSQBSB
BFYQMPSBPTVTUFOUWFMEPTSFDVSTPT

t %
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t $
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IVNBOBOB5FSSBQPEFBGFDUBS
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DPNJNQMJDBFTQBSBBWJEBEBTQFTTPBT

t 3
 FDPOIFDJNFOUPEFRVFBJOUFSWFOP
IVNBOBOB5FSSBGVOEBNFOUBMQBSB
BPCUFOPEPTBMJNFOUPTFEBFOFSHJB
OFDFTTSJBWJEB

t $
 PNQSFFOTPHMPCBMEBDPOTUJUVJPEB
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COMPETNCIAS ESPECFICAS
&OSJRVFDJNFOUP

t 3
 FMBDJPOBSPTNBUFSJBJT
t $POTUSVPEFVNNBQB
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t %FCBUFTEFUFNBT
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t *EFOUJGJDBPEFSPDIBT t "OBMJTBSB$BSUB&VSPQFJB
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t
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t $POTUSVJSVNNPEFMP
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t 3FBMJ[BSVNBTBEBEF
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t 7FSJGJDBS FYQFSJNFOUBMNFOUF 
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PHSBVEFQFSNFBCJMJEBEF
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t
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t 0CTFSWBSBOBMJTBSB
t $PNNBUFSJBMSFDPMIJEP
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&TTFODJBJT

SUGESTES/EXPERINCIAS EDUCATIVAS

&EVDBPQBSB
PDPOTVNJEPS

&EVDBPQBSB
BDJEBEBOJB

&EVDBPQBSB
BTBEF
FRVBMJEBEF
EFWJEB

&EVDBPQBSB
PTWBMPSFT

&EVDBP
BNCJFOUBM

TEMAS
TRANSVERSAIS

CONTEDOS
TEMAS
ESPECFICOS

Desenvolvimento curricular
PARTE

PARTE

2
Porteflio

t
t
t
t
t

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44
44
 45
49
57

43

PARTE

Porteflio

1PSUFGMJP
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.BJTEPRVFVNDPOKVOUPEFUSBCBMIPTTFMFDDJPOBEPTFPSHBOJ[BEPTQBSBEFNPOTUSBSDPOIFDJNFOUPTFDBQBDJEBEFT 
PQPSUFGMJPVNSFGMFYPEBTDPORVJTUBT EWJEBTFBUGSBDBTTPTRVFDPNQFNBIJTUSJBEFWJEBFBQSFOEJ[BHFN
EFVNBMVOPVNBIJTUSJBOJDBFJSSFQFUWFMFNRVFBTQFSTPOBHFOTFOWPMWJEBTBMVOP QSPGFTTPS DPMFHBT 
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"TTJN PBWJTPEF4BSBNBHP QFMPRVFJNQMJDBEFFOUSFHBFFYQPTJPEPBVUPSFQFMPBQFMPRVFGB[DVNQMJDJEBEF
EPMFJUPS GBDJMNFOUFTFDPOWFSUFFNj"UFOP FTUFQPSUFGMJPMFWBVNBMVOPEFOUSPx2VFFTUFBWJTPTFKBFOUFOEJEP
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DBQBDJEBEFEFBQSFOEFSBPMPOHPEBWJEBx $VSSDVMP/BDJPOBMEP&OTJOP#TJDP$PNQFUODJBT&TTFODJBJT

/FTUFDPOUFYUP FOPDBTPQBSUJDVMBSEBT$JODJBTEB/BUVSF[B EFWFQSPNPWFSTFVNFOTJOPFNRVFFTUBTTFKBN


BQSFTFOUBEBTEFGPSNBHMPCBM JOUFHSBEBFMJHBEBSFBMJEBEFEPOPTTPEJBBEJB
0FOTJOPEFWFBQSPYJNBSTFEPTQSPDFTTPTRVFB$JODJBVUJMJ[B QFSNJUJOEPBPTBMVOPTBWJWODJBEFFYQFSJODJBT
EFBQSFOEJ[BHFN DPNPBTBDUJWJEBEFTFYQFSJNFOUBJT PUSBCBMIPEFQSPKFDUP BSFBMJ[BPEFTBEBTEFDBNQP
PVBQMBOJGJDBPFPEFTFOWPMWJNFOUPEFQFTRVJTBTEJWFSTJGJDBEBTEFNPEPRVFPTDPOIFDJNFOUPTDJFOUGJDPT
TFKBNDPNQSFFOEJEPTQFMPTBMVOPTFNFTUSFJUBSFMBPDPNBSFBMJEBEFRVFPTSPEFJB&TUFFOTJOPFYJHFVNB
OPWBGPSNBEFPMIBSQBSBBBWBMJBP
0NPWJNFOUPEBBWBMJBPBMUFSOBUJWBPOEFTFJODMVJPQPSUFGMJPUFNUJEPVNBFYQBOTPOPUWFMEFWJEP
TTFHVJOUFTRVBUSPDBSBDUFSTUJDBT $VOOJOHIBN  DJUBEPQPS/VOFT 
PTUFTUFTUSBEJDJPOBJTBWBMJBN
BQFOBTVNNOJNPEFDPNQFUODJBTFYJTUFVNEFTDPOUFOUBNFOUPSFMBUJWBNFOUFBPTNPEFMPTQTJDPNUSJDPT
FYJTUFOUFTBDPOWJDPOPNPEFMPDPOTUSVUJWJTUBEBBQSFOEJ[BHFNFBDSFOBEFRVFPQSJNFJSPQSPQTJUP
EBFTDPMBQCMJDBQSPNPWFSBKVTUJBTPDJBM
"TBCPSEBHFOTEFDBSJ[DPOTUSVUJWJTUB RVFJNQMJRVFNVNQBQFMBDUJWPEPBMVOPOBDPOTUSVPEPTFVDPOIFDJNFOUP 
SFTFSWBNMIFUBNCNVNFOWPMWJNFOUPEJSFDUPOBTVBQSQSJBBWBMJBP"BWBMJBPEFJYBEFGVODJPOBSDPNP
VNGJNFQBTTBBGVODJPOBSDPNPVNNFJP%FJYBEFTFSVNBQSUJDBQPOUVBMMJNJUBEBBBMHVOTNPNFOUPTDIBWF
BPMPOHPEPBOP EFQPJTEFMFDDJPOBEPTPTjDPOUFEPTx QBSBQFSNJUJSBDMBTTJGJDBPFBWBMJBSTOPGJN
DIFHBSEFNBTJBEPUBSEFQBSBNVEBSBMHVNBDPJTB QBSBTFUSBOTGPSNBSOVNQSPDFTTPDPOUOVP OFHPDJBEP
FBPTFSWJPEBBQSFOEJ[BHFN
/PWBTGPSNBTEFFODBSBSBBWBMJBPFYJHFNIPKF BPNFTNPUFNQP OPWBTNFUPEPMPHJBTFOPWPTJOTUSVNFOUPT
EFUSBCBMIP

44

%&4"'*04 t $JODJBTEB/BUVSF[B t oBOP t 4BOUJMMBOB$POTUODJB

PARTE

2
Porteflio

-BODFNPTVNSQJEPPMIBSTPCSFBTPSJFOUBFTEB3FPSHBOJ[BP$VSSJDVMBSEP&OTJOP#TJDP RVFBQPOUBN
DPNPQSJODJQBMNFUBQBSBPEFTFOWPMWJNFOUPEFDPNQFUODJBTBjDSJBPEFTJUVBFTDPNQMFYBTRVFNPCJMJ[FN
FDPPSEFOFNDPOIFDJNFOUPT DBQBDJEBEFTFBUJUVEFTxFPOEFDPNQFUODJBTFEFGJOFDPNPVNjTBCFSQPTUP
FNBDPx7FSJGJDBNPTRVFBTFGB[VNGPSUFBQFMPJOUSPEVPEFQSPGVOEBTNVEBOBTOBTQSUJDBTQFEBHHJDBT
FOPTJOTUSVNFOUPTEFSFHVMBPFBWBMJBPBFMBTBTTPDJBEPT
t "
 TDPNQFUODJBTEFWFNTFSBWBMJBEBTFNTJUVBFTEFBWBMJBPFTQFDGJDBT DPOTUSVEBTQBSBUBMGJN QPTTJCJMJUBOEP
BPCTFSWBPEPTBMVOPTFNBDUJWJEBEF
t "
 DPOTUSVPEFQSPDFTTPTEFBQSFOEJ[BHFNEFWFTFSGFJUBOVNBQUJDBEFBWBMJBPGPSNBEPSB BEBQUBOEP
OPWBTGPSNBTEFUSBCBMIBSDPNPTBMVOPTFOPWPTNUPEPTEFBWBMJBS
t "NPCJMJ[BPEFEJWFSTBTFTUSBUHJBTEFBWBMJBPOVNBQFSTQFDUJWBRVBMJUBUJWBFJOUFSQSFUBUJWB
t "DPODFQPFJNQMFNFOUBPEFOPWPTDPOUFYUPTFJOTUSVNFOUPTEFBWBMJBPBEFRVBEPTBVNNBJPS
FOWPMWJNFOUPFSFTQPOTBCJMJ[BPEPTBMVOPTOPQSPDFTTPEFBQSFOEJ[BHFNBWBMJBP
/FOIVNEFOT QSPGFTTPSFT GJDBSJOEJGFSFOUFBFTUFBQFMP.BTDPNPEBSMIFSFTQPTUB 1PSPOEFDPNFBS 2VF
DBNJOIPTTFHVJS
4FSPUBOUPTPTDBNJOIPTDPNPBTJODFSUF[BTRVFUBJTEFTBGJPTMFWBOUBN$POUVEP QBSFDFOPTFYJTUJSVNBNFUPEPMPHJB
RVFjBTTFOUBDPNPVNBMVWBxFNUPEBTFDBEBVNBEBTNFUBTBQPOUBEBT'BMBNPT DMBSPFTU EPQPSUFGMJPEPBMVOP
0USBCBMIPDPNQPSUFGMJPTBTTVNFTFDPNPVNBBCPSEBHFNQSJWJMFHJBEBQBSBQSPTTFHVJSVNBBWBMJBPFVNB
QSUJDBQFEBHHJDBDPNPTPCKFDUJWPTBDJNBFOVODJBEPT
.BTPRVFPQPSUFGMJP $PNPTFEFTFOWPMWF $PNPTFBWBMJB 4FSRVFUFNQPEFSQBSBBKVEBSBPQFSBSUPEBT
FTUBTNVEBOBT /PTQPOUPTTFHVJOUFTEFTUFUFYUPQSPDVSBSFNPTGPSOFDFSBMHVNBTQJTUBTRVFQFSNJUBNBDBEB
VNFODPOUSBSBTTVBTSFTQPTUBTQBSBFTUBTFPVUSBTRVFTUFTSFMBDJPOBEBTDPNFTUBNFUPEPMPHJB

0RVFPQPSUFGMJPEPBMVOP
%FBDPSEPDPN7BMBEBSFTF(SBB 
PQPSUFGMJPEPBMVOPQPEFTFSFOUFOEJEPDPNPVNBDPMFDPPSHBOJ[BEB
FEFWJEBNFOUFQMBOFBEBEFUSBCBMIPTQSPEV[JEPTQFMPBMVOPBPMPOHPEFVNQFSPEPEFUFNQP EFGPSNB
BQPEFSQSPQPSDJPOBSVNBWJTPUPBMBSHBEBRVBOUPQPTTWFMEPTFVEFTFOWPMWJNFOUP DPHOJUJWP NFUBDPHOJUJWP
FBGFDUJWP
1BSBB/BUJPOBM&EVDBUJPO"TTPDJBUJPO &6" 
DPSSFTQPOEFBVNSFHJTUPEBBQSFOEJ[BHFNCBTFBEP
OPUSBCBMIPEPBMVOPFOBTVBSFGMFYPTPCSFFTTFUSBCBMIP
%BRVJTPCSFTTBFNBTDBSBDUFSTUJDBTNBJTNBSDBOUFTEFTUBNFUPEPMPHJB
t 6
 NBDPMFDPEFUSBCBMIPT 2VFSBTFMFDPEFUSBCBMIPTTFKBEBSFTQPOTBCJMJEBEFEPBMVOP RVFSTFKB
EFUFSNJOBEBQFMPQSPGFTTPS RVFSEFDPSSBEFEFDJTFTOFHPDJBEBTFOUSFBNCPT BDPMFDPEFUSBCBMIPT
SFTVMUBOUFEFWFSFWFTUJSTFTFNQSFEFVNDBSDUFSSFQSFTFOUBUJWP PQPOEPTFDMBSBNFOUFBSFDPMIBTTJTUFNUJDBT
FFYBVTUJWBTEPUSBCBMIPEFTFOWPMWJEPQFMPBMVOP
t $SJBEBDPNVNQSPQTJUP1SPNPWFSPEFTFOWPMWJNFOUPEFDPNQFUODJBTHFSBJTFFTQFDGJDBT DPOTUJUVJS
VNFMFNFOUPEFBWBMJBPEPTQSPHSFTTPTEPBMVOPOVNBPVFNWSJBTEJTDJQMJOBT FUD
t $PNFTQBPQBSBBSFGMFYPFBVUPBWBMJBPEPBMVOP"jQFESBEFUPRVFxEPQPSUFGMJP USBOTGPSNBOEPP
OVNjQPUFOUFxJOTUSVNFOUPEFBQSFOEJ[BHFNFEFTFOWPMWJNFOUP
3FUPNBOEPBJEFJBFYQSFTTBOPJODJPVNBQBTUBDPNHFOUFEFOUSP PQPSUFGMJPEPBMVOPQPEFTFSFOUFOEJEP
DPNPVNSPUFJSPEPTQFSDVSTPTQFTTPBJTEFDSFTDJNFOUP EFTFOWPMWJNFOUPFBQSFOEJ[BHFNEPBMVOP EBQFTTPB
BRVFQFSUFODFVNEJSJPFEVDBUJWPPVVNBBVUPCJPHSBGJBEPBMVOPFNRVFPNFTNPTFEFWFFODPOUSBS
QSPGVOEBNFOUFJNQMJDBEP /VOFT 

2VFUJQPTEFQPSUFGMJPTQPEFNPTEFTFOWPMWFS
&YJTUFOBCJCMJPHSBGJBVNBHSBOEFWBSJFEBEFEFQSPQPTUBTQBSBBUJQJGJDBPEPTQPSUFGMJPT QPSFYFNQMP QPSUFGMJP
EFBQSFOEJ[BHFN QPSUFGMJPEFBWBMJBP
1SPDVSBOEPTJNQMJGJDBSVNBRVFTUPDPNQMFYB BQSFTFOUBNPTBRVJ 
DPNPQSFDPOJ[BNWSJPTBVUPSFT $PMFet al. &QTUFJO 
EPJTUJQPTEFQPSUFGMJPTRVF FODBSBEPT
EPQPOUPEFWJTUBUFSJDP DPSSFTQPOEFNBPTFYUSFNPTFOUSFPTRVBJTTFQPEFFODBJYBSUPEBBEJWFSTJEBEF
EF BCPSEBHFOT EB NFUPEPMPHJB RVF QPTTBNPT EFTFOWPMWFS P QPSUFGMJP EF USBCBMIP F P QPSUFGMJP
EFBQSFTFOUBP
%&4"'*04 t $JODJBTEB/BUVSF[B t oBOP t 4BOUJMMBOB$POTUODJB

45

PARTE

Porteflio

1PSUFGMJPEFUSBCBMIP
t 5 FNBOGBTFDPMPDBEBOPQSPDFTTP$FOUSBTFOPRVFWBJBDPOUFDFOEPFORVBOUPTFDPOTUSJ GVODJPOBOEP
DPNPVNNPUPSEBBQSFOEJ[BHFN
t $SFTDFDPNPEFTFOSPMBSEBTBDUJWJEBEFT5FNMVHBSQBSBSBTDVOIPT USBCBMIPTFNDPOTUSVPPVUSBCBMIPTBSFWFS
t *NQMJDBVNBDPNQBOIBNFOUPQSYJNPQPSQBSUFEPQSPGFTTPSFQSFTTVQFJOUFSWBMPTEFSFWJTPFBWBMJBP
SFMBUJWBNFOUFDVSUPT1PSFYFNQMP VNBWF[QPSNT
t *NQMJDBBVUJMJ[BPGSFRVFOUFEFFTQBPTEBBVMB
1PSUFGMJPEFBQSFTFOUBP
t 5FNBOGBTFDPMPDBEBOPQSPEVUP
t 3FQSFTFOUBVNBTFMFDPEPRVFEFNFMIPSGPJQSPEV[JEP&OUFOEBTFBRVJPNFMIPSDPNPTFOEPPNBJT
SFQSFTFOUBUJWPEPTQSPHSFTTPTEPBMVOP EBTDPNQFUODJBTRVFEFTFOWPMWFV EBTNFUBTRVFBUJOHJV FOP
OFDFTTBSJBNFOUFPTUSBCBMIPTRVFNFMIPSSFTVMUBSBNEPQPOUPEFWJTUBHSGJDPPVFTUUJDP
t *NQMJDBJOUFSWBMPTEFSFWJTPFBWBMJBPNBJTMPOHPT1PSFYFNQMP OPGJNEPQFSPEPPVOPGJNEPBOPMFDUJWP
t 1PEFTFSBQSFTFOUBEPFEFGFOEJEPQFSBOUFPTQSPGFTTPSFTFPTQBSFT
4FFNUFPSJBFTUBTFQBSBPQPEFBKVEBSBDMBSJGJDBSDPODFQFTEFQPSUFGMJP OBQSUJDBFMBQPEFOPTFS
OFDFTTSJB1PSFYFNQMP PNFTNPQPSUFGMJPQPEFTFSEFTFOWPMWJEPFBWBMJBEPBPMPOHPEPBOPOVNBQFSTQFDUJWB
EFQSPDFTTP FOPGJNEPBOPTFSPSHBOJ[BEPQBSBSFQSFTFOUBSPQSPEVUPEPUSBCBMIPEFTFOWPMWJEP.BJTJNQPSUBOUF
EPRVFBEFTJHOBPBPSJFOUBPRVFFTUTVCKBDFOUF
0RVFJODMVJS
5VEPPRVFPBMVOPQSPEV[ TP[JOIPPVFNDPMBCPSBPDPNPVUSPT EFOUSPFGPSBEBTBMBEFBVMB SFMBUSJPT
EFBDUJWJEBEFTFYQFSJNFOUBJT USBCBMIPTEFQFTRVJTBFJOWFTUJHBP SFMBUSJPTEFWJTJUBTEFFTUVEPPVTBEBT
EFDBNQP FOUSFWJTUBT UFTUFT GJDIBTEFUSBCBMIPFEFMFJUVSB SFHJTUPTVEJP WEFPFGPUPHSGJDPT FUD
OPNCJUP
EBEJTDJQMJOBPVEJTDJQMJOBTBRVFPQPSUFGMJPTFSFQPSUBTVTDFQUWFMEFOFMFTFSJOUFHSBEPDPNPFOUSBEB
PVFWJEODJB$POUVEP DPNPKEJTTFNPT OFNUVEPEFWFTFSJODMVEP/PFTRVFBNPTBOBUVSF[BDPNQSFFOTJWB
EBNFUPEPMPHJB
"TTJN PQPSUFGMJPQPEFJOUFHSBS
t U VEPPRVFPBMVOPQSPEV[JVFTFMFDDJPOPVDPNPSFWFMBEPSEBTVBBQSFOEJ[BHFNFOPBQFOBTBRVJMPRVF
GPJPCSJHBEPBGB[FSOBEJTDJQMJOB /VOFT 

t BBWBMJBPGFJUBQFMP T
QSPGFTTPS FT
FNSFMBPBDBEBVNEPTUSBCBMIPTTFMFDDJPOBEPT OPTNPMEFTFNRVF
IBCJUVBMNFOUFKGFJUB

t B SFGMFYPEPBMVOPBDFSDBEFDBEBUSBCBMIPFEPRVFGPJQPTTWFMBQSFOEFSDPNBTVBSFBMJ[BP
NFUBDPHOJP /VOFT 

t DPNFOUSJPTFBWBMJBFTEP T
QSPGFTTPS FT
EPTDPMFHBT EPTQBJTPVFODBSSFHBEPTEFFEVDBP
FPVUSPTFNSFMBPBPQPSUFGMJP
&TUFQSPDFTTPPDPSSFOVNBQFSTQFDUJWBDSPOPMHJDB RVFQFSNJUBFBQFSDFQPEPTQSPHSFTTPTSFBMJ[BEPT
1PEFNPTTVHFSJSBPTOPTTPTBMVOPTBMHVNBTTFDFTBDSJBSOPQPSUFGMJP DPNP QPSFYFNQMP VNBGJDIB
EFBQSFTFOUBPEPBVUPS VNHMPTTSJPEFUFSNPTDJFOUGJDPT VNBTFDPEFOPUDJBTPVVNBTFDPEFUSBCBMIPT
QSPQSJBNFOUFEJUPT$POUVEP OPEFWFNPTGJDBSjPCDFDBEPTxDPNBEFGJOJPEPDPOUFEP QSPDVSBOEPEBSMIFT
BMHVNBMJCFSEBEF$PNPSFGFSF)FCFSU 
DJUBOEPDPMFHBTTFVT jPTQPSUFGMJPTDPOUBNVNBIJTUSJBy
DPMPRVFTFMEFOUSPUVEPPRVFBKVEBSBDPOUBSBIJTUSJBx
2VFNTPPTJOUFSWFOJFOUFT
0TQSJODJQBJTJOUFSWFOJFOUFTOPQSPDFTTPEFEFTFOWPMWJNFOUPEPQPSUFGMJPTP OBUVSBMNFOUF PBMVOPFPQSPGFTTPS
OBJOUFSBDPRVFTFFTUBCFMFDFFOUSFBNCPTEVSBOUFFTTFQSPDFTTPRVFTFKPHBPTVDFTTPEBNFUPEPMPHJB
%FWFTFSDSJBEPVNDMJNBEFDPOGJBOBFDVNQMJDJEBEFRVFMFWFPBMVOPBQBSUJMIBSDPNPQSPGFTTPSBTTVBT
EWJEBTFGSBRVF[BTEFNPEPRVFTFFTUBCFMFBNNFUBTJOEJWJEVBJTQBSBBTDPOUPSOBS"QFTBSEFIBWFSNPNFOUPT
QSQSJPTQBSBBEJTDVTTPFSFGMFYP PBMVOPEFWFTBCFSRVFQPEFDPOUBS FNRVBMRVFSNPNFOUP DPNPBQPJP
EPQSPGFTTPS

46

%&4"'*04 t $JODJBTEB/BUVSF[B t oBOP t 4BOUJMMBOB$POTUODJB

PARTE

2
Porteflio

5BNCNPTDPMFHBTQPEFNTFSDIBNBEPTBDPMBCPSBSOPEFTFOWPMWJNFOUPEPQPSUFGMJPEPBMVOP/VNBBMUVSB
FNRVFUBOUPTFGBMBEBJNQPSUODJBEPUSBCBMIPDPMBCPSBUJWPFOUSFQBSFT BDPBWBMJBPSFBMJ[BEBFNNPNFOUPT
NBJTGPSNBJTPVBTPQJOJFTFYQSFTTBTJOGPSNBMNFOUFBPMPOHPEPEFTFOWPMWJNFOUPEPUSBCBMIPQPEFNDPOTUJUVJS
JNQPSUBOUFTDPOUSJCVUPTQBSBPEFTFOWPMWJNFOUPEPBMVOPFQBSBBTVBDPOTUSVPQFTTPBMEPTBCFS
1PSGJN NBTOPNFOPTJNQPSUBOUF TPCSFUVEPOVNTJTUFNBEFFOTJOPDPNPPOPTTP FNRVFQPSUSBEJP
PTQBJTFFODBSSFHBEPTEFFEVDBPTFFODPOUSBNCBTUBOUFBMIFBEPTEBWJWODJBFTDPMBSEJSJBEPTTFVT
FEVDBOEPT PQPSUFGMJPDPOTUJUVJVNBFYDFMFOUFPQPSUVOJEBEFQBSBPTDIBNBSDPMBCPSBP%FTUFNPEP 
PBMVOPQPEFTFOUJSRVFOPFTUTP[JOIPOPTFVQFSDVSTPFRVFQPEFDPOUBS BEJGFSFOUFTOWFJT DPNPTTFVT
QSPGFTTPSFT PTTFVTQBJTFPTTFVTDPMFHBT
2VBJTTPBTFUBQBTEPEFTFOWPMWJNFOUPEFVNQPSUFGMJP
5BNCNFNSFMBPTQPTTWFJTFUBQBTEPEFTFOWPMWJNFOUPEPQPSUFGMJPBCJCMJPHSBGJBFYJTUFOUFBQSFTFOUB
BMHVNBEJTQFSTP5FOEPFNDPOUBWSJBTQSPQPTUBT &QTUFJO -JNBet al. /VOFT 
FBOPTTBQSQSJB
FYQFSJODJB DPOTJEFSBNPTRVF EFNPEPBHBSBOUJSVNBJNQMFNFOUBPDVJEBEBFIBSNPOJPTB EFWFNTFS
SFTQFJUBEBT QFMPNFOPT BTTFHVJOUFTFUBQBT
t 1
 MBOJGJDBP&OWPMWFTPCSFUVEPPQSPGFTTPS NBTUBNCNPTBMVOPT RVFQPEFN FEFWFN
TFSDIBNBEPT
BEBSPTFVDPOUSJCVUPQBSBBJNQMFNFOUBPEBNFUPEPMPHJB/PQPOUPj1PSUFGMJPTOBNJOIBTBMBEFBVMB
VNQMBOPEFBDPx BQSFTFOUBNPTVNEJWFSTJGJDBEPMFRVFEFRVFTUFTSFMBUJWBTBUPEPTPTBTQFDUPT
RVFQPEFNTFSDPOTJEFSBEPTFBRVFPQSPGFTTPSQPEFQSPDVSBSEBSSFTQPTUBEFNPEPBHBSBOUJSVNBCPB
QMBOJGJDBPEBNFUPEPMPHJB"TRVFTUFTTPNFSBNFOUFPSJFOUBEPSBTFTEFWFNTFSUJEBTFNDPOUBBTRVF
GPSBNDPOTJEFSBEBTQFSUJOFOUFTQBSBDBEBDBTP
t "QSFTFOUBPBPTBMVOPT$MBSJGJDBPEPTPCKFDUJWPTEPQPSUFGMJP1PEFTFSGFJUBVNBBQSFTFOUBPPSBM
EBNFUPEPMPHJB OPNFBEBNFOUFQBSUJOEPEPRVFPTBMVOPTKTBCFNTPCSFPUFSNPjQPSUFGMJPx&TUFTQPEFN
OFNTFRVFSPDPOIFDFS DPNPQPEFNKUFSDPOIFDJNFOUPEBTVBBQMJDBPOPDBNQPEBTBSUFT QJOUVSB 
GPUPHSBGJB BSRVJUFDUVSB FUD
PRVFQPEFDPOTUJUVJSVNQPOUPEFQBSUJEBQBSBBJOUSPEVP FTUBCFMFDFOEP
BTTFNFMIBOBTFEJGFSFOBTFOUSFFTUFQPSUFGMJP DPOKVOUPEPTNFMIPSFTUSBCBMIPTEPBSUJTUB
FPQPSUFGMJP
EPBMVOP NVJUPNBJTEPRVFVNDPOKVOUPEFUSBCBMIPTFOPOFDFTTBSJBNFOUFPTNFMIPSFT
0TBMVOPTQPEFN
EFNPSBSBJOUFSJPSJ[BSPTQSJODQJPTEBNFUPEPMPHJB QFMPRVFBDPOTFMIWFMPGPSOFDJNFOUPTJNVMUOFP
EFVNBGJDIBPVCSPDIVSBEFDPOTVMUBDPNBTQSJODJQBJTPSJFOUBFT
t $PMFDP3FDPMIBEPTUSBCBMIPT"SFDPMIBEFFWJEODJBTQBSBPQPSUFGMJPQPEFSFTVMUBSEPOPSNBMEFTFOSPMBS
EBTBDUJWJEBEFTMFDUJWBT0VTFKB OPUFNEFIBWFSOFDFTTBSJBNFOUFVNBDSTDJNPEFUSBCBMIPQPSQBSUFEPT
BMVOPTOFTUBGBTF4FKGB[FNPTBTTFOUBSBOPTTBQSUJDBSFHVMBSOVNBDPOGPSUWFMEJWFSTJEBEFEFFTUSBUHJBT
FNFUPEPMPHJBT OPUFSFNPTEJGJDVMEBEFFNGJDBSTBUJTGFJUPTDPNBSJRVF[BEFFWJEODJBTBQSFTFOUBEBOPT
QPSUFGMJPT4FBJOEBOPPGB[FNPT QPEFSFNPTWJSBTFOUJSBOFDFTTJEBEFEFEFTFOWPMWFSOPWPTUSBCBMIPT
FBDUJWJEBEFTRVFBKVEFNPTOPTTPTBMVOPTBEFNPOTUSBSBTTVBTDPNQFUODJBT
2VBJTTPBTTVBTWBOUBHFOT
0OPTTPUSBCBMIPDPNPTQPSUFGMJPTQFSNJUFOPTSFDMBNBSQBSBFMFTBMHVNBTWBOUBHFOT NVJUBTEFMBTKBOUFT
FOVODJBEBTQPSEJWFSTPTBVUPSFT
t $
 POUSJCVFNQBSBPjBMJOIBNFOUPxFOUSFPDVSSDVMP BTNFUPEPMPHJBTVUJMJ[BEBTFBBWBMJBP BUSBWTEF
VNBNBJPSDPJODJEODJBEBTUBSFGBTEFBWBMJBPDPNBTEFBQSFOEJ[BHFN 'FSOBOEFTet al 

t %J[FNNVJUPNBJTTPCSFPBMVOP PVTFKB DPOUNFWJEODJBTSFGFSFOUFTBVNWBTUPMFRVFEFDPNQFUODJBT
FDPOIFDJNFOUPT /VOFT 
GSFRVFOUFSFDPOIFDFSNPTRVFPBMVOPjTBCJBNBJTEPRVFNPTUSPV
OPUFTUFx
t 0QPSUFGMJPQFSNJUFDBQUVSBSFWJEODJBTEFDBQBDJEBEFTRVFWPBMNEPTDPOIFDJNFOUPTGBDUVBJT
t &WJEFODJBNPQSPDFTTPEFBQSFOEJ[BHFNFOPBQFOBTPQSPEVUPOPTPNFSPTflashsEJTQFSTPT
EBBQSFOEJ[BHFN DPNPPTUFTUFT /VOFT 

t "KVEBNPBMVOPBSFGMFDUJSTPCSFBTVBBQSFOEJ[BHFNFTPCSFPTDPOIFDJNFOUPTRVFEFTFOWPMWFV %F'JOB 

BKVEBOEPPBBVUPBWBMJBSTFFBBQSFOEFSBBQSFOEFS NFUBDPHOJP

t $POGFSFNBPBMVOPVNQBQFMBDUJWPOBTFMFDPFBWBMJBPEPTFVQSQSJPUSBCBMIP 7BMBEBSFTF(SBB 

t 1FSNJUFNSFMBDJPOBSBUJUVEFTFWBMPSFTCFNDPNPDPNQFUODJBTFDPOIFDJNFOUPT /VOFT 

t 'PNFOUBNBJOEJWJEVBMJEBEFFBDSJBUJWJEBEF /VOFT 

%&4"'*04 t $JODJBTEB/BUVSF[B t oBOP t 4BOUJMMBOB$POTUODJB

47

PARTE

Porteflio

t 3
 FDPOIFDFNFTUJMPTEJGFSFOUFTEFBQSFOEJ[BHFN UPSOBOEPBBWBMJBPNFOPTEFQFOEFOUFEBPSJHFNTPDJBM 
FDPONJDBFDVMUVSBMEPTBMVOPT 7BMBEBSFTF(SBB 

t $PMPDBNBOGBTFOPDBSDUFSQPTJUJWPEBBWBMJBP VNBWF[RVFPTBMVOPTUNNBJTQPTTJCJMJEBEFTEFNPTUSBS
PRVFTBCFNFTPDBQB[FTEFGB[FS PRVFDPOUSJCVJQBSBNFMIPSBSBTVBBVUPFTUJNB 'FSOBOEFTet al 

t 'BDJMJUBNPQSPDFTTPEFUPNBEBEFEFDJTFTQFMPTQSPGFTTPSFT BUPEPTPTOWFJT QPSRVFFTUFTGJDBN
BDPOIFDFSNFMIPSBGPSNBDPNPPDVSSDVMPEFTFOWPMWJEPFBTQSJODJQBJTDBSBDUFSTUJDBTEPTBMVOPT 'FSOBOEFT
et al. 

t 1SPNPWFNBJOUFSFBUSBOTEJTDJQMJOBSJEBEFTFNQSFRVFFOWPMWFNNBJTEPRVFVNBEJTDJQMJOBVNBQSUJDB
RVFBMUBNFOUFSFDPNFOEWFM KRVFQPUFODJBPTFGFJUPTEBNFUPEPMPHJB TPCSFUVEPBPOWFMEBFTDPMBSJEBEF
CTJDB  FDJDMPT
$PNPTBCFNPT PDPOIFDJNFOUPBTTPDJBEPBVNBEJTDJQMJOBOPFTUBORVFFPTDPOUFEPT
FODPOUSBNTFOBUVSBMNFOUFJOUFSMJHBEPT NFOTBHFNRVFQPSWF[FTEJGDJMEFQBTTBSBPTBMVOPT
t 1SPNPWFNPEJMPHPFBDPMBCPSBPFOUSFPTQSPGFTTPSFT0QPSUFGMJPQPEFTVSHJSDPNPVNQSPKFDUPDPOKVOUP
EFWSJPTQSPGFTTPSFTEFVNHSVQPEJTDJQMJOBSPVEFQSPGFTTPSFTEFWSJPTHSVQPTEFVNDPOTFMIPEFUVSNB
PVEFVNBFTDPMB%FTUFNPEP QPEFMFWBSPTQSPGFTTPSFTBEFTFOWPMWFSFNMJOHVBHFOTDPNVOTFBRVFCSBSFN
PJTPMBNFOUPFNRVFNVJUBTWF[FTUSBCBMIBNOBDPMBCPSBPFOUSFPTQSPGFTTPSFTRVFTFFODPOUSBBDIBWF
QBSBSFTQPOEFS OPBQFOBTBFTUF NBTBNVJUPTEPTBDUVBJTEFTBGJPTEBQSPGJTTPEPDFOUF
t 5NHSBOEFWFSTBUJMJEBEFFGMFYJCJMJEBEFEFVUJMJ[BP0QPSUFGMJPQPEFTFSEFTFOWPMWJEPQBSBRVBMRVFS
OWFMEFFOTJOP BQFOBTQBSBVNBEJTDJQMJOB QBSBWSJBT QPSFYFNQMP PjQPSUFGMJPEBTDJODJBTxFOWPMWFOEP
BT$JODJBT/BUVSBJT BT$JODJBT'TJDP2VNJDBT B(FPHSBGJBFB.BUFNUJDB
PVQBSBUPEBTBTEJTDJQMJOBT
EFVNDPOTFMIPEFUVSNB1PEFTFSBEBQUBEPTOPWBTSFBTDVSSJDVMBSFTDPNPBSFBEF1SPKFDUPPVQPEF
BJOEBEBSWFSEBEFJSBFYQSFTTPBPjdossierJOEJWJEVBMEPBMVOPxQSFWJTUPOP%FTQBDIP/PSNBUJWPO
t 'BDJMJUBNBDPNVOJDBPDPNPTQBJT0QPSUFGMJPBQSPYJNBPTQBJTEBFTDPMB FOWPMWFPTFSFTQPOTBCJMJ[BPT
QFMPEFTFOWPMWJNFOUPEPTTFVTGJMIPT BPNFTNPUFNQPRVFPTNBOUNJOGPSNBEPTTPCSFBTJUVBPFTDPMBS
FNRVFFTUFTTFFODPOUSBN QPEFOEPFWJUBSTVSQSFTBTOPGJNEPTQFSPEPT
2VBJTTPBTTVBTQPTTWFJTMJNJUBFT
0QPSUFGMJPOP DFSUBNFOUF VNBQBOBDFJBQBSBSFTPMWFSUPEPTPTQSPCMFNBTFEJGJDVMEBEFTBTTPDJBEPT
BPFOTJOP"QFTBSEJTTP NFTNPBTMJNJUBFTNBJTBQPOUBEBTQPEFN VNBWF[EFTDPOTUSVEBT TFSFNHSBOEF
QBSUFSFCBUJEBT
t 5
 FNQPOFDFTTSJP"MJNJUBPNBJTBQPOUBEB5PEPPQSPDFTTPEFEFTFOWPMWJNFOUPFBWBMJBPEPQPSUFGMJP
DPOTPNFUFNQP5FNQPEBBVMB UFNQPEPQSPGFTTPSFEPBMVOPGPSBEBTBMBEFBVMB$PNPKEJTTFNPT 
PBMVOPOPWBJEFTFOWPMWFSNBJTUSBCBMIPTPVBDUJWJEBEFTQPSDBVTBEPQPSUFGMJP$POUVEP QSFDJTBEFUFNQP
QBSBTFEFEJDBSPSHBOJ[BP SFWJTPFSFGMFYPTPCSFPTUSBCBMIPTEFTFOWPMWJEPT0QSPGFTTPS QPSTFVMBEP 
JSHBTUBSNBJTUFNQPDPNBBWBMJBPEPQPSUFGMJPRVFTFRVFSNBJTEJTDVUJEBFPVBTTFOUFOVNTVQPSUF
FTDSJUP$PNPFNNVJUBTPVUSBTUBSFGBTEPEJBBEJBEPQSPGFTTPS FTUFUFNQPUPSOBTFQSPHSFTTJWBNFOUFNFOPS
NFEJEBRVFFTUFHBOIBEPNOJPTPCSFPTQSPDFEJNFOUPTFOWPMWJEPT/PUFTFRVFFTUBBWBMJBPGVODJPOB
DPNPNPUPSEBBQSFOEJ[BHFNFNFEJEBRVFTFWPGB[FOEPOPUBSBTNVEBOBTJOEV[JEBTQFMPQPSUFGMJP FTUF
USBOTGPSNBTFOVNUFNQPUJM VNUFNQPEFRVBMJEBEF RVFOFOIVNQSPGFTTPSDMBTTJGJDBSDPNPjQFSEJEPx
t "WBMJBPNBJTTVCKFDUJWB"BWBMJBPQPEFTFSFOUFOEJEBDPNPNBJTTVCKFDUJWB NBTFNSFMBPBRV 
0QPSUFGMJPBQSFTFOUBNBJPSSJHPSEPRVFPTUFTUFTQPJTDPOTUJUVJVNBDPNQJMBPEFUSBCBMIPTSFBMJ[BEPTEF
GPSNBDPOUOVB PTRVBJTQFSNJUFNDPOTJEFSBSVNFOPSNFMFRVFEFDPOIFDJNFOUPTFDPNQFUODJBT /VOFT 


t "BVUPSJBEPTUSBCBMIPTQPEFTFSEVWJEPTB/BUVSBMNFOUF TFPTUSBCBMIPTGPSFNEFTFOWPMWJEPTOBBVMBPV 
TFGPSBEFMB DPNBDPNQBOIBNFOUPQSYJNPEPQSPGFTTPS FTUBRVFTUPEFJYBEFDPOTUJUVJSVNBQSFPDVQBP
/VOFT 

t 1PEFQFOBMJ[BSPTBMVOPTDPNNBJPSFTEJGJDVMEBEFTEFFTDSJUB1FMPDPOUSSJP PQPSUFGMJPDPOTUJUVJ
VNFTQBPEFQSUJDBBEJDJPOBMQBSBRVFPTBMVOPTDPNNBJPSFTEJGJDVMEBEFTBTQPTTBNVMUSBQBTTBS /VOFT 

"PQSPNPWFSVNNBJPSSFDVSTPFTDSJUBJODMVJOEPBFTDSJUBDSJBUJWBBTTPDJBEBTSFGMFYFT NFTNP
FNEJTDJQMJOBTDPNPBTDJODJBT POEFUSBEJDJPOBMNFOUFFTUBOPUPTPMJDJUBEB DPOTUJUVJVNFTQBPTVQMFNFOUBS
EFQSPNPPEFDPNQFUODJBTUSBOTWFSTBJTSFMBDJPOBEBTDPNBFTDSJUBFPVTPDPSSFDUPEBMOHVB
t $POKVHBPEFWPOUBEFT$PNFBOBWPOUBEFFOBJNQMJDBPQFTTPBMEPQSQSJPQSPGFTTPSj$PNPTFS
QPTTWFMFTQFSBSRVFPQSPGFTTPSNFUBNPTPCSBOBSFBMJ[BPEFBMHPRVFOPWP RVFEJGFSFOUFFJNQMJDB
FTGPSP TFOPBEFSFFNPDJPOBMNFOUFFJOUFMFDUVBMNFOUFBFTTBJOPWBP x $PSUFTP  DJUBEPQPS/VOFT 

%FQPJT UPDBRVBTFUPEPTPTFMFNFOUPTEBDPNVOJEBEFFTDPMBSOFDFTTSJPBMHVNBQPJPEPTSHPT

48

%&4"'*04 t $JODJBTEB/BUVSF[B t oBOP t 4BOUJMMBOB$POTUODJB

PARTE

2
Porteflio

EFHFTUPEBFTDPMBQBSBBKVEBSBMJEBSDPNPTBTQFDUPTMPHTUJDPTEPUSBCBMIPDPNQPSUFGMJPT BVMBTEPQSPGFTTPS
PVEBUVSNBTFNQSFOBNFTNBTBMB FTQBPTQBSBBSSVNBPEPTQPSUFGMJPT FUD
5BNCNOFDFTTSJP
FODPOUSBSGPSNBTEFFOWPMWFSPTQBJT5VEPJTUPQPEFTFSEJGDJMQPSRVFBQFMBBVNUJQPEFDPMBCPSBPRVF 
QPSUSBEJP OPDPNVNFYJTUJSOBTOPTTBTFTDPMBT
2VBJTTPPTDVJEBEPTBUFS
1BSUJOEPEBTPSJFOUBFTQSPQPTUBTQPSBMHVOTBVUPSFT %PPMJUMF /VOFT 
FEBOPTTBQSQSJBFYQFSJODJB 
BQPOUBNPTEFTFHVJEBBMHVOTEPTQSJODJQBJTDVJEBEPTBUFSRVBOEPUSB[FNPTPQPSUFGMJPQBSBBTBMBEFBVMB
6NBJNQMFNFOUBPQSFDJQJUBEB QPVDPSFGMFDUJEBPVEFTBKVTUBEBTOFDFTTJEBEFTFDBSBDUFSTUJDBTEPTOPTTPT
BMVOPT QPEF DPNQSPNFUFS P QSPDFTTP F MFWBS  EFTNPUJWBP  NBVVTP F BU NFTNP BP BCBOEPOP EB
NFUPEPMPHJB
"TTJN EFWFNPTEBSFTQFDJBMBUFOPBPTTFHVJOUFTBTQFDUPT
t %FGJOJSPOPTTPRVBESPDPODFQUVBMEFSFGFSODJB"WJTPQFTTPBMRVFUFNPTEBFEVDBP PNPEPDPNP
FODBSBNPTPFOTJOPFBBQSFOEJ[BHFN PQBQFMRVFSFTFSWBNPTQBSBPQSPGFTTPSFQBSBPBMVOPOFTTFQSPDFTTP
&TUFTQPTJDJPOBNFOUPTFBTDBSBDUFSTUJDBTQFTTPBJTEFDBEBVNEFOTTPEFUFSNJOBOUFTQBSBPUJQPEF
QPSUFGMJPRVFWBNPTEFTFOWPMWFSFQBSBBQSPGVOEJEBEFDPNRVFPGBSFNPT0QPSUFGMJP TQPSTJ OPUFN
RVBMRVFSWBMPSJOUSOTFDPPRVBESPDPODFQUVBMFNRVFTFFORVBESBRVFMIFDPOGFSFMFHJUJNJEBEFFSB[PEF
TFS1PEFNPTFTUBSBEFTFOWPMWFSQPSUFGMJPTOBTOPTTBTBVMBTTFNFTUBSNPTBTFSjJOPWBEPSFTx TFDPOUJOVBSNPT
BUFSVNBWJTPjUSBEJDJPOBMxEPFOTJOPFEBBQSFOEJ[BHFN
t $PNFBSMFOUBNFOUF4FSBNCJDJPTP NBTOPBDVSUPQSB[P6UJMJ[BSBjFTUSBUHJBEBTPQBEFQFESBx TVHFTUP
RVFGPNPTCVTDBSMFOEBBTTPDJBEBPSJHFNEFTUFGBNPTPQSBUPEBOPTTBHBTUSPOPNJBDPNFBSBTPQBDPN
VNBQFESBFHVBDPNFBSPQPSUFGMJPDPNBMHVOTPCKFDUJWPTFNFUBTFJSKVOUBOEPPTJOHSFEJFOUFTBPT
QPVDPT PVTFKB BVNFOUBSBDPNQMFYJEBEF MFOUBFQSPHSFTTJWBNFOUF NFEJEBRVFEPNJOBNPTBTWBSJWFJT
KFNKPHP4FDIFHBSNPTFQFEJSNPTMPHPjBTPQBDPNQMFUBxNFJPDBNJOIPBOEBEPQBSBHFSBSDPOGVTP
FEFTNPUJWBPOPTOPTTPTBMVOPT
t (BOIBSBDFJUBP "USBWTEFVNQSPDFTTPBEFRVBEPEFFTDMBSFDJNFOUP GPSNBPFOFHPDJBP UFOUBTF
HBOIBSBBDFJUBPEPTBMVOPT RVFQPSWF[FTEFNPSBNBQFSDFCFSBTQBSUJDVMBSJEBEFTEBNFUPEPMPHJBRVFMIFT
FYJHFOPWBTGPSNBTEFFTUBS QFOTBSFBDUVBS FRVFTPDPOUSSJBTQPTUVSBFTUUJDBFNSFMBPBQSFOEJ[BHFN
RVFGPSBNIBCJUVBEPTBBEPQUBS(BOIBSBBDFJUBPEPTDPMFHBTFWFOUVBMNFOUFFOWPMWJEPTFEPTQBJT
FFODBSSFHBEPTEFFEVDBPUBNCNJNQPSUBOUF
t *ODFOUJWBSPTFOUJEPEFQFSUFOB0TBMVOPTEFWFNDPOIFDFSBTWJSUVEFTFPTEFGFJUPTPVEJGJDVMEBEFT
EBNFUPEPMPHJBFTFOUJSTFQBSUFJOUFSFTTBEBOPQSPDFTTPEFEFTFOWPMWJNFOUPEPQPSUFGMJP
t $MBSJGJDBSPTPCKFDUJWPTFBPSHBOJ[BP%FWFNTFSDMBSJGJDBEBTBTTFHVJOUFTRVFTUFT$PNPTFSVTBEP
PQPSUFGMJP QPSRVQBSBRVDPNPRVBOEP
1BSBRVFWBJTFSWJSBBWBMJBPFBDMBTTJGJDBP $PNPBTVBFTUSVUVSB
PCSJHBUSJB SFDPNFOEBEBPVGMFYWFM
2VFDSJUSJPTEFBWBMJBP TFGPSDBTPEJTTP
EFWFNTFSTFHVJEPT
t 6UJMJ[BSFYFNQMPT%BEBBOPWJEBEFBTTPDJBEBBPTQPSUFGMJPT PSFDVSTPBFYFNQMPTQPEFDPOTUJUVJSVNB
JNQPSUBOUFBKVEBQSFDJTPUFSTFNQSFFNBUFOPRVFFTUFTFYFNQMPTOPEFWFNGVODJPOBSDPNPNPEFMPT
BDPQJBSFTFHVJS NBTTJNDPNPSFGFSODJBTBBEBQUBSTOPTTBTOFDFTTJEBEFTDPODSFUBT$PNPUBM EFWFNPT
SFWFTUJSOPTEBDPSBHFNOFDFTTSJBQBSB TP[JOIPTPVFNDPMBCPSBPDPNPVUSPT TFSNPTJOWFTUJHBEPSFT
FDPOTUSVUPSFTBVUOPNPTEBOPTTBQSUJDBFEPTJOTUSVNFOUPTBFMBMJHBEPT
t 4FSSFBMJTUB1FMPRVFUFNPTWJOEPBSFGFSJS PQPSUFGMJPQPEFDIFHBSBTFSVNBQPEFSPTBNFUPEPMPHJB JOUFHSBM
FJOUFHSBEPSBEFUPEBTBTSFTUBOUFTVUJMJ[BEBT1PEFNFTNPDIFHBSBTFSPGJPDPOEVUPSEFUPEBBOPTTBQSUJDB
MFDUJWB.BT BOUFTEJTTP OPEFJYBEFTFSNBJTVNBFTUSBUHJBQBSBBSUJDVMBSDPNBTSFTUBOUFT UBNCNFMBT
JNQPSUBOUFT VNBWF[RVFBEJWFSTJEBEFEFFYQFSJODJBTFEVDBUJWBTTFSTFNQSFGVOEBNFOUBMQBSBBSJRVF[B
EPFOTJOP
t 4FSSFGMFYJWP "JNQMFNFOUBPEFTUBFTUSBUHJBTFNQSFVNQSPDFTTPJOBDBCBEP%FWFNPTSFGMFDUJS
DPOUJOVBNFOUFTPCSFPJNQBDUPRVFPQPSUFGMJPFTUBUFSOBOPTTBQSUJDBFOBBQSFOEJ[BHFNEPTOPTTPTBMVOPT
FBKVTUBS NPEJGJDBS JOUSPEV[JSBMUFSBFTPVOPWJEBEFTEFNPEPBUJSBSPNFMIPSQBSUJEPEBNFUPEPMPHJB

%&4"'*04 t $JODJBTEB/BUVSF[B t oBOP t 4BOUJMMBOB$POTUODJB

49

PARTE

"WBMJBSQPSUFGMJPT

Porteflio

$PNPBWBMJBSQPSUFGMJPT "WBMJBSQSFTTVQFBBUSJCVJPEFVNBDMBTTJGJDBP %FWFNPTQPSUFGMJPTTFS


DMBTTJGJDBEPT
)BWFSRVFNEFGFOEBRVFPTQPSUFGMJPTOPEFWFNTFSDMBTTJGJDBEPT RVFUBMWBJDPOUSBBTVBOBUVSF[BJEJPTTJODSUJDB 
F DPNPUBM EFWFNTFSBQFOBTVNJOTUSVNFOUPBPTFSWJPEPEFTFOWPMWJNFOUPEPBMVOP/POPTFTRVFBNPT
EFRVF OVNBQFSTQFDUJWBEFQSPDFTTP OPBWBMJBNPTPQPSUFGMJPNBTTJNPBMVOPBUSBWTEPQPSUFGMJP
/PFYUSFNPPQPTUPFTUBSPPTGFSWPSPTPTBEFQUPTEBDMBTTJGJDBP EJTQPTUPTNFTNPBDIFHBSBDMBTTJGJDBS
PQPSUFGMJPFNUFSNPTEFQFSDFOUBHFN
3FDVTBOEPQPTUVSBTFYUSFNJTUBT FOUFOEFNPTRVFBDMBTTJGJDBPEPTQPSUFGMJPT FORVBOUPQSPEVUPEFVN
QSPDFTTPEFBQSFOEJ[BHFN QPTTWFMFEFTFKWFM EFTEFRVFTFKBNPCTFSWBEPTBMHVOTDVJEBEPTOPRVFEJ[
SFTQFJUPOPNFBEBNFOUFBPTDSJUSJPTEFBWBMJBPFFTDBMBVUJMJ[BEB
0TDSJUSJPTEFBWBMJBPEFWFNTFSDMBSPT GBDJMNFOUFJOUFSJPSJ[WFJTQFMPBMVOP SFQSFTFOUBUJWPTEBTQSJODJQBJT
NFUBTEPQPSUFGMJPFFNONFSPSFMBUJWBNFOUFSFEV[JEP6NONFSPFMFWBEPEFDSJUSJPTDSJBEJTQFSTP
FEJGJDVMUBPUSBCBMIPTFNDPOTUJUVJSVNBNBJTWBMJBQBSBPQSPDFTTP
2VBOUPFTDBMBVUJMJ[BEBQBSBEFUFSNJOBSPHSBVEFEFTFOWPMWJNFOUPEFDBEBDSJUSJPFEPQPSUFGMJPFNUFSNPT
HFSBJT FTUBUBNCNEFWFUFSVNONFSPSFEV[JEPEFOWFJT
1PEFNPTDPNFBSQPSVNBFTDBMBTJNQMFTDPOTUJUVEBBQFOBTQPSUSTOWFJTjNVJUPCPNx jCPNxFjBQSFDJTBS
EFSFWJTPx/PTOWFJTJOGFSJPSFTEBFTDPMBSJEBEFCTJDB FTUBTFSBFTDBMBJEFBM RVFQPEFNFTNPTFSFYQSFTTB
TFNSFDPSSFSBQBMBWSBTFBQFMBOEPBPTFOUJNFOUPHFSBMEFTFOWPMWJEPFNSFMBPBPQPSUFGMJP QPSFYFNQMP J 
KFL
"JOEJDBPEFVNEFTUFTOWFJT BDPNQBOIBEBEPTDPNFOUSJPTEPQSPGFTTPS DPOTUJUVJKVNJNQPSUBOUF
feedbackQBSBPBMVOPTPCSFPUSBCBMIPRVFEFTFOWPMWFV
1PEFNPTBEPQUBSVNBFTDBMBEFRVBUSPOWFJTjNVJUPCPNx jCPNx jTVGJDJFOUFxFjJOTVGJDJFOUFx #FSOBSEFT
F.JSBOEB 
1PEFNPT BJOEB OVNBBQSPYJNBPFTDBMBEFDJODPOWFJTVUJMJ[BEBOBTDMBTTJGJDBFTEPFOTJOP
CTJDP EFGJOJSDJODPQPOUPTjNVJUPCPNx 
jCPNx 
jSB[PWFMx 
jGSBDPx 
FjNVJUPGSBDPx 

"ENJUJNPTBFWFOUVBMVUJMJ[BPEFFTDBMBTNBJTBNQMBTPVNFTNPEFQFSDFOUBHFOTBQFOBTQBSBOWFJTNBJT
FMFWBEPTEFFOTJOP FOTJOPTFDVOESJPPVFOTJOPVOJWFSTJUSJP

6NBWF[EFGJOJEPTPTDSJUSJPTFBFTDBMBBVUJMJ[BS EFWFNTFSDSJBEPTPTJOTUSVNFOUPTEFBWBMJBP OP
FTRVFDFOEPPFTQBPQBSBPTDPNFOUSJPTFTDSJUPT
0QSPDFTTPEFBWBMJBPEPQPSUFGMJPHBOIBOPWPTDPOUPSOPTTFFOWPMWFSVNBFOUSFWJTUBFOUSFQSPGFTTPS
FBMVOP BPMPOHPEBRVBM DPNPQPSUFGMJPOBGSFOUF FTUFTEJTDVUFNBBWBMJBPFBTQSPQPTUBTEFSFWJTP
/VNBGBTFJOJDJBM PQSPGFTTPSQPEFSTFOUJSTFVNQPVDPTPCSFDBSSFHBEPDPNPQFTPEFUPEBTFTUBTUBSFGBT
0QSPDFTTPEFSFWFSUPEPTPTQPSUFGMJPT BWBMJBSDBEBVNFGPSOFDFSTVHFTUFTJOEJWJEVBJTEFNFMIPSJBFSFWJTP
QPEF OPQSJODQJP TFSEJGDJMEFHFSJSFDPOTVNJSNVJUPUFNQP
$POUVEP BMHVNBTNFEJEBTTJNQMFT DPNP QPSFYFNQMP FTUBCFMFDFSEBUBTEFSFWJTPEJGFSFOUFTQBSB
EJGFSFOUFTBMVOPT EFNPEPBOVODBUFSNVJUPTQPSUFGMJPTQBSBSFWFSOVNEJB FBMHVNCPNTFOTP QPEFNTFS
TVGJDJFOUFTQBSBVMUSBQBTTBSBTEJGJDVMEBEFT
"OUFTEFDPNFBS EFWFNPTDMBSJGJDBS QFSBOUFOTQSQSJPTFQFSBOUFPTOPTTPTBMVOPT UPEPTPTBTQFDUPTRVF
TFQSFOEFNDPNBJOUSPEVPEPQPSUFGMJPOBOPTTBQSUJDBMFDUJWB"TTJN QPSVNMBEP EFWFNPTQSPDVSBS
EFGJOJSPTQSPQTJUPTFPCKFDUJWPTEBJOUSPEVPEBNFUPEPMPHJB PDPOUFEPEPQPSUFGMJP BSFBMJ[BP
EBTVBBWBMJBP DPNPWBNPTQSFQBSBSBTVBJOUSPEVPKVOUPEPTOPTTPTBMVOPT DPNPWBJTFSPSHBOJ[BEP 
DPNPWPTFSDPNVOJDBEPTPTSFTVMUBEPTBPTQBJTFBMVOPT F QPSPVUSPMBEP EFWFNPTBJOEBFTUBSBUFOUPT
BBMHVNBTRVFTUFTSFMBUJWBTQSPQSJFEBEF BSNB[FOBNFOUPFBDFTTPBPQPSUFGMJP
"THSFMIBTRVFBQSFTFOUBNPTEFTFHVJEB BEBQUBEBTEF.BCSZ 
QSPDVSBNGB[FSVNBDPCFSUVSBSFMBUJWBNFOUF
FYBVTUJWBEBTRVFTUFTDPNRVFQPEFNPTEFQBSBSRVBOEPDPNFBNPTBUSBCBMIBSDPNQPSUFGMJPT
5BMOPTJHOJGJDBRVFUFOIBNPTEFSFTQPOEFSBUPEBTFMBTPVTVBHSBOEFNBJPSJB1FMPDPOUSSJP QPEFNPT OVNB
GBTFJOJDJBM UFSBQFOBTBMHVNBTFNMJOIBEFDPOUBEFNPEPBDSJBSVNQPSUFGMJPSFMBUJWBNFOUFQPVDPDPNQMFYP
FGDJMEFHFSJS&TUBTHSFMIBTQPEFNNBJTUBSEFTFSSFWJTJUBEBTQBSBJOUSPEV[JSBMUFSBFTPVOPWJEBEFT
50

%&4"'*04 t $JODJBTEB/BUVSF[B t oBOP t 4BOUJMMBOB$POTUODJB

PARTE

1SPQTJUPTFPCKFDUJWPT

2
ESTE ANO
LECTIVO

OBJECTIVOS

NO PRXIMO
ANO LECTIVO

Porteflio

0CKFDUJWPTEPQPSUFGMJP
NO FUTURO

%PDVNFOUBSPTQSPHSFTTPT FTGPSPTFDPORVJTUBTEPTBMVOPT
%PDVNFOUBSPTQSPDFTTPTEBBQSFOEJ[BHFN
%PDVNFOUBSPTQSPEVUPTEBBQSFOEJ[BHFN
%PDVNFOUBSPEFTFOWPMWJNFOUPEFVNUFNBFNQSPGVOEJEBEF
1SFTFSWBSPTUSBCBMIPTGBWPSJUPTEPBMVOP
1SFTFSWBSPTUSBCBMIPTNBJTSFQSFTFOUBUJWPTEPBMVOP
1SFTFSWBSPTUSBCBMIPTEFNBJPSTVDFTTPEPBMVOP
$MBTTJGJDBSPTQSPHSFTTPT FTGPSPTFDPORVJTUBTEPTBMVOPT
"KVEBSPTBMVOPTBBQSFOEFSBBWBMJBSPTFVUSBCBMIP
"KVEBSPTBMVOPTBBQSFOEFSBBWBMJBSPTFVEFTFOWPMWJNFOUP
%BSBDPOIFDFSPTQSPHSFTTPT FTGPSPTFDPORVJTUBTEPBMVOPy
yBTJQSQSJP
yBPTTFVTDPMFHBT
yBPTTFVTQBJT
yDPNVOJEBEFFTDPMBS
yBPTFVQSYJNPQSPGFTTPS
&ODPSBKBSBEJWFSTJEBEFEFBQSFOEJ[BHFOTEPTBMVOPT
%PDVNFOUBSBEJWFSTJEBEFEFBQSFOEJ[BHFOTEPTBMVOPT
*OEJWJEVBMJ[BSBBQSFOEJ[BHFNEPTBMVOPT
.FMIPSBSBBQSFOEJ[BHFNEPTBMVOPT
"WBMJBSy
yBBQSFOEJ[BHFNEPTBMVOPT
yBRVBMJEBEFEPNFVFOTJOP
yBRVBMJEBEFEPQSPHSBNBDVSSDVMP
yBRVBMJEBEFEPFOTJOPOBNJOIBFTDPMB

0VUSBTSB[FT2VBJT 

4OUFTFFDPNFOUSJPT

%&4"'*04 t $JODJBTEB/BUVSF[B t oBOP t .BUFSJBMGPUPDPQJWFM4BOUJMMBOB$POTUODJB

51

PARTE

$POUFEP

Porteflio

&MFNFOUPTFWJEODJBTRVFGBSPQBSUFEPDPOUFEPEPQPSUFGMJPDSJBPFTFMFDDPEPTDPOUFEPT

CONTEDO

ALUNO
$SJBS

&TDPMIFS

0TNFMIPSFTUSBCBMIPTEPBMVOP
0TUSBCBMIPTNBJTGSBDPTFPVOFHBUJWPT
3BTDVOIPTFUSBCBMIPTKDPNQMFUPT
"QFOBTUSBCBMIPTDPNQMFUPT
&MFNFOUPTSFRVFSJEPT
&MFNFOUPTPQDJPOBJTPVOPSFRVFSJEPT
&WJEODJBTEFy
yBQSFOEJ[BHFOTEJWFSTJGJDBEBT
yBMHVOTDPOUFEPTFTQFDGJDPT
yUSBCBMIPTEFHSVQP
yUSBCBMIPTFNEBEF
yDPNQFUODJBTEFTFOWPMWJEBTGPSBEBFTDPMB
3FGMFYFTEPBMVOPTPCSFPTFVUSBCBMIP
4VHFTUFTQBSBGVUVSPTUSBCBMIPT
$PNFOUSJPTDSUJDPTPVEFBWBMJBP
5JQPTEFUSBCBMIPT
USBCBMIPTEFJOWFTUJHBP
UFTUFT
SFMBUSJPT
QSPKFDUPT
GJDIBTEFUSBCBMIP
PVUSPT
PVUSPT
PVUSPT
4VQPSUFEPTUSBCBMIPT
QBQFM
SFHJTUPTGPUPHSGJDPT
SFHJTUPTVEJP
SFHJTUPTWEFP
EJHJUBM $%30.%7%

*OUFSOFU

-JTUBEFFWJEODJBTPCSJHBUSJBTOPQPSUFGMJP

-JTUBEFFWJEODJBTGBDVMUBUJWBTPQDJPOBJTOPQPSUFGMJP

52

%&4"'*04 t $JODJBTEB/BUVSF[B t oBOP t .BUFSJBMGPUPDPQJWFM4BOUJMMBOB$POTUODJB

PROFESSOR
$SJBS

&TDPMIFS

OUTROS
$SJBS

&TDPMIFS

PARTE

$PNFOUSJPTEFBWBMJBPFSFGMFYPBBEJDJPOBSTFWJEODJBTBQSFTFOUBEBTQFMPTBMVOPT

2
Porteflio

'JDIBTQBSBTFSFNVTBEBTOPTDPNFOUSJPTEFBWBMJBPPVSFGMFYP

"WBMJBP
6UJMJ[BPEPQPSUFGMJPQBSBBWBMJBSPTBMVOPT
 6TBSPQPSUFGMJPQBSBBWBMJBSPEFTFOWPMWJNFOUPEPTBMVOPT
 "WBMJBSPUSBCBMIPDPNPVNUPEP VTBOEPBJOUVJPFBFYQFSJODJB
 "WBMJBSPUSBCBMIPVTBOEPDSJUSJPTFQBESFTFTUBCFMFDJEPT
 5FSFNBUFOPPTPCKFDUJWPT PTQSPHSFTTPTFBWJWODJBEFDBEBBMVOP
 'B[FSDPNFOUSJPTFTDSJUPTBPUSBCBMIP
t "USJCVJSDMBTTJGJDBPy
 yBPQPSUFGMJPDPNPVNUPEP
 yTEJGFSFOUFTFOUSBEBTEPQPSUFGMJP
 "USJCVJSPNFTNPQFTPBUPEBTBTFOUSBEBT
 "USJCVJSQFTPTEJGFSFOUFTTEJGFSFOUFTFOUSBEBT$PNP

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Fichas de trabalho

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PARTE

Fichas de trabalho

REFORO 8 Influncia do ambiente nas plantas


N.O:

NOME:

TURMA:

DATA:

Observa a tabela, que representa trs plantas em diferentes estaes do ano.


Atendendo aos dados da tabela, assinala com uma cruz (X) a opo correcta para cada caso.
1.1 "QMBOUB"VNBQMBOUBy

PLANTA

 yEFGPMIBDBEVDB
 yEFGPMIBQFSTJTUFOUF
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ESTAO QUENTE

ESTAO FRIA

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2

As plantas no tm todas as mesmas necessidades de gua. Observa as plantas seguintes


e distribui-as consoante a sua necessidade de gua.
A

1MBOUBTDPNOFDFTTJEBEF
EFNVJUBHVB

1MBOUBTDPNOFDFTTJEBEF
NPEFSBEBEFHVB

1MBOUBTYFSGJUBT

Classifica as seguintes frases como verdadeiras (V) ou falsas (F).


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122

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PARTE

".1-*"0 Influncia do ambiente nas plantas

TURMA:

Fichas de trabalho

N.O:

NOME:

DATA:

Classifica as seguintes afirmaes como verdadeiras (V) ou falsas (F).


 ""TQMBOUBTOPSFBHFNBPBNCJFOUFRVFBTSPEFJBN
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Observa as figuras, que representam as mesmas plantas em duas situaes diferentes.


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A

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Os cactos possuem caractersticas que lhes permitem viver em locais secos.


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Compara, quanto necessidade de luz, um girassol e um feto.

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123

PARTE

4
Fichas de trabalho

*/5&(3"0 Diversidade nas plantas 1


N.O:

NOME:

TURMA:

DATA:

No quadro seguinte esto registadas as caractersticas principais da planta do trigo.


Completa a coluna da esquerda com os termos, conforme os exemplos.
t %JTUSJCVJP
t 5JQPEFQMBOUB

t 'PMIBT
t $BVMF

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t 6UJMJ[BP

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CARACTERSTICAS DO TRIGO
Tipo de planta

1MBOUBEBGBNMJBEBTHSBNOFBT HOFSPTriticum$SFTDJNFOUPBOVBM
%F NBN
5JQPDBOB RVFTFSBNJGJDBQFSUPEPTPMP
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QSPUFHJEPTQPSDBTDBT

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QP OBBMJNFOUBPEPTBOJNBJTEPNTUJDPTFDPNPVNJOHSFEJFOUFOPGBCSJDPEFDFSWFKB

1.1 0TFTRVFNBTTFHVJOUFTNPTUSBNPTUSTDFSFBJTNBJTDVMUJWBEPTOPNVOEPPNJMIP PUSJHP


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PARTE

*/5&(3"0 Diversidade nas plantas 2

TURMA:

Fichas de trabalho

N.O:

NOME:

DATA:

L as informaes sobre as espcies de rvores existentes no nosso pas e responde s questes.


O castanheiroVNB
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A laranjeiraUFNGPMIBT
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1.1 2VBMEFTUBTSWPSFTQPEFBUJOHJSNBJPSQPSUF

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  "$BTUBOIFJSP

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125

PARTE

1.4 &OVNFSBBTDBSBDUFSTUJDBTEBGMPSEBMBSBOKFJSB

Fichas de trabalho

1.5 2VBMEFTUBTSWPSFTQPTTVJGPMIBTMBODFPMBEBT DPNQFDPMPDVSUPFEFDPSWFSEFNBUF

1.6 $MBTTJGJDBDPNPWFSEBEFJSBT 7
PVGBMTBT '
BTBGJSNBFTTFHVJOUFT
"0QJOIFJSPCSBWPQFSEFBTTVBTGPMIBTOP*OWFSOP
#"PMJWFJSBUFNVUJMJEBEFQBSBP)PNFNINVJUPUFNQP
$0QFOJTDPVNBDBSBDUFSTUJDBEBTTFNFOUFTEPQJOIFJSPCSBWP
%"TGPMIBTEPDBTUBOIFJSPUNBNBSHFNSFDPSUBEB
&"DPSPMBEBGMPSEBMBSBOKFJSBGPSNBEBQPSVNONFSPQBSEFQUBMBT
'"PMJWFJSBUFNVNUSPODPBMUPFEJSFJUP
1.7 5 FOEPFNDPOUBBTDBSBDUFSTUJDBTEBTGPMIBTFEPTGSVUPTEFTUBTSWPSFT MJHBDBEBOPNF
TSFTQFDUJWBTJNBHFOT

'PMIBT
t

t
SWPSFT

t
$BTUBOIFJSP

t
0MJWFJSB

t
1JOIFJSPCSBWP

t
-BSBOKFJSB

1.8 0CTFSWBBJNBHFNEFVNBGMPSEFMBSBOKFJSB
#

1.8.1 *OEJDBPOPNFEFDBEBVNEPTSHPTBTTJOBMBEPT
A

  #

1.8.2 $PNPDPOTUJUVEPPSHP#

1.8.3 3FGFSFBGVOPEPTSHPT"F$

126

  

'VOP"

  

'VOP$

%&4"'*04 t $JODJBTEB/BUVSF[B t oBOP t .BUFSJBMGPUPDPQJWFM4BOUJMMBOB$POTUODJB

  $

PARTE

*/5&(3"0 Diversidade nas plantas 3

TURMA:

Fichas de trabalho

N.O:

NOME:

DATA:

L o texto e responde.

%FVNMBEP P"UMOUJDP%PPVUSP BSJBEF"WFJSP/B3FTFSWB


/BUVSBMEBT%VOBTEF4P+BDJOUP "OHFMJOBKOPTFTQFSBQBSBOPT
HVJBS QFMPT TFHSFEPT EBT EVOBT 0 QJOIBMCSBWP  QMBOUBEP DPN
PPCKFDUJWPEFTFHVSBSBTBSFJBT BNPOPDVMUVSBEFpinheiroNBJT
CFNDPOTPMJEBEBEB&VSPQB
"USBWFTTBNPTVNBQFRVFOBQPOUFEFNBEFJSBF"OHFMJOBGBMB
EBTWBMBTEFESFOBHFNRVFGPJOFDFTTSJPBCSJS jQPSRVFPpinheiro
OPHPTUBEFEFNBTJBEBIVNJEBEFx-PHPBEJBOUF BHVJBBSSBODBVNB
QFRVFOBQMBOUBj&VTPVVNBEFGFOTPSBEBacciax TPSSJj"GJOBM FMB
GPJJOUSPEV[JEBQBSBBKVEBSOBGJYBPEFBSFJBTFQBSBBKVEBSBTOBUJWBT
BTPCSFWJWFSx.BT DPNPOPVUSPTQPOUPTEPQBT BDBCPVQPSJOWBEJSUVEP 
OVNBDPNQFUJPUPUBMNFOUFEFTMFBMDPNBTPVUSBTQMBOUBTj"accia
UFNVNBSFTJTUODJBFYUSBPSEJOSJB NBOUNBTTFNFOUFTBEPSNFDJEBT
EVSBOUFPUFNQPOFDFTTSJPBUFODPOUSBSBTDPOEJFTJEFBJTx
"OHFMJOB MPHP BQPOUB j0T tojos TP QUJNPT GFSUJMJ[BOUFTx
4FHVFTFVNQFRVFOPBSCVTUP Psamouco RVFWFJPEPT"PSFT
j'PSBNTFOEPJOUSPEV[JEBTOPWBTFTQDJFTBRVJQBSBFOSJRVFDFS
BPNYJNPPTTPMPTx FYQMJDB
"TEJGFSFOUFTFTQDJFTEFQMBOUBTWPTFTVDFEFOEP TFMWBHFOT&I
cogumelosJNFOTPT FOPSNFT BDBTUBOIBEPTFTUFTGVOHPTTPQUJNPT
TJOBJTEBTBEFEPBNCJFOUF"EJBOUF WFNPTVNcarvalho alvarinho 
VNamieiro jQSQSJPEF[POBTINJEBTxj0Tcarvalhos RVFFYJTUFN
FNUPEPPTPMPQPSUVHVT BQFTBSEPTFVDSFTDJNFOUPMFOUP TPQUJNPT
QBSBEFGFOEFSPTpinheirosEFJODOEJPTx
$IFHBNPTBVNBDMBSFJSB POEFIDBTJOIBTRVFGPSBNDPMPDBEBTQBSBBUSBJSPTQTTBSPTJOTFDUJDJEBT.BJT
VNBWF[ QBSBQSPUFHFSFNPTpinheirosEBBNFBBEFQSBHBT
1PVDPEFQPJT WFNPTPGBOUTUJDPchoupoDBEP DPCFSUPEFmusgoFQFRVFOBTGPMIBTBSFCFOUBS&MFDBJV NBTMPHP
BTSB[FTTFBHBSSBSBNUFSSBQBSBQSPDVSBSPTTFVTOVUSJFOUFT
"TcamarinheirasBQBSFDFNOPTCFJSBEPDBNJOIP/PJODJP BTDBNBSJOIBT GSVUP
QBSFDFNVNQPVDP
BNBSHBT NBTGBDJMNFOUFHPTUBNPTEPTBCPSFUPSOBTFEJGDJMQBSBSj4BCFN BTQMBOUBTDPOUBNOPTIJTUSJBT 
FBQSFTFOBEBTcamarinheiras RVFHPTUBNCBTUBOUFEFIVNJEBEF RVFSEJ[FSRVFFTUBNPTBBQSPYJNBSOPTEP
NBSx1PVDPEFQPJT PVWJNPTPPDFBOPSVHJS"URVFDIFHBNPTBPQJOIBM GFJUPEFSWPSFTFOPSNFTFPOEVMBEBT 
pinheirosDFOUFOSJPT RVFUNSFTJTUJEPQSFTTPEPWFOUP EBBTVBGPSNB
BPTBM BUPEPPUJQPEFDPOEJFT
1SPWBEJTTPTPPTlquenes RVFTFGPSNBSBNTPCSFPTUSPODPTjPOJDPMVHBSEPQBTPOEFDPOUJOVBBFYJTUJS
GPSNBPEFEVOBTx$IFHBNPTBP"UMOUJDP
Sol  BEBQUBEP

1.1 &YQMJDBQPSRVFSB[Py
a) yGPJOFDFTTSJPBCSJSWBMBTEFESFOBHFN

b) yGPSBNDPMPDBEBTDBTJOIBTQBSBBUSBJSQTTBSPTJOTFDUWPSPT

c) yPDIPVQPDBEPUFNQFRVFOBTGPMIBTBSFCFOUBS

%&4"'*04 t $JODJBTEB/BUVSF[B t oBOP t .BUFSJBMGPUPDPQJWFM4BOUJMMBOB$POTUODJB

127

PARTE

Fichas de trabalho

1.2 1SFFODIFDBEBCMPDPDPNPOPNFEPTFSWJWPRVFDPSSFTQPOEFTDBSBDUFSTUJDBTSFGFSJEBTOPUFYUP
SWPSFEFTPMPTTFDPT QMBOUBEB
1MBOUBSFTJTUFOUFRVFJOWBEF
BTUFSSBT JNQFEJOEPPDSFTDJNFOUP QBSBUSBWBSPBWBOPEBTBSFJBT
EFPVUSBTQMBOUBT

&TQDJFOBUJWBEPT"PSFT 
JOUSPEV[JEBQBSBFOSJRVFDFS
PTTPMPT

SWPSFRVFFYJTUFFNUPEP
1MBOUBVUJMJ[BEBQBSBUPSOBSPT
PUFSSJUSJPFRVFDPOUSJCVJQBSB
TPMPTNBJTGSUFJT
FWJUBSBQSPQBHBPEPTJODOEJPT

SWPSFDBSBDUFSTUJDBEF[POBT
INJEBT

'VOHPTNVJUP
JNQPSUBOUFTQBSB
PFRVJMCSJPEPT
BNCJFOUFT

128

1FRVFOBQMBOUBRVF
TFEFTFOWPMWFTPCSF
USPODPTFPVUSBT
TVQFSGDJFTSVHPTBT

%&4"'*04 t $JODJBTEB/BUVSF[B t oBOP t .BUFSJBMGPUPDPQJWFM4BOUJMMBOB$POTUODJB

1MBOUBEF[POBTINJEBT 4FSFTWJWPTRVF
DVKPGSVUPCSBODP
TFEFTFOWPMWFNTPCSF
FBNBSHP
PTUSPODPTEBTSWPSFT 
UBOUPNBJTRVBOUP
NFOPTQPMVEBGPS
B[POB

PARTE

3&'030 A clula: unidade dos seres vivos

TURMA:

Fichas de trabalho

N.O:

NOME:

DATA:

O microscpio um instrumento muito usado no estudo dos seres vivos.


1.1 2VBMPTFOUJEPRVFBVYJMJBEPQPSFTUFJOTUSVNFOUP

1.2 $PNQMFUBPRVBESPDPNPTONFSPTEBGJHVSB
1FBTEPNJDSPTDQJP

/NFSPEBGJHVSB

1BSBGVTPNJDSPNUSJDP
1
0CKFDUJWBT

0DVMBS

1BSBGVTPNBDSPNUSJDP
6

#SBP

7
8

3FWMWFS

1MBUJOB



-V[
$BOIP

As figuras representam a mesma preparao microscpica de um tecido observada em dois


microscpios. Analisa as imagens e responde.
#

A



0DVMBS3

0DVMBS3

2.1 $
 BMDVMBPQPEFSEFBNQMJBPEFDBEBNJDSPTDQJP TBCFOEPRVFBBNQMJBPEBPCKFDUJWB"EF3
FBEBPCKFDUJWB#EF3
.JDSPTDQJP"

.JDSPTDQJP#

2.2 $PNQMFUBBMFHFOEBEBGJHVSB"DPNPTONFSPTDPSSFDUPT
 .FNCSBOBDFMVMBS  

 $JUPQMBTNB

 /DMFP

%&4"'*04 t $JODJBTEB/BUVSF[B t oBOP t .BUFSJBMGPUPDPQJWFM4BOUJMMBOB$POTUODJB

129

PARTE

Classifica as afirmaes seguintes como verdadeiras (V) ou falsas (F).


 ""FTQDJFPHSVQPRVFQPTTVJNBJPSONFSPEFPSHBOJTNPT
 #0TTFSFTQMVSJDFMVMBSFTTPDPOTUJUVEPTQPSNBJTEPRVFVNBDMVMB
 $6NNJDSPTDQJPVNJOTUSVNFOUPRVFTFSWFQBSBBNQMJBSPCKFDUPT
 %5PEPTPTTFSFTWJWPTTPDPOTUJUVEPTQPSDMVMBT
 &"BNQMJBPEPNJDSPTDQJPPCUNTFEJWJEJOEPPWBMPSEBPDVMBSQFMPWBMPSEBPCKFDUJWB

Fichas de trabalho

3.1 $PSSJHFBTGSBTFTRVFDPOTJEFSBTUFGBMTBT

Estabelece a correspondncia entre os termos da coluna 1 e 2.


$PMVOB

$PMVOB

* 3FJOP

t A Equus caballus

** $MBTTF

t #"OJNBM

*** &TQDJF

t $.BNGFSP

Observa os seguintes seres vivos e responde s questes.

1PNCP

4BQP

-BHBSUJYB

4BQBUFJSB

5.1 6
 UJMJ[BOEPBDIBWFEJDPUNJDBEBQHJOBEPUFVNBOVBM EFUFSNJOBBDMBTTFEFDBEBVNEPT
TFHVJOUFTBOJNBJT3FHJTUB QPSPSEFN PTONFSPTRVFTFHVJTUF


t 1PNCP

t 4BQP

t -BHBSUJYB

 $MBTTF
 $MBTTF
 $MBTTF

5.2 3FGFSFVNBDBSBDUFSTUJDBRVFUFQFSNJUBEJTUJOHVJSBDMBTTFEBMBHBSUJYBEBDMBTTFEPTBQP

5.3 "
 TBQBUFJSBGB[QBSUFEPGJMPBSUSQPEFT$POTVMUBBDIBWFEJDPUNJDBEBQHJOBEPUFVNBOVBM
FSFGFSFVNBDBSBDUFSTUJDBQBSUJDVMBSEFTUFGJMP

130

%&4"'*04 t $JODJBTEB/BUVSF[B t oBOP t .BUFSJBMGPUPDPQJWFM4BOUJMMBOB$POTUODJB

PARTE

".1-*"0 A clula: unidade dos seres vivos

TURMA:

Fichas de trabalho

N.O:

NOME:

DATA:

O microscpio um instrumento que tem ajudado os cientistas a estudarem melhor os seres vivos.
1.1 3FGFSFRVBMBHSBOEFVUJMJEBEFEPNJDSPTDQJP

1.2 "
 TQFBTTFHVJOUFTGB[FNQBSUFEBDPOTUJUVJPEPNJDSPTDQJP4FMFDDJPOBBTRVFQFSUFODFN
QBSUFQUJDBEPNJDSPTDQJP
 1BSBGVTPNJDSPNUSJDP
 1
 0CKFDUJWBT
 3FWMWFS
2

#SBP
 1BSBGVTPNBDSPNUSJDP
 $BOIP

 &TQFMIP
0DVMBS
 1MBUJOB

As figuras representam observaes microscpicas de duas preparaes. Analisa-as e responde.


#

2.1 *OEJDBRVBMEBTGJHVSBT "PV# SFQSFTFOUBTFSFTVOJDFMVMBSFTFKVTUJGJDBBUVBSFTQPTUB

2.2 -BJOGPSNBPTFHVJOUFFDBMDVMBPQPEFSEFBNQMJBPEBPCKFDUJWBVTBEBOFTUBPCTFSWBP


t "QSFQBSBP"FTUBNQMJBEB3
t /FTUBPCTFSWBPVTPVTFVNBPDVMBSDPNBBNQMJBP3

A figura representa o sistema de classificao actualmente utilizado.

3.1 *OEJDBPOPNFEFDBEBVNEPTSFJOPTSFQSFTFOUBEPT
A


#

$

#
$

D
D

E
3.2 3FGFSFVNBDBSBDUFSTUJDBQBSUJDVMBSEPSFJOPBTTJOBMBEPDPNBMFUSB"

%&4"'*04 t $JODJBTEB/BUVSF[B t oBOP t .BUFSJBMGPUPDPQJWFM4BOUJMMBOB$POTUODJB

131

PARTE

Justifica a frase: O cavalo (Equus caballus) e o burro (Equus asinus) fazem parte da mesma classe
e do mesmo gnero, mas so de espcies diferentes.

L o texto e responde.

Fichas de trabalho

0TBVUPSFTEPNBOVBMEspcies de Mamferos do MundoBGJSNBNRVFBEJGFSFOBHFOUJDBFOUSFMPCPTFDFT


NFOPSEPRVF  PRVFDPOGJSNPVBPQJOJPEBDPNVOJEBEFDJFOUGJDBEFRVFPMPCPFPDPTPEPNFTNP
HOFSPFEBNFTNBFTQDJFCanis lupus*TTPTJHOJGJDBRVFPDPEPNTUJDPTVSHJVEPMPCPFRVF OPNYJNP 
VNBWBSJFEBEFPVVNBTVCFTQDJF
1PSDBVTBEJTTP PBOUJHPOPNFDJFOUGJDPEPDPCanis familiaris EBEPQPS-JOFVFN GPJUSPDBEPQBSB
Canis lupus familiaris
IUUQQUXJLJQFEJBPSH BEBQUBEP

5.1 &YQMJDBQPSRVFSB[PNVJUPTBVUPSFTEBDPNVOJEBEFDJFOUGJDBDPOTJEFSBNRVFPDPFPMPCPTP
NBNGFSPTEPNFTNPHOFSPFEBNFTNBFTQDJF

5.2 $PNPTFSFTPMWFVFTTBBMUFSBPOBDMBTTJGJDBPDJFOUGJDBEPDP

L o texto e responde.

/BGMPSFTUBEB"NB[OJB DJFOUJTUBTEFTDPCSJSBN
VNBnova espcie de formiga0JOTFDUPOPUFN
PMIPT PDPSQPQMJEPFOBCPDBQPTTVJNBOECVMBT
NBJT DPNQSJEBT EP RVF P SFTUP EB DBCFB 'PJ
FODPOUSBEPVNOJDPFYFNQMBSFOUSFBTGPMIBTDBEBT
OPTPMPNBTBTPCTFSWBFTTVHFSFNRVFPTFVIBCJUBU
TVCUFSSOFP"GBMUBEFWJTPFBVTODJBEFDPSTP
QJTUBTJNQPSUBOUFT
1PSDPNQBSBPEBTDBSBDUFSTUJDBTEFTUBGPSNJHB
DPNBTEFPVUSBTFTQDJFTDPOIFDJEBT PTDJFOUJTUBT
FTUPDPNEJGJDVMEBEFFNJODMVJSFTUBOPWBFTQDJF
OVNHSVQPUBYPONJDPKEFGJOJEP
4FSRVFUFNEFTFSDSJBEBVNBOPWBTVCGBNMJB 
IUUQXXXTDJFODFOFXTGPSLJETPSHBSUJDMFT
BEBQUBEP

Martialis eureka

6.1 3FGFSFEVBTDBSBDUFSTUJDBTEFTUBOPWBFTQDJFEFGPSNJHB

6.2 *OEJDBVNNPUJWPRVFMFWFPTDJFOUJTUBTBTVHFSJSRVFPIBCJUBUEFTUBGPSNJHBTVCUFSSOFP

132

%&4"'*04 t $JODJBTEB/BUVSF[B t oBOP t .BUFSJBMGPUPDPQJWFM4BOUJMMBOB$POTUODJB

PARTE

3&'030 Importncia da gua para os seres vivos

TURMA:

Fichas de trabalho

N.O:

NOME:

DATA:

As figuras mostram a gua em vrios estados na Natureza.


A

1.1 $PNQMFUBPRVBESPBTTJOBMBOEPDPN9PFTUBEPFNRVFTFFODPOUSBBHVBFNDBEBVNBEBTTJUVBFT
ESTADO

*NBHFN

4MJEP

-RVJEP

(BTPTP

A
#
$
D
E
F
G
H

O Pedro deitou um pouco de anilina azul em p na gua e agitou a mistura. No final, verificou
que o p da anilina desapareceu e que a gua ficou colorida de azul. Observa os esquemas que
mostram o procedimento do Pedro e responde s questes.
"OJMJOB

HVB

HVBB[VM

2.1 $PNQMFUBBTGSBTFTDPNVNEPTUFSNPTTFHVJOUFT


t 4PMVP  t 4PMWFOUF  t 4PMVUP

""HVBP

#"BOJMJOBP

$"HVBB[VMB


%&4"'*04 t $JODJBTEB/BUVSF[B t oBOP t .BUFSJBMGPUPDPQJWFM4BOUJMMBOB$POTUODJB

133

PARTE

2.2 0RVFDPODMVJVP1FESPEFTUBFYQFSJODJB 4FMFDDJPOBBSFTQPTUBDPSSFDUB

4
Fichas de trabalho

"BOJMJOBVNBTVCTUODJBJOTPMWFMOBHVB
"BOJMJOBVNBTVCTUODJBTPMWFMOBHVB
"HVBVNCPNEJTTPMWFOUF
2.3 4FP1FESPDPOUJOVBTTFBEFJUBSBOJMJOBOBHVB PRVFRVFPCTFSWBSJB

2.4 2VFOPNFUJOIBFTTBOPWBTPMVP

Da seguinte lista de substncias, selecciona as que so insolveis na gua.


 "[FJUF
 "DBS
 $IPDPMBUFFNQ





 $BG
 'BSJOIB
 .BOUFJHB

Observa as imagens seguintes e responde s questes.


#

4.1 'B[DPSSFTQPOEFSBDBEBMFUSBVNEPTTFHVJOUFTQSPDFTTPT
FIGURA

FILTRAO

DECANTAO

FERVURA

A
#
$

4.2 %PTTFHVJOUFTQSPDFTTPT TFMFDDJPOBPRVFVUJMJ[BSJBTQBSBSFUJSBSTVCTUODJBTFNTVTQFOTPOBHVB


 'FSWVSB

 "EJPEFTVCTUODJBTRVNJDBT
5

 'JMUSBP
 %FTUJMBP

Observa as figuras e responde s questes.


A

5.1 3FHJTUBEVBTEJGFSFOBTFOUSFBTEVBTQBJTBHFOT

5.2 *OEJDBEVBTDBVTBTRVFQPTTBNUFSMFWBEPTJUVBP#

134

%&4"'*04 t $JODJBTEB/BUVSF[B t oBOP t .BUFSJBMGPUPDPQJWFM4BOUJMMBOB$POTUODJB

PARTE

".1-*"0 Importncia da gua para os seres vivos


TURMA:

Fichas de trabalho

N.O:

NOME:

DATA:

Explica, por palavras tuas, a importncia da gua para os seres vivos.

A Carolina misturou num recipiente sal e gua, tendo de seguida agitado a mistura.
Observa a figura, que representa o procedimento da Carolina e responde s questes.
#

4BM

HVB

HVB1TBM

2.1 *OEJDBPRVFSFQSFTFOUBNBTMFUSBT" #F$




 #

 $

2.2 "TPMVPPCUJEBOBGJHVSBTBUVSBEBPVOPTBUVSBEB +VTUJGJDBBSFTQPTUBDPNEBEPTEBGJHVSB

2.3 &YQMJDB QPSQBMBWSBTUVBT PRVFVNBTPMVPTBUVSBEB

A figura representa a determinao de duas propriedades da gua o ponto de fuso e o ponto


de ebulio.
3.1 $
 PNQMFUBBGJHVSBFTDSFWFOEPOPTFTQBPT
FNCSBODPBTUFNQFSBUVSBTRVFPTUFSNNFUSPT
NBSDBN
3.2 3FGFSFNBJTEVBTQSPQSJFEBEFTEBHVBQVSB

A Maria e o Toms recolheram trs amostras de gua A, B e C em locais diferentes,


e quiseram analisar algumas das suas propriedades, que registaram no quadro seguinte.
PROPRIEDADES
"NPTUSBT

$PS

$IFJSP

1BMBEBS

1BSUDVMBTFNTVTQFOTP

-NQJEB

*OPEPSB

"HSBEWFM

"VTFOUFT

-NQJEB

*OPEPSB

4BMHBEP

"VTFOUFT

"DBTUBOIBEB

$PNDIFJSP

/PGPJUFTUBEP

1SFTFOUFT

%&4"'*04 t $JODJBTEB/BUVSF[B t oBOP t .BUFSJBMGPUPDPQJWFM4BOUJMMBOB$POTUODJB

135

PARTE

4.1 2VBMEBTBNPTUSBTQPEFSTFSEFHVBQPUWFM +VTUJGJDBBUVBSFTQPTUB

Fichas de trabalho

4.2 0RVFEFWFSJBNGB[FSPTEPJTBNJHPTQBSBFMJNJOBSBTQBSUDVMBTFNTVTQFOTPOBBNPTUSB$

4.3 "
 .BSJBTVHFSJVBP5PNTRVFFYQFSJNFOUBTTFNPQBMBEBSEBBNPTUSB$&MFSFDVTPVTF
$PODPSEBTDPNBQPTJPEP5PNT +VTUJGJDBBUVBSFTQPTUB

L a notcia e responde.

"TDNBSBTUFSPEFDPMPDBSOBWJBQCMJDB
FDPQPOUPTQBSBPTDJEBEPTEFJUBSFNPMFPEFGSJUBS
EPNTUJDPBU$PNFTUBNFEJEB SFEV[TFPQFSJHP
EBDPOUBNJOBPEPTPMPFEBHVBFBVNFOUBTF QPS
FYFNQMP BQSPEVPEFCJPDPNCVTUWFJT
0T MFPT BMJNFOUBSFT VTBEPT QBSB DP[JOIBS
WPQBTTBSBTFSDPMPDBEPTOPPMFP&TUFTSFTEVPT
QFSJHPTPT RVFNVJUBTWF[FTTPEFJUBEPTQFMPTDBOPT 
DPOUBNJOBOEPTPMPTFSFDVSTPTIESJDPT QBTTBSP
BTFSSFDPMIJEPTFFODBNJOIBEPTQBSBSFDJDMBHFN
"DUVBMNFOUF TPQSPEV[JEBTBNJMUPOFMBEBT
EFMFPTVTBEPTFPTFDUPSEPNTUJDPRVFNBJT
DPOUSJCVJQBSBPQSPCMFNB.BTPTFTUBCFMFDJNFOUPT
JOEVTUSJBJTFEFSFTUBVSBPUFSPEFSFDJDMBSUBNCN
PTTFVTSFTEVPT
IUUQEOTBQPQUJOJDJPQPSUVHBMJOUFSJPS BEBQUBEP


5.1 $PNFTUBOPWBNFEJEB RVBMPSFTEVPRVFTFQSFUFOEFSFDPMIFSFFODBNJOIBSQBSBSFDJDMBHFN

5.2 5 SBOTDSFWFEPUFYUPBTFYQSFTTFTRVFNPTUSBNDPNPFTUFTSFTEVPTQPEFNTFSQFSJHPTPTRVBOEP
TPUSBUBEPTDPNPMJYPDPNVN

5.3 3FGFSFVNFYFNQMPEFBQSPWFJUBNFOUPEFTUFSFTEVPBUSBWTEBSFDJDMBHFN

5.4 "RVFNTFEJSJHFFTUBNFEJEB 4FMFDDJPOBBPQPDPSSFDUB


 ""QFOBTBPTFDUPSEPNTUJDP QPSRVFPRVFNBJTDPOUSJCVJQBSBPQSPCMFNB
 #5BOUPBPTFDUPSEPNTUJDPDPNPBPTFTUBCFMFDJNFOUPTJOEVTUSJBJTFEFSFTUBVSBP
 $"QFOBTBPTFTUBCFMFDJNFOUPTJOEVTUSJBJTFEFSFTUBVSBP

136

%&4"'*04 t $JODJBTEB/BUVSF[B t oBOP t .BUFSJBMGPUPDPQJWFM4BOUJMMBOB$POTUODJB

PARTE

REFORO 11 Importncia do ar para os seres vivos


TURMA:

Que nome tem a camada gasosa que envolve a Terra?

Completa o crucigrama.
$PSQPOPFTUBEPHBTPTP
0BSUFNGPSNBy
0BSEJNJOVJEFWPMVNF
0BSOPUFNDPS
0BSOPUFNHPTUP
0BSOPUFNDIFJSP

Fichas de trabalho

N.O:

NOME:

DATA:







 G
A
S
O
S
O

Completa o quadro seleccionando as propriedades de cada um dos gases.


(T

$PNCVSFOUF

*ODPNCVSFOUF

5VSWBBHVBEFDBM

.PEFSBEPSEFDPNCVTUFT

0YJHOJP
%JYJEPEFDBSCPOP
"[PUP

Selecciona as condies necessrias realizao de uma combusto.


 "6NHTDPNCVSFOUF
 #6NHTJODPNCVSFOUF
 $6NBTVCTUODJBDPNCVTUWFM
 %6NBTVCTUODJBJODPNCVTUWFM
 &5FNQFSBUVSBBEFRVBEB

As imagens representam uma experincia realizada numa aula de Cincias da Natureza para
estudar a composio do ar.
#

'BTFJOJDJBM

'BTFGJOBM

5.1 0RVFPCTFSWBTUFOBGBTFGJOBMEBFYQFSJODJB

%&4"'*04 t $JODJBTEB/BUVSF[B t oBOP t .BUFSJBMGPUPDPQJWFM4BOUJMMBOB$POTUODJB

137

PARTE

5.2 $PNQMFUBBTGSBTFTTFMFDDJPOBOEPBPQPDPSSFDUBQBSBDBEBVNB

4
Fichas de trabalho

""WFMBBQBHPVTFQPSRVFDPOTVNJVPy
 yB[PUP

yWBQPSEFHVB

#/BGBTFGJOBM BHVBTVCJVOPJOUFSJPSEBDBNQOVMBQPSRVFGPJPDVQBSPMVHBSEPy
 yB[PUP

yWBQPSEFHVB

 yPYJHOJP
 yEJYJEPEFDBSCPOP

$/BGBTFGJOBM BTQBSFEFTEBDBNQOVMBGJDBSBNFNCBDJBEBTQPSRVFIPVWFMJCFSUBPEFy
 yB[PUP

yWBQPSEFHVB

 yPYJHOJP
 yEJYJEPEFDBSCPOP

 yPYJHOJP
 yEJYJEPEFDBSCPOP

Observa as figuras.
#

6.1 *EFOUJGJDBRVBMPHTRVFFTUBTFSVTBEPFNDBEBTJUVBP
A

7

$

#
D

L a seguinte notcia.

2VFNWJWFOPDBNQP RVBOEPDIFHBBDJEBEFTDPNP-JTCPBPV1PSUP TFOUFMPHPBEJGFSFOBEPBSRVF


SFTQJSB0BSNBJTjQFTBEPx DIFJSBBGVNPEPTUVCPTEFFTDBQFEPTBVUPNWFJT EBTGCSJDBT FOGJN BDBCPV
EFFOUSBSOVNBNCJFOUFVSCBOPQPMVEP*TUPQBSBRVFNWJWFOPDBNQP2VFNNPSBOBTHSBOEFTDJEBEFTI
NVJUPRVFTFIBCJUVPVQPMVJPBUNPTGSJDB0RVFFTUBTQFTTPBTEFTDPOIFDFNRVFBRVBMJEBEFEPBS
NFEJEBEJBSJBNFOUFF DPOIFDFOEPPBSRVFSFTQJSBNPT QPTTWFMFWJUBSDSJTFTEFBTNB BMFSHJBTFPVUSBT
EPFOBTEPGPSPSFTQJSBUSJP BMNEPBRVFDJNFOUPHMPCBMy
IUUQXXXOBUVSBMJOLTBQPQU(BEBQUBEP

7.1 0RVFQFOTBTTPCSFBRVBMJEBEFEPBSOBTHSBOEFTDJEBEFT

7.2 4VCMJOIBOPUFYUPEVBTDBVTBTEBQPMVJPBUNPTGSJDBOBTDJEBEFT
7.3 *OEJDBEVBTEPFOBTPSJHJOBEBTQFMBQPMVJPBUNPTGSJDB

7.4 3FGFSFEVBTGPSNBTEFFWJUBSBQPMVJPBUNPTGSJDB

138

%&4"'*04 t $JODJBTEB/BUVSF[B t oBOP t .BUFSJBMGPUPDPQJWFM4BOUJMMBOB$POTUODJB

PARTE

".1-*"0 Importncia do ar para os seres vivos


TURMA:

DATA:

Refere duas vantagens da existncia da atmosfera para os seres vivos.

A figura representa uma experincia realizada numa aula de Cincias.


Procedimento:
 "DFOEFSBNUSTWFMBTJHVBJT" #F$
 *OWFSUFSBNTF BPNFTNPUFNQP EPJTGSBTDPTEFUBNBOIPT
EJGFSFOUFTTPCSFBTWFMBT#F$

Fichas de trabalho

N.O:

NOME:

Observao:
 "WFMB"NBOUFWFTFBDFTBEVSBOUFUPEBBFYQFSJODJB
 "WFMB#GPJBQSJNFJSBBBQBHBSTF
 "WFMB$EFNPSPVNBJTUFNQPBBQBHBSTF
2.1 &YQMJDBQPSRVFSB[PTFBQBHBSBNBTWFMBT#F$

2.2 1PSRVFSB[PBWFMB$EFNPSPVNBJTUFNQPBBQBHBSTF

2.3 2VBJTGPSBNPTDPOTUJUVJOUFTEPBSRVFGJDBSBNEFOUSPEPTGSBTDPTEFQPJTEFBTWFMBTTFBQBHBSFN

Observa as imagens e completa as frases.


#

HVBPYJHFOBEB
1
%JYJEPEFNBOHBOT

"S

"/BGJHVSB" PGTGPSPNBOUNTFBDFTPQPSRVF

#/BGJHVSB# PGTGPSPBQBHPVTFQPSRVF

$"QSPQSJFEBEFEPPYJHOJPRVFKVTUJGJDBFTUBTJUVBP

%&4"'*04 t $JODJBTEB/BUVSF[B t oBOP t .BUFSJBMGPUPDPQJWFM4BOUJMMBOB$POTUODJB

139

PARTE

Completa o quadro com os termos adequados.


0YJHOJP

Fichas de trabalho

*OTVGJDJODJBTSFTQJSBUSJBT

'BCSJDPEFCFCJEBTHBTFJGJDBEBT
&YUJOUPSFTEFJODOEJPT

'FSUJMJ[BOUFTEPTPMP

L com ateno o seguinte texto.

"QPMVJPBUNPTGSJDBQSPWPDBEBQFMBTGCSJDBTFQFMPTBVUPNWFJTBHSBOEFDBVTBEPSBEBTDIVWBT
DJEBT RVFQFSJPEJDBNFOUFBUJOHFNPTQBTFTJOEVTUSJBMJ[BEPT$FSUPTQPMVFOUFTTPMBOBEPTOBBUNPTGFSB
FBTPGSFNVNBUSBOTGPSNBPRVNJDB WPMUBOEPQBSBB5FSSBTPCBGPSNBEFDIVWBTBDJEJGJDBEBT EFTUSVJOEPBGBVOB
FBGMPSB EBOJGJDBOEPGMPSFTUBTFBUFEJGDJPTy
5.1 3FHJTUBBTEVBTDBVTBTEFQPMVJPBUNPTGSJDBSFGFSJEBTOPUFYUP

5.2 $PNBBKVEBEPUFYUP EJ[DPNPTFGPSNBNBTDIVWBTDJEBT

5.3 4VHFSFEVBTGPSNBTEFFWJUBSBTDIVWBTDJEBT

L a seguinte notcia.

1BSUJOEPEFVNNBUFSJBMEFTFOWPMWJEPQPSQFTRVJTBEPSFTKBQPOFTFT FOHFOIFJSPT
IPMBOEFTFTFTUPBDSJBSBQSJNFJSBFTUSBEBWFSEF DBQB[EFFMJNJOBSEBBUNPTGFSB
BQPMVJPFNJUJEBQFMPTWFDVMPTRVFOFMBTFNPWJNFOUBN
.BJT DPOIFDJEPT QFMB TJHMB NOx  PT YJEPT EF OJUSPHOJP FTUP FOUSF
PTQJPSFTHBTFTQPMVFOUFTFNJUJEPTOBBUNPTGFSB TFOEPPTQSJODJQBJTSFTQPOTWFJT
QFMBDIBNBEBDIVWBDJEB
0DJNFOUPQVSJGJDBEPSEFBSSFDFCFOBTVBGSNVMBVNBEJUJWPCBTFEFEJYJEP
EFUJUOJP2VBOEPFYQPTUPMV[EP4PM PNBUFSJBMSFBHFDPNPTYJEPTEFOJUSPHOJP 
USBOTGPSNBOEPPTFNOJUSBUPT RVFTPJOPGFOTJWPTBPNFJPBNCJFOUF#BTUBVNB
DIVWBQBSBRVFUPEPPQJOFSUFTFKBMBWBEPFBFTUSBEBGJRVFMJNQBEFOPWP
IUUQPCMPHWFSEFCMPHTTBQPQU BEBQUBEP

6.1 0RVFVNBjFTUSBEBWFSEFx

6.2 1PSRVFSB[PMIFUFSPEBEPFTUFOPNF

6.3 $PNPGVODJPOBPDJNFOUPEFTUBTFTUSBEBT

140

%&4"'*04 t $JODJBTEB/BUVSF[B t oBOP t .BUFSJBMGPUPDPQJWFM4BOUJMMBOB$POTUODJB

PARTE

3&'030 As rochas, o solo e os seres vivos


TURMA:

DATA:

Explica, por palavras tuas, o que uma rocha.

Observa as figuras seguintes que representam duas rochas A e B com o registo das suas
propriedades.
#

t
t
t
t

Fichas de trabalho

N.O:

NOME:

3PDIBEFDPSDMBSBFDPNHSPTCFNWJTWFJT
$POTUJUVEBQPSHSPTVOJEPT NBDJB
2VBOEPCBGFKBEB OPDIFJSBBCBSSP
/PGB[FGFSWFTDODJBDPNPTDJEPT

t
t
t
t

3PDIBEFDPSWBSJWFMFTFNHSPTWJTWFJT
$POTUJUVEBQPSHSPTVOJEPT NBDJB
2VBOEPCBGFKBEB DIFJSBBCBSSP
/PGB[FGFSWFTDODJBDPNPTDJEPT

2.1 *EFOUJGJDB EBTQSPQSJFEBEFTSFGFSJEBT BTRVFQFSNJUFNEJTUJOHVJSBTSPDIBT"F#

2.2 6
 UJMJ[BOEPBDIBWFEJDPUNJDBEBQHJOBEPUFVNBOVBM DMBTTJGJDBDBEBVNBEBTSPDIBT SFHJTUBOEP 
EFNPEPPSEFOBEP PTONFSPTEBDIBWFRVFTFHVJTUF


3PDIB"

/NFSPTEBDIBWF

3PDIB#

/NFSPTEBDIBWF

2.3 "TSPDIBTTPVUJMJ[BEBTQFMP)PNFNQBSBWSJBTGJOBMJEBEFT


3FGFSFEVBTVUJMJEBEFTQPTTWFJTEBTSPDIBTSFQSFTFOUBEBTQFMBTMFUSBT"F#

3PDIB"

3PDIB#

2.4 .FODJPOBVNBSFHJPEPOPTTPQBTPOEFQPEFTFODPOUSBSFNBCVOEODJBDBEBVNBEFTUBTSPDIBT


3PDIB"

3PDIB#
%&4"'*04 t $JODJBTEB/BUVSF[B t oBOP t .BUFSJBMGPUPDPQJWFM4BOUJMMBOB$POTUODJB

141

PARTE

Completa o crucigrama.



3PDIBVUJMJ[BEBQBSBGB[FSQFBTEFPMBSJB
.JOFSBMVUJMJ[BEPOPGBCSJDPEFBMHVOTSFMHJPT
3PDIBRVFGB[FGFSWFTDODJBDPNPTDJEPT
1SPQSJFEBEFEBTSPDIBT
3PDIBNVJUPBCVOEBOUFOPBSRVJQMBHPEPT"PSFT
6NEPTNJOFSBJTDPOTUJUVJOUFTEPHSBOJUP

Fichas de trabalho







R
O
C
H
A
S

Observa a figura, que representa o perfil de um solo, e responde.


4.1 $PNQMFUBBMFHFOEBEBGJHVSB
1

 )PSJ[POUF"
)PSJ[POUFPVNBOUBNPSUB
 3PDIBNF
 )PSJ[POUF$
 )PSJ[POUF#




4.2 *OEJDBFNRVFIPSJ[POUFTQPTTWFMFODPOUSBSNBJPSRVBOUJEBEFEF
a) NBUFSJBJTPSHOJDPT

b) NJOFSBJT
5

Identifica o tipo de solo representado em cada uma das imagens.


A

A drenagem um dos processos de correco do solo. Selecciona a frase que indica o seu
significado.
 "&OSJRVFDFPTPMPFNHVB
 #3FNFYFPTPMPUSB[FOEPTVQFSGDJFBTDBNBEBTNBJTQSPGVOEBT
 $4FSWFQBSBSFUJSBSEPTPMPBHVBFNFYDFTTP
 %"EJDJPOBTVCTUODJBTBPTPMPRVBOEPFTUFQPCSFFNTVCTUODJBTNJOFSBJT

Selecciona as medidas correctas para a conservao de um solo.


 "1MBOUBSSWPSFTFN[POBTQPVDPBSCPSJ[BEBT
 #1SBUJDBSVNUJQPEFBHSJDVMUVSBDPNDVMUVSBTJOUFOTJWBT
 $6UJMJ[BSBEVCPTRVNJDPTFNWF[EFFTUSVNF
 %$PMPDBSNBJTQPTUPTEFWJHJBOBTGMPSFTUBT
 &5SBUBSDPOWFOJFOUFNFOUFEPTMJYPT
 '6UJMJ[BSBJODMJOBPEPTUFSSFOPTQBSBDVMUJWP

142

%&4"'*04 t $JODJBTEB/BUVSF[B t oBOP t .BUFSJBMGPUPDPQJWFM4BOUJMMBOB$POTUODJB

PARTE

".1-*"0 As rochas, o solo e os seres vivos

TURMA:

Fichas de trabalho

N.O:

NOME:

DATA:

Observa a figura, que representa uma amostra de granito, e responde.


1.1 & YQMJDB QPSQBMBWSBTUVBT QPSRVFSB[PPHSBOJUPDPOTJEFSBEP
VNBSPDIB

O Diogo colheu uma amostra de rocha com as seguintes caractersticas:


t $PSFTDVSB  t $POTUJUVEBQPSHSPTVOJEPT NBDJB  t 'PSUFNFOUFMBNJOBEB
2.1 6
 UJMJ[BOEPBDIBWFEJDPUNJDBEBQHJOBEPUFVNBOVBM DMBTTJGJDBBSPDIB SFHJTUBOEP EFNPEP
PSEFOBEP PTONFSPTEBDIBWFRVFTFHVJTUF


  /NFSPTEBDIBWF

3PDIB

2.2 3FGFSFEVBTQPTTWFJTVUJMJEBEFTEBSPDIBRVFBDBCBTUFEFJEFOUJGJDBS

Observa as figuras, que representam diversas fases da formao de um solo.


A

D

4
1

3.1 6UJMJ[BOEPBTMFUSBTEBTGJHVSBT PSEFOBBT EFGPSNBBUSBEV[JSBTFRVODJBDPSSFDUBEPTBDPOUFDJNFOUPT






  

  

  

3.2 'B[BMFHFOEBEBGJHVSB%
1



  



3.3 *OEJDBRVBMBPSJHFNEBNBUSJBNJOFSBMQSFTFOUFOPTPMP

%&4"'*04 t $JODJBTEB/BUVSF[B t oBOP t .BUFSJBMGPUPDPQJWFM4BOUJMMBOB$POTUODJB

143

PARTE

3.4 0TPMPSFQSFTFOUBEPQPEFTFSDMBTTJGJDBEPDPNPVNTPMPNBEVSP 

4
Fichas de trabalho

3.4.1 +VTUJGJDBBUVBSFTQPTUB

3.5 %JTUJOHVFTPMPQSJNJUJWPEFTPMPNBEVSP

Observa com ateno os grficos seguintes, que se referem composio de trs solos
diferentes, e responde.
A
50%
gua

25%
Matria
orgnica

$
50%
Ar

25%
Matria
mineral

25%
gua

50%
Matria
mineral
(areia)

46%
Matria
mineral

25%
Ar

4%
Matria
orgnica

4.1 2VBMEPTTPMPT" #PV$CPNQBSBBBHSJDVMUVSB 


4.1.1 +VTUJGJDBBUVBSFTQPTUB

4.2 *OEJDBPTPMPNBJTQFSNFWFM
4.2.1 +VTUJGJDBBUVBSFTQPTUB

Relaciona cada um dos problemas do solo com o processo de melhoramento a utilizar.


1SPCMFNBT
EPTPMP

144

1SPDFTTP
EFNFMIPSBNFOUP

0TPMPFTUTFNHVB

t ""EJPEFBSFJB

0TPMPFTUTFNBS

t #3FHB

0TPMPFTUTFNNBUSJBPSHOJDB

t $"EVCBP

0TPMPQPVDPQFSNFWFM

t %"EJPEFBSHJMB

0TPMPUFNHVBFNFYDFTTP

t &%SFOBHFN

0TPMPNVJUPQFSNFWFM

t '-BWSB

Nas margens do rio Douro, onde o terreno muito inclinado, possvel observar culturas
em socalcos. Explica qual a vantagem deste tipo de culturas.

%&4"'*04 t $JODJBTEB/BUVSF[B t oBOP t .BUFSJBMGPUPDPQJWFM4BOUJMMBOB$POTUODJB

PARTE

"35*$6-"0 Cincias da Natureza Portugus 1


TURMA:

Fichas de trabalho

N.O:

NOME:

DATA:

As Cincias esto presentes na literatura


Irene Lisboa 
GPSNBEBQFMB&TDPMB/PSNBM1SJNSJBEF-JTCPB GF[
FTUVEPTOB#MHJDB FN'SBOBFOB4VBGPJQSPGFTTPSBEP&OTJOP*OGBOUJMFEFQPJT
JOTQFDUPSBPSJFOUBEPSB'PJVNBQFEBHPHBDPNJEFJBTBWBOBEBTQBSBBQPDB
"PMPOHPEBTVBWBTUBPCSB FTDSFWFVMJUFSBUVSBQBSBDSJBOBTFKPWFOT UFYUPT
EFQFEBHPHJB DSOJDBTFOPWFMBT
1

O texto seguinte um excerto da obra Uma Mo Cheia de Nada, Outra de Coisa Nenhuma, de Irene
Lisboa. L e responde, utilizando os teus conhecimentos de Cincias da Natureza. Interpreta
e explora o texto de acordo com as orientaes dos teus professores de Portugus e/ou
de Estudo Acompanhado.

"SJCFJSBUPSOBSBTFGVOEB2VFNFEPOIPTUJP$PNFBWBNFBQBSFDFSGPSBEPNVOEP.BTBHVBJB
DPOUJOVBOEPBGPSNBSUSBODFMJOT RVFPSBTFEJWJEJBN PSBTFKVOUBWBN&FVBBWBOBSy1FMBSJCFJSBBDJNB PT
FOPSNFTQFESFHVMIPTRVFBPCTUSVBNUJOIBNEFTFSSPEFBEPTBDVTUP1PSN BTFHVJSFSBTFNQSFOPWP VNB
DPJTBRVFFVOPFTQFSBWBy1BSBWBVNQPVDP"TMBHBSUJYBTUBNCNNFTPCSFTTBMUBWBN0VWJBTFQSJNFJSP
VNBSFTUPMIBEB2VFTFSJB &TEFQPJTRVFTFWJBNDPSSFS-BHBSUJYBTHSBOEFT RVBTFDPNPMBHBSUPTTWF[FT
UBNCNNFQBTTBWBNCPSCPMFUBTGSFOUF
"DFSUBBMUVSBEFJDPNVNQFHPNBJPSFEFJYFJNFGJDBSBPMIMP"HVBUFNPQPEFSEFNFGBTDJOBS DSFJP
RVFKEJTTF$FOUPTEFCJDIJOIPTQSFUPT QFSOBMUBT DPSSJBNOFMBWFSUJHJOPTBNFOUF&SBVNQFHPUSBORVJMPF
TPNCSJP"RVFMFTCJDIJOIPTQBSFDJBNEPJEPTQBSBWBNEFSFQFOUF EFQPJTUPSOBWBNBPTFVEFTBUJOPQBSBWBNEF
OPWPy$IBNBWBNTFBMGBJBUFT&YDJUFJPTDPNVNQBV[JOIP7FJPPTPMEBSNFOBTNPT TVNMFWFSBJPEFTPM
2VFCPOJUPRVFUVEPBRVJMPFSB"DIBMSBEBEBHVB VNBFTQDJFEFDIPSPPVRVFJYBRVFOPUJOIBEFTDBOTP 
UPSOPVNFBBUSBJS
"HVBDIPSBQVTNFFVBEJ[FSEFNJNQBSBNJN&RVFDIPSB
%VBTSPMBTHPSEJOIBTWJFSBNCFCFSSJCFJSB*BVNCBOEPEFMBTBMQPSDJNB MUPFNDJNB
"HVBDIPSB DPOUJOVBWBFVQFOTBOEP TFOUBEPDPNPUBMQBV[JOIPOBNP BFYDJUBSPTBMGBJBUFT RVFGVHJBN
1PSGJNEFTWJFJPTPMIPTEPQFHPFDPNFDFJBWFSSPEFMBTEFMV[1FOTFJFNDPOUJOVBSBTVCJS NBTBDIFJRVFOP
QPEJBNBJT0OEFFTUBSJBFV 0OEFUFSJBKDIFHBEP
IRENE LISBOA Uma Mo Cheia de Nada, Outra de Coisa Nenhuma &EJUPSJBM1SFTFOB

1.1 &OVNFSBPTNBUFSJBJTUFSSFTUSFTSFGFSJEPTOPUFYUP

1.2 2VFBNCJFOUFFTUEFTDSJUPOPUFYUP

1.3 %FYFNQMPEFVNBOJNBMDJUBEPOPUFYUPQBSBDBEBVNEPTHSVQPTTFHVJOUFT


"WFT

  3QUFJT

  *OTFDUPT

1.4 2VBJTTPBTDBSBDUFSTUJDBTEPDPSQPEPTBMGBJBUFTRVFPUFYUPSFGFSF

%&4"'*04 t $JODJBTEB/BUVSF[B t oBOP t .BUFSJBMGPUPDPQJWFM4BOUJMMBOB$POTUODJB

145

PARTE

Fichas de trabalho

"35*$6-"0 Cincias da Natureza Portugus 2


NOME:

N.O:

TURMA:

DATA:

As Cincias esto presentes na literatura


Michel Tournier 
OBTDFVFN1BSJT4FHVJVPDVSTPEF'JMPTPGJB
FUSBCBMIPVFNSEJP1SPDVSBFOHMPCBSBMHVOTGJMTPGPTOPTTFVTDPOUPT
FIJTUSJBT DPNPSexta-feira ou Vida SelvagemFNRVFSFUSBUB3PCJOTPO
$SVTPFDPOTJEFSBEPVNBVUPSEFDSJBOBTFDPOTJEFSBRVFBTTVBT
PCSBT UN UBOUP NBJT WBMPS RVBOUP NFOPS GPS B JEBEF EPT TFVT
MFJUPSFT
1

O texto seguinte um excerto da obra Sexta-Feira ou Vida Selvagem, de Michel Tournier.


L e responde, utilizando os teus conhecimentos de Cincias da Natureza. Interpreta e explora o texto
de acordo com as orientaes dos teus professores de Portugus e/ou de Estudo Acompanhado.

"TDBCSBTRVF3PCJOTPOEPNFTUJDBSBFFODFSSBSBFNSFEFTIBWJBNSFHSFTTBEPBPFTUBEPTFMWBHFN.BT DPNP
RVBTFUPEPTPTBOJNBJTRVFWJWFNFNMJCFSEBEF UJOIBNTFPSHBOJ[BEPFNHSVQPTDPNBOEBEPTQFMPTCPEFTNBJT
GPSUFTFFYQFSJFOUFT&TUFTCPEFTDIFGFTPCFEFDJBNQPSTVBWF[BVNCPEFSFJ EFVNBFOWFSHBEVSBFGPSBUFSSWFJT 
RVFTFDIBNBWB"OEPBS
2VBOEPVNQFSJHPBNFBBWBVNSFCBOIP FTUFSFVOJBTFHFSBMNFOUFOVNBDPMJOBPVOVNSPDIFEPFUPEPT
PTBOJNBJTEBQSJNFJSBGJMBCBJYBWBNBDBCFBFPQVOIBNBPJOJNJHPVNBCBSSFJSBEFDIJGSFTJOUSBOTQPOWFM
4FYUB'FJSBJOWFOUBSBVNEJWFSUJNFOUPQFSJHPTP NBTRVFPFOUVTJBTNBWB-VUBWBDPNPTCPEFTRVFTVSQSFFOEJB
JTPMBEPT4FGVHJBN BQBOIBWBPTBDPSSFS"HBSSBWBPTQFMPTDPSOPTFPCSJHBWBPTBEFJUBSFNTF1BSBNBSDBSPT
WFODJEPT BUBWBMIFTBPQFTDPPVNQFRVFOPDPMBSEFMJBOBT
"DPOUFDFV QPSN RVFEVSBOUFVNBEFTTBTDBBEBTBPCPEF4FYUB'FJSBSFDPMIFVVNBQFRVFOBDBCSBRVF
FODPOUSBSBGFSJEBOPSFDODBWPEFVNSPDIFEP5JOIBVNBQBUBEBGSFOUFQBSUJEB&SBVNBDBCSJOIBNVJUPOPWB 
CSBODB BJOEBTFNDIJGSFT4FYUB'FJSBGF[MIFVNBTUBMBTDPNQBVTFBUPVMIBTWPMUBEPPTTPGSBDUVSBEP$PN
DFSUF[BRVFVNBDBCSBNBJTWFMIB FNBJTSB[PWFM TFUFSJBIBCJUVBEPBFTTFBQBSFMIPRVFBJNQFEJBEFEPCSBS
PKPFMIP.BTBQFRVFOBDBCSB"OEBBTTJNBCBQUJ[BSB4FYUB'FJSBOVODBFTUBWBRVJFUB4BMUBWBDPNPVNB
MPVDBFUJOIBNVJUBTEPSFTRVBOEPDBBTPCSFBTUBMBT%FSFTUP BDBCBWBTFNQSFQPSTFEFTFNCBSBBSEFMBT
FQVOIBTFBBOEBSEFMBEP TPMUBOEPHSJUPTMBODJOBOUFT
"PQJOJPEF3PCJOTPOFSBRVFEFWJBNBCBUMB&NUPEPTPTQBTFTEP.VOEPTFBCBUFNBTDBCSBT 
PTDBSOFJSPTFBUPTDBWBMPTRVFQBSUFNVNBQFSOBRVFFTTFTBOJNBJTOPDPOTFHVFNTVQPSUBSBQSJTP
EPHFTTPPVEBTUBMBTRVFJNPCJMJ[BNPTPTTPTGSBDUVSBEPT
4FYUB'FJSB QPSN PCTUJOPVTFFNRVFSFSTBMWBS"OEB+RVFFMBOPQPEFBOEBS OFNDPSSFS OFNTBMUBS 
QPJTCFN JNPCJMJ[MBJBDPNQMFUBNFOUF"NBSSPVB QPSUBOUP BVNRVBESBEPEFNBEFJSBDPMPDBEPOPDIP
"PQSJODQJP EFJUBEBEFMBEP "OEBEFCBUJBTFFCBMJBBUBMQPOUPRVFDPSUBWBPDPSBP.BTSFTJHOPVTF
FDPOTFOUJVFNDPNFSBFSWBCFNDIFJSPTBFCFCFSBHVBGSFTDBRVF4FYUB'FJSBMIFMFWBWBEVBTWF[FTBPEJB
"PDBCPEFUSTTFNBOBT 4FYUB'FJSBMJCFSUPVB"DBCSJOIBRVJTMPHPDPSSFS NBTPTNTDVMPTFTUBWBN
EFTUSFJOBEPT$BNCBMFBWB DPNPTFUJWFTTFCFCJEPWJOIP'PJOFDFTTSJPFOTJOBSMIFOPWBNFOUFBBOEBS y

"DPOUFDFV OPFOUBOUP RVFFNCPSBUJWFTTFSFBQSFOEJEPBDPSSFS "OEBOVODBNBJTRVJTQBTUBSTP[JOIB#FN
QPEJBQMBOPNFJPEFVNQSBEPDPCFSUPEFFSWBTFGMPSFT PVTPCBGPMIBHFNUFOSBEFVNQFRVFOPBSCVTUP
BTDBCSBTQSFGFSFNBTGPMIBTTFSWBT RVFFMBCBMJB WPMUBWBQBSB4FYUB'FJSB FTQFSBEFRVFFTUFMIFEFTTF
OBNPBTQMBOUBTRVFDPMIFSBQBSBFMB
MICHEL TOURNIER Sexta-Feira ou a Vida Selvagem &EJUPSJBM1SFTFOB

1.1 %FTDSFWFPSBMNFOUFBPSHBOJ[BPTPDJBMEPTHSVQPTEFDBCSBTTFMWBHFOT
1.2 4VCMJOIBBTGSBTFTRVFTFSFGFSFNBPTICJUPTBMJNFOUBSFTEBTDBCSBT

146

%&4"'*04 t $JODJBTEB/BUVSF[B t oBOP t .BUFSJBMGPUPDPQJWFM4BOUJMMBOB$POTUODJB

PARTE

"35*$6-"0 Cincias da Natureza Portugus 3


TURMA:

Fichas de trabalho

N.O:

NOME:

DATA:

As Cincias esto presentes na literatura


Isabel Allende 
EFOBDJPOBMJEBEFDIJMFOB USBCBMIPVDPNPKPSOBMJTUB
FFTDSJUPSBEFTEFPTBOPT1VCMJDPVPTFVQSJNFJSPSPNBODF PTVDFTTPNVOEJBM
A Casa dos Espritos FN0TTFVTMJWSPTFTUPUSBEV[JEPTFNNBJTEFJEJPNBT
FDPOTUJUVFNVNDBTPNQBSEFTVDFTTP.VJUPTGPSBNBEBQUBEPTBPDJOFNB 
UFBUSP QFSBFballet.
1

O texto seguinte um excerto da obra O Bosque dos Pigmeus, de Isabel Allende. L e responde,
utilizando os teus conhecimentos de Cincias da Natureza. Interpreta e explora o texto de acordo
com as orientaes dos teus professores de Portugus e/ou de Estudo Acompanhado.

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EPTPM RVFRVFJNBWBTFNQJFEBEFQPSDJNBEFMFTRVBOEPJBNBNFJPEPSJP&ORVBOUPPTFTUSBOHFJSPTTPGSJBNDPN
BTFEFFDPNPDBMPSFFSBNBDPTTBEPTQPSBCFMIBTFNPTDBT PTCBOUPTSFNBWBNTFNFTGPSPDPOUSBBDPSSFOUF 
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QMTUJDP0CUJOIBNOPEBGPSNBNBJTTJNQMFTGB[JBNVNDPSUFFNGPSNBEFj7xOBCBTFEPUSPODPEBTQBMNFJSBT 
QFOEVSBWBNVNBDBCBBQPSCBJYPFFTQFSBWBNRVFTFFODIFTTFDPNBTFJWBEBSWPSF RVFEFQPJTEFJYBWBN
BGFSNFOUBS
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GBNMJBRVFUJOIBNFODPOUSBEPOBNBSHFNEVSBOUFBQSJNFJSBOPJUF FDSPDPEJMPTEFEPJTUJQPT VOTDJO[FOUPT
FPVUSPTNBJTQFRVFOPT DPSEFDBG"OHJF BTBMWPOBDBOPB BQSPWFJUPVQBSBPTDPCSJSEFJOTVMUPT0TCBOUPT
RVJTFSBNMBBSVNEPTNBJPSFT DVKBQFMFQPEJBNWFOEFSQPSCPNQSFP NBT"OHJFPQTTF IJTUSJDB FPT
PVUSPTUBNCNOPBDFJUBSBNQBSUJMIBSPSFEV[JEPFTQBPEBFNCBSDBPDPNPBOJNBM QPSNBJTBNBSSBEBT
RVFFTUJWFTTFNBTQBUBTFPGPDJOIP+UJOIBNUJEPPQPSUVOJEBEFEFBQSFDJBSBTTVBTGJMFJSBTEFEFOUFTSFOPWWFJT
FBGPSBEBTVBDBVEB
6NBFTQDJFEFDPCSBFTDVSBQBTTPVBSPBSQPSVNBEBTDBOPBTFEFSFQFOUFJODIPV USBOTGPSNBOEPTF
OVNQTTBSPDPNBTBTEFSJTDBTCSBODBTFDBVEBQSFUB RVFTFFMFWPVOPBS EFTBQBSFDFOEPOPCPTRVF.BJT
UBSEF VNBHSBOEFTPNCSBWPPVTPCSFFMFTF/BEJBEFVVNHSJUPEFSFDPOIFDJNFOUPFSBVNBHVJBDPSPBEB
"OHJFDPOUPVRVFUJOIBWJTUPVNBEFMBTFSHVFSTFDPNVNBHB[FMBOBTHBSSBT/FOGBSFTCSBODPTGMVUVBWBN
FOUSFHSBOEFTGPMIBTDBSOVEBT GPSNBOEPJMIBT RVFUJOIBNEFDPOUPSOBSDPNDVJEBEPQBSBFWJUBSRVFPTCPUFT
TFQSFOEFTTFNOBTSB[FT&NBNCBTBTNBSHFOTBWFHFUBPFSBFTQFTTB QFOEJBNMJBOBT GFUPT SB[FTFSBNPT
%FWF[FNRVBOEP TVSHJBNQPOUPTEFDPSOPWFSEFVOJGPSNFEB/BUVSF[BPSRVEFBTSPYBT WFSNFMIBT BNBSFMBT
FSPTBEBT
ISABEL ALLENDE O Bosque dos Pigmeus  BEBQUBEP

1.1 2VBMBNBUSJBQSJNBEPWJOIPEFQBMNB CFCJEPQFMPTCBOUPT 

1.2 &OVNFSBBTDBSBDUFSTUJDBTEPTDSPDPEJMPTNBJPSFT SFGFSJEBTOPUFYUP

1.3 "
 HVJBDPSPBEBVNDBSOWPSPQPTTBOUF4VCMJOIBVNBGSBTFRVFEFNPOTUSFFTUBBGJSNBP
1.4 *OEJDBVNBQMBOUBBRVUJDBDJUBEBOPUFYUP

%&4"'*04 t $JODJBTEB/BUVSF[B t oBOP t .BUFSJBMGPUPDPQJWFM4BOUJMMBOB$POTUODJB

147

PARTE

Fichas de trabalho

"35*$6-"0 Cincias da Natureza Portugus 4


N.O:

NOME:

TURMA:

DATA:

As Cincias esto presentes na literatura


Robert Louis Stevenson 
OBTDFVFN&EJNCVSHP OB&TDDJB POEF
FTUVEPV%JSFJUP NBTOVODBDIFHPVBFYFSDFS'PJQPFUB FOTBTUB BVUPSEFSPNBODFT
FMJWSPTEFWJBHFOT NBTPMJWSPRVFPJNPSUBMJ[PVGPJA Ilha do Tesouro QVCMJDBEP
FN
1

O texto seguinte um excerto da obra A Ilha do Tesouro, de Robert Louis Stevenson. L e responde,
utilizando os teus conhecimentos de Cincias da Natureza. Interpreta e explora o texto de acordo
com as orientaes dos teus professores de Portugus e/ou de Estudo Acompanhado.

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"USBWFTTBSBVNQBVMSFQMFUPEFTBMHVFJSPT KVODPTWFSHBEPTFSWPSFTQBOUBOPTBTTJOHVMBSFTFEFTDPOIFDJEBT
FFODPOUSBWBNFOBFYUSFNJEBEFEVNBWBTUBDMBSFJSBEFBSFJBPOEVMBOUF UFOEPBQSPYJNBEBNFOUFVNBNJMIBEF
DPNQSJNFOUP POEFIBWJBBMHVOTQJOIFJSPTFOVNFSPTBTSWPSFTDPOUPSDJEBT RVFOPTFEJGFSFOBWBNEPTDBSWBMIPT
OPUBNBOIP NBTDVKBGPMIBHFNFSBDMBSB DPNPBEPTTBMHVFJSPT%PPVUSPMBEPEBDMBSFJSBFMFWBWBTFVNBEBT
DPMJOBT DPNEPJTDVNFTFTDBSQBEPTFFYUSBWBHBOUFT RVFDJOUJMBWBNWJWBNFOUFBPTPM
&YQFSJNFOUBWB QFMBQSJNFJSBWF[ PQSB[FSEPTFYQMPSBEPSFT"JMIBFSBEFTBCJUBEB y
"RVJFBMJ IBWJBQMBOUBT
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FBUJSPVNFVNTJMWPRVFTFBTTFNFMIBWBBPEFVNQJPSPEPQJBOEP1PSVNNPNFOUPQFOTFJRVFTFUSBUBWB
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%FQPJTDIFHVFJBVNHSBOEFCPTRVF GPSNBEPQPSBRVFMBTSWPSFTRVFMFNCSBWBNDBSWBMIPTRVFNBJT
UBSEFTPVCFDIBNBSFNTFDBSWBMIPTEFWFSEFQFSFOFFRVFEFTDJBNBPMPOHPEBBSFJBDPNPTBSBT EFSBNPT
DVSJPTBNFOUFFOUSFMBBEPTFGPMIBHFNDPNQBDUB RVFGPSNBWBUOFJT y

%FTCJUP OPNFJPEPTKVODPTIPVWFVNBFTQDJFEFUVNVMUPVNQBUPCSBWPWPPV TPMUBOEPVNHSBTOJEP 


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HSJUPTFEFDSDVMPTOPBS1SFTVNJ MPHP RVFBMHVOTEPTNFVTDPNQBOIFJSPTEFCPSEPFTUJWFTTFNCPSEFKBOEPQFSUP
EBTNBSHFOTEPQOUBOP&OPNFFOHBOFJ QPSRVFEFQSFTTBPVWJPTPNHSBWFFMPOHORVPEVNBWP[IVNBOB 
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&ODIJNFEFNFEPFBUJSFJNFEFCSVPTQBSBEFCBJYPEPDBSWBMIPNBJTQSYJNPBMJBDBBQBEP FVFSBUPEP
PVWJEPT DBMBEPDPNPVNSBUP
ROBERT LOUIS STEVENSON A Ilha do Tesouro BEBQUBEP

1.1 1SPDVSBFSFHJTUBPTJHOJGJDBEPEPTTFHVJOUFTUFSNPT


t 1BVM

t +VODPT

t 4BSBT

1.2 /PTTFSFTWJWPTSFGFSJEPTOPUFYUP QSFEPNJOBNBOJNBJTPVQMBOUBT 

1.3 "QSFTFOUBVNBFYQMJDBPQBSBPOPNFjDBSWBMIPTEFWFSEFQFSFOFxSFGFSJEPOPRVBSUPQBSHSBGP

148

%&4"'*04 t $JODJBTEB/BUVSF[B t oBOP t .BUFSJBMGPUPDPQJWFM4BOUJMMBOB$POTUODJB

PARTE

"35*$6-"0 Cincias da Natureza Matemtica 1


TURMA:

Fichas de trabalho

N.O:

NOME:

DATA:

As Cincias e a Matemtica so inseparveis


1

L a informao seguinte, observa a tabela e responde.


3FMFNCSBRVFUSFQSFTFOUBBVOJEBEFEFNBTTBUPOFMBEB ULH


"TQSJODJQBJTQSPEVFTFN1PSUVHBMTPBTIPSUDPMBT BGSVUBFPWJOIP BTRVBJT


DPOTUJUVFNDFSDBEF VNUFSP
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EJ[SFTQFJUPTIPSUDPMBT BTQSJODJQBJTQSPEVFTOBDJPOBJTTPBTDPVWFT PUPNBUF 
BTDFOPVSBTFBTDFCPMBT/BPMJWJDVMUVSB BQSPEVPNBJPSJUBSJBNFOUFEFTUJOBEB
BPB[FJUF RVFVNQSPEVUPDVKPDPOTVNPUFNWJOEPBBVNFOUBS
PRODUO DE ALGUMAS DAS PRINCIPAIS CULTURAS AGRCOLAS (t)

0MJWBM U

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1.2 2VBMBFTQDJFEFDVMUVSBDPNNBJPSQSPEVPFN1PSUVHBMDPOUJOFOUBM &NFOPS

1.3 2VFFTQDJFEFDVMUVSBUFNNBJPSQSPEVPOB3FHJP"VUOPNBEPT"PSFT

1.4 2VBJTTPBTFTQDJFTEBUBCFMBRVFOPTFQSPEV[FNOB3FHJP"VUOPNBEB.BEFJSB

1.5 2VBOUPTRVJMPHSBNBTEFDFSFBJTTFQSPEV[JSBNFNDBEBVNBEBTSFHJFTBVUOPNBT

1.6 &YQMJDBQPSRVFSB[PPONFSPEFUPOFMBEBTEBQSPEVPEFPMJWBMFN1PSUVHBMFOPDPOUJOFOUFPNFTNP

%&4"'*04 t $JODJBTEB/BUVSF[B t oBOP t .BUFSJBMGPUPDPQJWFM4BOUJMMBOB$POTUODJB

149

PARTE

Fichas de trabalho

"35*$6-"0 Cincias da Natureza Matemtica 2


N.O:

NOME:

TURMA:

DATA:

As Cincias e a Matemtica so inseparveis


1

L o texto seguinte, observa os dados, compara e responde.

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PCUFSBMJNFOUP QSPDVSBSQBSDFJSPQBSBBDBTBMBS GVHJSEFQSFEBEPSFT QFSTFHVJSQSFTBT 
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1FOTBRVBMNBJTWFMP[ PFMFGBOUFPVPQPSDP 0QPSDPNBJTMFWF NBTUFNQBUBT
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BRVFTFEFTMPDBN

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ANIMAIS TERRESTRES

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 ""QPJBNOPTPMPUPEBBFYUFOTPEBQBUB
 #"QPJBNOPTPMPBQFOBTPTEFEPTPVBMUJNBQBSUFEFVNPVEPJTEFEPT
150

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PARTE

1.2 /
 BSFDUBOVNSJDB BTMFUSBTJOEJDBNBTWFMPDJEBEFTNYJNBTEFBMHVOTBOJNBJT*EFOUJGJDBPTBOJNBJT
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A

"
2

 #

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Fichas de trabalho

 %

 &

L o texto, e responde s questes.

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2.1 0
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BTBGJSNBFTTFHVJOUFT
160
140
120
100
80
60
40
20
0
Abelha Borboleta Liblula

Falco

Pombo

Pato

Gaivota

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$.BOUFOEPWFMPDJEBEFNYJNBDPOTUBOUFVNQPNCPQFSDPSSFSJBLNFNEVBTIPSBT
%"BCFMIBDPOTFHVFVNBWFMPDJEBEFTVQFSJPSB,NIPSB
&0GBMDPBBWFNBJTWFMP[
3

A barata campe de velocidade entre os animais. Pode percorrer


um metro por segundo, o que, tendo em conta o seu tamanho, num homem
equivaleria a correr a 150 km/hora.
3.1 $BMDVMBNFOUBMNFOUF
a) PTNFUSPTRVFVNBCBSBUBQFSDPSSFOVNNJOVUP
b) OVNBIPSB

Observa os dados sobre dois animais lentos e responde s questes.


4.1 2VBMEFMFTNBJTMFOUPPDBSBDPMPVBMFTNB

4.2 4FMFDDJPOBBTGSBTFTDPSSFDUBT
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 $6NBMFTNBEFNPSBNBJTEFVNBIPSB
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Caracol
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Lesma
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%&4"'*04 t $JODJBTEB/BUVSF[B t oBOP t .BUFSJBMGPUPDPQJWFM4BOUJMMBOB$POTUODJB

151

PARTE

Fichas de trabalho

"35*$6-"0 Cincias da Natureza Matemtica 3


N.O:

NOME:

TURMA:

DATA:

As Cincias e a Matemtica so inseparveis


1

A gua um bem que faz parte do nosso dia-a-dia.


Abrimos uma torneira e corre com abundncia, olhamos
em redor e a a vemos no rio, no mar ou na chuva que cai.
De facto, na superfcie da Terra h enormes quantidades
de gua, mas quase toda salgada. Analisa o grfico
ao lado e, para teres uma ideia mais concreta desta
diferena, responde s questes.

gua doce 2,8%


gua salgada 97,2%

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  "  
  #  

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'J[FTUFVNBSSFEPOEBNFOUPQPSy

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1.2 0TRVBESBEPTBCBJYPSFQSFTFOUBNBHVBEB5FSSB&TUPEJWJEJEPTFNDFNRVBESDVMBT
1.2.1 *OEJDBPRVFSFQSFTFOUBDBEBRVBESDVMB
a) FNOVNFSBMEFDJNBM
b) FNQFSDFOUBHFN
1.3 1JOUBPRVBESBEPSFGFSFOUFgua existente na Terra UFOEPFNDPOUBPTBSSFEPOEBNFOUPTSFBMJ[BEPT
OBRVFTUP
1.4 1
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1.5 1BSBWFSFTDPNPTFFODPOUSBEJTUSJCVEBBgua doce superficial QJOUBDPOGPSNFBMFHFOEB
gua existente na Terra

Cor

152

gua na Terra

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gua doce

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gua doce

gua doce superficial

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Cor

gua doce
superficial

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7FSNFMIP

/PTTFSFTWJWPT

PARTE

"35*$6-"0 Cincias da Natureza Matemtica 4


TURMA:

Fichas de trabalho

N.O:

NOME:

DATA:

As Cincias e a Matemtica so inseparveis


1

L a informao apresentada de seguida e responde s questes.

/PTFVDJDMPDPOUOVP BHVBBCTPSWFHSBOEFTRVBOUJEBEFTEFEJYJEPEFDBSCPOPRVBOEPBUSBWFTTB
BBUNPTGFSBFTFDPOEFOTB QBSBEFQPJTTFQSFDJQJUBSOPWBNFOUFTPCSFBUFSSBFNGPSNBEFDIVWB
1BSUFEBDIVWBJOGJMUSBTFOBTGFOEBTEBTSPDIBTFWBJBCSJOEPHSVUBTTVCUFSSOFBT2VBOEPBHVBBUSBWFTTB
SPDIBTDBMDSJBT EJTTPMWFFBSSBTUBDPNQPOFOUFTNJOFSBJTEFTTBTSPDIBT RVFSFBHFNRVJNJDBNFOUFDPNPEJYJEP
EFDBSCPOP%FQPJT BHVBBPQBTTBSQFMPUFDUPEFVNBHSVUBEFJYBBHPUBTRVFDPOUNNJOFSBJT"HVBEFTTBT
HPUBTFWBQPSBTFFPTNJOFSBJTWPGJDBOEPEFQPTJUBEPTOPUFDUPEBHSVUB
&TUFQSPDFTTPSFQFUFTFEVSBOUFTDVMPTFTDVMPTFEPSJHFNTestalactites RVFTFEFTFOWPMWFN
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BPTPMP&OUP PTNJOFSBJTWPTFEFQPTJUBOEPOPTPMPFGPSNBNBTestalagmites RVFTFEFTFOWPMWFNQBSB
DJNB2VBOEPVNBFTUBMBDUJUFFVNBFTUBMBHNJUFTFVOFN GPSNBNVNBDPMVOB.VJUBTWF[FTFTUBTGPSNBFT
BERVJSFNGPSNBTDVSJPTBTRVFGB[FNMFNCSBSPCKFDUPTPVPSHBOJTNPT
#

"THSVUBTEF.JSBEF"JSF "
FBTHSVUBTEF4BOUP"OUOJP #
GB[FNQBSUFEFVNDPOKVOUPEFHSVUBT
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1.1 $PNBJOGPSNBPEBGJHVSB DPNQMFUBPRVBESP
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1.2 "HPSBDBMDVMBRVBOUPTBOPTUN BQSPYJNBEBNFOUF FTUBTEVBTFTUBMBDUJUFT


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#
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%&4"'*04 t $JODJBTEB/BUVSF[B t oBOP t .BUFSJBMGPUPDPQJWFM4BOUJMMBOB$POTUODJB

153

PARTE

Fichas de trabalho

$0.&.03"0 4 de Outubro: Dia Mundial dos Animais


O co o melhor amigo do Homem.


'SBTFQPQVMBS

O Dia Mundial dos AnimaisGPJQSPQPTUPFNEVSBOUFVNFODPOUSP


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EBT/BFT6OJEBTQBSBB&EVDBP $JODJBF$VMUVSB
FQFMB0/6 0SHBOJ[BPEBT/BFT6OJEBT

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Artigo 1.
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Artigo 2.
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Artigo 3.
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Artigo 4.
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Artigo 6.
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EJSFJUPBRVFBEVSBPEBTVBWJEBTFKBDPOGPSNFTVBMPOHFWJEBEF
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Artigo 9.
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OVUSJEP JOTUBMBEPFUSBOTQPSUBEP BTTJNDPNPTBDSJGJDBEPTFNRVFEFTTFT
BDUPTSFTVMUFQBSBFMFNPUJWPEFBOTJFEBEFPVEFEPS
Artigo 10.
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"TFYJCJFTEFBOJNBJTFPTFTQFDUDVMPTRVFTFTJSWBNEFBOJNBJTTPJODPNQBUWFJTDPNBEJHOJEBEF
EPBOJNBM
Artigo 14.
y
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1

154

Observa as imagens e regista em cada espao o artigo da Declarao Universal dos Direitos
dos Animais que mais se relaciona com cada uma das situaes.

%&4"'*04 t $JODJBTEB/BUVSF[B t oBOP t .BUFSJBMGPUPDPQJWFM4BOUJMMBOB$POTUODJB

PARTE

Muitos elefantes tm sido abatidos por caadores furtivos ao


longo de dcadas, com o objectivo nico de retirar as presas,
que atingem preos altssimos no mercado negro. Observa
a imagem e diz o que pensas desta situao.

Faz uma pesquisa sobre o trfico (comrcio ilegal) de animais selvagens. Apresenta
as tuas concluses em folheto ou cartaz. Podes pesquisar em http://www.sosanimal.com/
ou http://www.renctas.org.br/pt/home/

Antes de cada Vero hbito passar na televiso uma


campanha sobre o abandono de animais domsticos.

4
Fichas de trabalho

7"*%&'3*"4
/0"#"/%0/&04&6"/*."-

4.1 1PSRVFTFSOFDFTTSJPGB[FSFTUBTDBNQBOIBT

4.2 2
 VBMPBSUJHPEB%FDMBSBP6OJWFSTBMEPT%JSFJUPTEPT"OJNBJTRVFDPOEFOBFTUFDPNQPSUBNFOUP
EP)PNFNQBSBDPNPTBOJNBJT

Tens animais de estimao? Ou gostarias de ter? Ento, segue algumas recomendaes para
seres um/a dono/a responsvel e amigo/a.
 /PEFJYFTPUFVBOJNBMJSSVBTP[JOIP-FWBPTFNQSFDPNUSFMB
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5.1 %FTFOIBBRVJPUFVBOJNBMEFFTUJNBPPVPRVFHPTUBSJBTEFUFS&TDSFWFMIFVNBEFEJDBUSJB

%&4"'*04 t $JODJBTEB/BUVSF[B t oBOP t .BUFSJBMGPUPDPQJWFM4BOUJMMBOB$POTUODJB

155

PARTE

Fichas de trabalho

$0.&.03"0 16 de Novembro: Dia Nacional do Mar


Que inapropriado chamar Terra a este
planeta, quando evidente que deveria
chamar-se Oceano.
ARTHUR C. CLARKE

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&N PEJBEF/PWFNCSPGPJJOTUJUVDJPOBMJ[BEPDPNPPDia Nacional do Mar
&N 1PSUVHBMBQSFTFOUPV0SHBOJ[BPEBT/BFT6OJEBT 0/6
VNBQSPQPTUBEFBMBSHBNFOUP
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OPTPMPFTVCTPMPNBSJOIPFBTTJNUFSBDFTTPBWBMJPTPTSFDVSTPTRVFFTUPOPDIBNBEPjNBSEFOJOHVNx

t /
 BQPDBEPT%FTDPCSJNFOUPT BMJHBPEF1PSUVHBMBPNBSNBSDPV
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FBTBMUFSBFTDMJNUJDBT1PSJTTP OFDFTTSJPEFTDPCSJSOPWBTGPSNBT
EFDPPQFSBPJOUFSOBDJPOBMFEFHFTUPEPTSFDVSTPTNBSJOIPTEFDBEBQBT
Uma grande rea martima representa uma grande riqueza,
mas tambm um grande desafio para Portugal!
156

%&4"'*04 t $JODJBTEB/BUVSF[B t oBOP t .BUFSJBMGPUPDPQJWFM4BOUJMMBOB$POTUODJB

PARTE

Por que razo que Arthur C. Clarke, autor de obras de divulgao cientfica, considera que
inapropriado chamar Terra a este planeta?

Se a rea do territrio nacional de Portugal cerca de 90 000 km2, calcula a rea martima que
actualmente est sob a responsabilidade do nosso pas.

Enumera trs ameaas que afectam os oceanos.

Debate com os teus colegas o significado das expresses destacadas na informao da pgina
anterior.

Pinta as figuras que representam benefcios que os oceanos proporcionam ao Homem


e completa a legenda de cada uma com termos ou expresses retirados da informao
da pgina anterior.

%&4"'*04 t $JODJBTEB/BUVSF[B t oBOP t .BUFSJBMGPUPDPQJWFM4BOUJMMBOB$POTUODJB

4
Fichas de trabalho

157

PARTE

Fichas de trabalho

$0.&.03"0 21 de Maro: Dia Mundial da Floresta


O maior carvalho saiu de uma bolota!


 

1SPWSCJPQPQVMBS

&N FOBTFRVODJBEFVNBQSPQPTUBEB$POGFEFSB
P&VSPQFJBEF"HSJDVMUPSFT GPJFTUBCFMFDJEPP%JB'MPSFTUBM
.VOEJBMQBSBTFOTJCJMJ[BSBTQPQVMBFTQBSBBJNQPSUODJB
EBGMPSFTUBOBNBOVUFOPEBWJEBOB5FSSB
&NEF.BSPEFJODJPEB1SJNBWFSBOP
)FNJTGSJP/PSUFGPJDPNFNPSBEPPQSJNFJSPDia Mundial
da FlorestaFNWSJPTQBTFT FOUSFPTRVBJT1PSUVHBM
Porque so as florestas to importantes?
So o pulmo da Terra: fornecem
o oxignio que respiramos.

So o habitat de diversos animais


e plantas, com um papel muito
importante no equilbrio
da fauna e da flora.

So um factor de moderao
do clima e retm a gua das chuvas
no solo, o que evita inundaes
e controla a humidade.
So um espao de lazer para
actividades em contacto com
a Natureza: passeios, caminhadas,
observao de plantas e animais.

Protegem os solos da eroso, pois


reduzem o impacto dos ventos
e das chuvas fortes.

So uma fonte importante


de produtos como madeiras,
alimentos e combustveis
(os resduos florestais, chamados
biomassa) e de matrias-primas
como resina, celulose e cortia.

158

Curiosidade
"DPNFNPSBPEP%JBEBSWPSFUFWFMVHBSQFMBQSJNFJSBWF[OP/FCSBTDB
&6"
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VNEJBOPBOPQMBOUBPEFEJWFSTBTSWPSFTQBSBSFTPMWFSPQSPCMFNB
EBFTDBTTF[EFNBUFSJBMMFOIPTP
"'FTUBEBSWPSFSBQJEBNFOUFTFFYQBOEJVBRVBTFUPEPTPTQBTFTEP.VOEP 
FFN1PSUVHBMDPNFNPSPVTFQFMBQSJNFJSBWF[BEF.BSPEF

Apresenta dois exemplos da importncia das florestas para a vida na Terra.

%&4"'*04 t $JODJBTEB/BUVSF[B t oBOP t .BUFSJBMGPUPDPQJWFM4BOUJMMBOB$POTUODJB

PARTE

A floresta em Portugal

4
Economia da floresta (grfico)

Fichas de trabalho

Nem tudo bom


%BEPTEB$PNJTTP&VSPQFJB EF EJ[FNRVF1PSUVHBM
PQBTEP4VMEB&VSPQBRVFUFWFNBJTJODOEJPTGMPSFTUBJT 
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Nem tudo mau
"QFTBSEBSFEVPEBGMPSFTUB UFNPTVNQBTGMPSFTUBM QPJT
BQBJTBHFNjGMPSFTUBMxDPCSFBJOEBNBJTEFVNUFSPEPUFSSJUSJP
OBDJPOBMFFODFSSBVNBHSBOEFCJPEJWFSTJEBEF

40
35

36%
33%

30
25

23%

20
15

A floresta tambm fica doente


0OFNUPEFEPQJOIFJSPVNWFSNFNJDSPTDQJDPRVFBUBDB
NVJUBTFTQDJFTEFQJOIFJSP"GFDUBPTJTUFNBEFDJSDVMBPEB
SWPSF FOGSBRVFDFOEPB FPDPOUHJPFOUSFBTSWPSFTPDPSSF
BUSBWTEFVNJOTFDUPRVFTFBMJNFOUBOPTSBNJOIPTFSFCFOUPT
EFSWPSFTBEVMUBTFUSBOTQPSUBPWFSNF
&TUBEPFOBRVFBUJOHJVSFDFOUFNFOUFBGMPSFTUBQPSUVHVFTB
QPEFDBVTBSHSBWFTQSFKV[PTTFOPGPSFNBQMJDBEBTNFEJEBT
EFDPNCBUFFEFQSFWFOP

10
8%

5
0
Papel e
publicaes

Silvicultura
e caa

Madeira
e resinosos

Cortia

As rvores da nossa floresta

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EJTUSJCVJPEBSFBGMPSFTUBMQPSFTQDJFT %(3' *'/

Qual a actividade dos recursos florestais com maior dimenso na economia?

Refere dois problemas que tm prejudicado a floresta portuguesa nos ltimos anos.

Identifica as trs espcies de rvores que predominam na floresta portuguesa.

Escreve no bloco de fala uma mensagem para sensibilizar a populao para a importncia da floresta.
Usa a tua imaginao e escreve em bom portugus!

%&4"'*04 t $JODJBTEB/BUVSF[B t oBOP t .BUFSJBMGPUPDPQJWFM4BOUJMMBOB$POTUODJB

159

PARTE

Fichas de trabalho

$0.&.03"0 22 de Maro: Dia Mundial da gua


S se sente falta de gua quando o pote est vazio!
1SPWSCJPQPQVMBS

Em 22 de Maro de 1992, a Organizao das Naes Unidas


(ONU) proclamou este dia como o Dia Mundial da gua
e redigiu um documento intitulado Declarao Universal dos
Direitos da gua:
1. "
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2. "
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BBHSJDVMUVSB
3. 0
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4. 0
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5. "HVBOPTPNFOUFIFSBOBEPTOPTTPTQSFEFDFTTPSFTFMB TPCSFUVEP VNFNQSTUJNPBPTOPTTPT
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6. "HVBOPVNBEPBPHSBUVJUBEB/BUVSF[BFMBUFNVNWBMPSFDPONJDPFMB BMHVNBTWF[FT SBSB
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7. "
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8. "
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9. "
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10. 0
 QMBOFBNFOUPEBHFTUPEBHVBEFWFMFWBSFNDPOUB
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EFTJHVBMTPCSFB5FSSB

160

Procura no dicionrio o significado dos termos que no conheces.

Explica por palavras tuas o enunciado dos artigos 4 e 10.

%&4"'*04 t $JODJBTEB/BUVSF[B t oBOP t .BUFSJBMGPUPDPQJWFM4BOUJMMBOB$POTUODJB

PARTE

/PDia Mundial da gua PTQBTFTTPDPOWJEBEPTBSFBMJ[BSBDUJWJEBEFTQBSBDPOTDJFODJBMJ[BSPQCMJDPTPCSF


BDPOTFSWBPFEFTFOWPMWJNFOUPEPTSFDVSTPTIESJDPT

4
Fichas de trabalho

.BTBHVB GPOUFEBWJEB FTUFNDSJTFEFWJEPBWSJBTDBVTBT DPNPPBVNFOUPEBQPQVMBPNVOEJBM BQPMVJP 


BNHFTUPEPTSFDVSTPTIESJDPT BTBMUFSBFTDMJNUJDBTFBGBMUBEFDPOTDJODJBEFNVJUBTQFTTPBT
Quais so, ento, os desafios da gua?
t .
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UPEPTPTQPWPT
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A gua est em crise devido a vrias causas. Observa as figuras, que ilustram algumas dessas
causas, e faz a legenda da situao a que se referem.
A

Observa o mapa, que mostra o acesso gua potvel no mundo.


4.1 &NRVFTJUVBPTFFODPOUSB1PSUVHBM 
4.2 2VBMPDPOUJOFOUFFNRVFBTQPQVMBFTUNNFOPSBDFTTPHVBQPUWFM 

Todos devemos contribuir para a conservao da gua. Ilustra as medidas que se seguem,
to fceis de adoptar.

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NJOVUP

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%&4"'*04 t $JODJBTEB/BUVSF[B t oBOP t .BUFSJBMGPUPDPQJWFM4BOUJMMBOB$POTUODJB

161

PARTE

Fichas de trabalho

$0.&.03"0 22 de Abril: Dia Mundial da Terra


O lao essencial que nos une que todos
habitamos este pequeno planeta. Todos
respiramos o mesmo ar. Todos nos preocupamos
com o futuro dos nossos filhos. E todos somos
mortais.
JOHN KENNEDY

O Dia Mundial da TerraDPNFNPSBTFBEF"CSJM EFTEF


"JEFJBTVSHJVFN RVBOEPGPJPSHBOJ[BEPOPT&6" PQSJNFJSP
QSPUFTUPDPOUSBBQPMVJP
&TUFEJBTFSWFQBSBSFMFNCSBSBQPQVMBPNVOEJBMEBTVBSFTQPOTBCJMJEBEFOBQSPUFDPEPQMBOFUB
Tenho aproximadamente 4,5
bilies de anos e 510,3 mil
milhes de km2 de rea total.

A quantidade de gua salgada


30 vezes a de gua doce, e 50%
da gua doce do planeta est
situada no subsolo.

O homem esquece-se
de que o lixo no tratado e,
por vezes, txico contamina
o solo e a gua. E produz
cada vez mais lixo!

A temperatura em todo
o mundo est a aumentar
graas ao dixido de
carbono e outros gases que
os homens enviam todos
os dias para a atmosfera.

Este aumento de temperatura


poder provocar a extino
de milhares de espcies animais.

Com o degelo, as guas dos


oceanos vo subir e provocar
grandes inundaes em diversos
pontos do planeta. Muitas
cidades que se encontram em
zonas costeiras estaro em risco.

162

%&4"'*04 t $JODJBTEB/BUVSF[B t oBOP t .BUFSJBMGPUPDPQJWFM4BOUJMMBOB$POTUODJB

As doenas tropicais podero


aumentar e dar origem a novas
epidemias.

PARTE

$POUVEP P)PNFNBJOEBFTUBUFNQPEFFWJUBSNVJUPTQSFKV[PT5PEPTEFWFNPTDPOUSJCVJS
7PRVFQPEFTGB[FSOBFTDPMB
Organiza recolhas de cartuchos
usados de impressoras
e fotocopiadoras para reciclar.

Certifica-te de que
os computadores entram
em modo sleep quando
inactivos e que ficam
desligados quando acaba
o trabalho.

Reutiliza caixotes de carto


para colocar em cada sala
um depsito de papel e outro
de embalagens. Encaminha
os desperdcios para o ecoponto.

Se for possvel, utiliza


a bicicleta para ires para
a escola. um veculo no
poluente e fazes exerccio
fsico!

Desliga as luzes se a luz solar for


suficiente para iluminar a sala.

Conserva o papel: evita impresses


desnecessrias, usa sempre os dois
lados da folha, recolhe os desperdcios
da reprografia e faz pequenos
blocos-notas.
Se possvel, usa papel reciclado.

Fichas de trabalho

Evita copos e garrafas descartveis: reutiliza


a garrafa de gua, enchendo-a vrias vezes,
e incentiva os professores a usarem uma chvena
pessoal para tirar o caf na mquina.

Ao lanche, substitui
alimentos empacotados por
fruta ou cenouras, pelo
menos alguns dias por
semana. mais saudvel
e fazes menos lixo.

Refere duas possveis consequncias que poder ter o aumento da temperatura na Terra.

Apresenta outra sugesto que contribua para a proteco da Terra.

Faz autocolantes ou avisos para as salas com lembretes tais como:


t j"QBHBBMV[OPGJOBMEBBVMBx
t j/PUFFTRVFBTEFEFTMJHBSPDPNQVUBEPSx
t j1FPMJYPOPTFVMVHBSx

Organiza um concurso interturmas para ver quem consegue separar mais lixo.
Pede a colaborao das funcionrias e regista quantas caixas de papel e de embalagens
vo sendo retiradas das salas. Afixa um grfico com esses dados e actualiza-o com regularidade.
No fim de cada perodo, elege a Turma Amiga da Terra.
%&4"'*04 t $JODJBTEB/BUVSF[B t oBOP t .BUFSJBMGPUPDPQJWFM4BOUJMMBOB$POTUODJB

163

PARTE

Fichas de trabalho

$0.&.03"0 22 de Maio: Dia Internacional da Biodiversidade


a beleza da Natureza que salvar o
mundo desde que ns salvemos a beleza
DOSTOIEVSKI FTDSJUPS

O Dia Internacional da BiodiversidadeGPJDSJBEPQFMB


0SHBOJ[BPEBT/BFT6OJEBT 0/6
DPNPPCKFDUJWP
EFDIBNBSBBUFOPQBSBBJNQPSUODJBEBDPOTFSWBP
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FOGSFOUBBDUVBMNFOUF%FTEFPBOPRVFDPNFNPSBEP
BEF.BJP
0UFSNPjCJPEJWFSTJEBEFxSFGFSFTFWBSJFEBEFEFWJEBOB5FSSBFSFQSFTFOUBBSJRVF[BOBUVSBMEPQMBOFUB EBRVBM
UPEBBOPTTBWJEBEFQFOEFEFTEFPBSRVFSFTQJSBNPTBUTQMBOUBTFBPTBOJNBJTEFRVFOPTBMJNFOUBNPT
ALERTA: BIODIVERSIDADE EM PERIGO!
"DUVBMNFOUF BCJPEJWFSTJEBEFFTUBEJNJOVJSBVNSJUNPBTTVTUBEPS EFWJEPTPCSFUVEPBPVTPEFTDPOUSPMBEP
EPTSFDVSTPTFTBMUFSBFTRVFP)PNFNQSPWPDBOB/BUVSF[B)EJWFSTBTDBVTBTQBSBBQFSEBEFIBCJUBUT
t O desbravamento das florestasFEFzonas naturaisQBSBIBCJUBP 
FTUSBEBTFBHSJDVMUVSB
t A drenagem de zonas pantanosas
t O desvio dos riosQBSBBBHSJDVMUVSB
t "EJNJOVJPEFQFJYFTEFWJEPpesca excessivaPVJOUSPEVP
EFespcies invasivas
t "
 QPMVJP
t 0
 TfogosGMPSFTUBJT
t "Talteraes climticas
t A
 explorao abusivaEPTSFDVSTPT
1

Terra Populao cresce!


1SFWJTP
 NJMNJMIFT
NJMNJMIFT

Das causas acima referidas, selecciona as que consideras adequadas para preencher os espaos
da figura.
#

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Podes ser um agente da biodiversidade! Como?

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Ilustra com um desenho cada uma das dicas de comportamentos amigos do Ambiente.
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conheces as regras?

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Quais so as etapas do trabalho de projecto?

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t 3FDVSTPTNBUFSJBJTFIVNBOPTOFDFTTSJPT


"QSFTFOUBP

t %JWVMHBPDPNVOJEBEFEBTSFBMJ[BFTDPOTFHVJEBT


"WBMJBPCBMBOP

t 0HSVQPEFWFSFBMJ[BSGPSNBTEJTUJOUBTEFBWBMJBP
 BVUPBWBMJBP EFDBEBHSVQPFEFDBEBFMFNFOUP

 IFUFSPBWBMJBP DBEBFMFNFOUPBWBMJBEPQFMPTSFTUBOUFT

t "BWBMJBPEFWFTFSDPOUOVBFGJOBM OWFJTEFSFMBPFDPPQFSBP FGJDDJBEPTQSPDFTTPT 
RVBMJEBEFEPQSPEVUP

t 3FBMJ[BPEFVNCBMBOPHMPCBMBTQFDUPTQPTJUJWPTFOFHBUJWPT TVHFTUFTNPEJGJDBFT
QBSBGVUVSPTUSBCBMIPT

Em todas as situaes, mas especialmente num trabalho entre colegas, bom ouvir
t
t
t
t
t
t

Faz o favor
Obrigado/a pela ajuda
Eu que estou errado.
Bom trabalho!
Boa ideia!
Ns fizemos, ns conseguimos
J agora, bom trabalho!

192

%&4"'*04 t $JODJBTEB/BUVSF[B t oBOP t 4BOUJMMBOB$POTUODJB

&MFNFOUPTEP
HSVQP OPNF

(SVQP

0RVFWBNPT
QFTRVJTBS

0OEFWBNPT
QFTRVJTBS

"DUJWJEBEFTBEFTFOWPMWFS
%JTUSJCVJPEFUBSFGBT

3FDVSTPT
NBUFSJBJT
$BMFOEBSJ[BP

"QSFTFOUBP

3&"%&130+&$50

NOME:
"/0
N.O:
TURMA:
DATA:

1MBOJGJDBPEPQSPKFDUP

%&4"'*04 t $JODJBTEB/BUVSF[B t oBOP t 4BOUJMMBOB$POTUODJB

Recursos para o aluno

TEMA:

PARTE

193

PARTE

Recursos para o aluno

3&-"53*0
N.O:

NOME:

3FMBUSJPO
1SPCMFNB BTTVOUP

.BUFSJBM

t

t

t

t

t

t

t

t

t

t

t

t

1SPDFEJNFOUP

0CTFSWBP

194

%&4"'*04 t $JODJBTEB/BUVSF[B t oBOP t 4BOUJMMBOB$POTUODJB

TURMA:

DATA:

PARTE

&TRVFNB

6
Recursos para o aluno

$PODMVTP SFTQPTUBBPQSPCMFNB

$PNFOUSJPEPQSPGFTTPS

%&4"'*04 t $JODJBTEB/BUVSF[B t oBOP t 4BOUJMMBOB$POTUODJB

195

PARTE

Recursos para o aluno

(6*"%&$".10
rvores
/PRVBESPTFHVJOUF BQSFTFOUBNTFBTDBSBDUFSTUJDBTEBTSWPSFTNBJTDPNVOTRVFQPEFTFODPOUSBSOPDBNQP
PVOBTDJEBEFT"MHVNBTTPPSJHJOBJTEPOPTTPUFSSJUSJP PVUSBTGPSBNJOUSPEV[JEBT"MHVNBTTPVTBEBT
OBKBSEJOBHFN PVUSBTDVMUJWBNTFQBSBDPMIFSNPTPTTFVTGSVUPT
$PNFTUFQFRVFOPHVJBQPEFTJEFOUJGJDBSBNBJPSJBEFMBT
NOME COMUM
E CIENTFICO

ALTURA
MDIA

Abeto-comum
Abies alba

"UN

Cedro-do-Lbano "UN
Cedrus libani

196

CARACTERSTICAS
"HVMIBTQMBOBT WFSEFFTDVSBT FTUFOEJEBTFNBNCPT
PTMBEPTEPUSPODP$POFTBMUPTFFSHVJEPT DPNCSDUFBT
WJTWFJT"CSFNFMJCFSUBNBTTFNFOUFTFNQSJODQJPTEF
0VUPOPVNBSWPSFQSQSJBEF[POBTGSJBTFNPOUBOIPTBT
RVFGPSNBGMPSFTUBTOBUVSBJTOBTSFHJFTNPOUBOIPTBT
EP$FOUSPEB&VSPQB/PSFTJTUFOUFQPMVJP
VSCBOBPVJOEVTUSJBM&N1PSUVHBM VUJMJ[BEBDPNP
QMBOUBPSOBNFOUBM NVJUPDPNVNFNKBSEJOTFQBSRVFT
"HVMIBTWFSEFFTDVSBTPVB[VMBEBT SBNPTIPSJ[POUBJT
$POFTNVJUPBSSFEPOEBEPTTFNFYUSFNJEBEFDBWBEB
"DPQBEFVNWFSEFJOUFOTP RVBTFOFHSP2VBOEP
BSWPSFBEVMUB DPTUVNBQFSEFSPSBNPHVJB PNBJT
BMUP
RVFTFEPCSBPVCJGVSDB1PSFTTBSB[P PBTQFDUP
EBSWPSFBDIBUBEP FOPQJSBNJEBMDPNPPBCFUP
5SBUBTFEFVNBFTQDJFPSJHJOSJBEPUFSSJUSJP
EBBDUVBM5VSRVJBDPNVNFNKBSEJOT

Abeto-vermelho
Picea abies

"UN

"HVMIBTBGJBEBTFQFRVFOBT$POFTMBSHPTFQJOHFOUFT 
DPNFTDBNBTBSSFEPOEBEBTSWPSFUSJBOHVMBS DPN
SBNPTSFHVMBSFTBNBJTVTBEBDPNPSWPSFEF/BUBM
$BTDBDJO[FOUPBMBSBOKBEB'PJVNBSWPSFJOUSPEV[JEB
1MBOUBTFFNKBSEJOTFQBSRVFT BJOEBRVFIBKBBMHVOT
FYFNQMBSFTRVFDSFTDFNOBTOPTTBTGMPSFTUBT

Pinheiro-branco
Pinus sylvestris

"UN

"HVMIBTDVSUBT WFSEFB[VMBEBT QPSQBSFTSWPSFTKPWFOT


DOJDBT BTNBJTWFMIBTUNDPQBBQMBOBEBFBTQFDUP
EFHVBSEBTPM"FTQDJFEJTUJOHVFTFNVJUPCFNQPJT
BDBTDBUFNDPSWFSNFMIPBMBSBOKBEPOBQBSUFNBJTBMUB
FOPTSBNPTEBDPQB'PSNBHSBOEFTGMPSFTUBTFNUFSSFOPT
NPOUBOIPTPT1SPEVUPSBEFNBEFJSBDBSBDUFSTUJDP
EPTHSBOEFTQJOIBJTOB[POBOPSUFEP1BT

Pinheiro manso
Pinus pinea

"UN

"HVMIBTMJHFJSBNFOUFUPSDJEBTFBHVEBT EFBDN
OBTDFNBPTQBSFT QFSTJTUJOEPQPSEPJTBUSTBOPT
"TQJOIBTBQSFTFOUBNDPSDBTUBOIBCSJMIBOUFEVSBOUF
BNBUVSBP RVFEVSBUSTBOPT"TTFNFOUFT QJOIFT

TPVUJMJ[BEPTDPNPBQFSJUJWPTPVOBDPOGFDPEF
BMHVOTQSBUPTHBTUSPONJDPTQPTTWFMFODPOUSMP
EFOPSUFBTVMEF1PSUVHBMDPOUJOFOUBM

%&4"'*04 t $JODJBTEB/BUVSF[B t oBOP t 4BOUJMMBOB$POTUODJB

FOTOGRAFIAS

PARTE

ALTURA
MDIA

Pinheirobravo
Pinus pinaster

"UN

"TBHVMIBTBQSFTFOUBNTFBPTQBSFT TPSPCVTUBT SHJEBT 


EFDPSWFSEFBDJO[FOUBEBT"TGMPSFTNBTDVMJOBTBQSFTFO
UBNTFEJTUSJCVEBTBPMPOHPEPUFSPJOGFSJPSEPTSBNPT
OPWPTFBTGMPSFTGFNJOJOBTGPSNBNHSVQPTEFBWPMUB
EBFYUSFNJEBEFEPTNFTNPT"TQJOIBTBQSFTFOUBNGPSNB
EFFMJQTFBMPOHBEB TPDBTUBOIPDMBSBTFCSJMIBOUFT 
DPOUFOEPTFNFOUFTDPNBTB1MBOUBEPQFMBNBEFJSB 
DPNPQSPUFDPDPOUSBPWFOUPFDPNPGJYBEPSEFEVOBT

Zimbrocomum
Juniperus
communis

"UN

'PMIBTHSBOEFT HSPTTBT SHJEBT DPNQPOUBTBGJBEBT 


WFSEFFTDVSBT DSFTDFNFNSFEPSEFUPEPPUSPODP
3BNPTFNEJTUJOUPTWFSUJDJMPTBOVBJT$BTDBDJO[FOUB
FSVHPTBOBTCBTFTEBTGPMIBT0TDPOFTGFNJOJOPTTP
HMPCPTHSBOEFT EPVSBEPTFCSJMIBOUFT
&NCPSBTFKBVNBHJNOPTQSNJDB OPQSPEV[QJOIBT
OFNFTUSVUVSBTTFNFMIBOUFT0TTFVTGBMTPTGSVUPTTP
JEOUJDPTBCBHPTEVSPTFDIBNBNTFBSDTUJEBT

Teixo
Taxus baccata

"UN

"TGPMIBTTPBHVMIBTDPNQSJEBTFBGJBEBT EFDPS
WFSEFFTDVSBTOBGBDFTVQFSJPSFDMBSBTOBGBDFJOGFSJPS
.VJUPSBNJGJDBEP DPNSFCFOUPTOBCBTF DPQBMBSHBF
FTUFOEJEBFNBEVMUP0TTFVTGSVUPTTPNVJUPDIBNBUJWPT 
FDPOUNVNBQBSUFDFOUSBMEVSBEFDPSWFSEF SPEFBEB
QPSVNBDQVMB PBSJMP
EFDPSWFSNFMIPWJWP0UFJYP
VNBSWPSFWFOFOPTB QPSDPOUFSVNBTVCTUODJBUYJDB
"OJDBQBSUFOPWFOFOPTBPBSJMPEPTGSVUPT

Choupo-branco
Populus alba

"UN

'PMIBTEFDPSWFSEFB[VMBEBT DBEVDBT FNSPTFUBT


FTFQBSBEBT3BNJOIPTDPSEFMBSBOKB'MPSFTGFNJOJOBT
DSFNFPVFTWFSEFBEBT$POFTSFEPOEPTDPNFTDBNBT
WPMUBEBTQBSBGPSB3BNPTIPSJ[POUBJTSWPSFUQJDBEF
[POBTINJEBT GB[FNOPSNBMNFOUFQBSUFEBTGMPSFTUBT
FNSFBTOBNBSHFNEPTSJPT

Cipreste-comum
Cupressus
sempervirens

"UN

'PMIBTDPNPFTDBNBT QFRVFOBT WFSEFFTDVSBT TFN


QPOUB FTUSFJUBNFOUFBQFSUBEBTOPDBVMF$POFTHSBOEFT 
BSSFEPOEBEPT5SBUBTFEPDJQSFTUFUQJDPEBSFHJP
NFEJUFSSOJDB FDBSBDUFSTUJDPQFMBTVBGPSNBBMPOHBEB

Salgueiro-branco "UN
Salix alba

'PMIBTBMUFSOBEBT MPCVMBEBT WFSEFFTDVSBTOBGBDF


TVQFSJPSEPMJNCPFWFSEFDMBSBTOBGBDFJOGFSJPS 
SFWFTUJEBTEFBNCPTPTMBEPTQPSMPOHPTQMPTCSBODPT
3FCFOUPTCSBODPTFjQFOVHFOUPTx$BTDBCSBODBDPN
HSBOEFTNBSDBTFNGPSNBEFEJBNBOUF$PQBBCFSUB
FBSSFEPOEBEBVNBSWPSFRVFOFDFTTJUBEFNVJUB
IVNJEBEF FUQJDBEBGMPSFTUBFN[POBTOBTNBSHFOT
EPTSJPT

Avelaneira
Corylus avellana

"UN

CARACTERSTICAS

FOTOGRAFIAS

6
Recursos para o aluno

NOME COMUM
E CIENTFICO

'PMIBTBMUFSOBEBT BSSFEPOEBEBT DPNQMPTSHJEPT


4FNFOUFT BWFMT
DPCFSUBTQPSVNBCSDUFBWFSEF
OPSNBMNFOUFVNBSCVTUPDPNNVJUPTDBVMFT QFMP
RVFBQSFTFOUBVNBTQFDUPJSSFHVMBS0TTFVTSBNPT
DPTUVNBNTFSDPNQSJEPTFDBEPT

%&4"'*04 t $JODJBTEB/BUVSF[B t oBOP t 4BOUJMMBOB$POTUODJB

197

PARTE

Recursos para o aluno

198

NOME COMUM
E CIENTFICO

ALTURA
MDIA

Btula
Betula pendula

"UN

'PMIBTBMUFSOBEBT USJBOHVMBSFT DPNEFOUFTEVQMPT 


GJOPT$BTDBCSJMIBOUFFDBTUBOIBRVBOEPKPWFN 
UPSOBTFCSBODBFEFQPJTFTDVSB3BNPTQFOEVMBSFT
VNBSWPSFQFRVFOB RVFOPEVSBNVJUPUFNQP
BQFOBTVOTBOPT PRVFQPVDPQBSBVNBSWPSF


Faia
Fagus sylvatica

"UN

'PMIBTBMUFSOBEBT PWBJT DPNNBSHFOTPOEVMBEBT 


BQSFTFOUBNTFWFSEFDMBSBTNBTFTDVSFDFNOP7FSP
$BTDBMJTB DJO[FOUB RVFHSFUBMJHFJSBNFOUF0GSVUP
FTQJOIPTPVNBSWPSFUQJDBEFVNBGMPSFTUBBUMOUJDB

Castanheiro
Castanea sativa

"UN

'PMIBTBMUFSOBEBT DPNQSJEBT EFOUBEBT OFSWPT


QSPFNJOFOUFTFQBSBMFMPT4FNFOUF DBTUBOIB
FOWPMUB
QPSVNGSVUPFTQJOIPTP2VBOEPTPKPWFOT PTTFVT
USPODPTDPTUVNBNUFSBDPSDJO[FOUB0TDBTUBOIFJSPT
WFMIPTUNVNUSPODPEFDPSFTDVSB RVBTFOFHSP 
FHFSBMNFOUFPDP EPRVBMTBFNWSJPTUSPODPT
BDJO[FOUBEPT NVJUPEJSFJUPT

Azinheira
Quercus ilex

"UN

'PMIBTQFSFOFT BMUFSOBT FTUSFJUBT WFSEFFTDVSBTOBGBDF


TVQFSJPSFWFSEFDMBSBTOBGBDFJOGFSJPS"CPMPUBFTU
GFDIBEBEFOUSPEFVNBDQVMBEFDPSDMBSBBDJO[FOUBEB

Sobreiro
Quercus suber

"UN

'PMIBTBMUFSOBT QFSFOFT DPNNBSHFOTPOEVMBEBT


FMCVMPTQPVDPQSPGVOEPTUFSNJOBEBTFNFTQFUP
'PMIBTDPNGBDFTVQFSJPSWFSEFFTDVSB FGBDFJOGFSJPS
BDJO[FOUBEB$PQBCBJYBFFTUFOEJEBDPNUSPODP
FSBNPTSFUPSDJEPT0SFWFTUJNFOUPEPUSPODP 
DBTUBOIPFTDVSP HSPTTPFTVCFSPTP BSSBODBEP
QBSBBQSPWFJUBNFOUP BDPSUJB
2VBOEPBSWPSF
EFTDBTDBEB PUSPODPBQSFTFOUBVNBJOUFOTBDPSMBSBOKB

Carvalho-vermelho
Quercus robur

"UN

'PMIBTBMUFSOBEBT MCVMPTBSSFEPOEBEPT/FSWVSBT
RVFWPEFTEFPTMCVMPTBUTGFOEBT#PMPUBT
TPCSFQFEODVMPTDPNQSJEPT DJMOESJDBTFDPNQSJEBT
$PQBBSSFEPOEBEB USPODPDVSUP SBNPTQFSUPEPDIP
.BJTDPNVNOBSFHJPOPSUFEPDPOUJOFOUF

Nogueira
Juglans regia

"UN

'PMIBTBMUFSOBEBTDPNBGPMPMPT PUFSNJOBMNBJT
DPNQSJEP QFDPMPDVSUP DPSCSPO[FRVFQBTTB
BWFSEFDMBSPVNBSWPSFNVJUPBMUBFCBTUBOUF
FMFHBOUF QSQSJBEBGMPSFTUBBUMOUJDB NBTQMBOUBEB
FNNVJUPTMPDBJTEFWJEPTTVBTTFNFOUFT1SPEV[
GSVUPTEFDPSWFSEF DBSOVEPTNBTCBTUBOUFEVSPT RVF
UNOPTFVJOUFSJPSBQFOBTVNBTFNFOUF BOP[&TUB
UFNBDBTDBEVSBFPTFVJOUFSJPSUFNSVHPTJEBEFT

CARACTERSTICAS

%&4"'*04 t $JODJBTEB/BUVSF[B t oBOP t 4BOUJMMBOB$POTUODJB

FOTOGRAFIAS

PARTE

ALTURA
MDIA

Macieira-silvestre
Malus sylvestris

"UN

'PMIBTBMUFSOBT PWBJT EFOUBEBT DPNQMPTCSBODPT


OBQHJOBJOGFSJPS'MPSFTHSBOEFT CSBODBTPVSPTBEBT
0GSVUP BNB WFSEF QBTTBOEPBWFSNFMIPDPN
PBNBEVSFDJNFOUP0TFVTBCPSCBTUBOUFDJEP
"NBDJFJSBTJMWFTUSFBNFOPTDPNVNEBTNBDJFJSBT 
EFWJEPBTFSFNNVJUPNBJTBCVOEBOUFTBTWBSJFEBEFT
DVMUJWBEBTNVJUBTEFMBTTPBVUDUPOFT

Amendoeira
Prunus dulcis

"UN

'PMIBTBMUFSOBT DPNQSJEBT QPOUJBHVEBTFGJOBNFOUF


EFOUBEBT EPCSBEBTFNj7xQFSUPEBCBTF'MPSFTCSBODBT 
QSFDPDFT$PNGSFRVODJB BSWPSFGMPSFTDFBOUFTRVF
BQBSFBNBTGPMIBT FFTTBGMPSBPEBTNBJTQSFDPDFT
EBGMPSFTUBNFEJUFSSOJDB0GSVUPEFDPSWFSEFBNBSFMBEP
/PTFVJOUFSJPSFODPOUSBTFBTFNFOUF BBNOEPB
&TUBSWPSFDVMUJWBTFFNUPEBBSFHJPNFEJUFSSOJDB

Cerejeira
Prunus avium

"UN

'PMIBTBMUFSOBT QJOHFOUFT DPNEFOUFTQBSBBGSFOUF 


DPNQSJEBT EFDPSWFSEFBQBHBEP RVFTFUPSOBNWFSNFMIBT
OP0VUPOP"QSFTFOUBGMPSFTCSBODBT&PGSVUPBDFSFKB
)NVJUBTWBSJFEBEFT RVFTFEJTUJOHVFN GVOEBNFOUBMNFOUF 
QFMPGSVUP"DFSFKFJSBjTFMWBHFNx TJMWFTUSF
FGSFRVFOUFNFOUFDVMUJWBEBOPTKBSEJOT UFNGSVUPT
QFRVFOPT DPNNVJUPQPVDBQPMQB NBTNVJUPTBCPSPTPT

Laranjeira
Citrus sinensis

"UN

'PMIBTMBODFPMBEBT QFDPMPTFTUSFJUBNFOUFBMBEPT7FSEF
CSJMIBOUF'MPSFTTPMJUSJBT QFRVFOBT CSBODBTFQFSGVNBEBT
5SPODPDVSUP$PQBBSSFEPOEBEB'SVUPFTGSJDPFHSBOEF
MBSBOKB
&YJTUFNWSJBTWBSJFEBEFTEFMBSBOKBTEFTVNP 
EFNFTB EFKBSEJN FUD

Oliveira
Olea europaea

"UN

'PMIBTPQPTUBT MBODFPMBEBTFQPOUJBHVEBT QFDPMPNVJUP


DVSUP1HJOBTVQFSJPSEBTGPMIBTWFSEFFTDVSBNBUFFQMPT
CSBODPTOBQHJOBJOGFSJPS.BSHFOTSFDVSWBEBT5SPODP
FSBNPTWFMIPTNVJUPSFUPSDJEPT"SWPSFQPEFTFSNVJUP
BMUB NBTNVJUBTEBTWBSJFEBEFTEFPMJWFJSBBUJOHFNBQFOBT
PVNFUSPTEFBMUVSB'MPSFTNVJUPQFRVFOBT'SVUPTEF
BDN B[FJUPOBT
"QSFTFOUBHSBOEFEJTUSJCVJPOPOPTTP
UFSSJUSJP NBTDPNNBJPSEFOTJEBEFOBSFHJPEP"MFOUFKP

Medronheiro,
ervodo
Arbutus unedo

"UN

'PMIBTPCMPOHPMBODFPMBEBT MVTUSPTBTFWFSEFFTDVSBT
OBQHJOBTVQFSJPS NBJTDMBSBTOBGBDFJOGFSJPSEPMJNCP
'MPSFTCSBODBTDPNNBUJ[FTWFSEFPVSPTB0TTBCPSPTPT
GSVUPTTFSWFNQBSBQSPEV[JSBGBNPTBBHVBSEFOUF
EFNFESPOIP$PNVNFNUPEPPUFSSJUSJPOBDJPOBM

Loureiro
Laurus nobilis

"UN

'PMIBTPCMPOHBT HMBCSBT BSPNUJDBT


'MPSFT"NBSFMBEBT EJTQPTUBTFNJOGMPSFTDODJBT0TGSVUPT
TPCBHBTWFSEFTOPJODJP GJDBOEPOFHSBTOBNBUVSBP
3FTJTUFOUFQPMVJPVSCBOB"TVBSFBEFEJTUSJCVJP
BCSBOHFUPEPPMJUPSBMEP1BT

CARACTERSTICAS

FOTOGRAFIAS

6
Recursos para o aluno

NOME COMUM
E CIENTFICO

Fontes:
'MPSBEJHJUBMEF1PSUVHBM
"SCPSJVN"UMBTEBTSWPSFTEF-FJSJB
#JCMJPUFDBEFM1SPGFTTPSBEP $JODJBTEFMB/BUVSBMF[BFTP 4BOUJMMBOB

%&4"'*04 t $JODJBTEB/BUVSF[B t oBOP t 4BOUJMMBOB$POTUODJB

199

PARTE

Plantas das zonas hmidas

Recursos para o aluno

"TQMBOUBTTPFTTFODJBJTFNUPEPTPTFDPTTJTUFNBT1PSJTTP JOUFSFTTBOUFDPOIFDFSBMHVNBTEFMBTFBQSFOEFS
BSFTQFJUMBT.PTUSBNPTUFBMHVNBTEBTQSJODJQBJTRVFBQBSFDFNOBTOPTTBT[POBTINJEBT









 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 






200













3BOODVMP Ranunculus aquaticus


1PTTVJCPOJUBTGMPSFTCSBODBT
&SWBBRVUJDBDBOBEJBOB Elodea canadiensis
VNBFTQDJFJOWBTPSB
&TQJHBEFHVB Potamogeton natans
$PNGPMIBTNVJUPDBSBDUFSTUJDBT
/FOGBS Nymphaea alba
(SBOEFTGPMIBTBSSFEPOEBEBTFHSBOEFTGMPSFTCSBODBT
-FOUJMIBEFHVB Lemna minor
.JOTDVMB DPNPVNBMFOUJMIB FNVJUPWFSEF
+VODP Scirpus holoschoenus
$PNVN DPNDBVMFDJMOESJDPFWFSEF TFNGPMIBT*OEJDBEPSEFIVNJEBEF
$BOJPEFHVB Phragmites communis
$BVMFTDPNQSJEPTFGJOPTUFSNJOBEPTOVNQFOBDIPEFGMPSFT
'PHVFUFTPVUCVB Typha latifolia
*OGMPSFTDODJBTKVOUBT BNCBTDBTUBOIBT"TTVBTGPMIBTTPNVJUPVUJMJ[BEBTUSBOBEBT
$BOBDPNVN Arundo donax
$BOBTUQJDBTDPNHSBOEFTJOGMPSFTDODJBTOBFYUSFNJEBEF.VJUPVUJMJ[BEBTDPNPDBOJP
0MFBOESP Nenium oleander
"SCVTUPDPNGPMIBTMBODFPMBEBTFHSBOEFTGPMIBTWFSNFMIBTPVCSBODBT4FSWFDPNPDPSUBGPHPTOBTSJCFJSBT
$IPVQP Populus alba
SWPSFBMUBFDPNQSJEBDPNGPMIBTFTCSBORVJBEBTOPSFWFSTP
"NJFJSP Alnus glutinosa
SWPSFQJSBNJEBMDPNHSVQPTEFQFRVFOPTDPOFTMFOIPTPTOPTTFVTSBNPT
4BMHVFJSP Salix alba
SWPSFEFGPMIBTFTCSBORVJBEBTFMBODFPMBEBTSBNPTNVJUPGMFYWFJTFDBEPT
5BNSJDF Tamarix gallica
%FBTQFDUPGSHJMFSBNJOIPTGJOPT DPNJOGMPSFTDODJBTSPTDFBT

%&4"'*04 t $JODJBTEB/BUVSF[B t oBOP t 4BOUJMMBOB$POTUODJB

PARTE

Cogumelos

6
Recursos para o aluno

0TDPHVNFMPTDSFTDFNFNMVHBSFTINJEPTFTPCSFNBUSJBPSHOJDBFNEFDPNQPTJPBQBSUJSEBRVBMSFUJSBN
PTTFVTOVUSJFOUFT&TUBGJDIBSFOFBMHVOTEPTDPHVNFMPT DPNFTUWFJTPVWFOFOPTPT RVFQPEFNPTFODPOUSBS
OPTDBNQPTPVGMPSFTUBT
/PUBJNQPSUBOUFos cogumelos podem ser muito perigosos. No colhas cogumelos sem estares acompanhado
de algum especialista em fungos.
COGUMELOS COMESTVEIS

COGUMELOS VENENOSOS

Morchella escolenta

"NBOJUBNBUBNPTDBT (Amanita muscaria)

%FTFOWPMWFTFFN"CSJM
F+VOIPOPTNBUPTSJDPT
FNINVT UBNCN
GSFRVFOUFFNFTQBPT
BCFSUPT0TFVDIBQV
EFDPSDJO[FOUPFTDVSP
DPNSFGMFYPTPMJWDFPT DPN
DBWJEBEFTBOHVMPTBTRVFMIF
EPVNBTQFDUPEFDPMNFJB
/PTFEFWFDPNFSDSV

$SFTDFOP0VUPOPFNGMPSFTUBTDBEVDJGMJBT
$BSBDUFSJ[BNTFQPSUFS BQSPYJNBEBNFOUF VNDIBQV
EFDNEFEJNFUSPDPNGPSNBEFQSBUP EFDPS
WFSNFMIPFTDBSMBUFRVFTFQPEFEFTDPMPSBSBUGJDBSDPS
EFMBSBOKBBWFSNFMIBEPEFWJEPBDPEBDIVWB5FNQ
BMUP QFSUPEPTFVQJDFUFNVNBOFMFOBTVBCBTFVNB
FTQDJFEFTBDPEFOPNJOBEPWPMWB FTUSVUVSBEFPOEFTBJ
PDPHVNFMP
UBNCNDPOIFDJEPQPSNBUBNPTDBT

4BODIB(Lactarius deliciosus)
VNBFTQDJFNVJUP
BQSFDJBEBFQPQVMBS4VSHF
OP0VUPOPFOB1SJNBWFSB 
FNGMPSFTUBTEFDPOGFSBT
0DIBQV EFDPSBMBSBOKBEB
DPNNBODIBTFTWFSEFBEBT 
BTTFNFMIBTFBVNGVOJM
"PDPSUBSBQFMFBQBSFDF
VNDSDVMPMBSBOKB
$PHVNFMPTJMWFTUSF(Agaricus campestris)
"CVOEBFNQSBEPTFKBSEJOT
EVSBOUFBTFTUBFT
EB1SJNBWFSBF0VUPOP
0TFVDIBQVDPOWFYP
EFDPSCSBODBDPNNBODIBT
DSFNF0TFYFNQMBSFTKPWFOT
TPDPNFTUWFJT

$BOUBSFMPHFNBEFPWP(Cantharellus Cibarius)
$SFTDFFNGMPSFTUBTDBEVDJGMJBT EFGPMIBDBEVDB

FGMPSFTUBTEFDPOGFSBT1PEFFODPOUSBSTFOBTQPDBT
EF.BJPB/PWFNCSP0DIBQVUFNBGPSNBEFQJP
FEFDPSBNBSFMPBMBSBOKBEP-JCFSUBVNPEPSBHSBEWFM
GSVUBM
$PTUVNBVUJMJ[BSTFTFDPQBSBDP[JOIBS

$PHVNFMPEBTWJWBT(Amanita phalloides)
PVUPOBM EFTFOWPMWFTF
OBTGMPSFTUBTDBEVDJGMJBT
PVFN[POBTINJEBT
EFQJOIBM0TFVDIBQV
DPOWFYPEFDPSFTWFSEFBEP
0QBQSFTFOUBVNBOFM
FWPMWBFTCSBORVJBEPT
&TUFTQDJFBDBVTBEPSB
EBNBJPSJBEPT
FOWFOFOBNFOUPT
#PMFUPEJBCMJDP(Boletus satanas)
%FTFOWPMWFTFFNCPTRVFTDBMDSJPTOBQPDBPVUPOBM
$BSBDUFSJ[BTFQFMPTFVHSBOEFUBNBOIPBQSFTFOUBOEP
VNDIBQVBUDNEFEJNFUSP DJO[FOUPDMBSP
FVNHSBOEFQBMBSHBEPOBCBTF

%&4"'*04 t $JODJBTEB/BUVSF[B t oBOP t 4BOUJMMBOB$POTUODJB

201

PARTE

Invertebrados como e onde observar

Recursos para o aluno

$PTUBSPDIPTB
/BTVQFSGDJFEBTSPDIBT QPTTWFMPCTFSWBS
BTMBQBT HBTUSQPEFT
FBMHVOTCJWBMWFT/BTGFOEBT 
GSFRVFOUFFODPOUSBSTFDBSBNVKPTFPVUSPT
HBTUSQPEFT/BTQPBTGPSNBEBTQFMBTNBST 
DBSBOHVFKPTFQFRVFOPTDBNBSFT DSVTUDFPT

FBONPOBTEPNBS DOJESJPT
&NBMHVNBTSPDIBT
TVCNFSTBTQPEFNFODPOUSBSTFQPMWPT
DFGBMQPEFT


$PTUBBSFOPTB
+VOUPBPNBS NPMVTDPTCJWBMWFTDPNPBBNJKPB 
PCFSCJHP BWJFJSB BMFRVFWBSJBEP BBSDBEFOP 
BDBEFMJOIB BOBWBMIB FUDTPDPNVOT4PNFOPT
GSFRVFOUFTPTHBTUSQPEFT/BTEVOBT QPEFNPT
FODPOUSBSFTDBSBWFMIPTEFWSJPTUJQPTFCPSCPMFUBT
FTQFDGJDBTEFTUBT[POBT

'VOEPNBSJOIP
/PTGVOEPTNBSJOIPT PTTFSFTNBJTGSFRVFOUFTTP
BTBONPOBT DOJESJPT
FBTFTQPOKBT1PEFNPT
FODPOUSBSUBNCNNFEVTBT PVSJPTFFTUSFMBTEP
NBS BMHVOTDSVTUDFPT DBSBOHVFKPT MBHPTUJOT 
DBNBSFT
FNPMVTDPT

-BHPT
"THVBTMNQJEBTEPTMBHPTOPTPFTQFDJBMNFOUF
SJDBTFNJOWFSUFCSBEPT/FMFTFODPOUSBNTFBMHVNBT
MBSWBTEFNPTRVJUPTFPVUSPTJOTFDUPT.VJUPNBJT
SBSPTTPPTFYFNQMBSFTBEVMUPTEFFTDBSBWFMIPT
FQFSDFWFKPTOBEBEPSFT4FIPVWFSTVGJDJFOUF
WFHFUBP QPEFSFNPTFODPOUSBSBMHVOTDSVTUDFPT
FDBSBDJT

-BHPBTFTBQBJT
/FTUBT[POBTNVJUPBCVOEBOUFBGBVOB
EFBSUSQPEFT%FTUBDBNTFBTMBSWBTEFNPTRVJUP 
GSJHOFBT FGNFSBT MJCMVMBTFNPTDBTEBQFESB
5BNCNDPTUVNFIBWFSFTDBSBWFMIPTOBEBEPSFT
FQFSDFWFKPT BjOBEBEPSBEFDPTUBTxFPBMGBJUF 
RVFGMVUVBNOBTVQFSGDJF
5BNCNTPGSFRVFOUFT
DSVTUDFPTFNPMVTDPT

202

%&4"'*04 t $JODJBTEB/BUVSF[B t oBOP t 4BOUJMMBOB$POTUODJB

PARTE

3JPT

Recursos para o aluno

"QFOBTFN[POBTEFGSBDBDPSSFOUF SJDBTFN
TFEJNFOUPTFFNWFHFUBP BCVOEBNPTNFTNPT
BOJNBJTRVFFODPOUSBNPTOBTMBHPBT&N[POBT
EFDPSSFOUFNBJTGPSUFBQFOBTIQMODUPO
/BTNBSHFOT FODPOUSBNTFJOTFDUPT DPNP
BTMJCMVMBT"WFHFUBPSJCFJSJOIBBUSBJNVJUBT
CPSCPMFUBT

1SBEPT
1SFEPNJOBNPTBSUSQPEFTBSBOIBTRVFUFDFN
BTVBSFEFFOUSFBTFSWBT DFOUPQFJBT DPNP
BMBDSBJBRVFTFFTDPOEFEFCBJYPEBTQFESBT 
FWBSJBETTJNPTJOTFDUPT UBJTDPNPPTHBGBOIPUPT 
MPVWBBEFVT CPSCPMFUBT FUD4FIPVWFSHBEP 
BCVOEBSPJOTFDUPTRVFTFBMJNFOUBNEF
FYDSFNFOUPT DPNPBTNPTDBTFBMHVOT
FTDBSBWFMIPT

'MPSFTUBT
0TPMPSJDPEBGMPSFTUBTFSWFEFSFGHJPBNJMIBSFT
EFFTQDJFTEFBSUSQPEFT6NEPTRVFNBJT
EFTQFSUBNBBUFOPBDBCSBMPVSB PNBJPS
FTDBSBWFMIPEBOPTTBGBVOB RVFIBCJUBOBTGMPSFTUBT
EFDBSWBMIPT
&N[POBTINJEBTFODPOUSBNPTUBNCNNPMVTDPT 
DPNPPTDBSBDJTFBTMFTNBT

4FCFT
0TBSCVTUPTEBTCFJSBTEPTDBNJOIPT
FQSPQSJFEBEFTBDPMIFNOVNFSPTPTJOTFDUPT
)CPSCPMFUBTFTQFDGJDBTEPTBSCVTUPT5BNCN
GSFRVFOUFPCTFSWBSBCFMIBT [OHPT FNPTDBT
"MNEJTTP OBTGMPSFT DPTUVNBNFODPOUSBSTF
QFRVFOPTFTDBSBWFMIPTEFDPSFTWJWBT 
PTDSJTPNFMEFPT

.POUBOIB
NFEJEBRVFTVCJNPT BBMUJUVEFGB[DPN
RVFEFTBQBSFBNNVJUPTEPTJOWFSUFCSBEPT
0TRVFSFTJTUFNFN[POBTNBJTBMUBTTPBMHVOT
FTDBSBWFMIPT DPNPBSPTMJB DVKPOPNFDJFOUGJDP 
Rosalia alpina GB[SFGFSODJBBPTFVIBCJUBU

FEFUFSNJOBEBTCPSCPMFUBT

%&4"'*04 t $JODJBTEB/BUVSF[B t oBOP t 4BOUJMMBOB$POTUODJB

203

PARTE

Recursos para o aluno

Moluscos marinhos
"QSFTFOUBNTFEFTFHVJEBBMHVNBTEBTFTQDJFTEFNPMVTDPTNBJTDPNVOTOBTOPTTBTDPTUBT

Bivalves
Vieira-do-mediterrneo
Pecten jacobaeus
$PNVNFNBMHVNBTDPTUBT
BSFOPTBT&TQDJFTQBSFDJEBT
WJFJSB Pecten maximus


Amijoa fina
Venerupis decussatus
.VJUPDPNVNFN
DPTUBTBSFOPTBT)
NVJUBTFTQDJFT
QBSFDJEBT

Arca-de-no
Arca noae
/PNVJUP
BCVOEBOUFFN
DPTUBTBSFOPTBT
&TQDJFQSPUFHJEB

P-de-burrinho
Chamelea gallina
.VJUPDPNVNFN
DPTUBTBSFOPTBT

Ostra
Ostrea edulis
"CVOEBOBTSPDIBT

Leque-variado
Chlamys varia
/PNVJUPDPNVN
$PTUBTBSFOPTBT

Conquilha, cadelinha
ou condelipa
Donax trunculus
&YUSFNBNFOUFDPNVN
FNDPTUBTBSFOPTBT)
FTQDJFTTFNFMIBOUFT

Ostra-co
Anomia ephippium
.VJUPBCVOEBOUF
$BSBDUFSTUJDBTEF
DPTUBTSPDIPTBT

Navalha
Ensis ensis
.VJUPDPNVNFN
DPTUBTBSFOPTBT
)NVJUBT
FTQDJFT

Berbigo
Cerastoderma edule
.VJUPDPNVNFNDPTUBT
BSFOPTBT)NVJUBTFTQDJFT
QBSFDJEBT

Mexilho
Mytilus galloprovincialis
.VJUPBCVOEBOUF7JWF
FNHSVQPTOBTSPDIBT

Gastrpodes
Cerite
Cerithium vulgatum
"CVOEBOUF
Orelha-do-mar
Haliotis TQ
&NDPTUBTBSFOPTBT
FSPDIPTBT NVJUP
Canilha
FTDBTTB
Bolinus brandaris
"CVOEBOUF

P-de-pelicano
Aporrhais pespelecani
$PNVN

204

%&4"'*04 t $JODJBTEB/BUVSF[B t oBOP t 4BOUJMMBOB$POTUODJB

Turritela comum
Turritela communis
"CVOEBOUF

Burri
Littorina littorea
"CVOEBOUFOBTSPDIBT

Lapa
Patella caerulea
.VJUPBCVOEBOUF
TPCSFBTSPDIBT

PARTE

Invertebrados de gua doce

6
Recursos para o aluno

/BTHVBTQBSBEBT FYJTUFVNBHSBOEFWBSJFEBEFEFJOWFSUFCSBEPT"MHVOTTP
MBSWBTEFBOJNBJTUFSSFTUSFT PVUSPTQBTTBNUPEBBWJEBOBHVB
&GNFSBT
4PJOTFDUPTQFSUFODFOUFTBVNBQFRVFOBPSEFN 
EPTFGFNFSQUFSPT%JTUJOHVFNTFQPSRVF OPTFV
FTUBEPBEVMUP BQFOBTWJWFNVNEJBPVBQFOBTVNBT
IPSBT EBPTFVOPNF"TVBWJEBFNGPSNBMBSWBS
NVJUPNBJTDPNQSJEBBTMBSWBT RVFOBSFBMJEBEF
TFEFWFNEFOPNJOBSEFOJOGBT QPSRVFOPUN
BBQBSODJBEFVNBMBHBSUBDPNPBTMBSWBT
EFCPSCPMFUB QPSFYFNQMP FQPSRVFTPNBJT
QBSFDJEBTDPNPBEVMUP
TPIBCJUBOUFTEFDIBSDPT
EFHVBTDMBSBT

/JOGBTEFMJCMVMBTFDBWBMJOIPTEPEJBCP
"TOJOGBTEBTMJCMVMBTFDBWBMJOIPEPEJBCPTP
DPNQMFUBNFOUFBRVUJDBT7JWFNOPTDIBSDPT
EFHVBMJNQB FTDPOEJEBTFOUSFBWFHFUBP
4PQSFEBEPSFTWPSB[FT QPEFOEPDBQUVSBSPVUSPT
JOTFDUPTPVQFJYFTQFRVFOPT4TBFNEBHVBQBSB
QBTTBSQBSBPFTUBEPEFDSJTMJEBFUSBOTGPSNBSTF
OPTJOEJWEVPTBEVMUPT&TUBTWJWFNTFNQSFNVJUP
QFSUPEBHVB

/JOGBTEFNPTDBEBTQFESBT
4PTFNFMIBOUFTTEBTEFFGNFSB"TNPTDBTEBT
QFESBTTPJOTFDUPTQFSUFODFOUFTPSEFNEPT
QMFDQUFSPT PVUSPQFRVFOPHSVQPOPNVJUP
DPNVNNFOUFDPOIFDJEP"TOJOGBTFODPOUSBNTF
QPSOPSNBOBTQFESBTEPMFJUPEFDIBSDPTMNQJEPT
FEPTSJPT

.PTDBTEFHVB
4POJOGBTEFJOTFDUPTEBPSEFNUSJDQUFSPT
$IBNBNTFBTTJNQPSRVFWJWFNFNQFRVFOPT
UVCPTGFJUPTDPNQFESJOIBT QFEBPTEFSBNPT FUD 
VOJEPTQPSVNBTFEBQSPEV[JEBQFMBTOJOGBT
"TOJOGBTEFGSJHOFBTTP HFSBMNFOUF NVJUP
TFOTWFJTDPOUBNJOBP%BRVF TFBTFODPOUSBNPT
OVNDIBSDPPVSJP QPEFNPTBGJSNBSRVFTFUSBUB
EFHVBTNVJUPMJNQBT

%&4"'*04 t $JODJBTEB/BUVSF[B t oBOP t 4BOUJMMBOB$POTUODJB

205

PARTE

Recursos para o aluno

-BSWBTEFEQUFSPT
"TNBJTDPNVOTTPBTMBSWBTEFNPTRVJUPT 
RVFTPDPNQMFUBNFOUFBRVUJDBT%BRVF QPS
USBEJP TFSFMBDJPOFNBT[POBTINJEBTDPN
BQSFTFOBEFFMFWBEPONFSPEFNPTRVJUPT
FTFDPOTJEFSFN[POBTJOTBMVCSFTEFWJEPTEPFOBT
RVFFTUFTQPEFNUSBOTNJUJS&YJTUFNNVJUPTUJQPT
EFEQUFSPTDVKBTMBSWBTTPBRVUJDBTFTRVFSEB
QPEFWFSTFBMHVOTFYFNQMPT

&TDBSBWFMIPT
&YJTUFNJONFSPTFTDBSBWFMIPTBRVUJDPTFOUSF
PTNBJPSFTFTUPPTEJUJTDPT RVFQPEFNSFTQJSBS
EFCBJYPEFHVBBUSBWTEFVNBCPMIBEFBSRVF
DBQUVSBNEFCBJYPEBTTVBTBTBTTVQFSGDJF 
QPEFNPTFODPOUSBSPTFTDBSBWFMIPTNBJT
QFRVFOPT RVFTFDBSBDUFSJ[BNQPSOBEBSFN
FNSQJEPTDSDVMPT
"TMBSWBTEFTUFTFTDBSBWFMIPTDPTUVNBNTFS
UPUBMNFOUFBRVUJDBT FNCPSBBMHVNBTWJWBN
OBTNBSHFOT
$SVTUDFPT
4PNVJUPBCVOEBOUFTOPQMODUPOEPTDIBSDPT
FMBHPBT0TBOGQPEFTFPTJTQPEFTTPPTNBJT
DPNVOT4PBOJNBJTFYJHFOUFTDPNBRVBMJEBEF
EBHVB QPSFTTBSB[POPPTFODPOUSBNPT
FNUPEPTPTDIBSDPT

.PMVTDPT
5BNCNTPNVJUPBCVOEBOUFTNFTNPFNHVBT
QPMVEBT NBTTPEJGDFJTEFFODPOUSBSQPSRVF
TFFTDPOEFNFOUSFBWFHFUBP0TNBJTGSFRVFOUFT
TPPTQFRVFOPTDBSBNVKPTEFHVBEPDF FNCPSB
UBNCNFYJTUBNMBQBT BNJKPBTFNFYJMIFT
EFHVBEPDF

7FSNFTBRVUJDPT
4PNVJUPBCVOEBOUFT'SFRVFOUFNFOUF 
FTDPOEFNTFOPMPEP"MHVOTFYFNQMPTTP
BTQMBOSJBT QMBUFMNJOUBT
PTOFNUPEFTFBMHVOT
BOFMEFPTEFHVBEPDF&NDFSUPTDBTPT QPEFN
DPOGVOEJSTFDPNMBSWBTEFJOTFDUPT FTUFTBOJNBJT
BEVMUPT

206

%&4"'*04 t $JODJBTEB/BUVSF[B t oBOP t 4BOUJMMBOB$POTUODJB

PARTE

Animais das zonas hmidas

.BNGFSPT

"WFT
 VBSEBSJPT
(
Alcedo atthis

 BUPEFHVB
3
Arvicola sapidus

Recursos para o aluno

/VNQBTTFJPPVWJTJUBEFFTUVEPBPMPOHPEPTOPTTPTSJPTPVPVUSBT[POBTINJEBTDPOUJOFOUBJTQSPWWFM
PCTFSWBSWBSJBETTJNPTBOJNBJTEFEJGFSFOUFTHSVQPT"RVJBQSFTFOUBNTFBMHVOTEPTQSJODJQBJTHSVQPTFFTQDJFT
RVFQPTTWFMFODPOUSBS

 BMJOIBEFHVB
(
Gallinula chloropus

 BSBSFBM
(
Ardea cinerea

 JTPO
7
Mustela vison

 BMFJSPDPNVN
(
Fulica atra

- POUSB
Lutra lutra

 BUPSFBM
1
Anas platyrhynchos

3QUFJT
$HBEPFVSPQFV
Emys orbicularis

"OGCJPT

$HBEPMFQSPTP
Mauremys leprosa

4BQPT

3T

(JSJOPT

5 SJUPNBSNPSFBEP
Triturus marmoratus

$PCSBEFHVBEFDPMBS -BHBSUJYBEFEFEPTEFOUFBEPT
Natrix natrix

Acanthodactylus erythrurus

.PMVTDPT

"SUSQPEFT
$BWBMJOIPTEPEJBCP

&TDPSQJPEHVB
-JCMVMBT
$BSBDJT

$BSBNVKPT

Apus
- BHPTUJNEFSJP
Procambarus clarkii

"NJKPBEFSJP

%&4"'*04 t $JODJBTEB/BUVSF[B t oBOP t 4BOUJMMBOB$POTUODJB

207

PARTE

Vertebrados em extino

Recursos para o aluno

O urso-pardo-europeu
0VSTPQBSEPFVSPQFVVNEPTBOJNBJTNBJTBNFBBEPTEBOPTTBGBVOB/B1FOOTVMB*CSJDB BQFOBTSFTUBN
VNBTEF[FOBTEFFYFNQMBSFT5SBUBTFEFVNEPTNBNGFSPTNBJTDBSBDUFSTUJDPTEBGMPSFTUBBUMOUJDB

O urso-pardo-europeu (Ursus arctos)


0TBEVMUPTTPNVJUPHSBOEFT EPJTNFUSPTEFBMUVSBFNBJTEFLHEFQFTP DPNPSFMIBTBSSFEPOEBEBTFDVSUBT
FTFNDBVEB"TVBDPSNBJTDPNVNPDBTUBOIPFTDVSP NBTBMHVOTFYFNQMBSFTTPNBJTDMBSPT0TNBJTKPWFOT
EJTUJOHVFNTFQFMPTFVDPMBSCSBODP"TTVBTQFHBEBTTPNVJUPDBSBDUFSTUJDBT DPNDFSDBEFDN MBSHBT
FDPNNBSDBTEFVOIBT'B[FNQSPGVOEPTDPSUFTFSBTHFTOBDBTDBEFGBJBTFQJOIFJSPT EFJYBOEPSFTUPTEFQMPT
BHBSSBEPT
GDJMTFHVJSMIFBQJTUBEFWJEPBPDPTUVNFEFDPNFSDBTUBOIBTEFGBJB RVFDBQB[EFBCSJSOBQFSGFJP7JWF
OBTGMPSFTUBTNJTUBTEP/PSUFEF&TQBOIB OPTTJTUFNBT$BOUCSJDPF1JSFOBJDP NBJTOBWFSUFOUFGSBODFTB
BJOEB
RVFFNMPDBJTNVJUPJTPMBEPTFEJTQFSTPT5BNCNWBHVFJBOBTQBTUBHFOTEFBMUBNPOUBOIBEVSBOUFP7FSP
"TDSJBT VNBPVEVBT OBTDFNOP*OWFSOPFTPBNBNFOUBEBTEVSBOUFVNBOPFNFJP0QSPHFOJUPSOPQBSUJDJQB
OBDSJBPEBQSPMF
0VSTPVNBOJNBMTPMJUSJPFNVJUPUFSSJUPSJBM DBBEPSOPDUVSOP BJOEBRVFBTVBEJFUBDPNQMFUBTFKBPNOWPSB
DPNFHSBOEFTRVBOUJEBEFTEFGSVUPTEFGBJB CPMPUBTFCBHBT UVCSDVMPT DPHVNFMPT BOJNBJTNPSUPT PWPT QFJYFT 
NFM FUD%VSBOUFP*OWFSOPQBTTBQPSQFSPEPTEFIJCFSOBP
"QFHBEBEFVSTPOBGMPSFTUBGBDJMNFOUFJEFOUJGJDBEBQFMPTFVHSBOEFUBNBOIP BJNQSFTTPEBQMBOUBFBNBSDB
EBTVOIBT

208

%&4"'*04 t $JODJBTEB/BUVSF[B t oBOP t 4BOUJMMBOB$POTUODJB

PARTE

O lobo
"OUJHBNFOUF PMPCPFSBVNEPTNBJTBCVOEBOUFTBOJNBJTDBSOWPSPTOB&VSPQB

6
Recursos para o aluno

"OPTEFQFSTFHVJP no nosso pas GJ[FSBNDPNRVFPTFVONFSPEJNJOVTTFEFGPSNBESTUJDB.BT BDUVBMNFOUF 


BTQPQVMBFTEFMPCPTFTUPBSFDVQFSBS

O lobo (Canis lupus signatus)


0MPCPEJTUJOHVFTFEPDPQBTUPSBMFNPQFMBTVBDBCFBNBJTMBSHBFQMPNBJTDVSUP QFTDPPQFRVFOPFQPS
BOEBSEFDBCFBCBJYB"TDBVEBTFTUPRVBTFTFNQSFQFOEFOUFT FYDFQUPRVBOEPWSJBTGNFBTDPNFNKVOUBT 
NPNFOUPFNRVFMFWBOUBNBTDBVEBTQBSBFTUBCFMFDFSBIJFSBSRVJB GB[FOEPTJOBJTDPNBCPDB FFSHVFOEP
PQBWJMIPBVSJDVMBS"TVBUDOJDBEFDBBCBTFJBTFOBQFSTFHVJPDPOTUBOUFEBQSFTBBUFYBVTUPPVBP
EFSSVCFEBNFTNB0NBDIPEPNJOBOUFBQFOBTDPOEV[PBUBRVFBQBSUJSEFVNBQPTJPQSJWJMFHJBEB TFOEP
PHSVQPDPOTUJUVEPQPSGNFBTFNBDIPTKVWFOJT"TVBEJFUBDPOTUJUVEBQPSDFSWEFPT KBWBMJT NBTUBNCN
QPEFNDBBSQFRVFOPTSPFEPSFTBBMJNFOUBSFNTFEFDBEWFSFT
0MPCPWJWFFNHSVQPTGBNJMJBSFTDPNUSTBDJODPDSJBTRVFQFSNBOFDFNDPNBBMDBUFJBEVSBOUFVNBOPQPS
WF[FT GPSNBNTFHSVQPTBQBSUJSEFEVBTGBNMJBT NBTOPVMUSBQBTTBNBEF[FOBEFJOEJWEVPT0VJWPEPMPCP
NBDIPVNTJOBMEFUFSSJUPSJBMJEBEF EFDIBNBNFOUPFQPTTFEBTGNFBT FPVWFTFTPCSFUVEPOP*OWFSOP 
EVSBOUFBQPDBEPBDBTBMBNFOUP
/B1SJNBWFSB BTGNFBTGJDBNTTDPNBTVBOJOIBEBRVFDVJEBN OPTDPWJTEFPVUSPTNBNGFSPT USBOTGPSNBEPT
QPSFMBT PVFNCVSBDPTOBUVSBJT0NBDIPUSB[BDPNJEB
0MPCPGPJTFNQSFDPOTJEFSBEPVNBOJNBMQFSJHPTP FNCPSBINBJTEFBOPTOPTFSFHJTUFOFOIVNBUBRVF
BTFSFTIVNBOPT1PSTFSDPOTJEFSBEPQFSJHPTP GPJQFSTFHVJEPFDBBEPQFMPTIBCJUBOUFTEBT[POBTPOEFFYJTUJBN
$BMDVMBTFRVFFYJTUBNFYFNQMBSFTOB1FOOTVMB*CSJDB EPTRVBJTFNUFSSJUSJPQPSUVHVT

%&4"'*04 t $JODJBTEB/BUVSF[B t oBOP t 4BOUJMMBOB$POTUODJB

209

PARTE

Recursos para o aluno

A guia-imperial-ibrica
"BWFNBJTNBKFTUPTBda nossa faunaUBNCNVNBFTQDJFBNFBBEB&TUBFTQDJFDBSBDUFSTUJDBEBGMPSFTUB
NFEJUFSSOJDB NBT BDUVBMNFOUF PTFVIBCJUBUSFTUSJOHFTFBPTVEPFTUFQFOJOTVMBS

A guia-imperial-ibrica (Aquila adalberti)


"HVJBJNQFSJBMJCSJDBVNBBWFHSBOEF DPNDFSDBEFDNEFDPNQSJNFOUP QPVTBEB"DPSEBTVBQMVNBHFN
DJO[FOUPFTDVSBFBDBCFBFFTDBQVMBSFT PVPNCSPT
NVJUPCSBODBT&TTBNBODIBCSBODBUBNCNGBDJMNFOUF
WJTWFMFNWPPBPMPOHPEBQBSUFJOUFSJPSEBBTB RVFBQSFTFOUBGPSNBSFDUBOHVMBS"DBVEBRVBESBEB DVSUB
FMBSHB DPNDJODPBTFUFMJTUSBTDJO[B&NWPP NBOUNBTBTBTEJSFJUBTFJODMJOBEBTQBSBBGSFOUF"THVJBTKPWFOT
TPNBJTDMBSBT NBTFTDVSFDFNDPNBJEBEF
$PTUVNBOJEJGJDBSFNSBNPTBMUPTEFHSBOEFTSWPSFTJTPMBEBT TPCSFUVEPDPOGFSBT QFSUPEFFTUFQFTPVNBSJTNBT
"MHVOTJOEJWEVPTSFBMJ[BNNJHSBFTTB[POBJT
"TVBSFBEFEJTUSJCVJPFTUFOEFTFQPSUPEPPTVEPFTUFEB1FOOTVMB*CSJDB
"MJNFOUBTFEFVOHVMBEPTEFNEJPQPSUF SPFEPSFT QTTBSPT DBEWFSFTFBTVBUDOJDBEFDBBJODMVJWPP
BNEJBBMUVSBFVNBWFSUJHJOPTBRVFEBTPCSFBQSFTBDPNBTHBSSBTEJSJHJEBTQBSBBGSFOUF
&N1PSUVHBM BHVJBJNQFSJBMFYUJOHVJVTFOBEDBEBEF WPMUBOEPBQSPDSJBSOB#FJSB#BJYBOPBOPEF
%FTEFFTTBBMUVSB BTPCTFSWBFTEFDBTBJTOBSFHJPGSPOUFJSJBEB#FJSB#BJYB "MUP"MFOUFKPF#BJYP"MFOUFKPUN
WJOEPBBVNFOUBS QSPWBWFMNFOUFEFWJEPBPBVNFOUPEFJOEJWEVPTEFTUBFTQDJFFN&TQBOIB
"FTQDJFUFNTFSFQSPEV[JEPDPNTVDFTTPUPEPTPTBOPTEFTEF FYDFQUP QSPWBWFMNFOUF FN
"QPTUVSBSFBMJ[BEBQPSDBEBDBTBMWBSJBFOUSFFPWPT/POPTTPQBT PONFSPEFDSJBTUFNWBSJBEPFOUSFF 
EFQFOEFOEPEPONFSPEFDBTBJTSFQSPEVUPSFTFNDBEBBOP"UBYBEFTPCSFWJWODJBEFKVWFOJTSFMBUJWBNFOUF
FMFWBEB DFSDBEF
BTTPDJBEBEJTQPOJCJMJEBEFEFBMJNFOUPFYJTUFOUF QSJODJQBMNFOUFDPFMIP

"TQSJODJQBJTBNFBBTFTQDJFTPPBCBUFJMFHBM PFOWFOFOBNFOUP BQFSUVSCBPEVSBOUFBQPDBSFQSPEVUPSB 
BDPMJTPFMFDUSPDVTTPDPNMJOIBTFMDUSJDBTFBFYJTUODJBEFQPVDPTMPDBJTBEFRVBEPTQBSBOJEJGJDBP SWPSFT
SPCVTUBT

/PUPUBM OB1FOOTVMB*CSJDBFYJTUFNDFSDBEFDBTBJT EPTRVBJTOJEJGJDBNOPOPTTPQBT

210

%&4"'*04 t $JODJBTEB/BUVSF[B t oBOP t 4BOUJMMBOB$POTUODJB

PARTE

Rochas

6
Recursos para o aluno

*EFOUJGJDBSBTSPDIBTNBJTDPNVOTEPTOPTTPQBUSJNOJPOPEJGDJM FUPSOBTFCBTUBOUFJOUFSFTTBOUF QPJT


BTSPDIBTSFWFMBNBTQFDUPTJNQPSUBOUFTEBIJTUSJBHFPMHJDBEPMPDBMPOEFTFBDIBN
$POHMPNFSBEP
Rocha sedimentar detrtica*EFOUJGJDBTFQFMBQSFTFOB
EFTFJYPTSPMBEPTEFEJNFUSPTVQFSJPSBNNFOWPMWJEPT
OVNBNBTTBEFHSPTNBJTGJOPT RVFOPDPTUVNBN
VMUSBQBTTBSPTNNEFEJNFUSP
"SFOJUP
Rocha sedimentar detrtica0THSPTRVFGPSNBNBSPDIB
QPEFNUFSEJNFUSPTWBSJWFJT NBTDPTUVNBNTFSJOGFSJPSFT
BNNFFTUPMJHBEPTQPSVNDJNFOUPNVJUPGJOP0T
HSPTQPEFNTFSGSBHNFOUPTEFSPDIBTPVNJOFSBJT
JOEJWJEVBJT TPCSFUVEPRVBSU[P GFMETQBUP NJDBFDBMDJUF
"SHJMB
Rocha sedimentar detrticaGPSNBEBQPSHSPTGJOTTJNPT 
JOGFSJPSFTBNN JOEJTUJOHVWFJTWJTUBEFTBSNBEB"DPS
OPSNBMNFOUFDJO[FOUB NBTUBNCNQPEFTFSWFSNFMIBPV
WFSEFGPSNBEBQPSVNBNJTUVSBEFNJOFSBJTEFBSHJMB
BDPNQBOIBEPTQPSRVBSU[P GFMETQBUP NJDB FUD
$BMDSJP
Rocha sedimentar&TUFUFSNPFOHMPCBSPDIBTEFEJWFSTBT
PSJHFOT PSHOJDBTFEFQSFDJQJUBPRVNJDB
GPSNBEBTQPS
DBSCPOBUPEFDMDJP DBMDJUF
"TVBDPMPSBPWBSJBNVJUP 
BJOEBRVFQSFEPNJOFPCSBODPBNBSFMBEP5SBUBTFEFVNB
SPDIBNVJUPBCVOEBOUFFQPEFDPOUFSGTTFJTOPTFVJOUFSJPS
(SBOJUP
Rocha gnea plutnicaGPSNBEBQPSHSPTDSJTUBMJ[BEPT
EFUBNBOIPNEJPPVGJOPEFNPTDPWJUF CJPUJUFFRVBSU[P
1PEFNBQBSFDFSPVUSPTNJOFSBJTTFDVOESJPTFBDJEFOUBJT
"DPSQPEFTFSCSBODB DJO[FOUBPVSPTBEB DPNHSPT
FTDVSPTEFCJPUJUF
#BTBMUP
Rocha gnea vulcnica%FDPSNVJUPFTDVSB FBUOFHSB 
RVFTFUPSOBQBSEBQPSPYJEBP'PSNBEBQPSVNBNBTTB
WUSFBPVQBTUBTPCSFBRVBMBQBSFDFNBMHVOTDSJTUBJTRVFTF
PCTFSWBNWJTUBEFTBSNBEBBSPDIBWVMDOJDBNBJT
DPNVN
"SETJB
Rocha metamrfica3FTVMUBEPNFUBNPSGJTNPEBBSHJMB
0THSPTTPJOEJTUJOHVWFJTWJTUBEFTBSNBEBFBQSFTFOUB
VNBEJTQPTJPFNMNJOBTQBSBMFMBT"TVBDPSDJO[FOUB 
BJOEBRVFBQSFTFOUFEJGFSFOUFTUPOBMJEBEFT QSBUFBEP 
QMNCFP PVFTWFSEFBEP

.SNPSF
Rocha metamrfica3FTVMUBEPNFUBNPSGJTNPEP
DBMDSJP"TVBDPSPCSBODPDPNNBODIBTEFEJGFSFOUFT
UPOBMJEBEFTFQPSWF[FTQPEFBQSFTFOUBSHSPT DPNPVN
UPSSPEFBDBS NSNPSFTBDBSEFP
0NJOFSBMFTTFODJBM
RVFDPOUNBDBMDJUF

%&4"'*04 t $JODJBTEB/BUVSF[B t oBOP t 4BOUJMMBOB$POTUODJB

211

PARTE

Recursos para o aluno

$0/5&%04&.&426&."
Seres vivos
321

Seres vivos
Materiais terrestres

321

A NATUREZA CONSTITUDA

"S
HVB
3PDIBT

34444244441

Clulas:QBSUFNBJTQFRVFOBEFVNTFSWJWP'PSNBNtecidosOBNBJPSJBEPT
TFSFTQMVSJDFMVMBSFT
Tecidos: HSVQPTEFDMVMBTRVFSFBMJ[BNBNFTNBGVOP'PSNBNrgos

ORGANIZAO INTERNA
DOS SERES VIVOS

rgos:HSVQPTEFUFDJEPTRVFUSBCBMIBNFNDPOKVOUPEFTFNQFOIBOEPBNFTNB
GVOP'PSNBNsistemas
Sistemas:HSVQPTEFSHPTRVFDPOUSJCVFNQBSBPEFTFNQFOIPEBNFTNB
GVOP
Organismo:4FSWJWPDPNQMFUPGPSNBEPQPSaparelhos e sistemas

Classificao dos seres vivos

/BTVBNBJPSJB QPEFNEFTMPDBSTF

A existncia de
esqueleto

O tipo de
alimentao

O tipo de
reproduo

%&4"'*04 t $JODJBTEB/BUVSF[B t oBOP t 4BOUJMMBOB$POTUODJB

Invertebrados:OPUNFTRVFMFUPTTFP

Herbvoros: BMJNFOUBNTFEFQMBOUBT
Carnvoros: BMJNFOUBNTFEFDBSOF
Omnvoros: BMJNFOUBNTFEFDBSOFFEFQMBOUBT
Ovparos: OBTDFNEFPWPT
Vivparos: GPSNBNTFEFOUSPEBNF

Ovovivparos: %FTFOWPMWFNTFEFOUSP
EFPWPT OPJOUFSJPSEPDPSQPEBNF

35251

O meio onde
se deslocam
e de onde retiram
o oxignio

Vertebrados:UNFTRVFMFUPTTFP

34241 34241

212

)FUFSPUSGJDPT BMJNFOUBNTFEFPVUSPTTFSFTWJWPT


321

A classificao
tem em
conta ...

1MVSJDFMVMBSFT DPNUFDJEPTPSHBOJ[BEPT

344444444424444444441

REINO ANIMAL

3442441

3444444444444442444444444444441

Caractersticas

$MVMBTTFNQBSFEFDFMVMBS

Terrestres:SFTQJSBNBS
Aquticos: VTBNPPYJHOJPEJTTPMWJEP
OBHVB

PARTE

34241

REINO
MONERA

Recursos para o aluno

REINO
PROTISTA

1MBOUBTTFN
GMPSFT

1MBOUBTDPN
GMPSFT

5JQPEFDBVMF

5JQPEFGPMIBT

Musgos.
Fetos.

Gimnosprmicas: UNGMPSFT NBTOPGSVUPT


Angiosprmicas: UNGMPSFTFGSVUPT

rvores: DBVMFMFOIPTP HSPTTPFEVSP


Arbustos: DBVMFMFOIPTPQFRVFOP
Ervas: DBVMFGJOPFGMFYWFM
Perenes: UNGPMIBTEVSBOUFUPEPPBOP
Caducas: QFSEFNBTTVBTGPMIBTOP0VUPOP

"TDMVMBTQPTTVFNQBSFEFDFMVMBS
1PEFNTFSVOJDFMVMBSFTPVQMVSJDFMVMBSFT
4PIFUFSPUSGJDPT EFDPNQPTJUPSFT

321

Podem ser
classificados

/PTFEFTMPDBN

34241 321

REINO DOS
FUNGOS

"VUPUSGJDPT QSPEV[FNPTTFVTQSQSJPTOVUSJFOUFT

35251

354424451

Caractersticas

34241 3442441

Classificao

1MVSJDFMVMBSFT DPNGPSNBPEFUFDJEPT

34454444444244444454441

REINO DAS
PLANTAS

3552451

344444454444444244444444444441

Caractersticas

$MVMBTDPNQBSFEFDFMVMBS

Cogumelos
Leveduras

3442441

$MVMBTTFNQBSFEFDFMVMBS
1PEFNTFSVOJDFMVMBSFTPVQMVSJDFMVMBSFTTFNUFDJEPTPSHBOJ[BEPT
1PEFNTFSBVUPPVIFUFSGJDPT

$MVMBTTFNODMFPJOEJWJEVBMJ[BEP
6OJDFMVMBSFTQMVSJDFMVMBSFT
1PEFNTFSBVUPPVIFUFSGJDPT

%&4"'*04 t $JODJBTEB/BUVSF[B t oBOP t 4BOUJMMBOB$POTUODJB

213

PARTE

Classificao no reino dos animais

Caractersticas

4PPWQBSPT
1PEFNTPGSFSNFUFNPSGPTFT

Esponjas

Cnidrios

34241

Aneldeos e
Platelmintas

$PSQPNPMF HFMBUJOPTP
FDPNUFOUDVMPT1PSFYFNQMP 
DPSBJT BONPOBTPVNFEVTBT
4PNBSJOIPT

$PSQPNPMFFDPNQSJEP 
DPNFJYPEFTJNFUSJB
1PSFYFNQMP BNJOIPDB
7JWFNFNUFSSBFFNHVB

Gastrpodes

Bivalves

34241

Cefalpodes

5NUFOUDVMPTDPNSHPT
TFOTPSJBJT1PSFYFNQMP PDBSBDPM
"NBJPSJBBRVUJDB
FQPTTVJVNBconcha

$PSQPNPMFQSPUFHJEPQPS
duas conchas articuladas
1PSFYFNQMP PNFYJMIP
"NBJPSJBNBSJOIB

34545245541

%&4"'*04 t $JODJBTEB/BUVSF[B t oBOP t 4BOUJMMBOB$POTUODJB

7JWFNOPNBSFOPQPEFN
EFTMPDBSTF1PSFYFNQMP 
BFTQPOKBEFCBOIP

3442441

Moluscos

4PTJNQMFT FNGPSNBEFTBDP
FDPNDPSQPJSSFHVMBSTFNTJNFUSJB

34241 3454444444442444444454451

214

1PEFNFTUBSEFTQSPWJEPTEFRVBMRVFSQSPUFDP QPTTVJSFYPTRVFMFUP
DPODIBPVDBSBQBB
PVFOEPTRVFMFUP

3542451

Classificao

/PUNFTRVFMFUPDPNcoluna vertebral

344444444444444445444244444444544444454544441

ANIMAIS
INVERTEBRADOS

3442441

34444444444444444444444444244444444444444544444444441

Recursos para o aluno

5NPJUPBEF[tentculos
FVNDSFCSPNVJUPEFTFOWPMWJEP
1PSFYFNQMP PQPMWP
4PNBSJOIPT
%FTMPDBNTF
FYQFMJOEPVNKBDUP
EFHVBRVF
PTJNQVMTJPOB

PARTE

3554542455441

Miripodes

3442441

Insectos

3554444452544444551

Recursos para o aluno

355524551

Aracndeos

5NPJUPQBUBTFOPUNBOUFOBT
5NPDPSQPEJWJEJEP
FNDFGBMPUSBYFBCENFO
1PSFYFNQMP BTBSBOIBT
FPTFTDPSQJFT

5NVNDPSQPDPNQSJEP EJWJEJEP
FNDBCFBFUSPODP FNVJUBTQBUBT
1PSFYFNQMP BDFOUPQFJB

321

5NVNDPSQP
EJWJEJEP

$BCFB
5SBY
"CENFO

5NBOUFOBT
5NTFJTQBUBT
"MHVOTUNBTBT

34445254441

Equinodermes

354545544444444444444444244444444444444454455441

Classificao

3444444444444444444444444444244544444444445444444445444441

3444444444444444444444444444244544444444445444444445444441

ANIMAIS
INVERTEBRADOS

Artrpodes

Crustceos

5NEF[PVNBJTQBUBT
4PNBJPSJUBSJBNFOUFBRVUJDPT
1PSFYFNQMP BMBHPTUB

$PSQPDPCFSUPDPNQMBDBTEVSBTFFTQJOIPT
1PSFYFNQMP PPVSJPEPNBS
7JWFNOPNBS

%&4"'*04 t $JODJBTEB/BUVSF[B t oBOP t 4BOUJMMBOB$POTUODJB

215

PARTE

5NDPMVOBWFSUFCSBM

34241

$BCFB
5SPODP EPRVBMQPEFNTBJS
 &YUSFNJEBEFT
 $BVEB

$PSQPEJWJEJEP

Classificao

3454442444541
3542451

Caractersticas

Classificao

3FTQJSBNQPSQVMNFT
4PWJWQBSPT
"MJNFOUBNBTTVBTDSJBTDPNMFJUF
5NBQFMFDPCFSUBEFQMP
"NBJPSJBUFSSFTUSF NBTUBNCN
FYJTUFNNBNGFSPTBRVUJDPT
FWPBEPSFT

Marsupiais1PSFYFNQMP 
PDBOHVSV
Carnvoros1PSFYFNQMP PUJHSF
Ungulados1PSFYFNQMP 
PWFBEP
Primatas1PSFYFNQMP PHPSJMB
Morcegos1PSFYFNQMP 
PNPSDFHPPSFMIVEP
Cetceos1PSFYFNQMP BCBMFJB

3FTQJSBNQPSQVMNFT
4PPWQBSPT
5NBQFMFDPCFSUBQPSFTDBNBT
"NBJPSJBUFSSFTUSF

34444244441

%&4"'*04 t $JODJBTEB/BUVSF[B t oBOP t 4BOUJMMBOB$POTUODJB

345444424445541

Rpteis

Caractersticas

3444445442444444441

Mamferos

344444444444424444444444441

Recursos para o aluno

Classificao

34444444444444444444444244444444444444444444441

216

Caractersticas

3442441

ANIMAIS
VERTEBRADOS

344444444444444444544444444424444444444444444454444444441

Serpentes. /PUNQBUBT 
SFQUBN
Lagartos. 5NRVBUSPQBUBT
DVSUBT SFQUBN
Crocodilos. 5NRVBUSPQBUBT
DVSUBT HSBOEFUBNBOIP QPTTVFN
HSBOEFTEFOUFTFWJWFNOBHVB
Tartarugas. 5NVNBDBSBQBB
HSPTTBFNVJUBTTPBRVUJDBT

PARTE

3542451 34444444244444441
344424441

6
Recursos para o aluno

3442441

3444545442444445451

/BTDFNDPNPMBSWBTBRVUJDBT
FTPGSFNmetamorfose
5NBQFMFOVB

Classificao

35251

Peixes

3444445444442444444454441

Aves

3444542444451

Classificao

Sem cauda1PSFYFNQMP 
BSPVPTBQP
Com cauda1PSFYFNQMP 
BTBMBNBOESB
3FTQJSBNQPSQVMNFT
4PPWQBSPT

Caractersticas

5NPDPSQPDPCFSUPEFQFOBT
4PUFSSFTUSFT
5NBTBTFBNBJPSJBWPB
Corredoras%FHSBOEFUBNBOIP 
DPNQBUBTNVJUPEFTFOWPMWJEBTQBSB
DPSSFS1PSFYFNQMP BBWFTUSV[
Anatdeos5NEFEPTVOJEPTQPS
VNBNFNCSBOB1PSFYFNQMP PHBOTP

Classificao

Ciconiformes%FHSBOEFUBNBOIP 
DPNQBUBTGJOBTFDPNQSJEBT1PS
FYFNQMP BDFHPOIB
Rapinas$BSOWPSBT DPNCJDP
FNGPSNBEFHBODIPFBGJBEP
1PSFYFNQMP BCVUSF
Galinceas$PSQPSFEPOEPFCJDP
DVSUP1PSFYFNQMP BHBMJOIB
Pssaros1FRVFOBTEJNFOTFT
FCJDPDVSUP1PSFYFNQMP PQBSEBM
3FTQJSBNPPYJHOJPEJTTPMWJEP
OBHVBQPSCSORVJBT
4PPWQBSPT"TTVBTDSJBTDIBNBNTF
alevinos

Caractersticas

5NPDPSQPDPCFSUPEFFTDBNBT
7JWFNOBHVB
1PTTVFNCBSCBUBOBTFEFTMPDBNTF
OBEBOEP

354525451

344444444444444444544444444424444444444444444454444444441

344444444444444444544444444424444444444444444454444444441

ANIMAIS
VERTEBRADOS

Anfbios

Caractersticas

3FTQJSBNQPSCSORVJBTBPOBTDFS
F RVBOEPBEVMUPT SFTQJSBNQPS
QVMNFTPVBUSBWTEBQFMF

Cartilaginosos0FTRVFMFUP
DPOTUJUVEPQPSDBSUJMBHFN
1PSFYFNQMP PUVCBSP

Classificao

sseos0FTRVFMFUPTTFP
1PSFYFNQMP BTBSEJOIB

%&4"'*04 t $JODJBTEB/BUVSF[B t oBOP t 4BOUJMMBOB$POTUODJB

217

PARTE

Reino das Plantas

Caractersticas

Caule

4FHVSBBQMBOUB
4VTUNBTGPMIBT
1PSFMFDJSDVMBPBMJNFOUPFBHVB
1PEFNTFS

Lenhosos%VSPTFEFNBEFJSB
Herbceos'MFYWFJTFEFDPSWFSEF

$SFTDFNOPDBVMF
1SPEV[FNBNBJPSJBEPTOVUSJFOUFT
FSFBMJ[BNBTUSPDBTHBTPTBT
4PDPOTUJUVEBT
QPS

Limbo1BSUFNBJTMBSHB
EBGPMIB

321

Folhas

"CTPSWFTVCTUODJBTOVUSJUJWBTEPTPMP

34241

218

Raiz

Pgina superior.
Pgina inferior.

Pecolo1BSUFRVFBVOF
BPDBVMF

"TQMBOUBTSFTQJSBNDPOUJOVBNFOUF
6TBNPPYJHOJPEPBSFMJCFSUBNEJYJEPEFDBSCPOP

4Pautotrficas GBCSJDBNPTOVUSJFOUFTEFRVFOFDFTTJUBN

Retiram as
substncias

Fotossntese

%&4"'*04 t $JODJBTEB/BUVSF[B t oBOP t 4BOUJMMBOB$POTUODJB

35251 3444444244444441

Nutrio

1SPEV[FNPTTFVTDPOTUJUVJOUFT

321

Respirao

4PJNWFJT

3552551 344424441

PLANTAS

"TDMVMBTQPTTVFNQBSFEFDFMVMBS

321

Constituio

35251 344444444424444444441 321 344544444444244444445441

3444444444444444444444445442444444454444444444444444441

Recursos para o aluno

%PTPMP QFMBSBJ[gua e sais mineraisRVFGPSNBNBseiva


bruta RVFTFEJWJEFQFMPTvasos condutores ou nervuras
%PBS QFMBTGPMIBTdixido de carbono

0DPSSFOBTGPMIBT
'PSNBNTFPTOVUSJFOUFT
FDPOTPNFTFPEJYJEP
EFDBSCPOP $0


/FDFTTJUBEFMV[TPMBS 
RVFDBQUBEBBUSBWT
EBDMPSPGJMB
$PNPSFTVMUBEPEFTUF
QSPDFTTPBQMBOUBMJCFSUB
PYJHOJP

PARTE

345445444244444541

Recursos para o aluno

Ptalas RVFDPOTUJUVFN
Bcorola

*OUFSWNBTGMPSFT RVFTP
PTSHPTSFQSPEVUPSFT
EBTQMBOUBT

Spalas RVFGPSNBN
o clice
Gineceu 
RVFBQBSUF
GFNJOJOB
Estames 
RVFTP
BQBSUF
NBTDVMJOB

34241

"USBWTEBpolinizao 
PTHSPTEFQMFOTP
USBOTGFSJEPTEPTFTUBNFT
EFVNBQMBOUBBUBP
HJOFDFVEFPVUSB

1PSBDPEPTJOTFDUPT
PVPVUSPTBOJNBJT
1PSBDPEPWFOUP

0TWVMPTGFDVOEBEPTUSBOTGPSNBNTF
OBTTFNFOUFTRVFDPOUNPFNCSJP
0QJTUJMPUSBOTGPSNBTFFNGSVUP RVFQSPUFHFBTTFNFOUFT

4JOUFSWNVNBQMBOUB
RVFTFQPEFSFQSPEV[JS
BUSBWTEFWBSJBEBT
FTUSVUVSBT

3442441

345424541

Assexuada

345444544444444244445445445444441

Reproduo

34444444444444444442444444444444444444441

34444444444444444442444444444444444444441

PLANTAS

Sexuada

1BSUJDJQBNEVBTQMBOUBT

Estolhos DBVMFTRVFDSFTDFN
IPSJ[POUBMNFOUF
Rizomas DBVMFTTVCUFSSOFPT
Tubrculos DBVMFT
TVCUFSSOFPTFOHSPTTBEPT

%&4"'*04 t $JODJBTEB/BUVSF[B t oBOP t 4BOUJMMBOB$POTUODJB

219

PARTE

Materiais terrestres
344445444444424444444444441

321 34241

.VJUPBCVOEBOUFT

GPSNBEBQPSVNBNJTUVSBEFHBTFT

/JUSPHOJP
0YJHOJP
%JYJEPEFDBSCPOP

&NNFOPSRVBOUJEBEF

0[POP
7BQPSEFHVB

35251

ATMOSFERA

344424441

Recursos para o aluno

BDBNBEBEFBSRVFSPEFJBB5FSSB

$POUNPPYJHOJPOFDFTTSJPQBSBBSFTQJSBPEPTTFSFTWJWPT

JNQSFTDJOEWFMQBSBBWJEB

$POTFSWBPDBMPSEB5FSSB
'JMUSBPTSBJPTTPMBSFTFQSPUFHFB5FSSB

35251

1SFDJQJUBFT

/FMBQSPEV[FNTFGFONFOPTBUNPTGSJDPT

7FOUP
5FNQFTUBEFT

35251

TroposferaDBNBEBJOGFSJPSPOEFTFEFTFOWPMWFBWJEB

GPSNBEBQPSDBNBEBT

Estratosfera/FMBFODPOUSBTFBDBNBEBEFP[POP
0VUSBTDBNBEBTNBJTFYUFSOBT

34544444444244444444451

PDPOKVOUPEFHVBTOP1MBOFUB OPTUSTFTUBEPT
0DVQBEBTVQFSGDJFUFSSFTUSF
%JGFSFODJBNTFEPJTHSVQPT

Oceanos e mares

Os lagosFYUFOTFTEFHVBSPEFBEBTQPSUFSSB
Os glaciaresNBTTBEFHVBDPOHFMBEBRVFTFNPWFMFOUBNFOUF
guas subterrneasJOGJMUSBFTEBTHVBTTVQFSGJDJBJT

3444245441

HIDROSFERA

3542451

guas continentais

Os riosDVSTPTDPOUOVPTEFHVB

$PNQSFFOEFNEBHVBEB5FSSB
"HVBFTUFNDPOUOVPNPWJNFOUP
OndasPOEVMBFTEBTVQFSGDJFEPNBSQSPWPDBEBTQFMPWFOUP
CorrentesNPWJNFOUPTEFHSBOEFTNBTTBTEFHVBRVFGMVFN
FNEFUFSNJOBEBEJSFDP
MarsTVCJEBTFEFTDJEBTEPOWFMEPNBSQSPWPDBEBTQFMBBUSBDP
FOUSFP4PM B-VBFB5FSSB

$JDMPEBHVBFOHMPCBBTNVEBOBTEFFTUBEPFEFQPTJPQFMBRVBMBHVBOB5FSSBQBTTB

220

321

LITOSFERA

$BNBEBSPDIPTBRVFGPSNBPTDPOUJOFOUFT
FPTGVOEPTNBSJOIPT

%&4"'*04 t $JODJBTEB/BUVSF[B t oBOP t 4BOUJMMBOB$POTUODJB

PARTE

$63*04*%"%&4%"4$*/$*"4/"563"*4

6
Recursos para o aluno

O maior ser vivo do Planeta


.BJPSEPRVFBCBMFJBB[VMPVEPRVFBTFRVJBHJHBOUF FTUFOEFTFQPSVNBSFBTVQFSJPSDBNQPT
EFGVUFCPMFBTVBNBJPSQBSUFFODPOUSBTFFTDPOEJEBEFCBJYPEBUFSSB
)BCJUBOB'MPSFUB/BDJPOBMEF.BMIFVS OP0SFHPO &TUBEPT6OJEPT FBJOEBRVFPTFVOPNFDJFOUGJDPTFKBArmillaria
ostoyaeDPNVNNFOUFDPOIFDJEPDPNPGVOHPEPNFM PVDPHVNFMPEPNFM EFWJEPDPSEPVSBEBEPTTFVT
DPHVNFMPT
&TUJNBTFRVFQPEFQFTBSBUUPOFMBEBTFUFNDFSDBEFBOPTEFJEBEF

O Instituto Pasteur e a acne


&TUFJOTUJUVUP GVOEBEPFN VNEPTNBJTJNQPSUBOUFTDFOUSPTSFMBDJPOBEPTDPNPFTUVEPEPTNJDSPSHBOJTNPT
FEBTEPFOBTJOGFDDJPTBT"TTJN QPSFYFNQMP VNHSVQPEFDJFOUJTUBTEFTUFDFOUSPEFDJGSPVBJOGPSNBPDPOUJEB
OPJOUFSJPSEBCBDUSJBDBVTBEPSBEBBDOF VNNJDSPSHBOJTNPRVFTFFODPOUSBDPNGSFRVODJBOBQFMF
0TSFTQPOTWFJTQFMBEFTDPCFSUBEFUFSNJOBSBNRVFBBDUJWJEBEFEFTUBCBDUSJB DPOIFDJEBDPNPPropionobacterium
acnes FTUSFMBDJPOBEBDPNBJOGMBNBPRVFTFQSPEV[RVBOEPBQBSFDFBBDOF
0JOTUJUVUPEFWFPTFVOPNFB-PVJT1BTUFVS DPOTJEFSBEPPGVOEBEPSEBNJDSPCJPMPHJB1BTUFVSEFTDPCSJV
BTCBDUSJBTSFTQPOTWFJTQFMBGFSNFOUBPEPWJOIPFEBDFSWFKB FEFTFOWPMWFVVNQSPDFTTPEFQBTUFVSJ[BP
OFDFTTSJPQBSBDPOTFSWBSPMFJUFFRVFBJOEBIPKFTFVUJMJ[B"MNEJTTP FTUVEPVEPFOBTDPNPBSBJWB 
BUVCFSDVMPTFPVBWBSPMB F HSBBTTWBDJOBTRVFEFTFOWPMWFV TBMWBSBNTFNVJUBTWJEBT

As paramcias
"TQBSBNDJBTTPQSPUP[PSJPTRVFNFEFNBU NJMNFUSPTEFDPNQSJNFOUPQPEFNPCTFSWBSTFBPMIPOV
FNBNPTUSBTEFHVB4PTFSFTVOJDFMVMBSFT NBTNVJUPDPNQMFYPT0CTFSWBOEPPTBPNJDSPTDQJP QPEFWFSTF
RVFUNNVJUBTFTUSVUVSBT1PTTVFN QPSFYFNQMP VNBFTQDJFEFCPDBRVFTFDIBNBDJUPTUPNB RVF
TFQSPMPOHBQPSVNBFTQDJFEFUVCPDIBNBEPDJUPGBSJOHFRVFDVMNJOBOVNSHPPOEFGFJUBBEJHFTUP
"MNEJTTP BTQBSBNDJBTEFTMPDBNTFHSBBTBPTTFVTDMJPT VNBFTQDJFEFQMPTNWFJTRVFQFSNJUFN
PNPWJNFOUPBFTUFTQSPUP[PSJPT

rvores e papel
"EFTGMPSFTUBPVNEPTGBDUPSFTRVFNBJTDPOUSJCVFNQBSBBVNFOUBSPBRVFDJNFOUPHMPCBM$POUVEP 
BNBEFJSBDPOUJOVBBVUJMJ[BSTFQBSBPGBCSJDPEFNWFJTFFTUSVUVSBT DPNPDPNCVTUWFMFQBSBGBCSJDBSQBQFM
5PEPTPTBOPTBCBUFNTFNJMIFTEFSWPSFTDPNFTUFQSPQTJUP QFMPRVFPTFVVTPJOUFMJHFOUFFBSFDJDMBHFN
TPDBEBWF[NBJTJNQPSUBOUFTQBSBBTBEFEP1MBOFUB
1BSBGBCSJDBSQBQFMQSFDJTPUSJUVSBSBNBEFJSBBUGJDBSFNMBTDBT%FQPJT FTNJHBMIBNTFFTUBTMBTDBTFNGJCSBT
JOEJWJEVBJTQBSBGPSNBSDPNFMBTVNBQPMQB VNBNBTTBFOUSFPBNBSFMBEPFPDBTUBOIP&TUBQPMQBQPEFVTBSTF
EJSFDUBNFOUFQBSBGBCSJDBSPCKFDUPTDPNPTBDPTEFQBQFM NBTQBSBPVUSPTGJOTQSFDJTPCSBORVFMB&TUFQSPDFTTP
EFCSBORVFBNFOUPEPQBQFMUBNCNNVJUPQPMVJEPS VNBWF[RVFTFVUJMJ[BNTVCTUODJBTRVNJDBT
1PSUVEPJTTP OFDFTTSJPSBDJPOBMJ[BSPDPOTVNPEFQBQFMFSFVUJMJ[MPTFNQSFRVFTFKBQPTTWFM PVFOUP 
EFQPTJUMPOPTDPOUFOUPSFTEFSFDJDMBHFN

%&4"'*04 t $JODJBTEB/BUVSF[B t oBOP t 4BOUJMMBOB$POTUODJB

221

PARTE

Montanhas azuis

Recursos para o aluno

'SFRVFOUFNFOUF BTHSBOEFTNPOUBOIBT WJTUBTBPMPOHF QBSFDFNB[VJT$POUVEP NFEJEBRVFOPTBQSPYJNBNPT


QPEFNPTDPNQSPWBSRVFFTUPDPCFSUBTQPSWFHFUBPFRVFTPWFSEFTFDBTUBOIBT"RVFTFEFWFFTUF
GFONFOP
/BSFBMJEBEF BSB[PEPBQBSFOUFUPNB[VMVNBFTQDJFEFDPOUBNJOBPOBUVSBM VNBWF[RVFSFTVMUB
EBOFCMJOBRVFTFGPSNBTPCSFBWFHFUBPOPTEJBTRVFOUFTFTFNWFOUP
.VJUBTQMBOUBTEFNPOUBOIBDPOUNUFSQFOPT TVCTUBODJBTRVNJDBTQSFTFOUFTFNNVJUBTQMBOUBTBSPNUJDBT
FRVFEPPPEPSBPTQJOIFJSPTFBPTBCFUPT
"PFMFWBSTFBUFNQFSBUVSB PTUFSQFOPTEBTSWPSFTFWBQPSBNTFOPBSF KVOUBNFOUFDPNPP[POPEBBUNPTGFSB 
GPSNBNVNBFTQDJFEFOFCMJOBEFUPOBMJEBEFB[VMBEB
.BTFTUFGFONFOPEFTBQBSFDFNFEJEBRVFOPTBQSPYJNBNPTEBTNPOUBOIBT QPJTOBSFBMJEBEFFTUBFTQDJF
EFOFCMJOBGPSNBEBQPSQBSUDVMBTNVJUPEJTQFSTBTF BPBQSPYJNBSNPOPT BUPOBMJEBEFB[VMNBMTFOPUB

Um mineral descoberto em Badajoz


6NHSVQPEFJOWFTUJHBEPSFTFTQBOIJTEFTDPCSJVVNNJOFSBMRVFCBQUJ[BSBNDPNPOPNFDBMEFSPOJUFFN
IPNFOBHFNBPHFMPHP4BMWBEPS$BMEFSO BVUPSEF-PTNJOFSBMFTEF&TQBB PCSBPOEFTFEFTDSFWFNUPEPT
PTNJOFSBJTDPOIFDJEPTOB1FOOTVMB*CSJDBBU
0TQSJNFJSPTFYFNQMBSFTEFDBMEFSPOJUFGPSBNFODPOUSBEPTFN OVNBNJOBEFDIVNCPEF#BEBKP[ QPS
+PT(PO[MF[ QSPGFTTPSEB6OJWFSTJEBEF$PNQMVUFOTFEF.BESJE/FTUBVOJWFSTJEBEFFTUVEPVTFBTVBFTUSVUVSB
FDPNQPTJPRVNJDBQBSBPTDMBTTJGJDBS
0TJOWFTUJHBEPSFTDPOGJSNBSBNRVFBTBNPTUSBTQFSUFODJBNBVNUJQPEFNJOFSBMEFTDPOIFDJEPBUFTTBBMUVSB
5FNDPSBWFSNFMIBEBFVNBMUPUFPSEFDIVNCPFWBOEJP

A chama e o fogo
6NBDIBNBVNFTQBPPOEFPDPSSFVNBSFBDPFOUSFPPYJHOJPEPBSFVNHTJOGMBNWFM JTUP VNB
DPNCVTUP5FNPTUFOEODJBQBSBBDSFEJUBSRVFPRVFBSEFVNDPNCVTUWFMGTTJM DPNPPDBSWPPVBNBEFJSB 
PVMRVJEP DPNPBHBTPMJOBPVPMDPPM NBTOBSFBMJEBEFTPPTTFVTWBQPSFTRVFBSEFN VNBWF[RVFTPTHBTFT
QPEFNNJTUVSBSTFOPBSTVGJDJFOUFNFOUFQBSBRVFTFQSPEV[BBDPNCVTUPQPSJTTPRVFjUFNPTEFBDFOEFSx
PGPHP RVFSEJ[FS BRVFDFSQFMPNFOPTVNBQFRVFOBQBSUFEPDPNCVTUWFMTVGJDJFOUFQBSBRVFTFQPTTBFWBQPSBS
6NBWF[RVFPWBQPSDPNFDFBBSEFS PDBMPSEBDPNCVTUPDPOUJOVBSBFWBQPSBSDBEBWF[NBJTDPNCVTUWFM 
NBOUFOEPPQSPDFTTPFNNBSDIBBURVFUPEPPDPNCVTUWFMTFKBDPOTVNJEPQPSFTTBSB[PRVFPTDPNCVTUWFJT
HBTPTPT DPNPPHTCVUBOPPVPQSPQBOP BSEFNQFSGFJUBNFOUFDPNVNBTJNQMFTGBTDB

Curiosidades sobre a gua


t "HVBVNBTVCTUODJBJOEJTQFOTWFMBUPEPTPTTFSFTWJWPT.BJTEFNFUBEFEPOPTTPDPSQPDPOTUJUVEP
QPSHVBFFTUFPDPNQPTUPRVNJDPNBJTBCVOEBOUFOPOPTTP1MBOFUB
t 2VBOEPTFFYQMPSBVNQMBOFUBEP4JTUFNB4PMBS BQSJNFJSBDPJTBRVFTFJOWFTUJHBTFFYJTUFHVB QPJTTVB
QSFTFOBBTTPDJBTFBFYJTUODJBEFWJEB
t "HVBBOJDBTVCTUODJBRVFTFFODPOUSBOB/BUVSF[BFNFTUBEPMRVJEP TMJEPFHBTPTP
t "HVBOPQSFDJTBEFBUJOHJSBTVBUFNQFSBUVSBEFFCVMJP $ QBSBQBTTBS QFMPNFOPTQBSDJBMNFOUF 
BPFTUBEPHBTPTP5PEPPDJDMPEBHVBFEBWJEBOB5FSSBCBTFJBTFOFTTBDBSBDUFSTUJDB
t "HVBEPTPDFBOPTUFNBDPSB[VM FOPBQFOBTQPSSFGMFDUJSBDPSEPDV VNBWF[RVFBTVBDPSNVJUPNBJT
FTDVSB5BNCNBHVBEFVNDPQP QVSBFMJNQB B[VM BQFTBSEFTFNQSFBEFGJOJSNPTDPNPJODPMPS
4FFODIFSNPTVNBCBOIFJSBCSBODBDPNHVBMJNQBDPNQSPWBSFNPTRVFUFNBDPSB[VMDMBSP4FOPBWFNPT
BTTJNOPDPQPQPSRVFOPFTUBNPTBWFSVNBRVBOUJEBEFTVGJDJFOUFEFTTFMRVJEP"DPSBDVNVMBTF
BPPMIBSNPTBUSBWTEFDBNBEBTDBEBWF[NBJTFTQFTTBTEFHVB
222

%&4"'*04 t $JODJBTEB/BUVSF[B t oBOP t 4BOUJMMBOB$POTUODJB

PARTE

1301045"4%&53"#"-)0

Recursos para o aluno

Relatrio sobre um ser vivo


1. Procura informao1FTRVJTBOB*OUFSOFU FNFODJDMPQEJBTFOPVUSPTMJWSPTTPCSFVNBQMBOUB VNBOJNBM
PVVNGVOHPUVBFTDPMIB
2. Selecciona e organiza a informao0SHBOJ[BBJOGPSNBPRVFFODPOUSBTUFUFOEPFNDPOUBPTTFHVJOUFT
BTQFDUPT
 t Como PVTFKB RVBMPTFVBTQFDUPFYUFSJPS*OEJDBRVBMPTFVUBNBOIP BTVBGPSNBFBTVBDPS4FOFDFTTSJP 
FOVNFSBBTTVBTQBSUFT
 t Onde vive PVTFKB FNRVFMVHBSFTTFQPEFFODPOUSBS
  /PTFNRVF[POB NBTUBNCNFNRVFUJQPEFMVHBSFT GMPSFTUBT SJPT FODPTUBTy

 t Como vive EFRVFTFBMJNFOUB BRVFNTFSWFEFBMJNFOUP FUD
 t 1PSGJN QPEFTFBDSFTDFOUBSBMHVNEBEPDVSJPTPPVEFTDSFWFSBTVBVUJMJEBEFQBSBBTQFTTPBT
3. Redige o trabalho.&TDSFWFVNQBSHSBGPTPCSFDBEBVNEPTBTQFDUPTFNDJNBBQSFTFOUBEPTFEMIF
PUUVMPEPTFSWJWPRVFFTDPMIFTUF
4. Rev e apresenta o trabalho. - F DPSSJHF B EFTDSJP F BDPNQBOIBB DPN VNB GPUPHSBGJB PV VN
EFTFOIP

Descrio de uma rvore com ajuda de imagens


1. Procura informao.1FTRVJTBJOGPSNBPTPCSFVNBEBTTFHVJOUFTSWPSFTEB1FOOTVMB*CSJDBDBSWBMIP 
GBJB B[JOIFJSB TPCSFJSP BNFOEPFJSB DBTUBOIFJSPFPMJWFJSB6UJMJ[BFODJDMPQEJBT MJWSPTFHVJBTEFDBNQPTPCSF
QMBOUBT
2. Selecciona e organiza a informao.0SHBOJ[BBJOGPSNBPRVFPCUJWFTUFFNRVBUSPCMPDPTOPQSJNFJSP 
EFTDSFWFDPNPBSWPSF UBNBOIP GPSNB
OPTFHVOEP DBSBDUFSJ[BPUSPODP PTSBNPTFBTGPMIBTOPUFSDFJSP 
DBSBDUFSJ[BBTGMPSFTFPTGSVUPTF OPRVBSUP EFTDSFWFPTFVIBCJUBU
3. Rene imagens.$BEBCMPDPEFJOGPSNBPQSFDJTBEFEFUFSNJOBEBTJNBHFOT1PEFTPCUMBTBQBSUJS
EFMJWSPT EFSFWJTUBT EB*OUFSOFUy
4. Expe o trabalho./BTBMBEFBVMB GBMBTPCSFBUVBSWPSFFYQPOEP QPSPSEFN BJOGPSNBPEFDBEB
VNEPTCMPDPTNFEJEBRVFFYQVTFSFTBJOGPSNBPEFDBEBCMPDP NPTUSBBTJNBHFOT

Mesa redonda sobre animais em risco de extino


6NBNFTBSFEPOEBQFSNJUFRVFWSJBTQFTTPBTUSPRVFNPQJOJFTTPCSFVNEFUFSNJOBEPUFNBDPOEV[JEBQPS
VNNPEFSBEPS RVFQPEFTFSPQSPGFTTPS
1. Procura informao.1SPDVSBJOGPSNBPTPCSFBMHVNEPTBOJNBJTRVFWJWFFN1PSUVHBMFRVFTFFODPOUSB
FNQFSJHPEFFYUJOP
2. Organiza a informao.*OGPSNBUFTPCSFPOEFWJWF DPNPTFBMJNFOUB RVBJTTPPTTFVTJOJNJHPT QPSRVF
TFFODPOUSBBNFBBEPFRVFNFEJEBTGPSBNUPNBEBTQBSBPQSPUFHFS"MNEJTTP QFOTBUVUBNCNFN
RVBMRVFSPVUSBNFEJEBRVFTFQPEFSJBBEPQUBS
3. Redige algumas notas. "OPUBPTEBEPTNBJTJNQPSUBOUFTFPTNBJTEJGDFJTEFSFDPSEBS
4. Participa na mesa redonda.0NPEFSBEPSJSEBOEPBQBMBWSBBDBEBVNEPTQBSUJDJQBOUFT RVBUSPPVDJODP

PRVBMGBMBS EFGPSNBCSFWF TPCSFPBOJNBMRVFFTUVEPV0NPEFSBEPSFPTSFTUBOUFTQBSUJDJQBOUFTQPEFSP
DPMPDBSMIFRVFTUFT

%&4"'*04 t $JODJBTEB/BUVSF[B t oBOP t 4BOUJMMBOB$POTUODJB

223

PARTE

Pster sobre o ciclo da gua

Recursos para o aluno

6NQTUFSVNDBSUB[FNRVFTFDPNCJOBUFYUPFJNBHFNQBSBUSBOTNJUJSJOGPSNBP
1. Procura informao e imagens.&ODPOUSBJOGPSNBPFJNBHFOTRVFEFTDSFWBNPRVFPDPSSFFNDBEBVNB
EBTFUBQBTEPDJDMPEBHVB FNSFWJTUBTWFMIBT *OUFSOFU FUD

2. Desenha o pster.&NUBNBOIPNBJTQFRVFOP FTCPBVNNPEFMPEFQTUFS QPSFYFNQMP OVNBGPMIB
.BSDBPFTQBPBQSPYJNBEPRVFDBEBJNBHFNPDVQBSFEFJYBFTQBPEFCBJYPEFDBEBVNBEFMBTQBSB
PUFYUP
3. Redige os textos.%FWFNTFSCSFWFT&TDSFWFPTFNQFEBPTEFQBQFMDPNBNFTNBMBSHVSBRVFBTGPUPT
4. Elabora o pster.6UJMJ[BVNBDBSUPMJOBHSBOEFFDPMBBTGPUPHSBGJBTFPTUFYUPTOPTFVMVHBS1PEFTEFTFOIBS
TFUBTQBSBJOEJDBSBPSEFNEPQSPDFTTP

Relatrio sobre um espao natural


&MBCPSBVNSFMBUSJPTPCSFVN1BSRVF/BDJPOBM 1BSRVF/BUVSBMPVRVBMRVFSPVUSPFTQBPOBUVSBMQSPUFHJEPQFSUP
EFPOEFWJWFT&TUFSFMBUSJPEFWFSTFSWJSQBSBRVFRVFNRVJTFSWJTJUBSFTTFFTQBPQPTTB EFGPSNBTVDJOUB UFS
JOGPSNBPTPCSFPNFTNP
Procura a informao. 6TBMJWSPT FODJDMPQEJBT *OUFSOFU GPMIFUPTFPVUSPTNFJPTEFJOGPSNBP
Organiza a informao.0TQPOUPTRVFEFWFTBCPSEBSOPSFMBUSJPTP
t %BEPTOPNF UJQPEFFTQBPQSPUFHJEPFMPDBMJ[BP
t $PNPMDIFHBS
t %FTDSJPEPSFMFWP
t 'BVOBF'MPSBDBSBDUFSTUJDBT
t 1POUPTEFJOUFSFTTFPVJUJOFSSJPTSFDPNFOEBEPT
Redige o relatrio.'B[BEJTUJOP BUSBWTEPUUVMP EFDBEBVNEPTQPOUPTBOUFSJPSFTFFTDSFWFUFYUPT
TVDJOUPTFDMBSPT
4. Apresenta o teu trabalho.1PEFTGB[FSBDPNQBOIBSPUFVUSBCBMIPDPNJNBHFOTEB[POB BTTJNDPNP
GPMIFUPTPVBSUJHPTEFJNQSFOTBRVFUJWFSFTSFVOJEP

1.
2.





3.

Redigir uma notcia


3FEJHJSVNBOPUDJBDPOTJTUFFNUSBOTNJUJSFEBSBDPOIFDFSVNGBDUPRVFPDPSSFVDPNUPEPTPTQPSNFOPSFT
QPTTWFJT1BSBPFGFJUP TFHVFFTUFTQBTTPT
1. Escolhe um acontecimento.4FMFDDJPOBVNBDPOUFDJNFOUPDJFOUGJDPRVFUFQBSFBJOUFSFTTBOUFFRVFUFOIB
JNQBDUPTPCSFBUVBGBNMJB FTDPMB CBJSSPPVMPDBMJEBEF
2. Procura informao.3FDPMIFUPEPTPTEBEPTQPTTWFJTTPCSFPBDPOUFDJNFOUPRVFFTDPMIFTUFPRVF
BDPOUFDFV POEF RVBOEPy
 1PEFTQFTRVJTBSOB*OUFSOFUPVOVNKPSOBMFRVFTUJPOBSBTQFTTPBTSFMBDJPOBEBTDPNFTTFBDPOUFDJNFOUP
DPMFHBT QSPGFTTPSFT WJ[JOIPT FUD

3. Redige a notcia.&TDPMIFVNUUVMPTVHFTUJWPRVFEFTQFSUFBBUFOPEPTMFJUPSFT%FQPJT DPNPTEBEPT
QSFWJBNFOUFSFDPMIJEPT FTDSFWFBOPUDJB3FDPSEBRVFEFWFTDPOUBSPRVFTVDFEFV RVBOEP POEF DPNP
TFQSPEV[JSBNPTGBDUPTFRVFNGPSBNPTQSPUBHPOJTUBT
4. Ilustra a notcia.1PEFTGB[FSBDPNQBOIBSPUFYUPDPNGPUPHSBGJBTPVEFTFOIPTRVFTFSFMBDJPOFNDPN
PBDPOUFDJNFOUPRVFSFMBUBTUF

224

%&4"'*04 t $JODJBTEB/BUVSF[B t oBOP t 4BOUJMMBOB$POTUODJB

PARTE

7
Apoio cientfico
t
t
t
t
t
t
t
t
t
t
t
t
t
t
t

0MJNJUFEBWJEBPTWSVT
 SFJOPMonera
0
0SFJOPProtista
0SFJOPFungi
0SFJOPPlantae
"TQMBOUBTTFNGMPSFT
"THJNOPTQSNJDBT
BEFTDPCFSUBEBTFNFOUF
"TBOHJPTQSNJDBT
GBOFSPHNJDBTDPNGSVUP
"DMBTTJGJDBP
EBTBOHJPTQSNJDBT
0SFJOPAnimalia
"TFTQPOKBTFPTDOJESJPT
0TWFSNFTFPTFRVJOPEFSNFT
0TNPMVTDPT
0TBSUSQPEFTBOJNBJT
FODPVSBBEPT
0TJOTFDUPT

 226
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t
t
t
t
t
t
t
t
t
t
t
t
t
t
t
t
t
t
t

0TWFSUFCSBEPT
 TQFJYFTFPTBOGCJPT
0
0TSQUFJTFBTBWFT
0TNBNGFSPTDVJEBSEBTDSJBT
&TQDJFTBNFBBEBT
.POPUSFNBUBT
.BSTVQJBJT
1SJNBUBT
%FTEFOUBEPT
$FUDFPT
$BOEFPT
6STPT
'FMJOPT
&MFGBOUFT
.BOBUJOT
&RVEFPT
3JOPDFSPOUFT
$JDPOJGPSNFT
'MBNJOHPT

 
 258
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t
t
t
t
t
t
t
t
t
t
t
t
t
t
t
t
t

 WFTEFSBQJOB
"
5FUSB[FT
(SPVT
"WFTUSPQJDBJT
2VFMOJPT
0GEJPT
4VSJPT
$SPDPEJMPT
"OGCJPT
1FJYFT
*OWFSUFCSBEPTFNQFSJHP
OB1FOOTVMB*CSJDB
'FUPT
(JNOPTQSNJDBT
$BDUPT
0SRVEFBT
1MBOUBTDBSOWPSBT
SWPSFTBNFBBEBT
OB1FOOTVMB*CSJDB

 294
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225

%JWFSTJEBEFEBWJEB

O limite da vida: os vrus


0TWSVTTPTFSFTFYUSFNBNFOUFTJNQMFT EFUBMGPSNBRVF
PTDJFOUJTUBTOPUNTFRVFSBDFSUF[BEFRVFNFSFBNPUUVMP
EFTFSFTWJWPT"MNEJTTP TPUPQFRVFOPTRVFTQPEFN
TFSWJTUPTDPNBBKVEBEFVNNJDSPTDQJPFMFDUSOJDP
Unidades de medida:
t .JDSNFUSP mm).
1
1 mm 5 }} mm
1000
t /BONFUSP ON

1
1 nm 5 }} mm
1000

Os vrus esto vivos?


Os seres vivos
DBSBDUFSJ[BNTFQPSTFSFN
GPSNBEPTQPSDMVMBT
e realizarem as funes
WJUBJTPTWSVTOPTP
GPSNBEPTQPSDMVMBT
FOPDPOTFHVFN
SFBMJ[BSQPSTJTBT
funes vitais, tendo de
se introduzir numa clula,
que realiza as funes
WJUBJTQPSFMFT
Alm disso, alguns vrus
QPEFN JODMVTJWBNFOUF 
cristalizar-se, como
TFGPTTFNQBSUDVMBT
minerais.

Caractersticas dos vrus


0TWSVTTPNVJUPQFRVFOPT"TTJN BQFTBSEFVNB
CBDUSJBNFEJSDFSDBEFmN VNWSVTQPEFNFEJS
VNEDJNPPVNFOPT PVTFKB DFSDBEFON

$PCFSUVSB
EFQSPUFOBT

5PEPTPTWSVTTPQBSBTJUBT*OUSPEV[FNTFFNDMVMBT 
FNDVKPJOUFSJPSTFSFQSPEV[FN2VBOEPFTUPGPSBEBT
DMVMBT TPJOFSUFTFOPNPTUSBNRVBMRVFSBDUJWJEBEF
0TWSVTTPNVJUPTJNQMFT0TNBJTTJNQMFTTP
DPOTUJUVEPTQPSVNDJEPOVDMFJDP "%/PV"3/

RVFDPOUNBJOGPSNBPHFOUJDBEPWSVT FVN
JOWMVDSPEFQSPUFOBT RVFQSPUFHFPDJEPOVDMFJDP
FQFSNJUFRVFPWSVTQFOFUSFOBTDMVMBT
"MHVOTTPMJHFJSBNFOUFNBJTDPNQMFYPTFJODMVFN 
KVOUBNFOUFDPNPDJEPOVDMFJDP FO[JNBTEFRVFQSFDJTBN
"MHVOTWSVTFTUPSPEFBEPTQPSVNBNFNCSBOB
DPNPBEBTDMVMBT0CUNOBRVBOEPTBFNEBT
DMVMBTRVFJOGFDUBSBN

Fotografia de um vrus obtida


DPNVNNJDSPTDQJPFMFDUSOJDP
QPTTWFMPCTFSWBSTVBFTUSVUVSB

Ciclo de vida dos vrus


0QSJNFJSPQBTTPOPDJDMPEFWJEBEFVNWSVTDIFHBSBUDMVMBRVFWBJJOGFDUBS
$POTFHVFPEFVNBGPSNBQBTTJWB BSSBTUBEPQFMPBS HVB TBOHVF FUD2VBOEPVNWSVT
DIFHBDMVMBRVFWBJJOGFDUBS VOFTFBQSPUFOBTEBNFNCSBOB%FTFHVJEB PNBUFSJBM
HFOUJDPEPWSVT TFKBFTUF"%/PV"3/ QFOFUSBOPJOUFSJPSEBDMVMB&TUFNBUFSJBM
DPOUNBTJOTUSVFTOFDFTTSJBTQBSBGBCSJDBSOPWPTWSVT"DMVMBJOGFDUBEBTFHVFFTUBT
JOTUSVFTFDPNFBBGBCSJDBSWSVT
1PSMUJNP PTWSVTDPNFBNBBCBOEPOBSBDMVMBFQBTTBNBJOGFDUBSPVUSBT
/PSNBMNFOUF DPNPDPOTFRVODJBEFUPEPFTUFQSPDFTTP BDMVMBNPSSFPVQFMPNFOPT
GJDBFYUSFNBNFOUFEFCJMJUBEB1PSFTUFNPUJWPRVFPDPSSFBEPFOB

7SVTEBQPMJPNJFMJUF

226

DJEP
OVDMFJDP

%&4"'*04 t $JODJBTEB/BUVSF[B t oBOP t .BUFSJBMGPUPDPQJWFM4BOUJMMBOB$POTUODJB

7SVTEB4*%" 7*)
BTBSFNEFVNB
DMVMBJOGFDUBEB BMHVOTEFMFTTP
indicados com setas)"DMVMBGJDB
EBOJGJDBEBFNPSSF

%PFOBTDBVTBEBTQPSWSVT
"EPFOBNBJTDPNVNFOUSFBTEPFOBTEFPSJHFNWJSBM
BDPOTUJQBP VNBFOGFSNJEBEFRVFQPEFTFSMJHFJSB
"HSJQFNBJTHSBWF FNCPSBTFKBNVJUBTWF[FT
DPOGVOEJEBDPNBDPOTUJQBP&OUSFBTEPFOBTIVNBOBT
EFPSJHFNWJSBMUFNPTPTBSBNQP BSVCPMB BGFCSF
IFNPSSHJDB BWBSJDFMBFBSBJWB FOUSFPVUSBT
1BSBDVSBSVNBEPFOBWJSBM OFDFTTSJPFMJNJOBS
PTWSVTRVFDBVTBNBJOGFDP0QSPCMFNB
RVFPTWSVTTFFTDPOEFNOPJOUFSJPSEBTDMVMBT 
PRVFGB[DPNRVFPTGSNBDPTOPPTBMDBODFN
GBDJMNFOUF
)PKFFNEJB FYJTUFNQPVDPTNFEJDBNFOUPTSFBMNFOUF
FGJDB[FTDPOUSBPTWSVT$PNPUBM RVBOEPBMHVNUFN
VNBEPFOBEFPSJHFNWJSBMBMJWJBNTFPTTJOUPNBT DPNP
BGFCSF

Vrus bola
$BVTBBGFCSF
IFNPSSHJDB 
VNBEPFOB
FYUSFNBNFOUF
MFUBM

"NFMIPSBSNBDPOUSBPTWSVTBWBDJOBP RVFDPOTJTUF
FNJOPDVMBSFNQFTTPBTTBVEWFJTPWSVTJOBDUJWP
PVBMHVNGSBHNFOUPEPWSVT%FTUFNPEP BTEFGFTBT
EPPSHBOJTNP PTJTUFNBJNVOJUSJP
SFDPOIFDFNOPF
OPDBTPEFVNBJOGFDPSFBM PWSVTTFSSBQJEBNFOUF
EFUFDUBEPFFMJNJOBEP

A SIDA
Esta doena foi descrita
OPJODJPEBEDBEBEF
FDBVTBEBQPSVNWSVT
DPOIFDJEPDPNP7*) WSVT
da imunodeficincia humana).
Quando infecta um indivduo,
P7*)QPEFGJDBSMBUFOUF
durante anos at se tornar
activo e desencadear a doena.
Ataca as clulas do sistema
imunitrio, o que faz com
que o organismo fique
JOEFGFTPQFSBOUFPVUSBT
infeces.

OS PRIES
2VBOEP4UBOMFZ1SVTJOFSQSPQT FN RVF
FYJTUJBVNUJQPEFEPFOBTDPOUBHJPTBTUSBOTNJUJEBT
QPSQSPUFOBT GPSBNQPVDPTPTDJFOUJTUBTRVFOFMF
BDSFEJUBSBN1SVTJOFSCBQUJ[PVFTTBTQSPUFOBTDPN
POPNFEFQSJFT
)PKFFNEJB BQFTBSEFOPTFTBCFSFYBDUBNFOUF
DPNPGVODJPOBN BDFJUBTFRVF DPNFGFJUP PTQSJFT
TPDBQB[FTEFDBVTBSEPFOBT4PJODMVTJWBNFOUF
NBJTTJNQMFTEPRVFPTWSVTF EFBMHVNBGPSNB 
FTUBTQSPUFOBTJOGFDDJPTBTMFWBNNPEJGJDBP
EFPVUSBTQSPUFOBTEPPSHBOJTNPFDBVTBNHSBWFT
doenas no crebro.
6NBEBTEPFOBTDBVTBEBTQFMPTQSJFTOPTFS
IVNBOPBEPFOBEF$SFVU[GFMEU+BLPC/BTPWFMIBT
causa a tremedeira e, no gado bovino, a doena
EBTWBDBTMPVDBT RVF BQBSFOUFNFOUF QPEFTFS
USBOTNJUJEBTQFTTPBTBUSBWTEPDPOTVNPEFWTDFSBT
FEFPVUSPTQSPEVUPTQSPWFOJFOUFTEFBOJNBJTEPFOUFT

*ODJOFSBPEFBOJNBJTDPNTVTQFJUBEFEPFOBEBTWBDBTMPVDBT

%&4"'*04 t $JODJBTEB/BUVSF[B t oBOP t .BUFSJBMGPUPDPQJWFM4BOUJMMBOB$POTUODJB

227

O reino Monera:
as bactrias
#BDUSJBTOBQPOUBEFVNB
agulha. 'PUPHSBGJBPCUJEBDPN
VNNJDSPTDQJPFMFDUSOJDP

"TCBDUSJBTGPSBNPTQSJNFJSPTTFSFTWJWPTRVFQPWPBSBN
B5FSSB"MNEJTTP BPMPOHPEBNBJPSQBSUFEBIJTUSJB
EPOPTTPQMBOFUB BTCBDUSJBTGPSBNPTTFVTOJDPTIBCJUBOUFT

Caractersticas das bactrias


0SFJOP.POFSBGPSNBEPFYDMVTJWBNFOUFQPSCBDUSJBT 
PTTFSFTWJWPTNBJTTJNQMFTRVFFYJTUFN

1PEFNNFEJSDFSDBEFmN BQFTBSEFTFUFSFN
PCTFSWBEPBMHVNBTjHJHBOUFTx RVFSPOEBNVNNJMNFUSP

&NGVOPEPUJQPEFOVUSJP FYJTUFNCBDUSJBT
IFUFSPUSGJDBTFBVUPUSGJDBT%FOUSPEBTBVUPUSGJDBT 
NVJUBTTPGPUPTTJOUUJDBT EBEPRVFGBCSJDBNNBUSJB
PSHOJDBVUJMJ[BOEPBFOFSHJBEBMV[TPMBS DPNPBTQMBOUBT
1PSTVBWF[ PVUSBTVUJMJ[BNBFOFSHJBEFSFBDFTRVNJDBT
OBTRVBJTJOUFSWNTVCTUODJBTJOPSHOJDBTRVFFTUP
QSFTFOUFTOBTSPDIBT"FTUBTCBDUSJBTETFPOPNF
EFRVJNJPTTJOUUJDBT

"TVBGPSNBWBSJBEB"NBJPSJBQPEFUFSBGPSNB
EFCBTUPOFUF CBDJMPT
FTGFSB DPDPT
WSHVMB WJCSJFT

PVPOEVMBEB FTQJSJMPT
NBTQPEFNUBNCNBEPQUBS
PVUSBTGPSNBTPVTFSFNJSSFHVMBSFT

&YJTUFNBRVFMBTRVFQSFDJTBNEFPYJHOJPQBSBSFTQJSBS
0VUSBT QPSPVUSPMBEP OPQSFDJTBNFPPYJHOJPQPEF 
JODMVTJWBNFOUF TFSOPDJWPQBSBFMBTDPNPUBM WJWFNFN
MPDBJTPOEFPBSOPDIFHB DPNPPGVOEPEPTQOUBOPT

"TCBDUSJBTQPEFNTFSEFGJOJEBTDPNPTFSFTVOJDFMVMBSFT
QSPDBSJPUBT PVTFKB TFSFTWJWPTGPSNBEPTQPSVNBOJDB
DMVMBTFNODMFP

"TCBDUSJBTOPQPEFN
TFSWJTUBT NBTQPEFN
ser cultivadas em
QMBDBTOPMBCPSBUSJP
"GPSNBNDPMOJBT 
PVTFKB EFQTJUPT
de milhares de bactrias,
RVFQPEFNTFSWJTUBT
a olho nu.

Bacilos

Cocos

&TQJSJMPT

Vibries

ESTRUTURA DE UMA BACTRIA


1. Regio nuclear.
a zona na qual se concentra
o material gentico da
CBDUSJB PVTFKB PTFV
"%/ RVFGPSNBVNBOFM
/PQPTTVJVNBNFNCSBOB
RVFPTFQBSFEPDJUPQMBTNB
2. Membrana celular.
TFNFMIBOUFEB
membrana das clulas
FVDBSJUJDBT BQFTBSEFOP
QPTTVJSDPMFTUFSPM
3. Parede bacteriana.
GPSNBEBQPS
QPMJTTBDBSEFPTCBTUBOUF
DPNQMFYPT$POGFSF
QSPUFDPCBDUSJB

228


3

4. Citoplasma.
/FMFPDPSSFNUPEBT
as reaces qumicas
OFDFTTSJBTQBSBNBOUFS
viva a bactria.

%&4"'*04 t $JODJBTEB/BUVSF[B t oBOP t .BUFSJBMGPUPDPQJWFM4BOUJMMBOB$POTUODJB

5. Ribossoma.
4PNBJTQFRVFOPTEPRVF
os das clulas eucariotas e, tal
como elas, encarregam-se do
GBCSJDPEFUPEBTBTQSPUFOBT

$MBTTJGJDBPEBTCBDUSJBT
"DMBTTJGJDBPEBTCBDUSJBTEJGDJMEBEPRVFPTFVBTQFDUPBPNJDSPTDQJPOPTVGJDJFOUF
QBSBFTUBCFMFDFSVNBDBSBDUFSJ[BPOFDFTTSJPFTUVEBSBTVBDPNQPTJPRVNJDB 
NPEPEFWJEB NBUFSJBMHFOUJDP FUD"QBSUJSEFTUFTBTQFDUPT EJTUJOHVJNPTEPJTUJQPT
QSJODJQBJTEFCBDUSJBTBTBSRVFPCBDUSJBTFBTFVCBDUSJBT
Arqueobactrias

O ser vivo que os cientistas


DPOIFDFNNFMIPSOP
o ser humano mas uma
bactria. a Escherichia
coli que vive no nosso
intestino. Foi utilizada
num grande nmero de
investigaes cientficas.

&TUFOPNFTJHOJGJDBjCBDUSJBTBOUJHBTx QFOTBTFRVF
TFKBNQBSFDJEBTDPNBTQSJNFJSBTRVFBQBSFDFSBN
OB5FSSB&TUPQSFTFOUFTFNUPEPPUJQPEFBNCJFOUFT
JOTQJUPT DPNPHVBTBMHBEB OBTDFOUFTEFHVB
FNFCVMJP BNCJFOUFTSJDPTFNDJEPTVMGSJDPPVMPDBJT
TFNPYJHOJP OPTRVBJTQSPEV[JEPHTNFUBOP
"SRVFPCBDUSJBQSPEVUPSBEFNFUBOP

Eubactrias
/FTUFHSVQPJODMVJTFBNBJPSJBEBTCBDUSJBT&TUP
QSFTFOUFTFNUPEPPUJQPEFNFJPTOPTPMP OPBS OBHVB
F JODMVTJWBNFOUF OPJOUFSJPSEFPVUSPTTFSFTWJWPT QPS
vezes, colaborando com estes e, outras, causando-lhes
doenas.
6NHSVQPEFFTQFDJBMJOUFSFTTFEFOUSPEBTFVCBDUSJBT
TPBTDJBOPCBDUSJBT5SBUBTFEFCBDUSJBTGPUPTTJOUUJDBT 
RVFTPSFTQPOTWFJTQFMBQSPEVPEFHSBOEFQBSUFEP
oxignio da nossa atmosfera.

ESTROMATLITOS

Cianobactrias

AS BACTRIAS: HERIS OU VILES?


"QFTUFOFHSB USBOTNJUJEB
QFMBCBDUSJBYersinia pestis,
causou grandes estragos
EVSBOUFB*EBEF.EJB

Vivem no nosso
JOUFTUJOPFBKVEBNOPT
a formar as fezes
FQSPEV[FNWJUBNJOBT

Atravs de tcnicas
de engenharia gentica
QSPEV[FNNFEJDBNFOUPT 
como a insulina.

"TCBDUSJBTEFDPNQFN
os restos de seres vivos,
que voltam a ser
BQSPWFJUBEPT

Transformam o leite
em iogurte e o vinho
em vinagre.

Transformam restos
EFTFSFTWJWPTFNQFUSMFP
e gs natural.

Em alguns locais,
as circunstncias
GBWPSFDFNFTQFDJBMNFOUF
o crescimento das
CBDUSJBT1PSFYFNQMP 
FNBMHVNBTDPTUBTQPVDP
QSPGVOEBT GPSNBNTF
FTUSPNBUMJUPT RVFTP
NPOUDVMPTQSPEV[JEPT
QFMBBDUJWJEBEFEFVN
HSVQPEFFVCBDUSJBT 
as cianobactrias.
Acredita-se que estes
FTUSPNBUMJUPTBCVOEBWBN
OB5FSSBQSJNJUJWB4FSJBN
o equivalente a recifes,
mas de bactrias em vez
de corais.

%&4"'*04 t $JODJBTEB/BUVSF[B t oBOP t .BUFSJBMGPUPDPQJWFM4BOUJMMBOB$POTUODJB

229

O reino ProtistaQSPUP[PSJPT
e algas
0SFJOP1SPUJTUBNVJUPWBSJBEP5NFNDPNVNPGBDUP
EFTFSFNFVDBSJPUBTFOPGPSNBSFNUFDJEPT"NBJPSJB
GPSNBEBQPSVNBOJDBDMVMBNBT OFTUFSFJOP QPEFNPT
UBNCNFODPOUSBSBMHBTDPNNBJTEFNFUSPT

Inicialmente,
PTQSPUP[PSJPT
classificaram-se dentro
do reino Animalia e as
algas dentro do reino
Plantae)PKFFNEJB 
aceita-se que existem
NVJUPTHSVQPTEJGFSFOUFT
EFBMHBTFEFQSPUP[PSJPT
FRVFOPNBOUNVNB
SFMBPFTQFDJBMOFNDPN
os animais nem com
BTQMBOUBT

$BSBDUFSTUJDBTEPTQSPUJTUBT
0SFJOP1SPUJTUBVNBFTQDJFEFjNBOUBEFSFUBMIPTx&OHMPCBHSVQPTEFTFSFTWJWPTUP
EJGFSFOUFTFOUSFTJRVFNVJUPTEFMFTQPEFSJBNDPOTUJUVJS QPSTVBWF[ VNSFJOP
5SBEJDJPOBMNFOUF PTQSPUJTUBTEJWJEJSBNTFFNBMHBTFQSPUP[PSJPT0TQSPUP[PSJPTTP
PTQSPUJTUBTIFUFSPUSGJDPTFBTBMHBTTPPTBVUPUSGJDPT%FOUSPEBTBMHBT UFNPT
BTVOJDFMVMBSFTFBTQMVSJDFMVMBSFT
PROTOZORIOS
4PUPEPTVOJDFMVMBSFT
IFUFSPUSGJDPT"MHVOTEFMFT
TPQSFEBEPSFTRVFTF
alimentam de bactrias
PVEFPVUSPTQSPUJTUBT
0VUSPT QPSTVBWF[ TP
QBSBTJUBT.VJUPTEFMFT
QPEFNNPWFSTFMJWSFNFOUF
QBSBQSPDVSBSBMJNFOUP

Flagelados
$BSBDUFSJ[BNTFQPS
BQSFTFOUBSGMBHFMPT 
VOTQSPMPOHBNFOUPT
DPNQSJEPTFGJOPT DPNPT
quais se deslocam. Alguns
TPQBSBTJUBT DPNPP
USJQBOPTTPNB DBVTBEB
doena do sono.

Rizpodes
Tambm conhecidos como
BNFCBT5NBQSPQSJFEBEF
de deformar a sua
membrana e modificar
a sua forma. Criam, assim,
VOTQSPMPOHBNFOUPT 
DIBNBEPTQTFVEQPEFT 
com os quais se deslocam.

Trypanosoma

"NFCB

Esporozorios
/PUNPSHBOJUPTQBSBTF
EFTMPDBSFN5PEPTFMFTTP
QBSBTJUBT DPNPPTNFNCSPT
do gnero Plasmodium,
causa da malria.

Radiolrios
"JOEBRVFGBBNQBSUF
EPTSJ[QPEFT NFSFDFN
VNBNFOPQBSUF
$BSBDUFSJ[BNTFQPSGBCSJDBS
um esqueleto de slica com
formas muito variadas.

Plasmodium.

&TRVFMFUPTEFSBEJPMSJPT

Ciliados
&TUPDPCFSUPTEFDMJPT 
VOTQSPMPOHBNFOUPT
QFRVFOPT DPNPTRVBJT
TFEFTMPDBN4PQSFEBEPSFT
&OUSFFMFTFTUPBTWPSUJDFMBT
FBTQBSBNDJBT

7PSUJDFMBT

1BSBNDJB

230

%&4"'*04 t $JODJBTEB/BUVSF[B t oBOP t .BUFSJBMGPUPDPQJWFM4BOUJMMBOB$POTUODJB

ALGAS
A sua caracterstica comum
RVFTPBVUPUSGJDBT
fotossintticas e, na sua
maioria, aquticas.
/PQPTTVFNUFDJEPT
diferenciados.
As algas unicelulares
conseguem flutuar
livremente e formam
PGJUPQMODUPO EPRVBMTF
BMJNFOUBNPTQSPUP[PSJPT
e muitos animais aquticos.
"TBMHBTQMVSJDFMVMBSFT
fixam-se, normalmente,
BPGVOEP"QFTBS
EFFYJTUJSFNNVJUPTUJQPT
de algas diferentes, iremos
analisar algumas das mais
interessantes.
Diatomceas
4PBMHBTVOJDFMVMBSFTRVF
FTUPGFDIBEBTOVNBFTQDJF
EFFTUPKPRVFFMBTQSQSJBT
QSPEV[FNDPNTMJDB7JWFN
na gua doce ou salgada
e, quando morrem, os seus
esqueletos acumulam-se
OPGVOEPEPNBS QPEFOEP
formar camadas com muitos
NFUSPTEFFTQFTTVSB

Rodfitas
Inclui algas unicelulares
FQMVSJDFMVMBSFT1BSBSFBMJ[BS
a fotossntese, tm clorofila
FEJWFSTPTQJHNFOUPTRVF
lhes conferem uma cor
avermelhada e, como tal,
TPDPOIFDJEBTDPNPBMHBT
vermelhas.

Clorfitas
4PBTBMHBTWFSEFT7JWFN
em gua doce e salgada
e at sobre as rochas
ou a casca das rvores.
.VJUBTTPVOJDFMVMBSFT 
BJOEBRVFQPSWF[FTGPSNFN
associaes de clulas
DIBNBEBTDPMOJBT DPNP
a Volvox.

Volvox.
"MHBWFSNFMIB

Feofitas
Tambm chamadas algas
DBTUBOIBT4PUPEBT
QMVSJDFMVMBSFTFPTTFVTUBMPT
chegam a medir mais de
NFNBMHVNBTFTQDJFT 
como os sargaos ou os
kelps2VBTFUPEBTFMBTTP
marinhas.

tambm muito frequente


formarem filamentos que,
QPSWF[FT DPOTUJUVFN
meadas visveis a olho nu,
como a Spirogyra.

DAS ALGAS AOS PRMIOS


NOBEL
"MGSFE/PCFMUSBCBMIBWB
DPNPTFVQBJOVNBGCSJDB
EFFYQMPTJWPTOB4VDJB
O ingrediente fundamental
era a nitroglicerina,
extremamente instvel
FQFSJHPTB/PCFMEFTDPCSJV
que, ao misturar terra de
diatomceas
e nitroglicerina, formava
VNBNJTUVSBRVFT
FYQMPEJBQPSNFJPEFVN
detonador e, como tal, era
NVJUPTFHVSB/BTDJB BTTJN 
a dinamite, descoberta
FTUBRVFEFVB/PCFM
uma fortuna gigantesca.
Quando morreu, deixou
em testamento uma grande
QBSUFEBTVBGPSUVOB
GVOEBPRVFUFN
o seu nome e que atribui
PTQSNJPT/PCFMTQFTTPBT
RVFNBJTGJ[FSBNQFMB
QB[FQFMBFWPMVP
EB)VNBOJEBEF

Spirogyra.

Formam ainda talos de


diferentes formas e tamanhos.

$QTVMBEFEJBUPNDFB

Fucus.

Caulerpa.

BIOGRAFIA

Anthony van Leeuwenhoek



&TUFDPNFSDJBOUFEFUFDJEPTIPMBOET RVFOP
QPTTVBGPSNBPDJFOUGJDB UJOIBVNBDVSJPTBQBJYP
talhava umas lentes diminutas que aumentavam o tamanho
BUWF[FT0CTFSWBWB FOUP DPNFMBTUVEPBRVJMPRVF
ficava ao seu alcance.
%FTUFNPEP GPJBQSJNFJSBQFTTPBRVFPCTFSWPVCBDUSJBT
FQSPUP[PSJPT BRVFDIBNPVjBOJNMDVMPTx
Foi nomeado membro da Royal Society de Londres,
BTPDJFEBEFDJFOUGJDBNBJTQSFTUJHJBEBEBQPDB DPNP
SFDPOIFDJNFOUPQFMBTTVBTJNQPSUBOUFTEFTDPCFSUBT

-FOUF

"HVMIBQBSB
DPMPDBS
BBNPTUSB

Retrato de Leeuwenhoek
e modelo de um dos
TFVTNJDSPTDQJPT

%&4"'*04 t $JODJBTEB/BUVSF[B t oBOP t .BUFSJBMGPUPDPQJWFM4BOUJMMBOB$POTUODJB

231

O reino Fungi
4FQFOTBSNPTRVFVNGVOHPVNDPHVNFMPQPSRVF
FTUBNPTBWFSBQFOBTBQPOUBEPJDFCFSHVF6NGVOHPQPEF
PDVQBSDFOUFOBTEFNFUSPTRVBESBEPT BQFTBSEFTWFSNPT
PDPHVNFMP

Caractersticas dos fungos


0TGVOHPTTPTFSFTFVDBSJPUBTIFUFSPUSGJDPTRVFQPEFN
TFSVOJDFMVMBSFTPVQMVSJDFMVMBSFT"QSFTFOUBNUBNCN
PVUSBTDBSBDUFSTUJDBTRVFPTEFGJOFN
t 7JWFNTPCSFNBUSJBPSHOJDB FNTPMPTSJDPTFNINVT 
PVDPNPQBSBTJUBTEFQMBOUBTFBOJNBJT
t "TVBEJHFTUPFYUFSOB/PQPEFNJOHFSJSGSBHNFOUPT
EFBMJNFOUP DPNPUBM MJCFSUBNQBSBPFYUFSJPSFO[JNBT
RVFEFDPNQFNBNBUSJBPSHOJDB BCTPSWFOEPPT
OVUSJFOUFTTJNQMFTRVFTFQSPEV[FN
t "NBJPSJBTPTTTFJT PVTFKB NBOUNTFGJYPT
t /PTQMVSJDFMVMBSFT QPEFNFYJTUJSDMVMBTNVJUPHSBOEFT
RVFTFEFTJHOBNIJGBT0DPOKVOUPEFIJGBTRVFGPSNB
PGVOHPDIBNBTFNJDMJP

FECHANDO O CICLO
Os fungos tm uma
GVOPNVJUPJNQPSUBOUF
OB/BUVSF[BEFDPNQFN
totalmente a matria
PSHOJDBQPSFYFNQMP 
a madeira ou as folhas
secas. Deste modo,
SFDVQFSBNFMFNFOUPT
JNQPSUBOUFT DPNP
PGTGPSP PB[PUP
ou outros, que ficam
EJTQPOWFJTQBSBTFSFN
DBQUBEPTQFMBTQMBOUBT
e voltarem ao incio
do seu ciclo.

t .VJUPTGVOHPTQMVSJDFMVMBSFTQSPEV[FNDPHVNFMPT
RVFTFSWFNQBSBBSFQSPEVPEPGVOHP
t 3FQSPEV[FNTFNFEJBOUFFTQPSPTRVFTPDMVMBT
SPEFBEBTEFVNBDPCFSUVSBRVFQPEFSPEBSPSJHFN
BVNOPWPGVOHP TFFODPOUSBSFNBTDPOEJFT
BEFRVBEBT
"DMBTTJGJDBPEPTGVOHPTCBTUBOUFDPNQMFYB
&NHSBOEFNFEJEB QPEFNPTEJTUJOHVJSFOUSFBTMFWFEVSBT 
RVFTPGVOHPTVOJDFMVMBSFT PTCPMPSFT RVFTPGVOHPT
GJMBNFOUPTPT FPTGVOHPTQSPEVUPSFTEFDPHVNFMPT RVF 
QPSTVBWF[ TFEJWJEFNFNCBTJEJPNJDFUPTFBTDPNJDFUPT

LEVEDURAS
4PGVOHPTVOJDFMVMBSFT
e, como tal, de tamanho
NJDSPTDQJDP(FSBMNFOUF 
tm uma forma ovalada
FSFQSPEV[FNTF
BTTFYVBEBNFOUFQPS
HFNVMBP
Vivem sobre matria
PSHOJDBPVDPNPQBSBTJUBT
de outros seres vivos,
inclusive do ser humano.
As leveduras do gnero
SaccharomycesTPVUJMJ[BEBT

Saccharomyces.

Candida albicans.

QBSBBQSPEVPEFCFCJEBT
BMDPMJDBT DPNPPWJOIP
FBDFSWFKB FQBSB
BGFSNFOUBPEBNBTTB
EPQP

A levedura
Candida albicans
VNQBSBTJUBFQSPEV[
FOGFSNJEBEFT DBOEJEBTF

no ser humano.

.VJUPT DPNPPCPMPSEP
QP TPQSFKVEJDJBJTQPJT
estragam os alimentos.
0VUSPT FNDPOUSBQBSUJEB 
como os Penicillium TP
NVJUPUFJT QPJTQSPEV[FN
BOUJCJUJDPT BQFOJDJMJOB

e conferem sabor a alguns
RVFJKPT

PenicilliumWJTUPBPNJDSPTDQJP

BOLORES
Com este nome,
referimo-nos a diversos
fungos filamentosos
que crescem sobre
a matria orgnica
FBEFDPNQFN
"PMIPOV TPWJTUPTDPNP
massas de diversas cores
DPNBTQFDUPEFBMHPEP

232

%&4"'*04 t $JODJBTEB/BUVSF[B t oBOP t .BUFSJBMGPUPDPQJWFM4BOUJMMBOB$POTUODJB

BASIDIOMICETES
Com este nome
denominam-se os fungos
RVFQSPEV[FNPTDPHVNFMPT
que todos conhecemos,
PTDPHVNFMPTjEFDIBQVx
/BNBJPSJBEPTDBTPT TPC
PDIBQVFYJTUFNMBNFMBT
onde se formam os
FTQPSPT&TUFTFTQPSPT
recebem o nome de
CBTJEJTQPSPTFTVSHFNFN
HSVQPTEFRVBUSPBQBSUJS
de uma grande clula
chamada basdeo.
Em alguns deles, como no
caso dos boletos, os
FTQPSPTOPTFGPSNBNFN
lamelas, mas sim em tubos.

DIBQV

MBNFMBT DPOUN

LQUENES: ENTRE DOIS


REINOS

PTFTQPSPT

#BTJEJTQPSPT
BOFM
Q
WPMWB

NJDMJP IJGBT

#BTEFP

&TRVFNBEFVNDPHVNFMPEPHOFSPAmanita

.VJUPTEFMFTWJWFNTPCSF
PTPMP QPSNPVUSPT 
DPNPPTGVOHPTQPMQPSPT 
crescem sobre as rvores
FQPEFNDBVTBS
enfermidades.

1PSJTTP OPTFEFWFDPNFS
cogumelos selvagens, a
OPTFSRVFUFOIBNTJEP
DPMIJEPTQPSVNQFSJUP
Por outro lado, h fungos
RVFTPDPNFTUWFJTFNVJUP
BQSFDJBEPT DPNPPDPHVNFMP
do cardo ou o cantarelo.

0TMRVFOFTJODSVTUBOUFT
BEFSFNGPSUFNFOUFBP
TVCTUSBUP

'VOHPQPMQPSP
Boletus granulatus.

/PVUSPTDBTPT QSPEV[FNTF
dentro do cogumelo, como
nas estrelas-de-terra.

0TMRVFOFTTPTFSFT
WJWPTFTQFDJBJT$BEB
lquen , na realidade,
PTPNBUSJPEFEPJTTFSFT
vivos: um fungo e uma
alga que vivem em
simbiose. A alga realiza
BGPUPTTOUFTFFQSPEV[
os nutrientes; o fungo
QSPQPSDJPOBBQSPUFDP
e um ambiente adequado
QBSBBBMHB%FTUFNPEP 
BNCPTTPCFOFGJDJBEPT 
QPEFOEPWJWFSFNTUJPT
adversos, como numa
QFESBOVB

Entre os basidiomicetes
existem fungos com
DPHVNFMPTRVFTP
venenosos, inclusive mortais,
como a Amanita phalloides
ou amanita-dos-csares,
ou ainda mata-bois.

$BOUBSFMPT

6NUJQPFTQFDJBMEFDPHVNFMP
a trufa, que cresce debaixo
da terra e muito saboroso.

0TGPMIPTPTTPDPNP
MNJOBTRVFBEFSFNBP
TVCTUSBUPBUSBWTEFQBSUFT
FTQFDGJDBT
&TUSFMBEFUFSSB

Amanita phalloides.

5SVGBT

Peziza.

Morchella.

ASCOMICETES
Os ascomicetes tambm
formam cogumelos, embora,
OFTUFDBTP PTFTQPSPTOP
TFQSPEV[BNFNMBNFMBT 
NBTTJNFNTVQFSGDJFTMJTBT 
frequentemente, com cores
brilhantes, como nos fungos
do gnero Peziza. Em alguns,
como no gnero Morchella,
FYJTUFVNQ

0TMRVFOFTGSVUJDVMPTPT
QBSFDFNQFRVFOPTBSCVTUPT

%&4"'*04 t $JODJBTEB/BUVSF[B t oBOP t .BUFSJBMGPUPDPQJWFM4BOUJMMBOB$POTUODJB

233

O reino Plantae
"TQMBOUBTUJWFSBNPSJHFN DFSUBNFOUF BQBSUJSEFVNHSVQP
EFBMHBTDMPSGJUBT$POTFHVJSBNQBTTBSEBHVBQBSBBUFSSB
FUPSOBSBNQPTTWFMPEFTFOWPMWJNFOUPEPTBOJNBJTUFSSFTUSFT

OS CLOROPLASTOS:
FBRICAS
MICROSCPICAS
A fotossntese realiza-se
FNPSHBOFMPTNJDSPTDQJDPT
que se encontram no
interior das clulas
WFHFUBJT PTDMPSPQMBTUPT
0TDMPSPQMBTUPTDPOUN
DMPSPGJMB FPVPVUSPT
QJHNFOUPT
RVFMIFT
confere a cor verde. Por
TVBWF[ FMFTEPUBMDPS
QMBOUB

'PMIB
$MVMBDPN
DMPSPQMBTUPT
5FDJEP
WFHFUBM

$BSBDUFSTUJDBTEBTQMBOUBT
"TQMBOUBTTPTFSFTWJWPTFVDBSJPUBT QMVSJDFMVMBSFT DPNUFDJEPTEJGFSFODJBEPTFDPN
OVUSJPBVUPUSGJDBGPUPTTJOUUJDB"HSBOEFNBJPSJBWJWFOBUFSSBFTPJODBQB[FTEFTF
EFTMPDBSFN
0DPSQPEBTQMBOUBTGPSNBEPQFMBSBJ[ QFMPDBVMFFQFMBTGPMIBT

/BNBJPSJB BTGPMIBT
EBTQMBOUBTTPWFSEFT
/FMBT BTQMBOUBT
SFBMJ[BNBGPUPTTOUFTF 
BDIBWFEBTVBOVUSJP

0DBVMFTVTUFOUBBT
GPMIBTFBGBTUBBTEP
TPMP FYQPOEPBT
MV[EPTPM/PTFV
JOUFSJPSFYJTUFNUFDJEPT
DPOEVUPSFTRVFMJHBN
BTGPMIBTSBJ[

"MHVNBTQMBOUBT
BQSFTFOUBNGMPSFTPV
GSVUPTJNQPSUBOUFTQBSB
BTVBSFQSPEVP

"SBJ[GJYBBQMBOUBBP
TVCTUSBUPFQFSNJUFMIF
DBQUBSBHVBFPTTBJT
NJOFSBJTEPTPMP

/VUSJPEBTQMBOUBT
$MPSPQMBTUP

5JMBDJEFT

-PDBMJ[BPEPTDMPSPQMBTUPT
OVNBQMBOUB

"TQMBOUBTGBCSJDBNPTFVBMJNFOUPBQBSUJSEFNBUSJBJOPSHOJDBVUJMJ[BOEPBMV[TPMBS
DPNPGPOUFEFFOFSHJB5BMQSPDFTTPSFDFCFPOPNFEFGPUPTTOUFTF
1BSBSFBMJ[BSBGPUPTTOUFTF BTQMBOUBTQSFDJTBNEFEJYJEP
EFDBSCPOP HVBFTBJTNJOFSBJT&TUFQSPDFTTPFYJHF
BVUJMJ[BPEFNVJUBFOFSHJB
"FOFSHJBPCUJEBBQBSUJSEBMV[EPTPMRVFDBQUBEB
HSBBTDMPSPGJMB BNPMDVMBRVFMIFTDPOGFSFBDPSWFSEF
"HVBFPTTBJTNJOFSBJTTPPCUJEPTBUSBWTEBSBJ[
&TUBUFNQFRVFOPTQMPTRVFBCTPSWFNBHVBEPTPMPF
PTTBJTNJOFSBJTEJTTPMWJEPTOFMB
0EJYJEPEFDBSCPOPQFOFUSBOBTGPMIBTBUSBWTEFVOT
PSJGDJPTNJDSPTDQJDPT PTFTUPNBT RVFBCSFNFGFDIBN
FNGVOPEBTOFDFTTJEBEFTEBQMBOUB
0TQSPEVUPTGBCSJDBEPTQFMBTGPMIBTBUSBWTEB
GPUPTTOUFTFEJTUSJCVFNTFQFMBTSFTUBOUFTQBSUFTEB
QMBOUBQBSBBTVBOVUSJP

234

%&4"'*04 t $JODJBTEB/BUVSF[B t oBOP t .BUFSJBMGPUPDPQJWFM4BOUJMMBOB$POTUODJB

'PUPHSBGJBEFVNFTUPNB TFUB

PCTFSWBEPDPNPNJDSPTDQJP

$MBTTJGJDBPEBTQMBOUBT
1BSBDMBTTJGJDBSBTQMBOUBT UFNTFFNDPOUBBQSFTFOBEFUFDJEPTDPOEVUPSFT
FODBSSFHBEPTEFEJTUSJCVJSQFMBQMBOUBBHVB PTTBJTNJOFSBJTFBTTVCTUODJBTPSHOJDBT
QSPEV[JEBT
BQSFTFOBEFGMPSFT TFNFOUFTFGSVUPT
O REINO DAS PLANTAS

/PBQSFTFOUBN
tecidos condutores

"QSFTFOUBNUFDJEPT
condutores

#SJGJUBT
NVTHPTFIFQUJDBT

$PSNGJUBT

Em termos clssicos,
BTQMBOUBTTPEJWJEJEBT
FNEPJTHSBOEFTHSVQPT
QBSBGBDJMJUBSPTFVFTUVEP
BTDSJQUPHNJDBT 
PVQMBOUBTTFNGMPSFT 
e as fanerogmicas,
PVQMBOUBTDPNGMPSFT

/PUNGMPSFT
nem sementes

Tm flores
e sementes

1UFSJEGJUBT
fetos e cavalinhas

&TQFSNBUGJUBT

$SJQUPHNJDBT
QMBOUBTTFNGMPSFT

A semente nua,
sem fruto

5NGSVUPRVFQSPUFHF
a semente

(JNOPTQSNJDBT
conferas e outras

"OHJPTQSNJDBT

Fanerogmicas:
QMBOUBTDPNGMPSFT

%&4"'*04 t $JODJBTEB/BUVSF[B t oBOP t .BUFSJBMGPUPDPQJWFM4BOUJMMBOB$POTUODJB

235

"TQMBOUBTTFNGMPSFTQMBOUBT
criptogmicas
"TDSJQUPHNJDBTTPBTQMBOUBTNBJTjNFOPTWJTUPTBTx BRVFMBT
FNRVFNFOPTSFQBSBNPT/PUNGMPSFTFBMHVNBT DPNPPT
NVTHPT TPNVJUPQFRVFOBT0VUSBT FNDPOUSBQBSUJEB DIFHBN
BGPSNBSSWPSFT DPNPBMHVOTGFUPTUSPQJDBJT

#SJGJUBT
"TCSJGJUBTTPBTQMBOUBTNBJTTJNQMFT4PVNBFYDFQPOPSFJOPEBTQMBOUBT QPJT
OPBQSFTFOUBNUFDJEPTDPOEVUPSFT%FWJEPBPTFVQFRVFOPUBNBOIP BCTPSWFNB
IVNJEBEFFPTTBJTNJOFSBJTBUSBWTEBTVBTVQFSGDJFFYUFSOB%PNFTNPNPEP SFBMJ[BN
BGPUPTTOUFTFFNUPEBBFYUFOTPEPTFVDPSQP

O MUSGO TIL
0TNVTHPTTPJNQPSUBOUFT
QBSBBNBOVUFOP
EPFRVJMCSJPFDPMHJDP
/BTGMPSFTUBT SFBMJ[BN
VNBQBSUFJNQPSUBOUF
da fotossntese, servem de
BMJNFOUPFQSPQPSDJPOBN
refgio a muitos
JOWFSUFCSBEPT4PBJOEB
DBQB[FTEFDPMPOJ[BSBT
SPDIBTOVBTFQSPUFHFN
PTPMPEBFSPTP

0FTQPSGJUP QPSTVBWF[ OPFTUTFNQSF


QSFTFOUF'PSNBTFTPCSFPHBNFUGJUP
FDPNQPTUPQPSVNFJYPDPNQSJEP 
EFOPNJOBEPTFEBPVTFUB TPCSFPRVBMTF
GPSNBVNBQSPUVCFSODJBPVDQTVMB2VBOEP
NBEVSB BDQTVMBBCSFFMJCFSUBPTFTQPSPT
0TFTQPSPTTPDMVMBTFTQFDJBJTRVFFTUP
QSPUFHJEBTQPSVNBDPCFSUVSBSFTJTUFOUF
%JTQFSTBNTFHSBBTBPWFOUPPVHVB
2VBOEPDBFNOVNTUJPBEFRVBEPFBTDPOEJFT
EFIVNJEBEFFEFUFNQFSBUVSBTPGBWPSWFJT 
HFSNJOBNFEPPSJHFNBVNOPWPHBNFUGJUP

$QTVMB
FTQPSOHJP

&TQPSGJUPT

0HBNFUGJUPBQBSUFBRVFBTTPDJBNPT
OPSNBMNFOUFBVNNVTHP5SBUBTFEBQBSUF
WFSEF RVFGPSNBUBQFUFTPVBMNPGBEBTTPCSF
PTPMP OBTQFESBTPVOPTUSPODPTEBTSWPSFT
0HBNFUGJUPUFNGJMBNFOUPTRVFGJYBN
PNVTHPBPTVCTUSBUPFSFDFCFNPOPNFEF
SJ[JEFTPVGBMTBTSB[FTVNFJYPDJMOESJDP
RVFMFNCSBPDBVMFEFPVUSBTQMBOUBTFRVFTF
DPOIFDFDPNPDBVMDVMPPVGBMTPDBVMFVNB
FTQDJFEFGPMIBT NVJUPTJNQMFT RVF
TFEFOPNJOBNGJMJEFTPVGBMTBTGPMIBT

&TQPSPT
4FEBPVTFUB

'JMJEFT

(BNFUGJUP

Fotografia de um musgo
0CTFSWBTFPHBNFUGJUP BCBJYP 
FWSJPTFTQPSGJUPTFSHVJEPT

0TSFQSFTFOUBOUFTNBJTDPOIFDJEPTEBTCSJGJUBTTPPTNVTHPT/PSNBMNFOUF TP
QMBOUBTNVJUPQFRVFOBTRVFWJWFNFNBNCJFOUFTINJEPT/BTCSJGJUBT EJTUJOHVJNPT
EVBTQBSUFTPHBNFUGJUPFPFTQPSGJUP

$BVMDVMP

3J[JEFT

Esquema
da anatomia
de um musgo.

%FOUSPEBTCSJGJUBT BMNEPT
NVTHPT FODPOUSBNPTBTIFQUJDBT
"MHVNBTEFMBTUNVNGPSNBUPNVJUP
TFNFMIBOUFBPEPTNVTHPT FORVBOUP
PVUSBTGPSNBNVNBFTQDJFEFMNJOB
RVFBEFSFBPTVCTUSBUP&YJTUFNFN
TUJPTFTDVSPTFNVJUPINJEPT
)FQUJDBEFGPSNBUPMBNJOBS

236

%&4"'*04 t $JODJBTEB/BUVSF[B t oBOP t .BUFSJBMGPUPDPQJWFM4BOUJMMBOB$POTUODJB

1UFSJEGJUBT

FETOS ARBORESCENTES

0HSVQPEBTQUFSJEGJUBTJODMVJPTGFUPTFPVUSBT
QMBOUBTDPNFMFTSFMBDJPOBEBT1BSUJMIBNDPNBT
CSJGJUBTBGBMUBEFGMPSFT QPSNEJGFSFODJBNTF
EFMBTQPSRVFBQSFTFOUBNUFDJEPTDPOEVUPSFT
0TGFUPTBQSFTFOUBNVNBBVUOUJDBSBJ[RVF
PTGJYBBPTPMPFRVFBCTPSWFBHVBFPTTBJT
NJOFSBJT&NTFHVJEB QPEFNEJTUSJCVJSFTUBT
TVCTUODJBTQPSUPEBBQMBOUB$PNPUBM
PTGFUPTBMDBOBNVNUBNBOIPNBJPSEPRVF
BTCSJGJUBT

0TGFUPTQPEFNBMDBOBS
uma altura significativa.
Por este motivo, nas zonas
USPQJDBJTWJWFNGFUPTDPN
tronco que se designam
QPSGFUPTBSCPSFTDFOUFT 
dado que chegam a ser
UPBMUPTDPNPSWPSFT
QFRVFOBT

'PMIB
GSPOEF

0DBVMFVNSJ[PNB PVTFKB VNDBVMF


TVCUFSSOFP%FMFTBFNBTGPMIBTRVFSFDFCFN
POPNFEFGSPOEFT"TGPMIBTTPNVJUBT
WF[FTDPNQPTUBT QPJTTPGPSNBEBTQPSWSJBT
MNJOBTVOJEBT
/BQHJOBJOGFSJPSEBTGPMIBT FODPOUSBNTF
TPSPT FTUSVUVSBTPOEFFYJTUFNHSVQPTEF
DQTVMBTRVFSFDFCFNPOPNFEFFTQPSOHJPT
OFTUFTRVFTFQSPEV[FNPTFTQPSPT
0TFTQPSPTOFDFTTJUBNEFIVNJEBEFTVGJDJFOUF
FEFUFNQFSBUVSBBEFRVBEBQBSBQPEFSFN
HFSNJOBS

3BJ[

$BVMF SJ[PNB

Esquema da anatomia de um feto.

0VUSBTQMBOUBTGSFRVFOUFTEPHSVQP
EBTQUFSJEGJUBTTPPTFRVJTFUPT UBNCN
DPOIFDJEBTDPNPDBWBMJOIBT&TUBTQMBOUBT
UNVNDBVMFEJSFJUPEPRVBMTBFN
SBNJGJDBFTRVFTFEJTQFNSBEJBMNFOUF
0TFTQPSPTQSPEV[FNTFOVNBEJMBUBP
RVFTFGPSNBOBFYUSFNJEBEFEPDBVMF
FSFDFCFPOPNFEFFTUSCJMP
"TDBWBMJOIBTTPNVJUPTQFSBTBPUBDUP 
EBEPRVFBDVNVMBNTMJDBTPCBTVB
TVQFSGDJF
Equiseto ou cavalinha
1PSNFOPSEFVNFTUSCJMP

DAS PTERIDFITAS REVOLUO INDUSTRIAL


)PKFFNEJB BTQUFSJEGJUBTGJDBNVNQPVDPQFSEJEBTFOUSFBT
QMBOUBTDPNGMPSFT DPNNBJTFTQDJFTFCBTUBOUFNBJTJNQPSUODJB
OBWFHFUBP$POUVEP OFNTFNQSFGPJBTTJN4BCFNPT BQBSUJS
EPTGTTFJT RVF OPQFSPEPDBSCPOGFSP B5FSSBFTUBWBQPWPBEB
QPSGMPSFTUBTEFGFUPTHJHBOUFT FRVJTFUPTEFTDPNVOBJTFPVUSBT
QUFSJEGJUBT1PSFTUFNPUJWP PTSFTUPTEFTTFTHJHBOUFT RVFTF
NBOUJWFSBNFOUFSSBEPTTPCFYUFOTPTQOUBOPT USBOTGPSNBSBNTF
FNDBSWPDPNBQBTTBHFNEFNJMIFTEFBOPT'PJFTTFNFTNP
DBSWPRVFQSPQJDJPVB3FWPMVP*OEVTUSJBM
"MHVOTFYFNQMPTEFQUFSJEGJUBTGTTFJTEP$BSCPOGFSP

%&4"'*04 t $JODJBTEB/BUVSF[B t oBOP t .BUFSJBMGPUPDPQJWFM4BOUJMMBOB$POTUODJB

237

As gimnosprmicas:
a descoberta da semente
"THJNOPTQSNJDBTBQSFTFOUBNBHSBOEFEFTDPCFSUBEBTQMBOUBT
BTFNFOUF(SBBTBFMB BTQMBOUBTQPEFNEJTQFSTBSTFGBDJMNFOUF
FDPORVJTUBSMPDBJTNBJTGBWPSWFJT

AS FOLHAS DAS
CONFERAS

$BSBDUFSTUJDBTEBTHJNOPTQSNJDBT

"NBJPSQBSUFEBTDPOGFSBT
UFNGPMIBTQFRVFOBT
e numerosas, com uma
FTQFTTBDPCFSUVSB
JNQFSNFWFM%FWFNPT
EFTUBDBSEPJTUJQPTEF
folhas, as aciculares e as
escamiformes.

0UFSNPjHJNOPTQSNJDBxTJHOJGJDB FUJNPMPHJDBNFOUF jTFNFOUFOVBx4PBTTJN


EFOPNJOBEBTQPSRVFQSPEV[FNWFSEBEFJSBTTFNFOUFT NBTFTUBTOPFTUPQSPUFHJEBT
QPSVNGSVUP DPNPTVDFEFOBTBOHJPTQSNJDBT
&YJTUFNWSJPTHSVQPTEFHJNOPTQSNJDBT BJOEBRVFPNBJTBCVOEBOUFFDPOIFDJEP 
FBRVFMFRVFJSFNPTBOBMJTBS TFKBPEBTDPOGFSBT RVFJODMVJ FOUSFPVUSPT PTQJOIFJSPT 
PTDJQSFTUFT PTBCFUPT BTTBCJOBTy

Semente das conferas

'PMIBTBDJDVMBSFT

"TFNFOUFVNBFTUSVUVSBRVFTFSWFQBSBBSFQSPEVPEJGFSFOUF
EPFTQPSPFNNVJUPTBTQFDUPT6NFTQPSP OBTVBFTTODJB VNB
DMVMBDPNVNBDPCFSUVSBQSPUFDUPSB6NBTFNFOUF QPSTVBWF[ 
DPOUNWSJBTQBSUFTVNFNCSJP PVTFKB VNBQMBOUBFNNJOJBUVSB
RVFDPNFPVBGPSNBSTFNBTRVFTVTQFOEFPTFVEFTFOWPMWJNFOUPFORVBOUPFTQFSB
QPSDPOEJFTGBWPSWFJTVNUFDJEPDPNTVCTUODJBTBMJNFOUBSFTEFSFTFSWB RVF
QFSNJUFNRVFPFNCSJPDPOUJOVFPTFVEFTFOWPMWJNFOUPEVSBOUFVNDFSUPUFNQP
EFQPJTEFBTFNFOUFHFSNJOBSVNBDPCFSUVSB RVFQSPUFHFPJOUFSJPSEBTFNFOUFF 
FNBMHVOTDBTPT EFTFOWPMWFBTBTPVQMPTRVFBBKVEBNBTFSEJTQFSTBEBQFMPWFOUP

'PSNBPEBTFNFOUF
'PMIBTFTDBNJGPSNFT
'MPSFTEPQJOIFJSPFTRVFSEB 
GMPSFTNBTDVMJOBTEJSFJUB 
JOGMPSFTDODJBGFNJOJOB

"TDPOGFSBTUNGMPSFTNBTDVMJOBTFGFNJOJOBT"TGMPSFTNBTDVMJOBTTPGPSNBEBTQPSVN
DPOKVOUPEFFTDBNBTEFDPSBNBSFMBRVFTFBHSVQBNFGPSNBNVNBFTQDJFEFQJOIB
FNNJOJBUVSB/BTFTDBNBTGPSNBNTFHSBOEFTRVBOUJEBEFTEFHSPTEFQMFO&TUFTTP
NVJUPMFWFTFTPBSSBTUBEPTQFMPWFOUPBUBMDBOBSFNBTGMPSFTGFNJOJOBT&TUFQSPDFTTP
BQPMJOJ[BP
"TGMPSFTGFNJOJOBTQPEFNFTUBSQSFTFOUFTOPTSBNPTNBJT
BMUPT4PGPSNBEBTQPSVNBFTDBNBRVFUFNOBTVBTVQFSGDJF
EPJTWVMPT BTDMVMBTRVFTFEFTFOWPMWFSPQBSBEBSPSJHFN 
DBEBVNB BVNBTFNFOUF"TGMPSFTGFNJOJOBTBHSVQBNTF
FGPSNBNVNBQJOIBQFRVFOB EFDPSWFSEFFUFOSB$BEB
QJOIBVNBJOGMPSFTDODJB PVTFKB VNDPOKVOUPEFGMPSFT
2VBOEPVNHSPEFQMFODIFHBBVNBGMPSGFNJOJOB HFSNJOB
FEFMFTBJVNUVCPPUVCPQPMOJDP RVFDSFTDFBUDIFHBSBP
WVMP QBSBPGFDVOEBS/FTTFNPNFOUP PWVMPDPNFB
BUSBOTGPSNBSTFFNTFNFOUFFBQJOIBBNBEVSFDFFFOEVSFDF
QBSBQSPUFHFSBTTFNFOUFTFNEFTFOWPMWJNFOUP
0QSPDFTTPEFGFDVOEBPFQPTUFSJPSEFTFOWPMWJNFOUPEBT
TFNFOUFTCBTUBOUFMPOHP2VBOEPBTTFNFOUFTKFTUP
NBEVSBT BQJOIBBCSFTFFMJCFSUBBT

238

%&4"'*04 t $JODJBTEB/BUVSF[B t oBOP t .BUFSJBMGPUPDPQJWFM4BOUJMMBOB$POTUODJB

Algumas famlias de conferas


PINCEAS
Esta a famlia mais comum.
*ODMVJJONFSBTFTQDJFTEF
QJOIFJSPT BCFUPTFDFESPT
4PSWPSFT QPSWF[FTEF
grande altura, com folhas
geralmente aciculares.
Algumas delas tm uma forma
DOJDBDBSBDUFSTUJDB1PEFN
ser encontradas em todas as
regies do mundo.

1JOIFJSPNBOTP

"CFUP

CUPRESSCEAS

TAXCEAS

4PSWPSFTFBSCVTUPT 
normalmente, com folhas
escamiformes. Incluem-se os
DJQSFTUFT BBSJ[OJDB BTBCJOB
FP[JNCSP/B1FOOTVMB
Ibrica destacamos as sabinas
FPT[JNCSPT BEBQUWFJT
a condies climticas muito
EVSBTFBTPMPTQPCSFT
0TDPOFTNBEVSPTTP
HMPCVMBSFTF QPSWF[FT 
carnudos.

"FTQDJFNBJTSFQSFTFOUBUJWB
o teixo, uma rvore ou
arbusto que cresce em zonas
montanhosas. A semente est
SPEFBEBQPSVNJOWMVDSP
carnudo com uma chamativa
DPSWFSNFMIBBOJDBQBSUF
DPNFTUWFMEPUFJYP QPJT
UVEPPNBJTUYJDP

;JNCSPDPNVN

$FESP

5FJYP

AS OUTRAS GIMNOSPRMICAS
&OUSFBTHJNOPTQSNJDBT
RVFOPQFSUFODFN
GBNMJBEBTDPOGFSBT 
UFNPTQMBOUBTFYUSFNBNFOUF
JOUFSFTTBOUFTFQPVDP
conhecidas. Algumas delas
TPDPOTJEFSBEBTNVJUP
QSYJNBTEBTQSJNFJSBT
HJNOPTQSNJDBTRVF
BQBSFDFSBNOB5FSSB 
h milhares de anos.
0TFVFTUVEPJNQPSUBOUF 
EBEPRVFOPTEQJTUBT
TPCSFBFWPMVPEFTUF
UJQPEFQMBOUBT

O ginkgo uma rvore fcil


de encontrar nos nossos
QBSRVFTFKBSEJOT
considerada uma das
HJNOPTQSNJDBTNBJT
QSJNJUJWBT"TTVBTGPMIBT
FNGPSNBEFMFRVFTP
inconfundveis.

A fedra um arbusto
que faz lembrar uma giesta.
Vive de forma selvagem
na Pennsula Ibrica
e extrai-se dela a efedrina,
um medicamento
estimulante.
As cicadceas tm um
BTQFDUPJOUFSNEJPFOUSF
os fetos arborescentes
FBTQBMNFJSBT
A Welwitschia mirabilis
VNBHJNOPTQSNJDBRVF
WJWFOPEFTFSUPEP/BNJCF
5FNBQFOBTEVBTHSBOEFT
folhas em forma de cinto
que crescem durante toda
a sua vida e nunca caem.

%&4"'*04 t $JODJBTEB/BUVSF[B t oBOP t .BUFSJBMGPUPDPQJWFM4BOUJMMBOB$POTUODJB

239

As angiosprmicas:
fanerogmicas com fruto
&TTFODJBJTQBSBBWJEBEFUPEPTPTBOJNBJTUFSSFTUSFTF 
DPOTFRVFOUFNFOUF QBSBP)PNFN BTBOHJPTQSNJDBTTP
BTQMBOUBTNBJTDPOIFDJEBTQPSUPEPT"QSFTFOUBNGMPSFT
WJTUPTBTFGSVUPT

$BSBDUFSTUJDBTEBTBOHJPTQSNJDBT
"TBOHJPTQSNJDBTUNPTTFVTWVMPTOPJOUFSJPSEFVNBDBWJEBEF PHJOFDFV2VBOEP
PDPSSFBGFDVOEBP PWVMPUSBOTGPSNBTFOBTFNFOUFFPHJOFDFVOPGSVUP VNSHP
RVFUFNDPNPGVOPBKVEBSOBEJTTFNJOBPEBTFNFOUF
/BTBOHJPTQSNJDBT BNFTNBGMPSQPEFUFSVNBQBSUFNBTDVMJOBFVNBQBSUFGFNJOJOB 
TFOEPGSFRVFOUFNFOUFNBJTWJTUPTBEPRVFBGMPSEBTHJNOPTQSNJDBT

Flor
"GMPSEBTBOHJPTQSNJDBTGPSNBEBQPSWSJBTDBNBEBTEFGPMIBT BMHVNBTEFMBT
CBTUBOUFNPEJGJDBEBT&TUBTGPMIBTGPSNBNPDMJDF BDPSPMB PTFTUBNFTFPHJOFDFV

"OUFSB

'JMFUF

&TUJHNB
&TUJMFUF
0WSJP

Estames.4PPTSHPT
SFQSPEVUPSFTNBTDVMJOPT
EBGMPS4PDPOTUJUVEPT
QPSGJMFUFFBOUFSB
na antera que se formam
PTHSPTEFQMFO

Gineceu.$POKVOUPEPT
SHPTSFQSPEVUPSFT
GFNJOJOPTEBGMPS/PTFV
interior existem um ou vrios
WVMPT/PSNBMNFOUF 
EJTUJOHVFNTFWSJBTQBSUFT
o estigma, o estilete e o ovrio,
POEFFTUPQSFTFOUFTPTWVMPT

Corola.GPSNBEBQPSGPMIBT
transformadas e coloridas
DIBNBEBTQUBMBT&NBMHVOT
DBTPT BTQUBMBTTP
JOEFQFOEFOUFTOPVUSPT
FTUPVOJEBT5NQPSGVOP
GBWPSFDFSBQPMJOJ[BP

Clice.GPSNBEPQPSWSJBT
folhas transformadas, na sua
maioria, de cor verde
DIBNBEBTTQBMBT1PSWF[FT 
BTTQBMBTFTUPVOJEBT 
formando um tubo. Protege
o resto da flor.

/FNUPEBTBTGMPSFTTPGPSNBEBTQFMPT
NFTNPTFMFNFOUPT2VBOEPTPIFSNBGSPEJUBT 
UNFTUBNFTFHJOFDFV NBTRVBOEPTP
NBTDVMJOBTPVGFNJOJOBTOPBQSFTFOUBN
HJOFDFVPVFTUBNFT SFTQFDUJWBNFOUF
%PNFTNPNPEP QPEFNOPUFSDMJDF 
DPSPMBPVBNCPT
&NDFSUBTPDBTJFT BTGMPSFTFODPOUSBNTF
JTPMBEBT NBTGPSNBN DPNGSFRVODJB 
BHSVQBNFOUPTDIBNBEPTJOGMPSFTDODJBT
'MPSJTPMBEB FTRVFSEB 
FJOGMPSFTDODJB EJSFJUB

240

%&4"'*04 t $JODJBTEB/BUVSF[B t oBOP t .BUFSJBMGPUPDPQJWFM4BOUJMMBOB$POTUODJB

1PMJOJ[BP
$PNPOBTHJNOPTQSNJDBT QBSBRVFTFQSPEV[BN
TFNFOUFT PQMFOUFNEFDIFHBSBUBPTSHPT
GFNJOJOPTEBGMPS2VBOEPDIFHBBPFTUJHNBEFVNB
GMPSEBNFTNBFTQDJF PHSPEFQMFOFNJUFPUVCP
QPMOJDP RVFBUJOHFPWVMPFPGFDVOEB
&NBMHVNBTFTQDJFT BQPMJOJ[BPPDPSSFQPSNFJP
EPWFOUP RVFBSSBTUBPTHSPTEFQMFO MFWBOEPPT
EFVNBTGMPSFTQBSBPVUSBT"TGMPSFTQPEFNTFS
QFRVFOBTFTFNDPSPMB NBTQSPEV[FNQMFOFN
HSBOEFTRVBOUJEBEFT
&NNVJUBTPVUSBTFTQDJFT BQPMJOJ[BPPDPSSFQPS
BDPEPTJOTFDUPT RVFTFEFTMPDBNEFVNBTGMPSFT
QBSBPVUSBTFRVFMFWBNPQMFODPMBEPBPDPSQP
/FTUFDBTP BGMPSQPEFTFSHSBOEF DPNDPSFTWJTUPTBT
FPEPSFTQFOFUSBOUFT TFOEPGSFRVFOUFQSPEV[JSFN
PODUBS VNMRVJEPBVDBSBEPEPRVBMPTJOTFDUPT
TFBMJNFOUBN
"TQMBOUBTBRVUJDBTQPEFNTFSQPMJOJ[BEBTBUSBWT
EBHVB0VUSBTQMBOUBTTPQPMJOJ[BEBTQPSBDP
EFDPMJCSJTPV JODMVTJWBNFOUF EFNPSDFHPT

'MPSFTQPMJOJ[BEBTQFMPTJOTFDUPTFQFMPWFOUP"TGMPSFTQPMJOJ[BEBTQPS
JOTFDUPTTP QPSFYFNQMP BTEBFTUFQF FTRVFSEB

"TRVFTPQPMJOJ[BEBTQFMPWFOUPTPNBJTQFRVFOBTFNFOPTWJTUPTBT 
DPNPBTEPTBMHVFJSP EJSFJUB


Semente e fruto
0WVMPGFDVOEBEPUSBOTGPSNBTFOVNBTFNFOUF DPNPOBTHJNOPTQSNJDBTNBT 
OBTBOHJPTQSNJDBT PHJOFDFVJOUFJSPUSBOTGPSNBTFFEPSJHFNBVNGSVUPRVFUFN
QPSGVOPQSPUFHFSBTTFNFOUFTFBKVEMBTBEJTQFSTBSTF EFGPSNBBDPMPOJ[BSFN
OPWBT[POBT1BSBUBM VUJMJ[BNVNBEJWFSTJEBEFEFNFDBOJTNPT
Alguns frutos conseguem
EJTQFSTBSBTTFNFOUFTQFMPT
TFVTQSQSJPTNFJPT 
QSPKFDUBOEPBTCFNEJTUODJB
PV TJNQMFTNFOUF BCSJOEPTF
FEFJYBOEPBTDBJS1PSFYFNQMP 
PQFQJOPEFTP(SFHSJP
FYQVMTBBTTFNFOUFTDPNVN
KBDUPEFMRVJEPTPCQSFTTP
quando toca no fruto.

"MHVNBTTPNVJUPMFWFT EFGPSNB
BTFSFNBSSBTUBEBTQFMPWFOUP FDIFHBN 
inclusivamente, a desenvolver estruturas
TFNFMIBOUFTBBTBTPVQMPTRVFBT
BKVEBNBNBOUFSTFOPBS

Existem, ainda, sementes


QFHBKPTBTPVDPNHBODIPT QBSB
TFGJYBSFNBPQMPEPTBOJNBJT 
RVFBTTJNBTUSBOTQPSUBN

0VUSBTTPTVNBSFOUBTFOVUSJUJWBT"TTJN 
PTBOJNBJTDPNFNOBTFEJTQFSTBNBT
sementes atravs das fezes.

Algumas tm coberturas muito resistentes e flutuam,


EFNPEPRVFTPUSBOTQPSUBEBTQFMBHVB JODMVTJWBNFOUF
QFMPNBSPDBTPEPDPRVFJSP RVFFTUQSFTFOUFFN
UPEBTBTDPTUBTUSPQJDBJT

%&4"'*04 t $JODJBTEB/BUVSF[B t oBOP t .BUFSJBMGPUPDPQJWFM4BOUJMMBOB$POTUODJB

241

"DMBTTJGJDBP
das angiosprmicas
&YJTUFNDFSDBEFFTQDJFTEJGFSFOUFTEFQMBOUBT
BOHJPTQSNJDBT%JWJEFNTFFNWSJPTHSVQPTFNQSJNFJSP
MVHBS FNGVOPEBFTUSVUVSBEBTTFNFOUFTF FNTFHVOEP 
DPOTJEFSBOEPBDPOTUJUVJPEBTGMPSFT

A AV DAS
ANGIOSPRMICAS
0TCPUOJDPT BQT
FTUVEBSFNP"%/EF
VNDPOKVOUPEFQMBOUBT
diferentes, encontraram
BRVFQFOTBNTFS
BBOHJPTQSNJDBNBJT
BOUJHBPVTFKB PQBSFOUF
WJWPNBJTQSYJNPEB
QSJNFJSBBOHJPTQSNJDB
RVFBQBSFDFVOB5FSSB
5SBUBTFEFVNQFRVFOP
arbusto com flores
amarelo-esverdeadas
QPVDPDIBNBUJWBT
&ODPOUSBTFBQFOBT
OBTGMPSFTUBTEB/PWB
$BMFEOJB
0VUSBTQMBOUBTNVJUP
QSJNJUJWBTTPPTOFOGBSFT
FBTNBHOMJBT

242

.POPDPUJMFEOFBTFEJDPUJMFEOFBT
%FOUSPEBTBOHJPTQSNJDBTEJTUJOHVJNPTEPJTHSBOEFTHSVQPTBTNPOPDPUJMFEOFBT
FBTEJDPUJMFEOFBT"DBSBDUFSTUJDBRVFEJTUJOHVFBNCPTPTHSVQPTBTFNFOUF
/FTUB FODPOUSBTFVNFNCSJPDPNGPMIBTRVFSFDFCFNBEFTJHOBPEFDPUJMEPOFT
&ORVBOUPBTEJDPUJMFEOFBTBQSFTFOUBNEPJTDPUJMEPOFT BTNPOPDPUJMFEOFBT
UNBQFOBTVN
&YJTUFNUBNCNPVUSBTEJGFSFOBTFOUSFNPOPDPUJMFEOFBTFBTEJDPUJMFEOFBT
PRINCIPAIS DIFERENAS ENTRE
AS DICOTILEDNEAS E AS MONOCOTILEDNEAS
Dicotiledneas

Monocotiledneas

.VJUBTTP
herbceas,
NBTQSFEPNJOBN
BTQMBOUBTMFOIPTBT
rvores e arbustos.

"NBJPSJBTPIFSCDFBT

0TWBTPTDPOEVUPSFTFTUPEJTQPTUPTFN
anis concntricos no caule.

0TWBTPTDPOEVUPSFTFTUPEJTQPTUPT
ao acaso ao longo do caule.

A raiz tem, na sua maioria,


um eixo central que se
ramifica.

"TSB[FTTPGBTDJDVMBEBT

O caule geralmente ramificado.

0DBVMFOPUFNSBNJGJDBFT

As folhas tm regra
HFSBMVNQFDPMP
FBTOFSWVSBTTP
ramificadas.

"TGPMIBTOPDPTUVNBNUFSVNQFDPMP
FFOWPMWFNPDBVMF"TTVBTOFSWVSBTTP
HFSBMNFOUFQBSBMFMBT

)BCJUVBMNFOUFUN
RVBUSPPVDJODPQUBMBT
FFTUBNFT PVSFTQFDUJWPT
NMUJQMPT

$PTUVNBNUFSUSTQUBMBT
FFTUBNFT PVNMUJQMPT
de trs.

%&4"'*04 t $JODJBTEB/BUVSF[B t oBOP t .BUFSJBMGPUPDPQJWFM4BOUJMMBOB$POTUODJB

"MHVOTHSVQPTEFEJDPUJMFEOFBTEFJOUFSFTTF
FAGCEAS

ASTERCEAS

/FTUBGBNMJBFTUP
includas as rvores que
DPNQFNBTGMPSFTUBT
NBJTJNQPSUBOUFT
na Pennsula Ibrica,
como a azinheira, a faia,
o carvalho, o sobreiro
e o castanheiro.

4PFSWBTFBSCVTUPT 
alguns aromticos,
como a margarida,
PEFOUFEFMFP 
BDBNPNJMB BDIJDSJB 
o rcino, etc. A sua flor ,
de facto, uma inflorescncia,
PSJHJOBEBQPSQFRVFOBT
flores.

'MPSFTUBEFGBJBT

ROSCEAS
Inclui rvores e arbustos
de fruto, como
BNBDJFJSB BQFSFJSB 
PQFTTFHVFJSP 
BBNFJYPFJSB BDFSFKFJSB
o morangueiro,
a amendoeira, a amoreira,
etc., alm das roseiras.
/BTFTQDJFTTJMWFTUSFT 
as flores tm cinco
QUBMBT
3PTFJSBTJMWFTUSF

'SVUPEBB[JOIFJSBCPMPUB

'MPSFTEFBNFOEPFJSB

.BSHBSJEB VNBJOGMPSFTDODJB

CRUCFERAS

LEGUMINOSAS

A suas flores tm quatro


QUBMBT*ODMVJNVJUBT
FTQDJFTIFSCDFBT
silvestres e algumas
comestveis, como
as couves, a couve-flor,
o rabanete, etc.

4PFSWBT BSCVTUPTFSWPSFT 
DPNPPGFJKP BFSWJMIB 
a giesta, as accias, o trevo
"TVBGMPSQPTTVJVNB
simetria bilateral e o seu
fruto uma vagem. Subsistem
FNTPMPTQPCSFT QPJT
associam-se a bactrias que
'MPSFTEBFSWJMIFJSB
lhes fornecem nutrientes.

$SVDGFSBTJMWFTUSF

"MHVOTHSVQPTEFNPOPDPUJMFEOFBTEFJOUFSFTTF
LILCEAS

PALMEIRAS

"NBJPSJBTPFSWBT 
frequentemente com
bolbos. A sua flor tem
USTQUBMBTPVNMUJQMPT
EFUST&TUFHSVQPJODMVJ
as aucenas, os lrios,
BUVMJQB PKBDJOUP PBMIP 
a cebola

Chegam a ser rvores,


com um tronco que
OPTFSBNJGJDB 
DPCFSUPQFMBNBSDBT
da queda das folhas.
4PFYFNQMPTPDPRVFJSP 
BQBMNFJSBBO
BQBMNFJSBEBTDBOSJBTy 1BMNFJSBMEF&MDIF

"CSUFB

GRAMNEAS

ORQUDEAS

"TTVBTGMPSFTFTUPNVJUP
modificadas e formam
FTQJHBT*ODMVFNTFUPEPT
os cereais, como o trigo
e a cevada, e um grande
ONFSPEFQMBOUBT
silvestres, normalmente
herbceas e com o caule
PDP DPNPPFTQBSUP 
5SJHP
o bambu, etc.

4PIFSCDFBTDPNGMPSFT
frequentemente muito
DIBNBUJWBT&TUBTFTUP
NPEJGJDBEBTQBSBBUSBJS
os insectos. Algumas,
tambm, simulam
JOTFDUPTGNFBTQBSB
atrair os machos, que
BTQPMJOJ[BN
&SWBBCFMIB

%&4"'*04 t $JODJBTEB/BUVSF[B t oBOP t .BUFSJBMGPUPDPQJWFM4BOUJMMBOB$POTUODJB

243

O reino Animalia
0SFJOPEPTBOJNBJTPRVFQPTTVJVNBNBJPSRVBOUJEBEF
EFTFSFTWJWPTPTDJFOUJTUBTEFTDSFWFSBNDFSDBEF
VNNJMIPEFFTQDJFTEJGFSFOUFT NBTQFOTBTF
RVFEFWFNFYJTUJSNVJUBTNBJT

OS ANIMAIS
E A SIMETRIA
&YDFQUPBTFTQPOKBT 
UPEPTPTBOJNBJTQPTTVFN
TJNFUSJB"NBJPSQBSUF
BQSFTFOUBVNBTJNFUSJB
bilateral, como o ser
humano; contudo, h
BOJNBJTRVFBQSFTFOUBN
uma simetria radial, como
as medusas, as anmonas
e as estrelas-do-mar.

Caractersticas dos animais


0TBOJNBJTTPTFSFTWJWPTFVDBSJPUBTFQMVSJDFMVMBSFT DPNOVUSJP
IFUFSPUSGJDB UFDJEPTEJGFSFODJBEPTFEJHFTUPJOUFSOB"QSFTFOUBN BMN
EJTTP PVUSBTDBSBDUFSTUJDBT
t "TTVBTDMVMBTOPQPTTVFNVNBQBSFEFDFMVMBS
t "TVBSFQSPEVPTFYVBEBPVTFKB EFWFNJOUFSWJSEPJTBOJNBJT
EFTFYPEJGFSFOUFQBSBRVFPDPSSBBSFQSPEVP
t 5NVNBCPDBQBSBJOHFSJSPBMJNFOUPFVNOVTQFMPRVBMFYQVMTBN
PTSFTEVPT
t "NBJPSJBDBQB[EFSFBMJ[BSNPWJNFOUPTFEFTFEFTMPDBS
t .VJUPTEFMFTUNFTRVFMFUPTFDBSBQBBTRVFTFSWFNQBSBNBOUFS
BTVBFTUSVUVSBFQBSBTFQSPUFHFSFN

Tecido animal.
0TBOJNBJT
TPTFSFT
QMVSJDFMVMBSFT
FBTTVBTDMVMBT
GPSNBNUFDJEPT

/VUSJPEPTBOJNBJT
0TBOJNBJTUNEFJOHFSJSBMJNFOUPT PVTFKB NBUSJBPSHOJDB1BSBJTTP EFWFN
BMJNFOUBSTFEFQMBOUBTPVEFPVUSPTBOJNBJT PVFOUPEPTTFVTSFTUPT
0TBOJNBJTDPTUVNBNJOHFSJSQFEBPTEFBMJNFOUPTNBJTPVNFOPTHSBOEFT-PHP OP
TJTUFNBEJHFTUJWP SFBMJ[BNBEJHFTUPEFDPNQFNPTBMJNFOUPTQBSBPCUFSPTOVUSJFOUFT
/FTUFBTQFDUP TPEJGFSFODJBEPTEPTGVOHPT RVFSFBMJ[BNEJHFTUPFYUFSOB
0TOVUSJFOUFTEJTUSJCVFNTFQPSUPEBTBTDMVMBTEPDPSQP BTRVBJT QBSBDPOTFHVJSB
FOFSHJBEFRVFOFDFTTJUBN SFBMJ[BNBSFTQJSBPDFMVMBS&TUFQSPDFTTPPDPSSFOPJOUFSJPS
EBTDMVMBTFDPOTJTUFOBDPNCJOBPEPTOVUSJFOUFTDPNPYJHOJP PVTFKB BPYJEBP 
FOBQSPEVPEFFOFSHJB1PSUBOUP UPEPTPTBOJNBJTOFDFTTJUBNEFSFTQJSBSPYJHOJP
FFYQFMJSEJYJEPEFDBSCPOP
OS ANIMAIS E A SUA ALIMENTAO

0TBOJNBJTGJUGBHPTPVIFSCWPSPT
BMJNFOUBNTFEFQMBOUBT&TUFTQPEFN
TFSEJWJEJEPTFNHSVQPT DPOTPBOUF
TFBMJNFOUBNEFGSVUB GSVHWPSPT

EFTFNFOUFT HSBOWPSPT
FUD

244

0TBOJNBJT[PGBHPTPVDBSOWPSPT
alimentam-se de outros animais.
&TUFTBOJNBJTDIBNBNTFQSFEBEPSFT
e os que lhes servem de alimento
TPEFTJHOBEPTQPSQSFTBT

%&4"'*04 t $JODJBTEB/BUVSF[B t oBOP t .BUFSJBMGPUPDPQJWFM4BOUJMMBOB$POTUODJB

0TBOJNBJTOFDSGBHPTBMJNFOUBNTF
EFSFTUPTPSHOJDPT RVFQPEFN
TFSGF[FT DPQSGBHPT
NBUSJBFN
EFDPNQPTJP TBQSGBHPT
PVBOJNBJT
mortos.

$MBTTJGJDBPEPTBOJNBJT
Esponjas
4PPTBOJNBJTNBJTTJNQMFT1BTTPVNVJUPUFNQPBURVFGPTTFN
BDFJUFTDPNPTFOEPSFBMNFOUFBOJNBJT"TFTQPOKBTTPBRVUJDBT 
na sua maioria marinhas.
4PNVJUPEJGFSFOUFTEPSFTUPEPTBOJNBJT BPQPOUPEFTFSFN
classificadas como um sub-reino, o parazoa. Os restantes
animais incluem-se no sub-reino metazoa.
Celenterados ou cnidrios
&ODPOUSBNPTOFTUFHSVQPBOJNBJTBRVUJDPT OBTVB
NBJPSJBNBSJOIPT DBSBDUFSJ[BEPTQPSQPTTVSFNVNB
simetria radial. Alguns deles, as medusas, tm uma vida
livre, enquanto outros, os corais e as anmonas, vivem
fixos ao substrato.

Vermes
"EFTJHOBPEFjWFSNFxFOHMPCBWSJPTHSVQPT
EJGFSFOUFTEFBOJNBJTRVFTFDBSBDUFSJ[BNQPSUFSFN
PDPSQPDPNQSJEPFTJNFUSJBCJMBUFSBM5BNCNOP
UNFTRVFMFUPT DPODIBTPVDPCFSUVSBT)PT
BRVUJDPTFPTUFSSFTUSFT FBMHVOTEFMFTTPQBSBTJUBT

Moluscos
5SBUBTFEFBOJNBJTDPNVNBBQBSODJBEJGFSFOUF 
mas com caractersticas comuns. Incluem os bivalves
BNFJKPBT NFYJMIFT FUD
PTHBTUSQPEFT DBSBDJT
UFSSFTUSFTFBRVUJDPT MFTNBT FUD
FPTDFGBMQPEFT
QPMWPT DIPDPT FUD
FOUSFPTNBJTJNQPSUBOUFT

Artrpodes
DPNHSBOEFEFTUBRVF PHSVQPEFBOJNBJTNBJT
OVNFSPTP"QSJODJQBMDBSBDUFSTUJDBUFSFNPDPSQP
DPCFSUPQPSVNFTRVFMFUPFYUFSOPEVSPNBTMFWF 
RVFPTQSPUFHFFMIFTGBDJMJUBPNPWJNFOUP

Equinodermes
PHSVQPEPTPVSJPTEPNBSFEBTFTUSFMBTEPNBS 
entre outros. Os animais adultos tm simetria radial,
DPNPPTDFMFOUFSBEPT/PFOUBOUP BTVBFTUSVUVSB
DPNQMFYBFQFOTBTFRVFFTUFKBNSFMBDJPOBEPTDPN
os vertebrados.

Vertebrados
PHSVQPBPRVBMQFSUFODFBFTQDJFIVNBOB5PEPTPT
vertebrados tm um esqueleto interno com coluna vertebral.
/FTUFHSVQPJODMVFNTFPTQFJYFT PTBOGCJPT PTSQUFJT BTBWFT
e os mamferos.
2VBTFUPEBTBTFTQDJFTBOJNBJTJNQPSUBOUFTQBSBBBMJNFOUBP
IVNBOBQFSUFODFNBPTWFSUFCSBEPT

%&4"'*04 t $JODJBTEB/BUVSF[B t oBOP t .BUFSJBMGPUPDPQJWFM4BOUJMMBOB$POTUODJB

245

As esponjas
e os cnidrios
0TEPJTQSJNFJSPTHSVQPTEFBOJNBJTRVFWBNPTWFS
QBSUJMIBNPGBDUPEFTFSFNFYDMVTJWBNFOUFBRVUJDPT
"MNEJTTP TPBNCPTNVJUPEJGFSFOUFTEPSFTUPEPT
BOJNBJT TPCSFUVEPBTFTQPOKBT

$BSBDUFSTUJDBTEBTFTQPOKBT
"TFTQPOKBTBQSFTFOUBNUBOUBTFYDFQFTFNSFMBPBPSFTUPEPTBOJNBJTRVFTP
DPOTJEFSBEBTVNTVCSFJOP4PQMVSJDFMVMBSFTFUNUJQPTEJGFSFOUFTEFDMVMBT NBTOFMBT
OPTFEJGFSFODJBNUFDJEPTOFNSHPT"MNEJTTP WJWFNGJYBTTPCSFPTVCTUSBUPFOP
UNCPDB
6NBFTQPOKBDPNVNFTUGPSNBEBQPSEVBTDBNBEBT
EFDMVMBTRVFTFPSHBOJ[BNDPNPVNTBDPDPNVNB
DBWJEBEF BDBWJEBEFDFOUSBM"jQBSFEFxEPTBDPFTU
QFSGVSBEBQPSOVNFSPTPTQPSPT"QSFTFOUB UBNCN 
BBCFSUVSBEPTBDPDIBNBEBTDVMP
"FTQPOKBUFNVNBTDMVMBTFTQFDJBJT PTDPBODJUPT 
DPNVNGMBHFMPRVFCBUFDPOTUBOUFNFOUF0BHJUBS
EPGMBHFMPDSJBVNBDPSSFOUFRVFGB[DPNRVFBHVB
QFOFUSFOBDBWJEBEFDFOUSBMBUSBWTEPTQPSPTFTBJB
QFMPTDVMP"FTQPOKBBMJNFOUBTFQPSGJMUSBPPT
DPBODJUPTSFUNUPEBTBTQBSUDVMBTOVUSJUJWBTDPOUJEBT
OBHVBRVFDJSDVMBQFMBFTQPOKB

&TQPOKBT2VBTFUPEBTTP
NBSJOIBTFBQSFTFOUBN 
GSFRVFOUFNFOUF DPSFT
CSJMIBOUFT/PDPTUVNBN
UFSVNOPNFDPNVN

%PNFTNPNPEP BTDMVMBTEBFTQPOKBSFTQJSBNP
PYJHOJPRVFWBJEJTTPMWJEPOBHVB RVFTFSFOPWB
DPOTUBOUFNFOUF

$PBODJUP
&OUSBEB
EFHVB

&TQPOKB
&TRVFNBEFVNBFTQPOKBDPNVN
FQFSDVSTPEBHVBOPTFVJOUFSJPS

"TFTQPOKBTSFQSPEV[FNTFEFGPSNBBTTFYVBEBBQBSUJSEFRVBMRVFSGSBHNFOUPRVFTF
TPMUF RVFQPEFEBSPSJHFNBVNBOPWBFTQPOKB5BNCNBQSFTFOUBNVNBSFQSPEVP
TFYVBEB EBOEPPSJHFNBQFRVFOBTMBSWBTRVFTFEFTFOWPMWFNFGPSNBNOPWBTFTQPOKBT
5NVNFTRVFMFUPJOUFSOPRVFBTBKVEBBDPOTFSWBSBTVBGPSNB1PEFTFSDPNQPTUPQPS
FTQJOIBTEFDMDJPFEFTJMDJPPVQPSGJCSBTQSPUFJDBT/FTUFMUJNPDBTP DIBNBNPMBT
EFEFNPTQPOKBT"MHVNBTEFMBTTPDPMIJEBTF BQTVNUSBUBNFOUP USBOTGPSNBEBTOBT
FTQPOKBTEFCBOIPOBUVSBJT
VERTEBRADOS E INVERTEBRADOS
1BSBGBDJMJUBSPFTUVEPEPSFJOPBOJNBM FTUFDPTUVNBTFSEJWJEJEPFNEPJTHSBOEFTHSVQPT
PEPTWFSUFCSBEPTFPEPTJOWFSUFCSBEPT0TWFSUFCSBEPTTPPTOPTTPTQBSFOUFTNBJT
QSYJNPT UPEPTPTBOJNBJTDPNVNBDPMVOBWFSUFCSBM0TJOWFSUFCSBEPTTPUPEPTPTPVUSPT
animais.
0HSVQPEPTJOWFSUFCSBEPTJODMVJNVJUBTNBJTFTQDJFTEPRVFPEPTWFSUFCSBEPT FGPSNBEP
QPSWSJPTHSVQPTEFBOJNBJTNVJUPEJGFSFOUFTFOUSFTJ0GBDUPEFVNHSVQPSFMBUJWBNFOUF
QFRVFOPEFBOJNBJT DPNPPEPTWFSUFCSBEPT EFTQFSUBSUBOUPJOUFSFTTF EFWFTFBTFSFTUF
PHSVQPBPRVBMOT TFSFTIVNBOPT QFSUFODFNPT FRVFJODMVJFTQDJFTNVJUPJNQPSUBOUFT
QBSBOT DPNPPTBOJNBJTEPNTUJDPTPVBNBJPSJBEPTRVFTFSWFNEFBMJNFOUP CFNDPNP
os de maior tamanho e os mais vistosos.

246

%&4"'*04 t $JODJBTEB/BUVSF[B t oBOP t .BUFSJBMGPUPDPQJWFM4BOUJMMBOB$POTUODJB

Caractersticas dos cnidrios

6NCFMB

0TDOJESJPTTPBOJNBJTDPNTJNFUSJBSBEJBMFDPSQPNPMF5NVNB
DBWJEBEFEJHFTUJWB POEFEJHFSFNPBMJNFOUP FNDPNVOJDBPDPN
PFYUFSJPSQPSVNPSJGDJPRVFGVODJPOBDPNPCPDBFDPNPOVT&TUF
PSJGDJPFTUSPEFBEPEFUFOUDVMPTRVFTFSWFNQBSBDBQUVSBSPBMJNFOUP
0TDOJESJPTUN OPTTFVTUFOUDVMPT VNBTDMVMBTFTQFDJBJT 
PTOFNBUPDJTUPT4FVNQFJYFPVPVUSPBOJNBMUPDBOVNDOJEPCMBTUP 
FTUFEJTQBSBVNGJMBNFOUPRVFMJCFSUBUPYJOBT4FTPEJTQBSBEPTNVJUPT
OFNBUPDJTUPTEFVNBWF[ BWUJNBGJDBJNWFMPVNPSSF"TFHVJS 
PTUFOUDVMPTMFWBNOBCPDBFQBTTBQBSBBDBWJEBEFEJHFTUJWB6NB
WF[DPNQMFUBEBBEJHFTUPFBCTPSWJEPTPTOVUSJFOUFT PTSFTUPTOP
EJHFSJEPTTPFYQFMJEPT

$BWJEBEF
EJHFTUJWB

#PDB

5FOUDVMPT
/FNBUPDJTUPT

&YJTUFNDOJESJPTEFWJEBMJWSF DPNPBTNFEVTBT&TUBTTPBSSBTUBEBTQFMBTDPSSFOUFT
NBSJOIBT BJOEBRVFQPTTBNNPWJNFOUBSTFEFWJEPTDPOUSBDFTEBTVBVNCFMB
0VUSPTDOJESJPT QFMPDPOUSSJP WJWFNGJYPTBPGVOEPFFTUFOEFNPTTFVTUFOUDVMPT
QBSBDBQUVSBSQFRVFOPTBOJNBJTFQBSUDVMBTEFBMJNFOUPTBSSBTUBEBTQFMBHVBTP
PTQMJQPT DPNPBTBONPOBTTWF[FT PTQMJQPTWJWFNJTPMBEPT NBTPVUSBTWF[FT
BHSVQBNTFFNDPMOJBTFSPEFJBNTFEFVNFTRVFMFUPDBMDSJPBTTJNRVFTFGPSNBN
PTDPSBJT&NBMHVOTDBTPT QSPEV[JEBVNBUBMBDVNVMBPEFDPSBJTRVFEPSJHFN
BSFDJGFTPVJMIBT

Esquema de uma medusa.


0TOFNBUPDJTUPTEPTUFOUDVMPT
TPBTDMVMBTRVFDBQUVSBN
PBMJNFOUP&TUBTDMVMBTUNVN
GJMBNFOUPDPNVNBTVCTUODJB
QBSBMJTBOUF RVFTFFTUFOEF
SBQJEBNFOUFRVBOEPVNBOJNBM
MIFTUPDB

)DOJESJPTRVFQBTTBNUPEBBWJEBDPNPQMJQPTPVDPNPNFEVTBT0VUSPT QFMP
DPOUSSJP WJWFNVNBQBSUFEBTVBWJEBDPNPNFEVTBFPVUSBQBSUFDPNPQMJQP
"GBTFEFNFEVTBUFNSFQSPEVPTFYVBEB FBEFQMJQP BTTFYVBEB1PSJTTP EJ[TF
RVFPTDOJESJPTBQSFTFOUBNSFQSPEVPBMUFSOBEB
REPRODUO ALTERNADA NOS CNIDRIOS
Fase plipo
0TQMJQPT GSFRVFOUFNFOUF
DPMPOJBJT UNSFQSPEVP
assexuada, mediante a qual
QSPEV[FNQFRVFOBTNFEVTBT
RVFTFWPMJCFSUBOEP

.FEVTBTFN
GPSNBP

SHPT
SFQSPEVUPSFT

Fase medusa

.FEVTB

1MJQP

.FEVTB

As medusas crescem
FBNBEVSFDFN3FQSPEV[FNTF
TFYVBEBNFOUFFEPPSJHFN
a larvas. Quando as larvas
se fixam ao fundo,
desenvolvem-se e originam
VNBDPMOJBEFQMJQPT

0WP
-BSWB

ALGUNS EXEMPLOS DE CNIDRIOS

6NQMJQPJTPMBEP VNBBONPOB

6NDPSBM BHPSHOJBWFSNFMIB

.FEVTBTEPHOFSPMastigia.

%&4"'*04 t $JODJBTEB/BUVSF[B t oBOP t .BUFSJBMGPUPDPQJWFM4BOUJMMBOB$POTUODJB

247

Os vermes
e os equinodermes
$IBNBNPTWFSNFTBWSJPTHSVQPTEFJOWFSUFCSBEPTRVF
QBSUJMIBNWSJBTDBSBDUFSTUJDBTTJNFUSJBCJMBUFSBM DPSQPNPMF
FDPNQSJEPFBVTODJBEFQBUBT0TFRVJOPEFSNFTDBSBDUFSJ[BNTF
QFMBTVBTJNFUSJBSBEJBMRVBOEPTPBEVMUPT

0TWFSNFTQMBOPT

0MIP

4JTUFNB
OFSWPTP

4JTUFNB
EJHFTUJWP
#PDB

Esquema da anatomia de
VNWFSNFQMBOP"TVB
TJNQMJDJEBEFQFSGFJUBNFOUF
WJTWFM

0TNFNCSPTEFTUFHSVQPUBNCNTPDIBNBEPTEF
QMBUFMNJOUBT5NVNBGPSNBQMBOBFTPNVJUPTJNQMFT
0TFVTJTUFNBEJHFTUJWPUFNVNOJDPPSJGDJP RVFBDUVB
DPNPCPDBFDPNPOVT/PUNBQBSFMIPSFTQJSBUSJP
FDJSDVMBUSJP"QSFTFOUBNVNBDBCFBNVJUPTJNQMFTOB
RVBMFYJTUFVNDSFCSPNVJUPFMFNFOUBSFBMHVOTSHPT
EFTFOUJEPT
"MHVOTEFMFT DPNPBTQMBOSJBT TPEFWJEBMJWSF0VUSPT 
QFMPDPOUSSJP DPNPBTGBTDJPMBTFBUOJB TPQBSBTJUBT
DPNVNPTQBSBTJUBTOPQPTTVSFNSHPTEPTTFOUJEPT
F QPSPVUSPMBEP QPTTVSFNFTUSVUVSBTQBSBTFBHBSSBSFN
BPIPTQFEFJSP DPNPWFOUPTBTFHBODIPT

Planria aqutica de vida livre.


"MHVOT QFMBTVBGPSNB QBSFDFN
GPMIBT NBJTEPRVFWFSNFT

Os vermes cilndricos
0TWFSNFTEFTUFHSVQPTPDPOIFDJEPTDPNP
OFNUPEFTFTPWFSNFTNVJUPGJOPT DPNVN
DPSQPDJMOESJDPEFFYUSFNJEBEFTBGJBEBT5NVN
BQBSFMIPEJHFTUJWPDPNQMFUP DPNCPDBFOVT
4POVNFSPTPTOPTPMPFOPNFJPBRVUJDP BJOEB
RVFDPTUVNFNTFSUPGJOPTFQFRVFOPTRVFOP
DPOTFHVFNTFSWJTUPTBPMIPOV
"NBJPSJBEFWJEBMJWSF FNCPSBUBNCNIBKB
QBSBTJUBTEFQMBOUBTFBOJNBJT1FMPNFOPT
VNBTDJORVFOUBFTQDJFTTPDBQB[FTEFDBVTBS
EPFOBTHSBWFTOPTFSIVNBOP DPNPBUSJRVJOB 
BTjMPNCSJHBTxJOUFTUJOBJTFBTGJMSJBT

Lombriga intestinal.

AS TNIAS
&YJTUFNEJWFSTBTFTQDJFT
de tnias, vermes intestinais.
Os indivduos adultos vivem
OPJOUFTUJOPFQPEFN
alcanar mais de trs metros
EFDPNQSJNFOUP
0IPTQFEFJSPDPOUBNJOBEP
ao comer carne crua ou mal
DP[JOIBEB FNDVKPJOUFSJPS
FTUPBTMBSWBT

248

"TMBSWBTTPJOHFSJEBT
e, quando chegam ao
intestino, desenvolvem-se
at se tornarem adultas,
NPNFOUPBQBSUJSEPRVBM
colocam quantidades muito
HSBOEFTEFPWPTRVFTP
FYQFMJEPTDPNBTGF[FT
Quando um ser humano
ingere os ovos de tnia,

as larvas migram
QBSBEJGFSFOUFTUFDJEPT
e rodeiam-se de uma
DQTVMB PSJHJOBOEPRVJTUPT
&TUFTQPEFNDIFHBSB
QSPWPDBSTJOUPNBTNVJUP
HSBWFT FTQFDJBMNFOUF
TFTFGPSNBNFNSHPT
DPNPPGHBEP BFTQJOBM
medula ou o crebro.

%&4"'*04 t $JODJBTEB/BUVSF[B t oBOP t .BUFSJBMGPUPDPQJWFM4BOUJMMBOB$POTUODJB

"DBCFBEFVNBUOJB DPN
BTWFOUPTBTRVFVTBQBSBTF
BHBSSBSBPTFVIPTQFEFJSP

Aneldeos
0TBOFMEFPTTPVNHSVQPEFWFSNFTRVFBQSFTFOUB
DBSBDUFSTUJDBTNBJTBWBOBEBT5NVNBQBSFMIPEJHFTUJWP
DPNQMFUP BQBSFMIPDJSDVMBUSJPFSHPTFYDSFUPSFT
"TVBGPSNBBQSPYJNBEBNFOUFDJMOESJDBFBQSFTFOUBN
OVNFSPTPTTFHNFOUPT OPTRVBJTFYJTUFNBMHVNBT
FTUSVUVSBTSFQFUJEBT
/PJOUFSJPSEPTFVDPSQPBQBSFDFVNFTQBPPDPSPEFBEP
EFNFNCSBOBTRVFFTUDIFJPEFMRVJEP&TUFFTQBP
BDUVBDPNPTFGPTTFVNBNBOHVFJSBDIFJBEFHVB
FEVNBDFSUBDPOTJTUODJBBPDPSQPEPBOFMEFP
0TBOFMEFPTOPUNQBUBT NBTBMHVOTEFMFTUNQMPT
PVFYQBOTFTMBNJOBSFTEFEJGFSFOUFTGPSNBTRVF
PTBKVEBNBEFTMPDBSTF
&ODPOUSBNTFMJWSFTOPTPMP FNHVBEPDFF TPCSFUVEP OPT
GVOEPTNBSJOIPT FNCPSBUBNCNFYJTUBNFTQDJFTQBSBTJUBT

$PSBFT
4JTUFNB
OFSWPTP

4FHNFOUPT
EPDPSQP

#PDB
SHPTEFSF
QSPEVP

4JTUFNB
EJHFTUJWP

SHPT
FYDSFUPSFT
Esquema da anatomia de um aneldeo.QPTTWFMWFSEJGFSFOUFT
SHPTFTJTUFNBT

OS GRUPOS DE ANELDEOS

0TIJSVEOFPTTPQBSBTJUBT DPNPB
sanguessuga. Tm ventosas com as
RVBJTTFBHBSSBNTTVBTWUJNBT

0TPMJHPRVFUBTTPPHSVQPEBT
minhocas, que habitam no solo e
DPOUSJCVFNQBSBBGPSNBPEFTUF

0TQPMJRVFUBTTPVNHSVQPNVJUP
numeroso de vermes marinhos com
OVNFSPTPTQSPMPOHBNFOUPT

Equinodermes
&TUFTBOJNBJTUNTJNFUSJBSBEJBMRVBOEPTPBEVMUPT BJOEBRVFBTMBSWBTBQSFTFOUFN
TJNFUSJBCJMBUFSBM4PCPSFWFTUJNFOUPUNVNFTRVFMFUPGPSNBEPQPSQMBDBTDBMDSJBTF 
GSFRVFOUFNFOUF BQSFTFOUBNFTQJOIPT
1PTTVFNVNBQBSFMIPBNCVMBDSBMVNTJTUFNBEFDBOBJTDIFJPTEFHVBRVFQBSUJDJQBN
OBMPDPNPP OBDJSDVMBPFOBSFTQJSBP
5NSFQSPEVPTFYVBEB NBTBTFTUSFMBTEPNBSUBNCNTFSFQSPEV[FN
BTTFYVBEBNFOUF QPJTBQBSUJSEFVNCSBPTPMUPQSPEV[TFVNBOJNBMDPNQMFUP
PRINCIPAIS GRUPOS DE EQUINODERMES

As estrelas-do-mar tm cinco braos.


4PQSFEBEPSFTFEFTMPDBNTF
MFOUBNFOUFQFMPGVOEP

0TPVSJPTEPNBSFTUPBSNBEPTEF
OVNFSPTPTFTQJOIPT DPNPTRVBJT
QPEFNDBVTBSHSBWFTGFSJNFOUPT

"TIPMPUSJBTPVQFQJOPTEPNBSTP
DBQB[FTEFFYQVMTBSPQSQSJPJOUFTUJOP
QBSBDPOGVOEJSPTTFVTQSFEBEPSFT

%&4"'*04 t $JODJBTEB/BUVSF[B t oBOP t .BUFSJBMGPUPDPQJWFM4BOUJMMBOB$POTUODJB

249

Os moluscos
6NQPMWP VNDBSBDPMFVNBBNJKPBQBSFDFNDFSUBNFOUF
NVJUPEJGFSFOUFT/PFOUBOUP UPEPTFMFTTPNPMVTDPT
VNHSVQPEFBOJNBJTNVJUPOVNFSPTPFWBSJBEP

Caractersticas dos moluscos


0TNPMVTDPTTPBOJNBJTDPNVNBTJNFUSJBCJMBUFSBMFDPSQPNPMF RVFDPTUVNBFTUBS
QSPUFHJEPQPSVNBDPODIBRVFFMFTNFTNPTQSPEV[FN&TTBDPODIBQPEFUFSVNBPVEVBT
QBSUFT DIBNBEBTWBMWBT/PDBTPEFBMHVOTHBTUSQPEFT FODPOUSBTFFOSPMBEBFNFTQJSBM
0DPSQPEPTNPMVTDPTFTUEJWJEJEPFNDBCFB NBTTBWJTDFSBMFQ
"DBCFBUFNBCPDBFPTSHPTEFTFOUJEPT QPSWF[FTTPCSFPTUFOUDVMPT0QVNB
NBTTBNVTDVMPTBRVFQFSNJUFRVFPBOJNBMTFEFTMPRVF"NBTTBWJTDFSBMFOHMPCB
PTSHPTJOUFSOPTEPBOJNBMFFTUDPCFSUBQPSVNBNFNCSBOB DIBNBEBNBOUP 
FODBSSFHBEBEFQSPEV[JSBDPODIB

Valvas e conchas de moluscos.


.VJUPTNPMVTDPTUNDPODIBT 
RVFDPOTUJUVFNBTVBQSPUFDP
FYUFSOB

$BCFBDPNUFOUDVMPT
OPTRVBJTSFTJEFNSHPT
EFTFOUJEPT WJTPFUBDUP


$PODIBQSPEV[JEBQFMP
NBOUPFQSPUFHFBNBTTB
WJTDFSBM

5FOUDVMPT
TFOTPSJBJT

1NVTDVMPTPRVFTFSWF
QBSBPBOJNBMTFEFTMPDBS

/BCPDB UNVNBFTQDJFEFMOHVB DIBNBEBSEVMB DPCFSUBQPSVOTEFOUFTEVSPT


4FSWFQBSBSBTQBSPTBMJNFOUPT RVFQPEFNTFSEFPSJHFNWFHFUBMPVBOJNBM
0TNPMVTDPTTP OBTVBNBJPSJB NBSJOIPT BJOEBRVFUBNCNFYJTUBNPTUFSSFTUSFT
FEFHVBEPDF&OUSFPNBOUPFBNBTTBWJTDFSBMGJDBVNFTQBPPDPOPRVBMTFFODPOUSBN
PTSHPTSFTQJSBUSJPT RVFTPQVMNFTOPTUFSSFTUSFTFCSORVJBTOPTNBSJOIPT
0TJTUFNBOFSWPTPEPTNPMVTDPTNVJUPEFTFOWPMWJEPFPTSHPTEPTTFOUJEPTTP
CBTUBOUFDPNQMFYPT

FABRICANTES DE JIAS
"TQSPMBT UPBQSFDJBEBT
QBSBTFSFNVUJMJ[BEBTFN
KPBMIBSJB OPTPQFESBT
QSFDJPTBTDPNPPEJBNBOUF
PVPSVCJ/BSFBMJEBEF TP
QSPEV[JEBTQFMBTPTUSBT
FQPSPVUSPTNPMVTDPT
Quando se introduz no
NBOUPVNHSPEFBSFJB
PVPVUSPDPSQPFTUSBOIP 
BPTUSBQSPEV[DBQBT
EFODBSRVFPWP

250

FOWPMWFOEP BURVF QPVDP


BQPVDP TFGPSNBBQSPMB
"TQSPMBT EFQFOEFOEP
do seu tamanho e da
sua qualidade, chegam
a alcanar um grande valor.
Por isso, desde a mais
remota Antiguidade,
PTQFTDBEPSFTEFQSPMBT
NFSHVMIBNQBSBBTJS
buscar, colocando a vida
em risco.

%&4"'*04 t $JODJBTEB/BUVSF[B t oBOP t .BUFSJBMGPUPDPQJWFM4BOUJMMBOB$POTUODJB

1SPMBOVNBPTUSB

1SJODJQBJTHSVQPTEFNPMVTDPT
GASTRPODES
5NVNQWFOUSBMDPN
o qual se arrastam.
0FYFNQMPNBJT
conhecido o caracol
terrestre; contudo,
BNBJPSJBEPTHBTUSQPEFT
TPNBSJOIPT
Costumam ter uma
DPODIBFNFTQJSBMRVF
PTQSPUFHF BJOEBRVF
tambm existam sem
concha, como as lesmas.

5SJUP VNDBSBDPMNBSJOIP

-FTNBUFSSFTUSF

BIVALVES
A concha formada
QPSEVBTWBMWBTRVFTF
QPEFNBCSJSPVGFDIBS
/PUNDBCFBFPQ
DPTUVNBTFSQFRVFOPPV
inexistente.

-FTNBNBSJOIB

ESCAFPODES
A maioria alimenta-se
QPSGJMUSBP SFUFOEPBT
QBSUDVMBTUSBOTQPSUBEBT
QFMBHVB"NBJPSJB
marinha.

7JFJSB
DPODIBEFQFSFHSJOP


A sua caracterstica mais


QFDVMJBSBDPODIBFNGPSNB
de dente de elefante, ainda
que aberta em ambas as
FYUSFNJEBEFT5NVNQ
FQFRVFOPTUFOUDVMPT
Vivem enterrados na areia
dos fundos marinhos.

.FYJMIFTEFSJP

CEFALPODES
Tm uma cabea bem
desenvolvida, da qual
saem vrios tentculos.
0QVNBFTQDJFEF
TJGPDBQB[EFFYQVMTBS
HVBQSFTTP PRVF
os faz deslocarem-se.
A concha costuma ser
uma estrutura interna,
como no choco, ou ser
inexistente, como nos
QPMWPT

1PMWPWVMHBS

$IPDP

$PODIBTEFFTDBGQPEFT

O MONSTRO INVISVEL
/BPCSB20 000 Lguas
Submarinas, de Jlio
7FSOF PTUSJQVMBOUFT
do submarino Nautilus
lutavam com machados
contra uma lula gigante.
A cena imaginria,
mas a lula-gigante existe.
Trata-se, talvez, do animal
NBJTQSPDVSBEP

&N4FUFNCSPEF 
QFTDBEPSFTEP"MHBSWF
DBQUVSBSBNBPMPOHP
EF.BSSPDPTVNB
MVMBHJHBOUFRVFQFTBWB
mais de oitenta quilos
e media mais de sete
metros.

%&4"'*04 t $JODJBTEB/BUVSF[B t oBOP t .BUFSJBMGPUPDPQJWFM4BOUJMMBOB$POTUODJB

251

Os artrpodes: animais
encouraados
&TUFTBOJNBJTGJ[FSBNVNBJNQPSUBOUFEFTDPCFSUBBDBSBQBB
0TFVDPSQPFTUDPCFSUPQPSVNBBSNBEVSBDPNPBEPT
HVFSSFJSPTNFEJFWBJT GFJUBEFQFBTEVSBTBSUJDVMBEBT

$BSBDUFSTUJDBTEPTBSUSQPEFT
0OPNFBSUSQPEFTTJHOJGJDBjQBUBT
BSUJDVMBEBTx0HSVQPEPTBSUSQPEFT
JODMVJBOJNBJTRVFUNPDPSQPDPCFSUP
QPSVNBDBSBQBBGJOB&TUBDPOTUJUVEB
QPSQMBDBTSHJEBTBSUJDVMBEBTFOUSFTJ
FRVFDPOTUJUVFNVNFTRVFMFUPFYUFSOP
PVFYPTRVFMFUP"MNEJTTP FTUFFTRVFMFUP
DPCSFUPEPPDPSQP JODMVTJWBNFOUF
BTQBUBTFEFNBJTBQOEJDFTDPNQPTUP
TPCSFUVEPQPSVNQPMJTTBDBSEFPRVJUJOB
F QPSWF[FT JNQSFHOBEPEFTBJT

EFDMDJP DPNPBDPOUFDF QPSFYFNQMP 


OPTDBSBOHVFKPTFOBTMBHPTUBT
0TFVDPSQP UBMDPNPBDPOUFDFOPT
BOFMEFPT GPSNBEPQPSTFHNFOUPT 
RVFTFQPEFNJEFOUJGJDBSQSJODJQBMNFOUF
OPBCENFO
5NPDPSQPTFHNFOUBEPFNWSJBTSFHJFT 
RVFQPSOPSNB TPBDBCFB PUSBY
FPBCENFO"MNEJTTP BQSFTFOUBN
WSJPTUJQPTEFBQOEJDFT

ANATOMIA EXTERNA DOS ARTRPODES


Partes do corpo

Apndices

Cabea./FMBBCSFTFBCPDB SPEFBEB
QPSWSJBTQFBTRVFGPSNBNPBQBSFMIP
CVDBM$POUNPTPMIPTFBTBOUFOBT
5SBY"QBSUJSEFMF
QBSUFNEJWFSTPTBQOEJDFT
RVFTFSWFNQBSBBMPDPNPP 
DPNPBTQBUBTFBTBTBT
"CENFO&TUEJWJEJEP
FNTFHNFOUPTFBQSFTFOUB
BNBJPSJBEPTSHPTJOUFSOPT

"OUFOB
"TB
1BUB
/PUB/FNUPEPTPTBSUSQPEFT
BQSFTFOUBNPTNFTNPTTFHNFOUPT
OFNPTNFTNPTBQOEJDFT

ANATOMIA INTERNA DOS INSECTOS (maior grupo dos artrpodes)


.TDVMPTEFWPP
"QBSFMIPEJHFTUJWP

4JTUFNBDJSDVMBUSJP
DPSBFT

4JTUFNBFYDSFUPS

4JTUFNBOFSWPTP

252

%&4"'*04 t $JODJBTEB/BUVSF[B t oBOP t .BUFSJBMGPUPDPQJWFM4BOUJMMBOB$POTUODJB

4JTUFNBSFQSPEVUPS

(SVQPTEFBSUSQPEFT
TRILOBITES

CARANGUEJOS-FERRADURA

"QFTBSEFFTUBSFN
extintos, estes
BSUSQPEFTGPSBNNVJUP
abundantes na Terra
QSJNJUJWBFEPNJOBWBN
PTTFVTNBSFT DVKPT
GVOEPTQFSDPSSJBN
)PKFDPOIFDFNPMPT
HSBBTBPTGTTFJTRVF
deixaram.
5SJMPCJUFTEPHOFSPElrathia

Actualmente, sobrevivem
BQFOBTDJODPFTQDJFT
EFTUFTBSUSQPEFTEF
BTQFDUPQSIJTUSJDP
RVFFTUPNBJTSFMBDJPOBEPT
com as aranhas do que
com os verdadeiros
DBSBOHVFKPT"NBJPSJB
EFTUFTDBSBOHVFKPT
marinha e nada
EFCBSSJHBQBSBDJNB

$BSBOHVFKPGFSSBEVSB

ARACNDEOS
/PTBSBDOEFPT BDBCFB
FPUSBYFTUPVOJEPT 
GPSNBOEPPDFGBMPUSBY
5NPJUPQBUBT
FRVFMDFSBT BQOEJDFT
BSUJDVMBEPTQFSUPEBCPDB
RVFTFSWFNQBSBDBQUVSBS
FJOHFSJSBTTVBTQSFTBT
*ODMVFNTFOFTUFHSVQP
PTFTDPSQJFT PTDBSPT
e as aranhas.
&TDPSQJPDPNVN

DBSPTEPQ

#JDIPEFDPOUB

$BNBSPTPCSFVNBBONPOB

"SBOIBMygale

CRUSTCEOS
"QSFTFOUBNDFGBMPUSBY
.VJUPTQPTTVFNEF[QBUBT
&TUPEPUBEPTEFBOUFOBT
FOBHFOFSBMJEBEFTP
marinhos, como os
DBSBOHVFKPT BTMBHPTUBT 
os camares, etc. Tambm
vivem em gua doce, como
PDBSBOHVFKPEFSJP PV
em terra, como o bicho-de-conta. Existem crustceos
RVBTFNJDSPTDQJDPTRVF
GB[FNQBSUFEPQMODUPO

$BSBOHVFKPNBSJOIP

MIRIPODES

INSECTOS

4PBTDFOUPQFJBT 
DPNPBFTDPMPQFOESB 
FPTNJMQT"TFHVJS
DBCFB PDPSQPFTU
dividido em numerosos
segmentos, cada um
deles conta com duas
PVRVBUSPQBUBT

'PSNBNPHSVQPNBJTFYUFOTP 
QFMPRVFTFSPPPCKFDUPEF
FTUVEPEBTQHJOBTRVFTF
seguem.

&TDPMPQFOESB

.JMQT

%&4"'*04 t $JODJBTEB/BUVSF[B t oBOP t .BUFSJBMGPUPDPQJWFM4BOUJMMBOB$POTUODJB

253

Os insectos
%FUPEPTPTTFSFTWJWPTRVFDPOIFDFNPT NBJTEFNFUBEF
TPJOTFDUPT1PEFNPTEJ[FS TFNRVBMRVFSNFEPEFOPT
FOHBOBSNPT RVFWJWFNPTOPQMBOFUBEPTJOTFDUPT

UMA VIDA DE LARVA


O veado-voador
ou vaca-loura um grande
escaravelho adornado
DPNVOTFTQFDUBDVMBSFT
chifres. A sua larva
vive de um a cinco anos
alimentando-se de madeira.
O escaravelho adulto vive
BQFOBTFOUSFEJBT
BVNNT QFSPEPOPRVBM
tem de encontrar uma
GNFBQBSBTFSFQSPEV[JS
Este caso d uma ideia
EBJNQPSUODJBEBGBTF
MBSWBSQBSBBMHVOTJOTFDUPT

Caractersticas dos insectos


0DPSQPEPTJOTFDUPTFTUEJWJEJEPFNDBCFB USBYFBCENFO5NEVBTBOUFOBT RVBUSPBTBT 
TFJTQBUBTFEJWFSTPTUJQPTEFQFBTCVDBJT
3FTQJSBNBUSBWTEFUSBRVFJBT RVFTPUVCPT
RVFTFBCSFNOPFYPTRVFMFUP
FRVFMFWBNPBSBUBPJOUFSJPSEPDPSQP
EPJOTFDUP"TUSBRVFJBTSBNJGJDBNTF
QSPGVTBNFOUFDPNPPCKFDUJWPEFDIFHBSFN
BUPEBTBTDMVMBTEPDPSQP
"SFQSPEVPEPTJOTFDUPTTFYVBEB
4PPWQBSPTFEPPWPTBFNMBSWBTRVF
OPSNBMNFOUFTPNVJUPEJGFSFOUFTEPBOJNBM
BEVMUP"MBSWBUSBOTGPSNBTFFNQSJNFJSP
MVHBSFNQVQB VNBGBTFOBRVBMQFSNBOFDF
JNWFMFEVSBOUFBRVBMPTFVDPSQPTPGSF
VNBUSBOTGPSNBPSBEJDBM1PSGJN BQBSUJS
EBQVQB TVSHFPJOTFDUPBEVMUP DBQB[EFTF
SFQSPEV[JS&TUFQSPDFTTP BUSBWTEPRVBMB
MBSWBTFUSBOTGPSNBFNBEVMUP SFDFCFPOPNF
EFNFUBNPSGPTF

Diferentes larvas de insectos:NPTRVJUP FNDJNB 


FTRVFSEB
CJDIPEBTFEB FNDJNB EJSFJUB

KPBOJOIB FNCBJYP FTRVFSEB
FMJCMVMB FNCBJYP 
EJSFJUB


"QOEJDFTEPTJOTFDUPT
/PIEWJEBEFRVFVNBEBTSB[FTQBSBPFOPSNFYJUPEPTJOTFDUPTBRVBOUJEBEF
EFUJQPTEFBQOEJDFTEJGFSFOUFTRVFBQSFTFOUBN QFSGFJUBNFOUFBEBQUBEPTBPTFVNPEP
EFWJEB
AS PATAS DOS INSECTOS

AS PEAS BUCAIS DOS INSECTOS

Para saltar.

1BSBDBQUVSBSQSFTBT

1BSBQJDBSFBTQJSBS

Para mastigar.

Para caminhar.

Para nadar.

1BSBQFSGVSBS

Para sugar.

254

%&4"'*04 t $JODJBTEB/BUVSF[B t oBOP t .BUFSJBMGPUPDPQJWFM4BOUJMMBOB$POTUODJB

*NQPSUODJBEPTJOTFDUPT
0TJOTFDUPTTPNVJUPJNQPSUBOUFT FNQSJNFJSPMVHBS EFWJEPBPTFVONFSPTPPT
BOJNBJTNBJTBCVOEBOUFTEP1MBOFUB"MNEJTTP BGFDUBNBTQFTTPBTFPSFTUPEPTTFSFT
WJWPTEP1MBOFUB$BVTBNUBOUPCFOFGDJPTDPNPQSFKV[PT NBTTPJOEJTQFOTWFJTQBSB
BTBEFEP1MBOFUB
Benefcios
t $POTPNFNSFTUPTEFBOJNBJT DPNP
os seus cadveres e excrementos.
%FTUFNPEP SFUJSBNOPTEB/BUVSF[B
t 1PMJOJ[BNNVJUBTQMBOUBTDPNGMPS
t 4FSWFNEFBMJNFOUPBOVNFSPTPTBOJNBJT
t 1SPEV[FNTFEB DFSB NFM DPSBOUFT
FPVUSPTQSPEVUPTUFJT

Prejuzos
t 1PEFNTFSQSBHBTQBSBBTOPTTBTDPMIFJUBT
t %FUFSJPSBNBMJNFOUPTIVNBOPT
armazenados.
t 5SBOTNJUFNEPFOBTHSBWFTBP)PNFN 
DPNPBNBMSJBPVBQFTUF BTTJNDPNP
BPVUSPTBOJNBJTFTQMBOUBT
t 1PEFNFTUSBHBSPCKFDUPTFFEJGDJPT 
QPSFYFNQMP TFGPSFNGFJUPTEFNBEFJSB

PRINCIPAIS GRUPOS DE INSECTOS


Colepteros (escaravelhos)
Tm quatro asas, duas delas
SHJEBT RVFQSPUFHFN
as outras duas.
Dentro dos insectos,
DPOTUJUVFNPHSVQPNBJT
numeroso.

Lepidpteros (borboletas)
"MHVNBTUNBQFOBTRVBUSP
QBUBT"TTVBTBTBTTP
grandes, tm escamas
e muitas cores.
Distinguem-se as borboletas
diurnas e as nocturnas,
ou traas.
Dpteros (moscas)
"QSFTFOUBNBQFOBTEVBT
asas. As outras duas asas
transformaram-se em duas
QFRVFOBTQSPUVCFSODJBT
RVFDPOUSJCVFNQBSB
o equilbrio durante
o voo.

Hempteros
(percevejos)
%VBTEBTBTBTFTUP
endurecidas, mas
BQFOBTBUNFJP
"TTVBTQFBTCVDBJT
TPQFSGVSBOUFT QBSB
DIVQBSTFJWBPVTBOHVF

Ortpteros
(grilos e gafanhotos)
"TQBUBTQPTUFSJPSFT
FTUPFTQFDJBMNFOUF
BEBQUBEBTQBSBTBMUBS
/FTUFHSVQPJODMVFNTF
os gafanhotos e os grilos.

Odonatos (liblulas)
0BCENFONVJUP
HSBOEF"TBTBTTP
iguais e tm uma
EJTQPTJPFNj9x
Distinguem-se
as liblulas, que
descansam com
as asas abertas, e os
cavalinhos-do-diabo,
RVFBTKVOUBNQBSB
descansar.
Himenpteros (abelhas)
4PPTJOTFDUPTTPDJBJT
BCFMIBT WFTQBTFGPSNJHBT
'PSNBNDPMOJBTOBTRVBJT
UPEPTPTNFNCSPTTP
BQBSFOUBEPTFUSBCBMIBN
em benefcio da
comunidade.

%&4"'*04 t $JODJBTEB/BUVSF[B t oBOP t .BUFSJBMGPUPDPQJWFM4BOUJMMBOB$POTUODJB

255

Os vertebrados
"QFTBSEFOPTFSPNBJPSFNONFSP PHSVQPEPTWFSUFCSBEPT
NVJUPJNQPSUBOUFQBSBP)PNFNPHSVQPBPRVBM
QFSUFODFNPTTFSFTIVNBOPTFNVJUPTEPTBOJNBJTEPTRVBJT
OPTBMJNFOUBNPT

Caractersticas dos vertebrados


0TWFSUFCSBEPTTPBOJNBJTDPNTJNFUSJBCJMBUFSBMRVFTFDBSBDUFSJ[BNQPSUFSFNVN
FTRVFMFUPJOUFSOPEFPTTPFDBSUJMBHFN&TTFFTRVFMFUPGPSNBVNFJYP DIBNBEPDPMVOB
WFSUFCSBM RVFQSPUFHFBFTQJOBMNFEVMB VNBQBSUFEPTJTUFNBOFSWPTP/BQBSUFBOUFSJPS
EBDPMVOBWFSUFCSBM FODPOUSBTFPDSOJP VNFTUPKPEFPTTPRVFQSPUFHFPDSFCSP
0DPSQPEPTWFSUFCSBEPTFTUEJWJEJEPFNUSTQBSUFTDBCFB USPODPFDBVEB1PSTVBWF[ 
PUSPODPEJWJEFTFFNUSBYFBCENFO FEFMFTBFNPTNFNCSPTRVFGPSNBNQBSFT

CORPO DOS VERTEBRADOS

Cabea. /FMBFODPOUSBTFPDSFCSP
FOVNFSPTPTSHPTEPTTFOUJEPT 
TPCSFUVEPPTPMIPTFPTPVWJEPT

Tronco. $POUNBNBJPSQBSUFEPTSHPT
JOUFSOPTEPBOJNBM DPNPPTQVMNFT 
PDPSBP PTJTUFNBEJHFTUJWP 
PTJTUFNBSFQSPEVUPSy

Cauda. GPSNBEBQFMBMUJNBQBSUF
EBDPMVOBWFSUFCSBMFQPSVNBTSJF
EFNTDVMPT"TVBGVODJPOBMJEBEFFTU
SFMBDJPOBEBDPNBMPDPNPP

.FNCSPT/PTQFJYFTTPCBSCBUBOBT FORVBOUPOPSFTUPEPTWFSUFCSBEPT
TPQBUBTDPNDJODPEFEPTRVFTFSWFNQBSBTFEFTMPDBSFNFNUFSSB BQFTBS
EFFNBMHVOTHSVQPTFTUBTQBUBTTFUFSFNUSBOTGPSNBEPFNCBSCBUBOBT

OS CORDADOS
0TWFSUFCSBEPTOP
DPOTUJUVFNVNHSVQP
DPNPPEPTBSUSQPEFT 
PVNPMVTDPT/BSFBMJEBEF 
GB[FNQBSUFEFVNHSVQP
maior, o dos cordados.
/FTUF JODMVFNTF
os cefalocordados
e os tunicados, alm
dos vertebrados.

0TDFGBMPDPSEBEPTQBSFDFN
QFRVFOPTQFJYFT BQFTBS
EFOPUFSFNFTRVFMFUP
Os tunicados mais
DPOIFDJEPTTPBTBTDEJBT 
RVFGB[FNMFNCSBSQPVDP
PTWFSUFCSBEPT FYDFQUP
no estado larvar, em que
TPOBEBEPSBT
$BTBMEFBTDEJBT

256

%&4"'*04 t $JODJBTEB/BUVSF[B t oBOP t .BUFSJBMGPUPDPQJWFM4BOUJMMBOB$POTUODJB

VERTEBRADOS

OS VERTEBRADOS
EM NMEROS
1FJYFTFTQDJFT
"OGCJPTFTQDJFT
3QUFJTFTQDJFT
"WFTFTQDJFT
.BNGFSPTFTQDJFT
5PUBMFTQDJFT
"QFTBSEFTFDPOUJOVBSFN
a descobrir novas
FTQDJFT OPQSPWWFM
que aumente muito o seu
ONFSP FYDFQUVBOEP 
UBMWF[ PHSVQPEPTQFJYFT

Animais com coluna


vertebral

Os membros
TPCBSCBUBOBT

0TNFNCSPTTP
RVBUSPQBUBTDPNDJODPEFEPT

Peixes

2VBESQFEFT

Com uma fase aqutica


OBRVBMSFTQJSBN
atravs de brnquias

Carecem de uma fase


aqutica

Anfbios

Amniotas

4PPWQBSPT

4PWJWQBSPT

"QFMFFTUDPCFSUB
de escamas

"QFMFFTUDPCFSUB
EFQFOBT

3QUFJT

Aves

.BNGFSPT

%&4"'*04 t $JODJBTEB/BUVSF[B t oBOP t .BUFSJBMGPUPDPQJWFM4BOUJMMBOB$POTUODJB

257

Os peixes e os anfbios
0TQFJYFTFPTBOGCJPT BQFTBSEFTFSFNHSVQPTNVJUPEJTUJOUPT 
UNFNDPNVNPGBDUPEFTFSFNBRVUJDPTFEFSFTQJSBSFN
BUSBWTEFCSORVJBT QFMPNFOPTEVSBOUFVNBGBTFEBTVBWJEB

$BSBDUFSTUJDBTEPTQFJYFT

%JWFSTJEBEFEFQFJYFT
"NBJPSJBEBTFTQDJFTEFQFJYFT
NBSJOIB BQFTBSEFNVJUBT
WJWFSFNFNHVBEPDF

0HSVQPEPTQFJYFTPRVFUFNVNNBJPSONFSPEFFTQDJFT5PEPTFMFTTPBOJNBJT
BRVUJDPTRVFSFTQJSBNPPYJHOJPQSFTFOUFOBHVBBUSBWTEFCSORVJBT0TFVDPSQP
UFNBGPSNBEFGVTPFFTUOPSNBMNFOUFDPCFSUPEFFTDBNBT%FTMPDBNTFVUJMJ[BOEP
CBSCBUBOBTRVFPTJNQVMTJPOBNEFOUSPEFHVB1PTTVFNCBSCBUBOBTNQBSFT EPSTBM 
BOBMFDBVEBM
TJUVBEBTOBMJOIBNEJBEPDPSQP FCBSCBUBOBTQBSFT QFJUPSBJTFWFOUSBJT

RVFTFFODPOUSBNTJUVBEBTTJNFUSJDBNFOUFFNBNCPTPTMBEPTEPDPSQP
0TQFJYFTUNVNSHPTFOTPSJBMFYDMVTJWPBMJOIBMBUFSBM5SBUBTFEFVNBGJMFJSB
EFFTDBNBTQFSGVSBEBT RVFMJHBNVNBTSJFEFTFOTPSFTMPDBMJ[BEPTQPSCBJYPEBQFMF
FRVFEFUFDUBNBTWJCSBFTOBHVB
3FTQJSBNPPYJHOJPRVFTFFODPOUSBOBHVBBUSBWTEFSHPTRVFSFDFCFNPOPNF
EFCSORVJBT&TUBTFODPOUSBNTFOBGBSJOHFEPBOJNBM DPNVOJDBOEPDPNPFYUFSJPS
BUSBWTEBCPDBFEBTDBWJEBEFTCSBORVJBJTRVFTFBCSFNBTFHVJSDBCFB
#BSCBUBOBEPSTBM
#BSCBUBOBWFOUSBM

0QSDVMP

#BSCBUBOBDBVEBM

#SORVJB

-JOIBMBUFSBM
#PDB
#BSCBUBOBBOBM

#BSCBUBOB
QFJUPSBM
$BCFB

PAIS EXTREMOSOS
0TQFJYFTEJTDPGJHVSBNFOUSFPTQPVDPTRVF
cuidam das suas crias. Produzem uma mucosidade
OBQFMFEBRVBMPTBMFWJOPTTFBMJNFOUBN

5SPODP

$BVEB

0TQFJYFTUNSFQSPEVPTFYVBEBFTPPWQBSPT"GFDVOEBP
FYUFSOBBGNFBQFPWPTFPNBDIPEFQPTJUBPTFVFTQFSNB
QPSDJNBEFMFT GFDVOEBOEPPT
3FHSBHFSBM PTPWPTTPQFRVFOPTFDPOUNQPVDBTTVCTUODJBT
OVUSJUJWBT%FMFTTBFNPTBMFWJOPT NVJUPQFRVFOPT RVFQBTTBNBGB[FS
QBSUFEPQMODUPO
0TQFJYFT TBMWPBMHVNBTFYDFQFT OPDVJEBNEPTPWPTOFNEBTDSJBT
RVFTBFNEFMFT1PSJTTP QPVDPTBMFWJOPTDIFHBNBBEVMUPT0TQFJYFT
DPNQFOTBNFTUFGBDUPQPOEPVNBFOPSNFRVBOUJEBEFEFPWPT
$VSJPTBNFOUF OPTDBTPTFNRVFPTQFJYFTDVJEBNEBTDSJBT TPPTQBJT
FOPBTNFTRVFNTFFODBSSFHBNEFMFT
&NBMHVOTDBTPT BGNFBOPQFPWPT HVBSEBPTOPJOUFSJPSEPTFV
BQBSFMIPSFQSPEVUPS2VBOEPPTPWPTFDMPEFN FYQVMTBNBTDSJBTWJWBT
"FTUFUJQPEFSFQSPEVPDIBNBTFPWPWJWJQBSJTNPPDBTP QPS
FYFNQMP EFBMHVNBTFTQDJFTEFUVCBSFT

258

%&4"'*04 t $JODJBTEB/BUVSF[B t oBOP t .BUFSJBMGPUPDPQJWFM4BOUJMMBOB$POTUODJB

(SVQPTEFQFJYFT
CONDRITOS

OSTECTES

4PQFJYFT
cartilaginosos.
O esqueleto
GPSNBEPQPS
DBSUJMBHFN QPS
CBJYPEBQFMFUN
VNBFTQDJFEF
escamas semelhantes
a dentes e a
barbatana caudal
assimtrica.

o nome dado aos


SFTUBOUFTQFJYFT
$BSBDUFSJ[BNTFQPS
terem um esqueleto
TTFPFFTDBNBTMJTBT
RVFDPCSFNBQFMF
Possuem uma bexiga
OBUBUSJB VNSHPPDP
cheio de gs que serve
QBSBGMVUVBSFN

5VCBSP

"UVN VNQFJYFNBSJOIP

Existem inmeros
HSVQPTFFTQDJFT
EFQFJYFTPTUFDUFT 
entre os quais se inclui
BNBJPSQBSUFEPTQFJYFT
com interesse comercial
QBSBPTFSIVNBOP

0TSFQSFTFOUBOUFT
mais conhecidos
EFTUFHSVQPTP
os tubares, as raias,
as mantas e as
tremelgas.
.BOUB

5SVUB VNQFJYFEFHVBEPDF

Caractersticas dos anfbios


2VBOEPOBTDFN PTBOGCJPTTPMBSWBTBRVUJDBTRVFTFEFTMPDBN
VUJMJ[BOEPBDBVEBFRVFSFTQJSBNBUSBWTEFCSORVJBT3FDFCFNPOPNF
EFHJSJOPT%FQPJTEFTPGSFSFNVNBNFUBNPSGPTF USBOTGPSNBNTFOVN
BOJNBMBEVMUPRVFFTUBEBQUBEPWJEBUFSSFTUSF
0TBOGCJPTBEVMUPTUNRVBUSPQBUBT RVFTFSWFNQBSBTFEFTMPDBSFN
FNUFSSB FUNDJODPEFEPTFNDBEBQBUB
3FTQJSBNBUSBWTEFQVMNFT BQFTBSEFUBNCNQPEFSFNDBQUBSPYJHOJP
BUSBWTEBQFMF RVFOVB
1BSBTFSFQSPEV[JSFN UNEFWPMUBSHVB POEFEFDPSSFBGFDVOEBP
FYUFSOB FPOEFGJDBNPTPWPT QPJTFTUFTEFTJESBUBSJBNTFPTEFJYBTTFN
FNUFSSB

(JSJOP FNDJNB FBOGCJPBEVMUP FNCBJYP

(SVQPTEFBOGCJPT
ANUROS

URODELOS

4PBTSTFPTTBQPT
$BSBDUFSJ[BNTFQFMBTQBUBT
QPTUFSJPSFTHSBOEFT
FBEBQUBEBTBPTBMUPFQPS
OPQPTTVSFNDBVEB

6NBEJGFSFOBFOUSFBTST
FPTTBQPTPTBOVSPTRVF
BQSFTFOUBNSVHPTJEBEFT
EFOPNJOBNTFTBQPT

4PPTUSJUFTFBT
salamandras. As suas quatro
QBUBTTPTFNFMIBOUFT
FUNTFOUJEPQFSQFOEJDVMBS
BPDPSQP

"QSJODJQBMEJGFSFOBFYUFSOB
FNSFMBPBPTBOVSPT
o facto de terem cauda
RVF QPSWF[FT BEPSOBEB
QPSDSJTUBTNVJUPWJTUPTBT

3EFGMFDIBB[VM

4BQPDPSSFEPS

5SJUPBMQJOP

4BMBNBOESB

%&4"'*04 t $JODJBTEB/BUVSF[B t oBOP t .BUFSJBMGPUPDPQJWFM4BOUJMMBOB$POTUODJB

259

Os rpteis e as aves:
a conquista da terra
0TSQUFJTFBTBWFTTPBOJNBJTQMFOBNFOUFUFSSFTUSFT QPSJTTP
OPQSFDJTBNEFTFSFQSPEV[JSEFOUSPEFHVB*TUPEFWFTF
BVNBJNQPSUBOUFjJOWFOPxPPWPBNOJPUB

Ovo amniota
0TQFJYFTFPTBOGCJPT
QFNPTTFVTPWPTOBHVB
QBSBRVFOPEFTJESBUFN
0TSQUFJTFBTBWFTUN
VNUJQPEFPWPNBJTDPNQMFYP
&NQSJNFJSPMVHBS BQSFTFOUB
BCVOEODJBEFTVCTUODJBTOVUSJUJWBT
QBSBPFNCSJPTFBMJNFOUBSFTFEFTFOWPMWFS
%FTUBGPSNB BTDSJBTKOPOBTDFNOVNFTUBEPMBSWBS NBT
TJNNVJUPNBJTEFTFOWPMWJEBTTPQBSFDJEBTDPNPT
BEVMUPT NBTNBJTQFRVFOBT&NTFHVOEPMVHBS PFNCSJP
FTUSPEFBEPQPSVNBNFNCSBOBDIFJBEFMRVJEP 
PNOJPHSBBTBFTUBNFNCSBOBRVFPFNCSJPOP
EFTJESBUB1PSMUJNP UPEPPPWPFTUQSPUFHJEPQPSVNB
DBTDBSFTJTUFOUF SHJEBOBTBWFTFOBMHVOTSQUFJTFGMFYWFM
OPVUSPT"DBTDBQPTTVJOVNFSPTPTQPSPTNJDSPTDQJDPT
RVFQFSNJUFNBFOUSBEBEPPYJHOJPOPJOUFSJPSEPPWP
QBSBRVFPFNCSJPDPOTJHBSFTQJSBS

$BSBDUFSTUJDBTEPTSQUFJT
0TSQUFJTTPBOJNBJTQMFOBNFOUFUFSSFTUSFTRVFSFTQJSBN
BUSBWTEFQVMNFTFRVFTFEFTMPDBNTPCSFRVBUSPQBUBT 
FYDFQUPBTTFSQFOUFT0TFVBQBSFMIPSFTQJSBUSJP
FDJSDVMBUSJPNBJTBWBOBEPEPRVFPEPTBOGCJPT
"TVBQFMFFTUDPCFSUBEFFTDBNBTPVEFQMBDBT
FOEVSFDJEBTFJNQFSNFWFM QBSBRVFPBOJNBMOP
EFTJESBUFFNUFSSB
0TSQUFJT UBMDPNPPTQFJYFTFPTBOGCJPT OPUN
VNBUFNQFSBUVSBDPSQPSBMDPOTUBOUF&TUBEFQFOEFEB
UFNQFSBUVSBBNCJFOUF1PSUBOUP RVBOEPBUFNQFSBUVSB
FTUCBJYB TPMFOUPTFQPVDPBDUJWPTFUNEFTF
BRVFDFSBPTPM/P*OWFSOP FOUSBNOVNFTUBEPMFUSHJDP
FIJCFSOBN
3FQSPEV[FNTFTFYVBMNFOUFFTPPWQBSPTPV
PWPWJWQBSPT0TPWQBSPTOPQSFTUBNNVJUPTDVJEBEPT
BPTPWPTOFNTDSJBT QBSBBMNEFPTEFQPTJUBSFNOVN
MPDBMBEFRVBEP

(SVQPTEPTSQUFJT
SURIOS

OFDIOS

4PPTMBHBSUPT BTPTHBT PT


camalees, as iguanas
5NRVBUSPQBUBTRVF
PTFMFWBNQPVDPEPTPMP
FVNBDBVEBEBRVBMTFQPEFN
TFQBSBSTFVNQSFEBEPS
PTBQBOIBS4PDBSOWPSPT

*ODMVJBTTFSQFOUFT BOJNBJT
RVFOPUNQBUBTFTF
deslocam atravs dos
NPWJNFOUPTEPDPSQP
4PQSFEBEPSBTFBMHVNBT
QSPEV[FNWFOFOPQBSB
NBUBSBTTVBTQSFTBT

$BNBMFP

QUELNIOS

CROCODILOS

4PBTUBSUBSVHBTRVFFTUP
QSPUFHJEBTQPSVNBDBSBQBB
Existem tartarugas terrestres
FBRVUJDBT"MHVNBTFTUP
NVJUPBEBQUBEBTWJEBBRVUJDB
FTBFNFTQPSBEJDBNFOUF
QBSBUFSSB&YJTUFNUBSUBSVHBT
5BSUBSVHBNFEJUFSSOJDB
carnvoras e herbvoras.

(SVQPBPRVBMQFSUFODFN
tambm os caimes.
"TVBQFMFQPTTVJQMBDBT
FTQFTTBTRVFPTQSPUFHFN
)BCJUBNOBHVB BQFTBS
EFSFTQJSBSFNBUSBWTEF
QVMNFT FTPQSFEBEPSFT

260

%&4"'*04 t $JODJBTEB/BUVSF[B t oBOP t .BUFSJBMGPUPDPQJWFM4BOUJMMBOB$POTUODJB

$PCSBWFSEF

$BJNPOFHSP

Caractersticas das aves


"TBWFTBQSFTFOUBNDBSBDUFSTUJDBTQBSFDJEBTTEPTSQUFJT"MJT BTBWFTTP
FTUSFJUBNFOUFBQBSFOUBEBTDPNPTSQUFJT TPCSFUVEPDPNPTEJOPTTBVSPT EPTRVBJT
EFTDFOEFN

AS AVES SO
DINOSSAUROS
COM PENAS?

"TBWFTTPDBQB[FTEFNBOUFSBTVBUFNQFSBUVSBDPSQPSBMDPOTUBOUF TFOEP QPSJTTP 


NBJTBDUJWBTEPRVFPTSQUFJT&NDPOUSBQBSUJEB QSFDJTBNEFNBJTBMJNFOUPT QPSRVF
NBOUFSBUFNQFSBUVSBDPSQPSBMSFRVFSFOFSHJB
0TFVDPSQPFTUDPCFSUPEFQFOBT BQFTBSEFBJOEBDPOTFSWBSFNOBTQBUBTFTDBNBT
TFNFMIBOUFTTEPTSQUFJT"TTVBTFYUSFNJEBEFTBOUFSJPSFTUSBOTGPSNBSBNTFFNBTBT
DPNBTRVBJTQPEFNWPBS
"DBCFBVOFTFBPUSPODPBUSBWTEFVNQFTDPPNWFMFBCPDBQSPMPOHBTFOVNCJDP 
VNBFTQDJFEFFTUPKPDSOFPRVFVUJMJ[BNGVOEBNFOUBMNFOUFQBSBTFBMJNFOUBSFN
0TCJDPTUNGPSNBTNVJUPEJGFSFOUFT EFQFOEFOEPEPUJQPEFBMJNFOUBPEBBWF
0DPSQPEBBWFFTUEFTFOIBEPQBSBPWPP1PSUBOUP BFSPEJONJDPFNVJUPMFWF
$POTFHVFNSFEV[JSPQFTP QPSFYFNQMP BMJHFJSBOEPPFTRVFMFUP QPSRVFFYJTUFN
OVNFSPTPTFTQBPTPDPTOPTTFVTPTTPT0FTUFSOPPDVQBVNBHSBOEFTVQFSGDJFQBSB
RVFPTQPUFOUFTNTDVMPTEFWPPTFGJYFN
"GPSNBEBTBTBTFTUSFMBDJPOBEBDPNPUJQPEFWPPEBBWF%FNPEPHFSBM BTBWFTDPN
BTBTDPNQSJEBTFFTUSFJUBTTPHSBOEFTQMBOBEPSBTQPSTVBWF[ BTRVFUNBTBTNBJT
DVSUBTFMBSHBTUNVNBNBJPSBHJMJEBEF
"TBWFTTPPWQBSBTFBTVBGFDVOEBPJOUFSOB1FNPTTFVTPWPTOVNOJOIP
FDVJEBNEFMFT QPSWF[FT BQSPHFOJUPSB FPVUSBTWF[FT BNCPTPTQSPHFOJUPSFT

0TDJFOUJTUBTFTUP
DBEBWF[NBJTQFSUP
de afirmarem que sim.
As ltimas descobertas
indicam que muitos
dinossauros teriam tido
QFOBTRVFQPEJBNTFSWJS 
QPSFYFNQMP DPNP
isolamento contra o frio.

2VBOEPOBTDFNBTDSJBT PTQSPHFOJUPSFTBMJNFOUBNOBTFQSPUFHFNOBTBUFTUBTTFSFN
DBQB[FTEFDVJEBSEFTJNFTNBT
PRINCIPAIS GRUPOS DE AVES

As ratitesTPBWFTOPWPBEPSBT 
como a avestruz, a ema e o quivi
OBGPUPHSBGJB


Os anatdeosUNCJDPQMBOPFQT
FTQBMNBEPT4PPTHBOTPT DJTOFT
FQBUPT DPNPPNBMWTJB OBJNBHFN

As aves de rapina tm bicos em forma


de gancho e garras fortes, como
a guia-real na fotografia.

Os galinceosTPBWFTSFDIPODIVEBT
RVFQBTTBNNVJUPUFNQPFNUFSSB
6NFYFNQMPBQFSEJ[ OBJNBHFN

As pernaltasTPBWFTMJHBEBTHVB
Incluem-se as cegonhas e as garas
OBGPUPHSBGJB VNBHBSBSFBM


Os passeriformesTPPTQTTBSPT
RVFFTUPBEBQUBEPTQBSBTFTFHVSBSFN
OPTSBNPT OBGPUPHSBGJB VNQBSEBM


%&4"'*04 t $JODJBTEB/BUVSF[B t oBOP t .BUFSJBMGPUPDPQJWFM4BOUJMMBOB$POTUODJB

261

Os mamferos:
cuidar das crias
0TNBNGFSPTTPPTBOJNBJTWFSUFCSBEPTRVFMFWBSBNNBJT
MPOHFBUBSFGBEFDVJEBSEBTTVBTDSJBT BUBPQPOUPEFOP
QPSFNPWPT NBTEFEFTFOWPMWFSFNPTFNCSJFTEFOUSP
EPDPSQPEBQSPHFOJUPSB

Caractersticas dos mamferos


Bezerro a mamar.0TQFJYFT
FPTBOGCJPTQFNVNB
JNFOTJEBEFEFPWPT RVFUN
QPVDBTQPTTJCJMJEBEFTEF
TPCSFWJWFS"TBWFTFPT
NBNGFSPTUNQPVDBTDSJBT 
QPSN DVJEBNEFMBTQBSB
DPOTFHVJSRVFNVJUBT
TPCSFWJWBN

0TNBNGFSPTTP OBTVBNBJPSJB BOJNBJTUFSSFTUSFT3FTQJSBNBUSBWTEFQVMNFT 


EFTMPDBNTFTPCSFRVBUSPQBUBTFTPDBQB[FTEFNBOUFSBTVBUFNQFSBUVSBDPSQPSBM
DPOTUBOUF"MNEBTDBSBDUFSTUJDBTBOUFSJPSFT RVFQPEFNPTFODPOUSBSOPVUSPT
WFSUFCSBEPT PTNBNGFSPTBQSFTFOUBNPVUSBTQSPQSJFEBEFTRVFTPDBSBDUFSTUJDBTEFTUF
HSVQPPTFVTJTUFNBOFSWPTPFPTSHPTEPTTFOUJEPTFTUPNVJUPEFTFOWPMWJEPT UN
BQFMFDPCFSUBQPSQMP TPWJWQBSPTFUNVNBTHMOEVMBTFTQFDGJDBT BTHMOEVMBT
NBNSJBT RVFQSPEV[FNMFJUF BQFOBTOPDBTPEBTGNFBT


3FQSPEVPEPTNBNGFSPT
/PTNBNGFSPT BGFDVOEBPJOUFSOB0FNCSJPEFTFOWPMWFTFOPUFSP POEFSFDFCF
PTOVUSJFOUFTFPPYJHOJPEBQSPHFOJUPSBBUSBWTEFVNSHPFTQFDJBMBQMBDFOUB&N
DBEBFTQDJFEFNBNGFSP PUFNQPEFEFTFOWPMWJNFOUPEPFNCSJP DIBNBEPHFTUBP 
EJGFSFOUF EBNFTNBGPSNBRVFPPHSBVEFEFTFOWPMWJNFOUPEBDSJBRVBOEPOBTDF
/PDBTPEBFTQDJFIVNBOB BHFTUBPEVSBOPWFNFTFT FPCFCOBTDFNVJUPEFTQSPUFHJEP
6NDBWBMPSFDNOBTDJEP QPSTVBWF[ DBQB[EFDBNJOIBSQBTTBEBTQPVDBTIPSBT
0ONFSPEFDSJBTWBSJBEFVNBTFTQDJFTQBSBPVUSBT/BFTQDJFIVNBOB PNBJTIBCJUVBM
RVFIBKBVNBOJDBDSJBQPSHFTUBP/PDBTPEPTSBUPT GSFRVFOUFUFSFNNBJTEFEF[
0TNBNGFSPTTPNVJUPEFEJDBEPTTTVBTDSJBT2VBOEPTPSFDNOBTDJEBT BTNFT
BNBNFOUBNOBT NBTUBNCNBTQSPUFHFNEPTTFVTJOJNJHPT EPMIFTDBMPS 
FOTJOBNOBTBDBBSFPVBFODPOUSBSBMJNFOUP FUD

A PELE DOS MAMFEROS


/BQFMFEPTNBNGFSPT
FODPOUSBTFVNBQSPUFOB 
BRVFSBUJOBBQSPUFOB
RVFDPOTUJUVJPQMP

"QBSUJSEBRVFSBUJOB
tambm se formam as unhas,
as quais, em alguns casos,
EPMVHBSBHBSSBTF OPVUSPT
DBTPT EPPSJHFN
a cascos.

O tatu coberto de bandas


de queratina que formam
uma couraa.

.VJUPTNBNGFSPTUN
cornos. Os do rinoceronte
TPGPSNBEPTQPSRVFSBUJOB
macia. Tm origem
FYDMVTJWBNFOUFFQJESNJDB

262

%&4"'*04 t $JODJBTEB/BUVSF[B t oBOP t .BUFSJBMGPUPDPQJWFM4BOUJMMBOB$POTUODJB

Outros cornos, como os dos


touros, tm um esqueleto
TTFPDPCFSUPQPSVNBDBQB
dura de queratina.

(SVQPTEPTNBNGFSPT
MONOTREMATAS
4PPTNBJTQSJNJUJWPTEPT
NBNGFSPT0FYFNQMPNBJT
claro o ornitorrinco, um
animal que vive na Austrlia.
3FQSPEV[TFQPSPWPT
FUFNVNBFTQDJFEFCJDP
RVFMFNCSBPEPQBUP
&NBMHVOTBTQFDUPT

O que mais tm em
comum os mamferos, que
os restantes vertebrados
OPQPTTVFN

diferente de outros
mamferos, embora tenha
muitas das caractersticas

QSQSJBTEFTUFHSVQP 
DPNPPQMPPVBDBQBDJEBEF
EFQSPEV[JSMFJUF

MARSUPIAIS
0TNBSTVQJBJTEPMV[
DSJBTQPVDPEFTFOWPMWJEBT 
QPJTOPUNQMBDFOUB
.BMBDBCBNEFOBTDFS
as crias arrastam-se at
TNBNBTEBNF BTRVBJT
GJDBNBMPKBEBTOVNBCPMTB
RVFTFGPSNBOBQFMFFRVF
TFEFOPNJOBNBSTQJP

nesta bolsa que acabam


de se desenvolver.
&OUSFPTNBSTVQJBJT
constam os cangurus,
o coala, a sarigueia,
entre outros. A maioria deles
WJWFBQFOBTOB"VTUSMJB
e nas ilhas que a rodeiam.

4PBTPSFMIBT
$BOHVSVDPNBTVBDSJB

PLACENTRIOS
(SVQPBRVFQFSUFODFN
os restantes mamferos.
Tm todas as caractersticas
mencionadas e dividem-se
FNWSJPTHSVQPT
Insectvoros.PHSVQPNBJT
QSJNJUJWPFDPNQSFFOEF
BTUPVQFJSBT PTNVTBSBOIPT
e os ourios.
5NEFOUFTQFRVFOPT
e afiados.

Primatas.PHSVQP
BRVFQFSUFODFPIPNFN
/FTUFFODPOUSBNTF
os lmures, os macacos
FPTBOUSPQJEFT DPNP
PHPSJMBFPDIJNQBO[

Carnvoros. Tm grandes
DBOJOPTF QPSWF[FT HBSSBT
&TUFHSVQPDPNQSFFOEF
os ursos, os candeos,
DPNPPTMPCPTFBTSBQPTBT 
os felinos, como os gatos,
os lees, os tigres e os linces,
e as focas.

Perissodctilos.4PPT
cavalos e os rinocerontes.
"TTVBTQBUBTUFSNJOBNDPN
VNONFSPNQBSEFDBTDPT

-NVSFT

.VTBSBOIPBOP

Quirpteros.4PPT
morcegos, os nicos
mamferos voadores.

Roedores. Inclui muitas


FTQDJFT DPNPBTSBUB[BOBT 
os ratos, os hamsters, etc.
Os seus dentes incisivos
nunca deixam de crescer,
o que contrariam, roendo
continuamente.

(BSSBOPEP(FST

6STPQBSEP

Cetceos.4PNBNGFSPT
NBSJOIPT"TTVBTQBUBT
transformaram-se em
CBSCBUBOBT/FTUFHSVQP
constam os golfinhos
e as baleias.

Artiodctilos.4PBTWBDBT 
PTDFSWPT PTQPSDPT
FPTDBNFMPT"TTVBTQBUBT
terminam com um nmero
QBSEFDBTDPT

3BUPEPNTUJDP

.PSDFHPEFGFSSBEVSBHSBOEF

Lagomorfos.4PPTDPFMIPT
FBTMFCSFT TFOEPQBSFDJEPT
com os roedores.

#BMFJBDJO[FOUB

#GBMPBGSJDBOP

%&4"'*04 t $JODJBTEB/BUVSF[B t oBOP t .BUFSJBMGPUPDPQJWFM4BOUJMMBOB$POTUODJB

263

Espcies ameaadas

Espcies ameaadas
/PTMUJNPTDJORVFOUBBOPTBMHVNBTFTQDJFTFYUJOHVJSBNTF
JSSFNFEJBWFMNFOUFFPVUSBTUBOUBTFODPOUSBNTFFNTJUVBP
EFBMFSUB VNBTFNFTUBEPNBJTDSUJDPEPRVFPVUSBT

O NOME COMUM
E O NOME CIENTFICO
DOS SERES VIVOS
O naturalista Carl von
Linn, no sculo XVIII,
estabeleceu uma forma
de nomear os seres vivos
que se continua a utilizar
na actualidade, denominada
nomenclatura binomial.
Esta nomenclatura atribui
a cada organismo dois
nomes em latim
(escrevem-se sempre
em itlico, utilizando-se
a maiscula para a primeira
letra da primeira palavra).
O primeiro nome o
gnero e os dois nomes
juntos correspondem
espcie. Por exemplo,
Equus caballus o nome
cientfico do cavalo.
O termo cavalo o seu
nome comum.

Classificao dos seres vivos


"DMBTTJGJDBPEPTTFSFTWJWPTQFSNJUFOPTDPNQBSMPTFFODPOUSBSTFNFMIBOBT
FEJGFSFOBTFOUSFFMFT0TTFSFTWJWPTDMBTTJGJDBNTFFNSFJOPTDPNCBTFFNUSTDSJUSJPT
UJQPEFDMVMBT BHSVQBNFOUPEFDMVMBTFBMJNFOUBP"TTJN UFNPTPTTFHVJOUFT
HSBOEFTHSVQPT RVFEFOPNJOBNPTSFJOPT
t 0SFJOP.POFSB RVFBHSVQBTFSFTNJDSPTDQJDPTFNVJUPBCVOEBOUFTFNUPEPT
PTFDPTTJTUFNBT4PNPOFSBTBTCBDUSJBTFBTDJBOPCBDUSJBT
t 0SFJOP1SPUJTUB RVFGPSNBVNHSVQPNVJUPWBSJBEPFBCVOEBOUFFNUPEPT
PTFDPTTJTUFNBT4PQSPUJTUBTPTQSPUP[PSJPTFBTBMHBT
t 0SFJOPEPTGVOHPT DPNPDPHVNFMPT CPMPSFTFMFWFEVSBT RVF HFSBMNFOUF WJWFN
FNTPMPTEFMVHBSFTINJEPT
t 0SFJOPEBTQMBOUBT RVFFOHMPCBPTNVTHPT PTGFUPT BTHJNOPTQSNJDBTFBT
BOHJPTQSNJDBT"NBJPSJBUFSSFTUSF BQFTBSEFFYJTUJSFNNVJUBTBRVUJDBT
t 0SFJOPEPTBOJNBJT RVFGPSNBPHSVQPNBJTOVNFSPTPEFTFSFTWJWPT&TUFSFJOP
BCBSDBTFSFTUPEJWFSTPTDPNPBTFTQPOKBT PTWFSNFT PTJOTFDUPT BTBWFTFPT
NBNGFSPT FOUSFNVJUPTPVUSPT7JWFNFNUPEPTPTNFJPT
0TSFJOPTTPDBUFHPSJBTNVJUPBCSBOHFOUFT1PSJTTPPTDJFOUJTUBTEJWJEFNOPTFNHSVQPT
NBJTQFRVFOPT$BEBSFJOPEJWJEFTFFNGJMPT FDBEBGJMP FNDMBTTFT$BEBDMBTTF
EJWJEFTFFNPSEFOT$BEBPSEFNDPNQSFFOEFGBNMJBT"TGBNMJBTEJWJEFNTFFN
HOFSPT FPTHOFSPT FNFTQDJFT"FTQDJFPQSJNFJSPOWFMEBDMBTTJGJDBPEPTTFSFT
WJWPT6NBFTQDJFVNDPOKVOUPEFTFSFTTFNFMIBOUFTRVFTFSFQSPEV[FNFOUSFTJ
QSPEV[JOEPEFTDFOEODJBGSUJM

A classificao do cavalo
e do burro seria do seguinte
modo:
Espcie

Equus caballus (cavalo)


Equus asinus (burro)

Gnero

Equus (cavalo e burro)

Famlia

Equidae

Ordem

Perissodactyla

Classe

Mamferos

Tipo

Cordados

Reino

Animal

264

$BWBMP

#VSSP

.VMB
6NBHVBFVNCVSSP PVVNDBWBMPFVNBCVSSB
QPEFNDSV[BSTFFEBSPSJHFNBVNOPWPTFS
WJWP VNBNVMBPVVNNBDIP/PFOUBOUP BTNVMBTFPTNBDIPTOPTFQPEFNSFQSPEV[JS TP
FTUSFJT
1PSJTTP TBCFNPTRVFPTDBWBMPTFPTCVSSPTQFSUFODFNBFTQDJFTEJGFSFOUFT

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Listas vermelhas (UICN)


"TjMJTUBTWFSNFMIBTxTPPJOWFOUSJPNBJTDPNQMFUPEPFTUBEPEFDPOTFSWBPEBTFTQDJFT
BOJNBJTFWFHFUBJTBOWFMNVOEJBM&TUFJOWFOUSJPVUJMJ[BVNDPOKVOUPEFDSJUSJPTQBSBBWBMJBS
PSJTDPEFFYUJOPEFNJMIBSFTEFFTQDJFTFTVCFTQDJFT&TUFTDSJUSJPTTPSFMFWBOUFTQBSB
UPEBTBTFTQDJFTFUPEBTBTSFHJFTEP.VOEP$PNBTVBGPSUFCBTFDJFOUGJDB BTjMJTUBT
WFSNFMIBTxEB6*$/ 6OJP*OUFSOBDJPOBMQBSBB$POTFSWBPEB/BUVSF[B
TPSFDPOIFDJEBT
DPNPPHVJBEFNBJPSBVUPSJEBEFTPCSFPFTUBEPEBEJWFSTJEBEFCJPMHJDB
AS CATEGORIAS DAS LISTAS VERMELHAS DA UICN
EXTINTO (Ex: Extinct): Uma espcie est extinta quando no
restam dvidas de que o nico indivduo existente est morto.
EXTINTO EM ESTADO SELVAGEM (EW: Extinct
in the wild): Uma espcie est extinta em estado selvagem
quando apenas sobrevive em cultura, em cativeiro ou como
populao (ou populaes) naturalizada completamente
fora do seu habitat natural.
EM PERIGO CRTICO (CR: Critically endangered):
Uma espcie est em perigo crtico quando se situa em
risco elevado de extino em estado selvagem, num futuro
imediato.

EM PERIGO (EN: Endangered): Uma espcie est em perigo


quando no se fala em perigo crtico, mas antes num risco
muito alto de extino em estado selvagem.
VULNERVEL (VU: Vulnerable): Uma espcie vulnervel
quando no est em perigo crtico nem em perigo, mas
enfrenta um alto risco de extino em estado selvagem
a mdio prazo.
MENOR RISCO (LR: Lower risk): Uma espcie est em
menor risco quando, depois de ter sido avaliada, no satisfaz
nenhuma das categorias anteriores nem pertence categoria
de dados insuficientes.

Conveno CITES
e apndices
"OFDFTTJEBEFEFQSPUFHFSBTFTQDJFTFNQFSJHPGF[DPN
RVFOVNFSPTPTQBTFTTVCTDSFWFTTFNBDPOWFOP$*5&4
$POWFOPTPCSFP$PNSDJP*OUFSOBDJPOBMEF&TQDJFT
EF'BVOBF'MPSB4FMWBHFOT"NFBBEBTEF&YUJOP
DSJBEP
FN&TUBDPOWFOPSFHVMBPDPNSDJPFBFYQPSUBP
EFTUFTBOJNBJTFEBTTVBTQBSUFT QFMFT DPSOPT DPODIBT 
FUD
"QMJDBOEPBDPOWFOP PTBHFOUFTBEVBOFJSPT
DPOGJTDBNUPEPTPTBOJNBJTFQMBOUBTRVFUFOIBNTJEP
SFUJSBEPTEPTFVQBTTFNQFSNJTTPPGJDJBM
"DUVBMNFOUF IDFSDBEFFTQDJFTEFBOJNBJT
FFTQDJFTEFQMBOUBTQSPUFHJEBTQFMB$*5&4
"TFTQDJFTGPSBNBHSVQBEBTFNBQOEJDFTTFHVOEPPHSBV
EFBNFBBEFWJEPBPDPNSDJPJOUFSOBDJPOBM

"SBSBDBOHB Ara macao



Apndice I. *ODMVFNTFUPEBBTFTQDJFT
FNWJBTEFFYUJOP0TFVDPNSDJPT
BVUPSJ[BEPTPCDJSDVOTUODJBTFYDFQDJPOBJT

"MHVOTHSVQPT DPNPPTQSJNBUBT DFUDFPT UBSUBSVHBTNBSJOIBT 


QBQBHBJPT DPSBJT DBDUPTFPSRVEFBT FTUPJODMVEPTOBTVBUPUBMJEBEF
OB$*5&4

*HVBOB Conolophus subcristatus



1PNCPNBMIBEP Columba guinea

Apndice II.*ODMVFNTFBTFTQDJFTRVFOPTF Apndice III.*ODMVFNTFBTFTQDJFTRVFFTUP
FODPOUSBNOFDFTTBSJBNFOUFFNWJBTEFFYUJOP  QSPUFHJEBTOPNOJNPQPSVNQBTFQPSJTTP
NBTDVKPDPNSDJPEFWFTFSDPOUSPMBEP
PTFVDPNSDJPEFWFTFSDPOUSPMBEP
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265

Monotrematas
4PPTOJDPTNBNGFSPTRVFUNVNBSFQSPEVPPWQBSB 
DBSBDUFSTUJDBRVFQBSUJMIBNDPNBTBWFT SB[PQFMBRVBMBMHVOT
DJFOUJTUBTDPOTJEFSBNRVFFTUFTNBNGFSPTQFDVMJBSFTTPNVJUP
QSJNJUJWPTOBFTDBMBFWPMVUJWB

Caractersticas dos monotrematas


"MHVNBTDBSBDUFSTUJDBTEPTNPOPUSFNBUBT
t 5NVNBSFQSPEVPPWQBSB JTUP SFQSPEV[FNTFBUSBWT
EFPWPT
t 5BMDPNPBTBWFT UNBQFOBTVNOJDPPSJGDJPQBSBFYQFMJS
BVSJOBFPTFYDSFNFOUPT
t "TGNFBTOPUNNBNJMPT QPSJTTP BTDSJBTMBNCFNPMFJUF
TFHSFHBEPEFGPSNBEJTQFSTBQFMBTHMOEVMBTNBNSJBT
t 5NPTPMIPTQFRVFOPT NBTBBVEJPFPPMGBDUPFTUPNVJUP
EFTFOWPMWJEPT

Conservao
"-FJEF$POTFSWBPEB#JPEJWFSTJEBEFFEF1SPUFDPEP.FJP
"NCJFOUFEFGBWPSFDFUPEBTBTBDFTWPDBDJPOBEBTQBSB
BQSPUFDPEPNFJPBNCJFOUFFEBCJPEJWFSTJEBEF6NBEFMBT
BDSJBPEFTJTUFNBTEFSFTFSWBTOBDJPOBJTRVFJEFOUJGJDBNBTSFBT
FDPMHJDBTRVFEFWFNTFSQSPUFHJEBT PVUPSHBOEPMIFTBDBUFHPSJB
EFSFTFSWB/B"VTUSMJB BDUVBMNFOUFEBTVQFSGDJFUFSSFTUSFGB[QBSUF
EFSFTFSWBTFUBNCNTFFTUBCFMFDFSBN1BSRVFT/BDJPOBJT PRVFTFSWF
QBSBHBSBOUJSBTPCSFWJWODJBEPTTFSFTWJWPTRVFBMJIBCJUBN NVJUPT
EFMFTFOENJDPT
5BOUPPCJDPjEFQBUPxEPPSOJUPSSJODPDPNP
PCJDPDJMOESJDPEBFRVJEOBTPNFDBOJTNPT
EFTFOWPMWJEPTQBSBMPDBMJ[BSPBMJNFOUP

UM SER FORMIDVEL
Em 1797, o doutor Shaw ficou perplexo
quando recebeu a pele de um ornitorrinco.
Tratava-se de um ser formidvel: pele
de toupeira, patas de r, cauda de castor,
esporo de galo, bico de pato e dentes,
alm de ser um mamfero que punha ovos.

266

Distribuio dos monotrematas. "FRVJEOBPVSJP


FODPOUSBTFOB/PWB(VJO 
"VTUSMJB /PWB;FMOEJB 5BTNOJBFPVUSBTJMIBTDJSDVOEBOUFT
"FRVJEOBEFCJDPMPOHP
IBCJUBFYDMVTJWBNFOUFOB/PWB(VJO
0PSOJUPSSJODP
FOENJDPEB[POBPSJFOUBMEB"VTUSMJBFUBNCNEBJMIB
EB5BTNOJB

%&4"'*04 t $JODJBTEB/BUVSF[B t oBOP t .BUFSJBMGPUPDPQJWFM4BOUJMMBOB$POTUODJB

EQUIDNA-OURIO-AUSTRALIANO
(Tachyglossus aculeatus)
Famlia: Tachyglossidae
Ordem: Monotremata
Estado: Menor risco
t%FTDSJPNa parte posterior do corpo tem plos
endurecidos que parecem espinhos.
t)BCJUBU terrestre.
t5JQPEFBMJNFOUBPCome formigas e trmitas.
t)CJUPT mais activo noite. Os machos tm glndulas
venenosas nas patas traseiras, embora no sejam funcionais.
Se se sente ameaado, cava um buraco, eria os seus
espinhos e esconde a cauda e as orelhas.

EQUIDNA-DE-BICO-LONGO-OCIDENTAL-DA-NOVA-GUIN
(Zaglossus bruijini)
Famlia: Tachyglossidae
Ordem: Monotremata
Estado: Em perigo (Apndice II).
t%FTDSJPTem apenas uns espinhos dispersos pelo
corpo. maior do que a outra espcie de equidna, e as suas
patas e focinho so bastante mais compridos.
t)BCJUBUVive nas montanhas.
t5JQPEFBMJNFOUBPCome minhocas e alguns insectos.
Tem uma lngua com espinhos crneos para prender as suas
presas.

ORNITORRINCO
(Or nithorhynchus anatinus)
Famlia: Ornithorhynchidae
Ordem: Monotremata
Estado: Vulnervel
t%FTDSJP a nica espcie da sua famlia. Mede entre 30
e 45 cm de comprimento e pode chegar a pesar mais de 4 kg.
Uma das suas peculiaridades o bico parecido com o dos
patos, embora esteja coberto por pele e tenha o tacto muito
apurado.
t)BCJUBUPassa grande parte do seu tempo nos rios e lagos
de gua doce e nidifica em tneis. O ninho que constri
parecido com o dos pssaros e a que pe os ovos.
t5JQPEFBMJNFOUBPAlimenta-se principalmente de
plantas que crescem na gua, minhocas, girinos e outros
animais pequenos. Come grandes quantidades de comida;
numa noite pode ingerir o equivalente ao seu prprio peso.
t)CJUPT um animal noctvago, e prefere sair para comer
depois de anoitecer. De dia pode ser visto a descansar nas
margens dos rios e ribeiras.

%&4"'*04 t $JODJBTEB/BUVSF[B t oBOP t .BUFSJBMGPUPDPQJWFM4BOUJMMBOB$POTUODJB

267

Marsupiais
%JTUJOHVFNTFQFMPGBDUPEFBTGNFBTUFSFNVNBCPMTB 
PNBSTQJP POEFQSPUFHFNBTDSJBTFORVBOUPFTUBTDSFTDFN
4PPSJHJOSJPTEB0DFOJB FNCPSBUBNCNIBKBBMHVNBT
FTQDJFTOB"NSJDB

Placentrios e marsupiais
/PTNBNGFSPTNBSTVQJBJT OPJOUFSJPSEBNFSFBMJ[BTFBQFOBTPEFTFOWPMWJNFOUP
FNCSJPOSJPFOPGFUBM DPNPBDPOUFDFDPNPTNBNGFSPTQMBDFOUSJPT
1PVDPUFNQP
EFQPJTEBGFDVOEBP BDSJBOBTDFEBWBHJOBEBNF&TUBDSJBBQSFTFOUBVNBDPSSPTBEB
FEPUBNBOIPEFVNGFJKP FTUEFTQSPWJEBEFPMIPTFPVWJEPT FUFNEFFODPOUSBS
PDBNJOIPEFTEFBWBHJOBBUBPNBSTQJP1BSBJTTP UFNEFTFHVJSPSBTUPEFTBMJWB
EFJYBEPQFMBNFBQTMBNCFSFTUFQFSDVSTP&NUSTNJOVUPT BDSJBDIFHBBPNBSTQJP 
POEFJSDPNQMFUBSPTFVEFTFOWPMWJNFOUP0NBSTQJPVNBCPMTBRVFBGNFBQPTTVJ
OPWFOUSFFRVFUBNCNDPCSFPTNBNJMPT/PNBSTQJP BDSJBBHBSSBTFBVNNBNJMP
FEVSBOUFNFTFTPTFVOJDPBMJNFOUPTFSPMFJUFNBUFSOP
%FQPJTEFPJUPNFTFTOBCPMTB BQFRVFOBDSJBKFTUTVGJDJFOUFNFOUFEFTFOWPMWJEB
FQPEFWJWFSEFGPSNBJOEFQFOEFOUF%VSBOUFVNBUFNQPSBEBDPOUJOVBSBUPNBSMFJUF
NBUFSOPFQPVDPBQPVDPDPNFBSBBMJNFOUBSTFEFFSWB
UFSP
NBUFSOP

1MBDFOUB
.BNJMP
.BSTQJP
'FUP
'FUP

$PSEPVNCJMJDBM
'FUPEFNBNGFSPQMBDFOUSJP
OPJOUFSJPSEPUFSPNBUFSOP

$BOHVSVSFDNOBTDJEPOPNBSTQJP
EBNF

COALA
(Phascolarctos cinereus)
Famlia: Phascolarctidae
Ordem: Diprotodontia
Estado: Em perigo
t%FTDSJP um marsupial arborcola e herbvoro. Est perfeitamente adaptado
vida nas rvores, mas, contrariamente aos outros marsupiais, no tem cauda.
Os braos e as pernas so do mesmo comprimento e as garras esto
especialmente concebidas para trepar.
t)BCJUBUBosques de eucaliptos da Ocenia.
t)CJUPT maioritariamente noctvago e passa entre 18 e 20 horas por dia a dormir
ou a descansar. Permanece em inactividade devido ao seu baixo metabolismo,
que um mecanismo adaptativo para viver com uma dieta pobre em nutrientes.
t$POTFSWBPNo seu estado natural, o coala sofre uma srie de perigos, como,
por exemplo, a destruio do seu habitat e outras ameaas associadas ao ser
humano, como os atropelamentos por automveis, os ataques de ces e algumas
doenas. A continuidade desta espcie depende da manuteno do seu habitat,
grande parte dele ocupado por aglomerados humanos.

268

%&4"'*04 t $JODJBTEB/BUVSF[B t oBOP t .BUFSJBMGPUPDPQJWFM4BOUJMMBOB$POTUODJB

CANGURU-ARBORCOLA
(Dendrogalus inustus)
Famlia: Macropodidae
Ordem: Diprotodontia
Estado: Vulnervel (Apndice II).
t%FTDSJPTem quatro patas de comprimento quase igual
e unhas fortes para se agarrar aos ramos. muito gil
a trepar, mas muito desajeitado no cho. A cauda muito
comprida e peluda, terminando num tufo de plo, que serve
de contrapeso. As orelhas so curtas e arredondadas.
t)BCJUBUVive nas selvas hmidas da Ocenia.
t)CJUPTDurante o dia, costuma dormir nos ramos das
rvores em pequenos grupos. Est habitualmente no solo,
mas em caso de perigo sobe rapidamente s rvores.
t"MJNFOUBPCome folhas das rvores, lianas e muitos
frutos silvestres.

CANGURU-CINZENTO
(Macropus fulginosus)
Famlia: Macropodidae
Ordem: Diprotodontia
Estado: Menor risco
t%FTDSJPCostuma ter cabea pequena e orelhas grandes.
Tem as extremidades anteriores mais pequenas em relao
s extremidades posteriores. A cauda comprida e grossa,
e serve para conseguir o equilbrio. Tem um estmago grande,
como um saco, parecido com o dos ruminantes.
t)CJUPTAlimenta-se de gramneas e socivel, sobretudo
se habitar em zonas abertas.

CAA DE CANGURUS

0DPBMB
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0DBOHVSVBSCPSDPMB
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FPDBOHVSVDJO[FOUP
OP4VMEB"VTUSMJB

Os primeiros colonos que chegaram Austrlia levaram


alguns predadores, como a raposa-vermelha, ces e gatos
domsticos, que extinguiram algumas espcies locais. Como
os cangurus ficaram sem competidores, aumentaram o seu
nmero at se converterem numa praga. Hoje em dia, a
populao do canguru-vermelho e do canguru-cinzento
(oriental e ocidental) to elevada em 2001 havia mais
de 50 milhes de indivduos , que a caa destas espcies
permitida, embora de forma controlada. O canguru-vermelho
e o canguru-cinzento oriental e ocidental so as espcies
mais abundantes e compreendem 90% da caa comercial.
A caa destas espcies to abundantes pode ser considerada
uma indstria ecolgica e contribui para a manuteno do
ambiente australiano.

%&4"'*04 t $JODJBTEB/BUVSF[B t oBOP t .BUFSJBMGPUPDPQJWFM4BOUJMMBOB$POTUODJB

269

Primatas
4PVNEPTHSVQPTNBJTJNQPSUBOUFTEPTNBNGFSPT
&OHMPCBNUPEPTPTNBDBDPTFTNJPT/PUPUBM IFTQDJFT
EFQSJNBUBT FOUSFBTRVBJTTFFODPOUSBBFTQDJFIVNBOB

JANE GOODALL, PRMIO


PRNCIPE DAS ASTRIAS
DE INVESTIGAO 2003
Jane Goodall,
investigadora britnica,
viveu nos anos 70 na
reserva de chimpanzs
de Gombe, na Tanznia,
junto do lago Tanganika.
O seu trabalho consistiu
na observao e estudo
do comportamento destes
primatas, a partir dos
quais constatou algumas
capacidades semelhantes
s dos seres humanos,
como o uso de paus
para tirar trmitas dos
ninhos. Fundou vrias
instituies para que
se pudesse prosseguir
com as investigaes
destes primatas, a fim
de os conhecer em
profundidade e melhorar
as suas condies de vida.

Caractersticas dos primatas


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OBQBSUFEJBOUFJSBEPDSOJP

"EFOUJPDPNQPTUBF
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OBFTQDJFIVNBOB

"TGNFBTUNEVBTNBNBTF
TJUVBEBTOPQFJUP

Classificao
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TFEJWJEFNFNDBUBSSJOPTFQMBUJSSJOPT
0TDBUBSSJOPTTPPTDIBNBEPTTNJPTEP7FMIP.VOEP JTUP PTRVFWJWFNFNGSJDB 
OBTJBF&VSPQB$BSBDUFSJ[BNTFQPSUFSFNVNTFQUPOBTBMNVJUPGJOPFPTPSJGDJPT
OBTBJTPSJFOUBEPTQBSBBGSFOUFPVQBSBCBJYP'PSNBNPHSVQPNBJTOVNFSPTPEPT
QSJNBUBTFJODMVFNFTQDJFTDPNPPDIJNQBO[FPHPSJMB
0TQMBUJSSJOPTTPPTNBDBDPTEP/PWP.VOEP JTUP PTRVFIBCJUBNOB"NSJDB
5NVNTFQUPOBTBMHSPTTPFPSJGDJPTOBTBJTPSJFOUBEPTQBSBPTMBEPT4PNBJTFTDBTTPT
FNFOPTDPOIFDJEPT
Ordem

4VCPSEFN Infra-ordem

Famlia

Espcies

Daubentoniidae

Aye-aye

Lemuridae

Lmure-de-rabo-anelado

Hominidae

Gorila, chimpanz, orangotango

Cercopithecidae

Mandril

Cebidae

Macaco-trepador, macaco-uivador

Calitrichidae

Mico-leo-dourado

Prossmios

Primatas

Catarrinos
Smios
Platirrinos

270

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Gorilas, chimpanzs e orangotangos


esto em vias de extino
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"NCJFOUF 1/6."
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&TUFQSPKFDUP TPCPOPNFEF1SPKFDUPQBSBB
4PCSFWJWODJBEPT(SBOEFT4NJPT 14(4
UFNDPNP
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FTQDJFTEFWJEPGBMUBEFQSPUFDPQFMBEFUFSJPSBP
EPBNCJFOUF

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t "DBBGVSUJWBFBDBQUVSBEFDSJBTQBSBWFOEFS
t 0TDPOGMJUPTCMJDPT RVFPTPCSJHBNBEFTMPDBSTF
EPTTFVTIBCJUBUT
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FYQMPSBPNJOFJSB BPTJODOEJPTGMPSFTUBJTFBPT
BHMPNFSBEPTQPQVMBDJPOBJT
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QPQVMBFTIVNBOBTRVFDPOWJWFNDPNFMFT

(1) Aye-aye Daubentonia madagascariensis

Famlia: Daubentoniidae
Estado:&NQFSJHP "QOEJDF*

/PSPFTUFF&TUFEF.BEBHTDBS

(2) (PSJMB Gorilla gorilla

Famlia: Hominidae
Estado:&NQFSJHP "QOEJDF*

GSJDB$FOUSBM

(4) 0SBOHPUBOHP Pongo pygmaeus

Famlia: Hominidae
Estado:&NQFSJHP "QOEJDF*

4VEPFTUFBTJUJDP #PSOV

(5) .BDBDPVJWBEPS Alouatta seniculus

(6) .JDPMFPEPVSBEP Leontopithecus


Famlia:$FCEFPT Cebidae

rosalia

Estado:.FOPSSJTDP "QOEJDF**

Famlia: Calitrichidae
4FMWBTUSPQJDBJTEB"NSJDB$FOUSBMFEP4VM
Estado:&NQFSJHPDSUJDP "QOEJDF*

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(3) $IJNQBO[ Pan troglodytes

Famlia: Hominidae
Estado:&NQFSJHPDSUJDP "QOEJDF*

GSJDB$FOUSBMF0FTUF




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271

Desdentados
"TQSFHVJBT PTQBQBGPSNJHBTFPTUBUVTGPSNBNPHSVQPEPT
NBNGFSPTEFTEFOUBEPT FNCPSBBMHVOTEFMFTUFOIBNNPMBSFT
&TUFHSVQPPSJVOEPEB"NSJDB OPNVJUPOVNFSPTPFFTU
FNQFSJHP

Caractersticas dos desdentados


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GFDIBEPEFBNCPTPTMBEPT QBSBRVFPTJOTFDUPTOPTBJBN FUFNBQFOBT
VNPSJGDJPQFRVFOPOBQPOUB"MOHVBDPNQSJEB NVJUPFYUFOTWFMF
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#PMWJB FBUBTQMBODJFTEB1BUBHOJB

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EB"NSJDBEP4VM0QBQBGPSNJHBT
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FPUBUVHJHBOUF
OP/PSUFF$FOUSP
EB"NSJDBEP4VM

272

LEITURA

Viagens pela Amrica Meridional, Flix de Azara (1805)


Eu tinha tomado notas sobre
os quadrpedes destas regies;
mas como no sabia se seriam dignas
de ateno, enviei-as para a Europa,
para que fossem submetidas
particularmente apreciao de
algum naturalista. () H dois animais
solitrios, estpidos, dorminhocos,
pesados, que no tm metade da
velocidade do homem, que no fogem
e esperam pelo seu agressor para
o receber nos seus braos e apert-lo
com as unhas, que so as suas nicas
armas e que apenas servem para se
defender; consequentemente, iro
desaparecer do mundo medida que
estas regies vo sendo povoadas.
Estes animais no geram mais do que
um filho, que permanece agarrado
ao lombo da me, e o vulgo cr
equivocadamente que esta espcie
no tem machos. Alimenta-se
unicamente de formigas; para isso,
destroem o formigueiro e passam

%&4"'*04 t $JODJBTEB/BUVSF[B t oBOP t .BUFSJBMGPUPDPQJWFM4BOUJMMBOB$POTUODJB

rapidamente a lngua sobre as formigas


que saem, e retiram-na j coberta com
as formigas que l ficaram coladas.
Porm, a pequena espcie que sobe
s rvores e se sustenta com a cauda
come tambm mel e abelhas. A forma
destes animais singular: o corpo,
a cauda e o pescoo so grossos;
as orelhas muito pequenas e redondas;
o olho, pequeno; a cabea, em forma
de trompeta, comprida, acarneirada
e no mais grossa do que o pescoo;
a boca reduz-se a uma pequena fenda
e no est provida de nenhuma espcie
de dentes; a lngua flexvel, no
exactamente redonda, carnuda, que
desenrolam quando querem, atingindo
um p de comprimento. ()
Nota: O primeiro animal
um papa-formigas-gigante
(Myrmecophaga tridactyla)
e o segundo um papa-formigas
(Tamandua tetradactyla).

PREGUIA-DE-COLEIRA
(Bradypus torquatus)
Famlia: Bradypodidae
Ordem: Xenarthra
Estado: Em perigo (Apndice II).
t%FTDSJPCom pelagem spera e de cor pardo-acinzentada,
tem como caracterstica a sua cara de macaco sorridente.
Tem cauda. Cada pata tem trs garras. As patas dianteiras
so bastante mais compridas do que as traseiras. Tem uma
mancha escura volta da cabea, do pescoo e dos ombros.
t)BCJUBU Os estratos arbreos dos bosques onde abundam
rvores das famlias das cecrpias e das morceas.
t)CJUPTVive nas rvores e solitria. Tem movimentos
lentos e no solo inepta e quase incapaz de se locomover.
t$POTFSWBPSo comercializadas como animais de
estimao. O modo como so capturadas reduz a populao
porque prendem as crias e matam os adultos. Acresce-se
o facto de o seu habitat estar a ser destrudo.

PAPA-FORMIGAS-GIGANTE
(Myrmecophaga tridactyla)
Famlia: Myrmecophagidae
Ordem: Xenarthra
Estado: Vulnervel (Apndice II).
t%FTDSJPPossui uma tromba comprida e a cauda
comprida e peluda, o que faz com que tenha um perfil
alongado. Pesa entre 22 e 39 kg. cor de caf e apresenta
uma linha de cor mais clara que vai desde o peito at parte
mdia do lombo. Tem quatro garras nas patas dianteiras
e cinco nas patas traseiras.
t)BCJUBUSelvas da Amrica Central.
t$POTFSWBPEsto em perigo de extino devido perda
do seu habitat, resultante da desflorestao e da caa
indiscriminada.

TATU-GIGANTE
(Priodontes maximus)
Famlia: Dasypodidae
Ordem: Xenarthra
Estado: Em perigo (Apndice I).
t%FTDSJP o maior dos tatus. Tem placas couraadas
que lhe cobrem o dorso e que, apesar da sua aparente
rigidez, so, na realidade, uma estrutura flexvel.
Pode chegar a pesar 50 kg e mede mais de 91 cm. O focinho
pronunciado e a sua lngua tem umas glndulas que
segregam uma substncia viscosa para capturar insectos.
As orelhas e o escudete ceflico so notveis.
t)BCJUBUTolera uma grande variedade de habitats, desde
as selvas at savanas do interior da Amrica.
t$POTFSWBPH dois problemas principais que afectam
a sobrevivncia do tatu-gigante: a caa e a destruio do seu
habitat.

%&4"'*04 t $JODJBTEB/BUVSF[B t oBOP t .BUFSJBMGPUPDPQJWFM4BOUJMMBOB$POTUODJB

273

$FUDFPT
4PNBNGFSPTQFSGFJUBNFOUFBEBQUBEPTBPNFJPBRVUJDP
FJODMVFNPTNBJPSFTTFSFTWJWPTFYJTUFOUFTOPOPTTPQMBOFUB
%FTEFNFBEPTEPTDXXRVFBDBBEBCBMFJBQSPJCJEB

Conservao
dos cetceos

LEITURA

Moby Dick, Herman Melville


As baleeiras no se tinham afastado
muito quando um sinal desde
o mastro um brao a apontar
para baixo indicou a Ahab que
a baleia tinha submergido, no
entanto, props-se estar perto
quando o animal voltasse a sair
da gua e seguiu a sua rota,
desviando-se um pouco do navio
(). Subitamente, as vagas que o
rodeavam comearam a engrossar
lentamente, em crculos; logo se
levantaram rapidamente, como
se deslizassem de uma montanha
de gelo submersa, e que emergira
rapidamente superfcie. Ouviu-se
ento um rumor surdo,

um zumbido subterrneo e todos


contiveram a respirao quando
das guas surgiu obliquamente
um bloco enorme, que levava por
cima um emaranhado de cabos,
arpes e lanas. Elevou-se por
um instante na atmosfera irisada,
envolvida numa nvoa de fina
textura, e voltou a submergir-se
no oceano. As guas, lanadas
a trinta ps de altura, fulgiram
como repuxos de fontes, para
carem logo de seguida numa
chuva de flocos, deixando
a superfcie em volta do corpo
marmreo da baleia como a nata
de um leite acabado de mungir.
"CBMFJBEFCPTTBSFBMJ[BTBMUPT
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USFNFOEPSVEPUSBOTNJUJEP
BHSBOEFTEJTUODJBTTPC
BTVQFSGDJFEBHVB PRVF
MFWBNVJUPTJOWFTUJHBEPSFT
BQFOTBSBNTFFTUFTTBMUPT
OPTFSPVNBGPSNB
EFDPNVOJDBPTPDJBM

"TQPQVMBFTEFDFUDFPTEP.VOEPUN
WJOEPBEJNJOVJSNFEJEBRVFPTNFJPT
BRVUJDPTTPDPOUBNJOBEPTQFMBTBDUJWJEBEFT
IVNBOBT DPNPBDPOUBNJOBPRVNJDB 
BDPOUBNJOBPBDTUJDB BTPCSFFYQMPSBP
QFTRVFJSBFBTDPMJTFTDPNFNCBSDBFT
1PSPVUSPMBEP BDBQUVSBBDJEFOUBMEFDFUDFPT
OBQFTDBNVJUPFMFWBEB EFDFOUFOBT
EFNJMIBSFTEFBOJNBJTQPSBOP BTTJNDPNP
PFTHPUBNFOUPEBTTVBTQSFTBTEFWJEP
HSBOEFFYQBOTPEBJOETUSJBQFTRVFJSB
NVOEJBM4FFTUBTJUVBPTFNBOUJWFS 
FTUJNBTFRVFBMHVNBTFTQDJFTQPEFSP
FYUJOHVJSTFOFTUFTDVMP5PEBBGBNMJB
FTUJODMVEBOBT$*5&4 BOFYBTBP"QOEJDF*
FPVUSBTBP"QOEJDF**

Situao actual
da caa das baleias
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#BMFFJSB&TUFPSHBOJTNPSFHVMBBDBBT
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TFFODPOUSBNFNWJBTEFFYUJOP
)VOTBOPTFTUBDPNJTTPQSPJCJVBDBBEBT
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FNUPEPPQMBOFUB FNCPSB OBSFBMJEBEF BJOEB
TFDPOUJOVFBQFSTFHVJSCBMFJBTEFGPSNBJMFHBM
1PSPVUSPMBEP BMHVOTQBTFTDPNPB/PSVFHB
FP+BQPOPBTTJOBSBNFTUFBDPSEP

&TRVBSUFKBNFOUP
EFVNBCBMFJBOVNCBSDP

274

%&4"'*04 t $JODJBTEB/BUVSF[B t oBOP t .BUFSJBMGPUPDPQJWFM4BOUJMMBOB$POTUODJB

Classificao
1PEFNPTEJTUJOHVJS
EPJTHSBOEFTHSVQPT
EFOUSPEPTDFUDFPTPT
PEPOUPDFUPT RVFUN
EFOUFT FPTNJTUJDFUPT 
RVFEFTFOWPMWFSBNVNBT
FTUSVUVSBTDSOFBTOBT
NBOECVMBT EFOPNJOBEBT
CBSCBT QBSBGJMUSBSB
HVBNBSJOIBFSFUFSPT
DSVTUDFPTPVPTQFRVFOPT
QFJYFTEFRVFTFBMJNFOUBN
%FOUSPEPTPEPOUPDFUPT 
DPOIFDFNTFDFSDB
EFFTQDJFT DPNP
PTHPMGJOIPT PTCPUPT 
BTPSDBTFPTDBDIBMPUFT 
FEFOUSPEPTNJTUJDFUPT 
DFSDBEFFTQDJFT
EFCBMFJBT

4VCPSEFN

Ordem

Misticetos

Famlia

Espcie

Nome comum

Balaenidae

Eubalaena glacialis

Baleia-austral

Balaenopteridae

Balaenoptera physalus Rorqual-comum

Eschrichtidae

Eschrichtius robustus

Baleia-cinzenta

Platanista gangetica

Golfinho-do-ganges

Orcinus orca

Orca

Inia geoffrensis

Golfinho-da-amaznia

Cetceos
Odontocetos

Platanistidae


#BMFJBGSBODBCPSFBM Eubalaena
glacialis

Estado:&NQFSJHP "QOEJDF*

&ODPOUSBTFOBTHVBTUFNQFSBEBT
FTVCQPMBSFTEFUPEPP.VOEP


0SDB Orcinus orca

Estado:.FOPSSJTDP "QOEJDF**

&NUPEPPPDFBOP


#BMFJBDJO[FOUB Eschrichtius robustus

Estado:&NQFSJHP "QOEJDF*

/P/PSUFEPPDFBOP1BDGJDP


(PMGJOIPEBBNB[OJB Inia geoffrensis

Estado:7VMOFSWFM "QOEJDF**

/B"NSJDBEP4VM OPTSJPT"NB[POBTF0SJOPDP
%&4"'*04 t $JODJBTEB/BUVSF[B t oBOP t .BUFSJBMGPUPDPQJWFM4BOUJMMBOB$POTUODJB

275

Candeos
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GFSPDJEBEF QFMPPQPSUVOJTNPFQFMPDPNQPSUBNFOUP
BEBQUWFM

Caractersticas dos candeos


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t 4PDBSOWPSPT/PFOUBOUP BMHVOTEFMFTJOHFSFNWFHFUBJT
DPNPDPNQMFNFOUPEBTVBBMJNFOUBP
t 0TEFOUFTDBOJOPTTPHSBOEFTFQPOUJBHVEPTQSFTBT
FPTEPTQSNPMBSFTTVQFSJPSFTFNPMBSFTJOGFSJPSFTTPBGJBEPT
t "TDMBWDVMBTTPQFRVFOBTFPTTFVTDSFCSPTFTUPBMUBNFOUF
EFTFOWPMWJEPT QPSJTTPTPDPOTJEFSBEPTNBJTJOUFMJHFOUFT
EPRVFPVUSPTHSVQPT

"SBQPTBDJO[FOUBWJWFOP4VEFTUFEFGSJDB"TVB
QPQVMBPWBSJBEFBDPSEPDPNBRVBOUJEBEFEFBMJNFOUP
FBEVSBPEPTQFSPEPTEFDIVWB

A COMUNICAO POR GESTOS

Nos anos setenta do sculo XX, o lobo-vermelho (Canis rufus) ficou


extinto no estado selvagem enquanto espcie pura, por dois motivos:
a perseguio movida pelas gentes do campo e dos caadores;
os cruzamentos com os coiotes.
Posteriormente, esta espcie foi reintroduzida na Carolina do Norte
(EUA) e actualmente a populao conta com mais de 50 indivduos.

4VCNJTTP

Alguns candeos, como os lobos e os ces,


utilizam um cdigo mediante os gestos da cara
e do corpo que lhes permite comunicar
os seus estados de nimo aos outros membros
da matilha. Com algumas expresses da sua
cara e da sua cauda, podem mostrar medo,
submisso, ataque, etc.

"UBRVF

%PNOJP

&TUBEPOPSNBM

4VCNJTTP
#SJODBEFJSB

"NJ[BEF

%FGFTB
"UBRVF

276

3FTQPTUBBVNBUBRVF

%&4"'*04 t $JODJBTEB/BUVSF[B t oBOP t .BUFSJBMGPUPDPQJWFM4BOUJMMBOB$POTUODJB

LOBO-IBRICO
(Canis lupus signatus)
Famlia: Canidae
Ordem: Carnvora
Estado: Em perigo. (Apndice II).
t%FTDSJPA morfologia do lobo indica a sua capacidade
predadora: as suas fortes mandbulas com 42 dentes, a sua
ampla caixa torcica e os seus volumosos msculos masster.
Um lobo adulto pode ter em comprimento entre 100
e 120 cm, e uma altura entre 60 e 70 cm. Pode pesar entre
30 e 50 kg. As fmeas so mais pequenas do que os machos.
t)BCJUBUCostuma ocupar uma vasta gama de habitats. uma
espcie muito adaptvel a qualquer meio, a sua presena
est condicionada pela disponibilidade de alimento.
t)CJUPTVive em alcateias e tem uma sociedade com
hierarquia dupla: o casal reprodutor do grupo, o dominante,
isto , o macho-alfa e a fmea-alfa.
t$POTFSWBPO lobo-ibrico encontra-se em vias de
extino em metade da Pennsula Ibrica. uma espcie
perseguida e caada ilegalmente por muitos criadores
de gado, porque se alimenta do gado domstico. Outros
problemas que apresenta a conservao do lobo so
a desflorestao do seu habitat, os incndios florestais
e o uso descontrolado de pesticidas. Supe-se que existam
cerca de 2000 lobos na Pennsula Ibrica, dos quais 300 em
Portugal.

O lobo-ibrico
distribui-se pelo
Noroeste e Sul
da Pennsula.

CO-SELVAGEM-AFRICANO
(Lycaon pictus)
Famlia: Canidae
Ordem: Carnvora
Estado: Em perigo
t%FTDSJPTem uma altura de cerca de 75 cm e pesa entre
20 e 30 kg. Tem cabea macia, como a hiena, e corpo
esbelto. Apresenta manchas negras, amareladas e brancas
distribudas de forma irregular por todo o corpo.
t)BCJUBUSavanas abertas com vegetao arborizada
ou montanha.
t)CJUPTForma matilhas de 5 a 20 indivduos. Caa de
modo organizado e devora as suas presas, gazelas e impalas
rapidamente. Os machos activos esto encarregues
de fornecer comida s fmeas e s crias.
t$POTFSWBP um carnvoro altamente ameaado de
extino. Vive em pequenas populaes dispersas, sendo
que uma boa medida seria facilitar a ligao entre estes
grupos para tentar prevenir o seu desaparecimento.

O co-selvagem-africano vive
ao sul do Sara,
no Sudo
e Etipia, excepto
na selva tropical.

%&4"'*04 t $JODJBTEB/BUVSF[B t oBOP t .BUFSJBMGPUPDPQJWFM4BOUJMMBOB$POTUODJB

277

Ursos
4PPTNBJPSFTDBSOWPSPTF FNCPSBBQBSFOUFNTFSEDFJT 
TPBOJNBJTFYUSFNBNFOUFQFSJHPTPT)PKFFNEJBDPTUVNBN
WJWFSOBT[POBTEFNPOUBOIBDPOUVEP FNQPDBTBOUFSJPSFT
QPEJBNTFSBWJTUBEPTOPVUSPTIBCJUBUT

Caractersticas dos ursos


"MHVNBTEBTQSJODJQBJTDBSBDUFSTUJDBTEPTVSTPTTP
BTTFHVJOUFT
t 4PEFUBNBOIPNEJPFHSBOEF FBTGNFBTTP
MJHFJSBNFOUFNBJTQFRVFOBTEPRVFPTNBDIPT
t $PTUVNBNUFSVNBQFMBHFNQBSEBFVNBNBODIB
OPQFJUP FNCPSBIBKBFYDFQFT DPNPPDBTP
EPQBOEBHJHBOUFFEPVSTPQPMBS
t 5NVNPMGBDUPNVJUPBQVSBEP BPDPOUSSJPEBWJTP
FEBBVEJP
t 4PPNOWPSPT FNCPSBDPNUFOEODJBWFHFUBSJBOB
"EJFUBWBSJBDPOTPBOUFBFTUBPEPBOP1PEFN
DPNFSSFCFOUPTEFSBNPT NFM GSVUPT JOTFDUPT BOJNBJT
EPNTUJDPTFBUQFJYFT
t "THBSSBTTPNVJUPEFTFOWPMWJEBT
t /BTSFHJFTGSJBT PTVSTPTTPCSFWJWFNDPNBTSFTFSWBT
EFHPSEVSBEPDPSQP NBOUFOEPTFOVNFTUBEP
EFMFUBSHJB RVFTFEJGFSFODJBEBIJCFSOBP OBRVBM
PDPSQPEPBOJNBMOPQFSEFUFNQFSBUVSB OPSFTQJSB
NBJTEFWBHBS OFNPTFVNFUBCPMJTNPEFTBDFMFSB
0TSFCFOUPTEFSBNPTGB[FN
QBSUFEBEJFUBEPTVSTPT

O URSO-PARDO NA PENNSULA IBRICA


Em Espanha, o urso-pardo encontra-se numa situao
crtica. Nos Montes Cantbricos restam, hoje em dia,
apenas pequenas populaes, perfazendo um total
de 80 indivduos. O urso-pardo est protegido por lei,
desde 1973, para evitar uma perda irremedivel.
Com esse objectivo, foram postos em marcha planos
de recuperao urgentes nas Astrias, Cantbria, Castela
e Leo, e Galiza. Uma das linhas de aco prioritrias nos
Montes Cantbricos conseguir a ligao dos dois ncleos
geogrficos isolados. E outra das aces mais importantes
consiste em erradicar a caa furtiva e realizar um tipo
de caa controlada. Tambm h outros factores que
representam ameaas, como a destruio do habitat
e a presso turstica nessas zonas. Em Portugal,
o urso-pardo est extinto.

278

0QBOEB
IBCJUBOB$IJOBPVSTPQSFUPUJCFUBOP
IBCJUB
OP4VEFTUF"TJUJDPPVSTPQBSEPFVSPBTJUJDP
IBCJUBOBT[POBT
NPOUBOIPTBTEB&VSPQBFEBTJBPVSTPQBSEPEB"NSJDB

IBCJUBOBT.POUBOIBT3PDIPTBTEB"NSJDBEP/PSUF

%&4"'*04 t $JODJBTEB/BUVSF[B t oBOP t .BUFSJBMGPUPDPQJWFM4BOUJMMBOB$POTUODJB

PANDA-GIGANTE
(Ailuropoda melanoleuca)

URSO-PRETO-TIBETANO
(Helarctos malayanus)

Famlia: Ursidae
Ordem: Carnvora
Estado: Em perigo
(Apndice I).

Famlia: Ursidae
Ordem: Carnvora
Estado: Em perigo
(Apndice I).

t%FTDSJPOs dentes
molares so largos
e achatados, perfeitos
para mastigar. Tm
o osso do pulso alongado,
funcionando como um
polegar.

t%FTDSJPTem uma
mancha cor de canela
no plo, em forma de
meia lua, devido qual
tambm chamado urso
da lua. Mede entre
1 e 1,5 metros e pesa
cerca de 50 kg.

t)BCJUBUExclusivamente
em florestas de bambu.
t$POTFSWBP uma das
espcies mais ameaadas
do planeta, devido
destruio do seu habitat
natural, as florestas
de bambu, para o uso
agrcola, para o comrcio da madeira e devido aos
incndios. Devido aos problemas de reproduo em
cativeiro desta espcie, os investigadores chineses
consideram que a nica soluo para evitar a extino
devolv-los ao seu habitat natural. A criao de
corredores que unam as diferentes populaes isoladas
garantiria a sua sobrevivncia.

t)BCJUBUFlorestas
tropicais.
t)CJUPTCostuma
vaguear durante a noite
em busca de alimento
e de dia dorme numa
caverna. Consegue trepar s rvores com facilidade, devido
s garras curvas. Com a sua lngua comprida, de cerca
de 25 cm, consegue tirar alimento de stios apertados,
como, por exemplo, mel.
t$POTFSWBP caado devido sua carne, pele e vescula,
que usada para fins medicinais, e tambm perseguido
pelos agricultores, porque recorre s plantaes para
se alimentar.

URSO-PARDO-EURO-ASITICO
(Ursus arctos arctos)

URSO-PARDO-AMERICANO
(Ursus arctos horribilis)

Famlia: Ursidae
Ordem: Carnvora
Estado: Menor risco (Apndice I ou II dependendo
das populaes).

Famlia: Ursidae
Ordem: Carnvora
Estado: Menor risco
(Apndice II).

t%FTDSJPPode pesar entre 90 e 350 kg e mede entre 1


e 1,25 metros. A sua cabea enorme e tem duas pequenas
orelhas arredondadas.

t%FTDSJPTem dimenses
gigantescas quase 2,5
metros de altura e 700 kg
de peso.
diferente do urso-pardo-euro-asitico, que mais
pequeno, porque tem o dorso
curvo e a cara muito achatada.
Tem garras de quase 10 cm
de largura, que usa para
escavar e procurar esquilos
e marmotas.

t)BCJUBUEm pocas passadas, o urso-pardo habitava toda


a Europa e parte da sia. Hoje em dia, pode ser encontrado
nas zonas montanhosas, onde restam populaes dispersas.
t$POTFSWBP o urso mais abundante. H cerca
de 250 000 espcimes na Europa e na sia.

t)BCJUBUFlorestas abertas,
planaltos e prados alpinos.
t$POTFSWBPFoi perseguido
quase at extino. Hoje
vive em zonas montanhosas
afastadas, como o Parque
Nacional de Yellowstone,
o Parque Nacional de Glacier e em zonas isoladas do Idaho
e Wyoming. Na parte canadiana das Montanhas Rochosas
bastante abundante.

%&4"'*04 t $JODJBTEB/BUVSF[B t oBOP t .BUFSJBMGPUPDPQJWFM4BOUJMMBOB$POTUODJB

279

Felinos
4PNBNGFSPTDBSOWPSPTRVFQPEFNTFSFODPOUSBEPT
FNUPEPTPTMVHBSFTEPQMBOFUB FYDFQUPOB"OUSDUJEBFOB
0DFOJB FNCPSBBMHVOTEFMFTFTUFKBNFNWJBTEFFYUJOP 
DPNPPMJODFJCSJDP RVFPGFMJOPNBJTBNFBBEPEP.VOEP

PELES VALIOSAS
O ser humano utiliza as
peles de muitos mamferos
para fazer abrigos
e agasalhos. Os mais
prejudicados nesse aspecto
so os grandes felinos
de peles sarapintadas,
como o leopardo, a chita
e o gato-bravo. Apesar de
serem espcies protegidas,
continuam a ser caadas
furtivamente. As indstrias
de peles garantem que
usam animais criados
de propsito para lhes
retirarem a pele, da mesma
forma que se utiliza a pele
das vacas para fazer couro.
Contudo, continuam a ser
confiscadas peles de felinos
caados ilegalmente em
pases do Terceiro Mundo,
para serem vendidas
no Ocidente. Alguns
governos so permissivos
e no penalizam
convenientemente este
tipo de caa, enquanto
outros at a consideram
um recurso a explorar.

280

Tcnica de caa. "TDIJUBTQFNTFFTQSFJUBFRVBOEPEFTDPCSFNVNBQSFTB VNBHB[FMB 


QPSFYFNQMP BQSPYJNBNTFEFMBEFGPSNBMFOUB TJMFODJPTBFTPSSBUFJSB"TPSFMIBTGJDBNDPMBEBT
DBCFB PRVFJOEJDBRVFFTUPOVNNPNFOUPEFHSBOEFUFOTP2VBOEPFTUPBVNBDFSUB
EJTUODJB EPVNTBMUPTPCSFBWUJNB BHBSSBNOBDPNBTVOIBTFDSBWBNMIFPTDBOJOPTOPQFTDPP 
PVFOUSFBTWSUFCSBTQBSBTVGPDMB

Caractersticas dos felinos


&OUSFBTDBSBDUFSTUJDBTNBJTJNQPSUBOUFTEPTGFMJOPT EFWFNEFTUBDBSTFBTTFHVJOUFT
t 4PNBNGFSPTDBSOWPSPT BTVBEJFUBOPJODMVJOFOIVNBTVCTUODJBWFHFUBM
t 4PQSFEBEPSFTFTQFDJBMJ[BEPT
t 5NDBOJOPTUPEFTFOWPMWJEPT RVFQPEFNNBUBSBTQSFTBTDPNVNBOJDBEFOUBEB
t "NBJPSJBUFNVOIBTSFUSDUFJT
t .VJUPTEFMFTUNVNBWJTPBMUBNFOUFEFTFOWPMWJEBFWFNUBOUPEFEJBDPNP
EFOPJUF

Conservao
0TGFMJOPTTPQSFEBEPSFTFUNVNBJNQPSUODJBGVOEBNFOUBMOPDPOUSPMPEPFRVJMCSJP
EBTQPQVMBFTEFBOJNBJTTFMWBHFOTFNNVJUPTEPTFDPTTJTUFNBTEPQMBOFUB.BTBOWFM
NVOEJBMUFNIBWJEPVNBEJNJOVJPCSVTDBEBTQPQVMBFTEFGFMJOPTTFMWBHFOTQPSWSJBT
SB[FT FOUSFBTRVBJTBEFTUSVJPEPIBCJUBUEFWJEPBDBVTBTBOUSQJDBT PUSGJDPEFQFMFT
FBDBBGVSUJWB&NBMHVOTMVHBSFT BTJUVBPUPDSUJDBRVFBMHVNBTEBTFTQDJFTQPEFN
WJSBEFTBQBSFDFSQPSJTTPRVFUPEBBGBNMJBEPTGFMJOPTTFFODPOUSBJODMVEBOB$*5&4 
FTUBOEPVNBTFTQDJFTOP"QOEJDF*FPVUSBTOP"QOEJDF**

%&4"'*04 t $JODJBTEB/BUVSF[B t oBOP t .BUFSJBMGPUPDPQJWFM4BOUJMMBOB$POTUODJB

Classificao
%FOUSPEBGBNMJBEPT
GFMJOPTQPEFNPTFODPOUSBS
WSJPTTVCHSVQPT RVFTF
DIBNBNTVCGBNMJBT FRVF 
QPSTVBWF[ TFBHSVQBN
FNDFSUBTFTQDJFTDPN
DBSBDUFSTUJDBTDPNVOT
/BTFHVJOUFUBCFMB
QPEFNPTWFSBMHVNBT
FTQDJFTSFQSFTFOUBUJWBT
EFTUFHSVQP

Famlia

4VCGBNMJB

Felinae

Espcie

Nome comum

Lynx pardinus

Lince-ibrico

Leopardus pardalis

Ocelote

Puma concolor

Puma

Panthera leo

Leo

Panthera tigris

Tigre

Panthera pardus

Leopardo

Panthera onca

Jaguar

Acinonyx jubatus

Leopardo

Felidae
Pantherinae

Acinonychinae

0DFMPUF Leopardus
pardalis

Estado:.FOPSSJTDP
"QOEJDF*

1PEFTFSFODPOUSBEP
EFTEFP4VMEPT
&TUBEPT6OJEPTBU
"NSJDBEP4VM
4PBOJNBJTOPDUVSOPT
RVFDPNFBN
BTVBBDUJWJEBEF
BPFOUBSEFDFS


-JODFJCSJDP
Lynx pardinus

Estado:&NQFSJHP
"QOEJDF*

/BUJWPEP4VM
FEP4VEPFTUF
EB1FOOTVMB*CSJDB


5JHSF Panthera tigris

Estado:&NQFSJHP
"QOEJDF*

"EJTUSJCVJP
EPUJHSFBCBSDB
HSBOEFTFYUFOTFT
EPDPOUJOFOUFBTJUJDP 
FYJTUJOEPUBNCN
HSBOEFTQPQVMBFT
OBOEJB


$IJUB Acinonyx
jubatus

Estado:7VMOFSWFM
"QOEJDF*

"TVBEJTUSJCVJP
OBUVSBMFOHMPCB
HSBOEFQBSUFEP
UFSSJUSJPBGSJDBOP
FPTFVIBCJUBU
QSFGFSJEPBTBWBOB
"DIJUBPBOJNBMNBJT
WFMP[GBDFEB5FSSB 
DPOTFHVJOEPDPSSFS
BVNBWFMPDJEBEF
EF LNI

O leo habita todo


o Centro e Sul de frica.
H que destacar tambm
o leo-asitico, que
pode ser encontrado
unicamente numa regio
do Noroeste da ndia
chamada Gir Forest,
na qual vivem apenas
250 espcimes.

%&4"'*04 t $JODJBTEB/BUVSF[B t oBOP t .BUFSJBMGPUPDPQJWFM4BOUJMMBOB$POTUODJB

281

Elefantes
"DUVBMNFOUF PNBJPSNBNGFSPUFSSFTUSFEPQMBOFUB
PFMFGBOUFPTBEVMUPTQPEFNVMUSBQBTTBSBTDJODPUPOFMBEBT
EFQFTP1PEFTFSFODPOUSBEPFNGSJDBFOBTJB FNCPSB
FNQPDBTSFNPUBT DPNPP1MFJTUPDFOP TFFTUFOEFTTF
QPSRVBTFUPEPTPTDPOUJOFOUFT

Caractersticas dos elefantes

LEITURA

O Livro da Selva, Rudyard Kipling


Finalmente, os elefantes comearam a deitar-se,
um a seguir ao outro, como de costume, at
que s Kala Nag ficou em p, do lado direito,
e ento comeou a balouar-se lentamente,
com as orelhas para a frente, para escutar o
vento da noite, que soprava suavemente sobre
as colinas. O ar estava repleto de todos esses
rudos nocturnos que, quando se ouvem ao
mesmo tempo, produzem um silncio enorme:
o roar de uma cana de bambu contra a outra,
o deambular de um animal entre os matagais,
o esvoaar e os grasnidos de um pssaro
meio desperto ( noite, os pssaros esto
despertos durante muito mais tempo do que
ns pensamos) e o burburinho da gua que
cai ao longe, muito ao longe. () Toomai, o
pequeno, voltou-se, fazendo estalar a forragem,
e viu a curvatura do enorme dorso recortada
sobre metade das estrelas do cu; e, enquanto
a observava, ouviu, to distante que parecia
que aquele sossego atravessava apenas a ponta
de um alfinete, o juut-tuut de um elefante
selvagem, um som como o de um corno de caa.

0FMFGBOUFQFSUFODFBPHSVQPEPTHSBOEFTIFSCWPSPT DPNPTRVBJT
QBSUJMIBVNBTSJFEFDBSBDUFSTUJDBT
t A alimentao. VNDPOTVNJEPSQSJNSJP PVTFKB BMJNFOUBTF
EFQMBOUBT"EFOUJPFPTJTUFNBEJHFTUJWPFTUPQFSGFJUBNFOUF
BEBQUBEPTBFTUFUJQPEFBMJNFOUBP
t Adaptaes defensivas. %FTFOWPMWFVNFDBOJTNPTQBSBFTDBQBS
BPTBUBRVFTEPTDBSOWPSPT
t Vivem em manadas. $VJEBNEBTDSJBTBUFTUBTFTUBSFNDSFTDJEBT
FTFUPSOBSFNBEVMUBT

Comrcio de marfim
)NVJUBTEDBEBT BQPQVMBPEFFMFGBOUFTFNGSJDBFSBEF
NJMIFTEFFTQDJNFT$PNPDPNSDJPEPNBSGJN FTTBTQPQVMBFT
DPNFBSBNBEJNJOVJSDPOTJEFSBWFMNFOUF&N FNBMHVOT
MVHBSFT PONFSPEJNJOVJVEFUBMGPSNBRVFPTSFQSFTFOUBOUFTEF
BMHVOTPSHBOJTNPTJOUFSOBDJPOBJTFHPWFSOPTUJWFSBNEFJOUFSWJS 
QSPJCJOEPPDPNSDJPEFQSFTBTEFFMFGBOUF.BTDPNPIPVWFGBMUB
EFNFDBOJTNPTQBSBBQMJDBSBMFJFPNFSDBEPOPGPJGJTDBMJ[BEP 
BTTJTUJVTFBPJODJPEBDBBGVSUJWBEFFMFGBOUFT)PKFFNEJBDPOUJOVB
BIBWFSNVJUPTDPNQSBEPSFTEFNBSGJN DPNPUVSJTUBTFIPNFOTEF
OFHDJPT RVFTPPTRVFGPNFOUBNPUSGJDPJMFHBMEFNBSGJN4FOP
GPSFNUPNBEBTNFEJEBTVSHFOUFTQBSBTPMVDJPOBSPQSPCMFNB QPEFN
EFTBQBSFDFSBMHVNBTQPQVMBFTEFFMFGBOUFT

6NBGNFBEFFMFGBOUF
DPNBTVBDSJB

"QSPJCJPEPDPNSDJP
EFNBSGJNUPSOPVBDBB
GVSUJWBEFFMFGBOUFTVN
OFHDJPMVDSBUJWP%FGPSNB
BFWJUBSJTTP BTBVUPSJEBEFT
EBTBMGOEFHBT BQMJDBOEPB
DPOWFOP$*5&4 DPOGJTDBN
BTQSFTBTEPTFMFGBOUFTRVF
UFOIBNTJEPUSB[JEBTEP
TFVQBTEFPSJHFNTFN
BVUPSJ[BPPGJDJBM

282

%&4"'*04 t $JODJBTEB/BUVSF[B t oBOP t .BUFSJBMGPUPDPQJWFM4BOUJMMBOB$POTUODJB

ELEFANTE-AFRICANO
(Loxodonta africana)
Famlia: Elephantidae
Ordem: Proboscidea
Estado: Em perigo. Apndice I, excepto algumas
populaes da Nambia, frica do Sul e Zimbabu,
que esto includas no Apndice II.
t%FTDSJPPode chegar a pesar 7 toneladas,
mede entre 3 e 4 metros de altura e tem cerca
de 7 metros de comprimento. As suas orelhas
so enormes. A cor cinzento-acastanhado.
t)BCJUBUFlorestas tropicais, zonas de savana,
desertos, estepes, vales de rios e encostas
de montanhas. Tambm pode ser encontrado
a 3000 metros, nas montanhas do Qunia
e no Quilimanjaro.
t"MJNFOUBPErva e ramos.
t)CJUPTOs elefantes tm um estilo de vida
matriarcal, sendo a fmea mais velha aquela que lidera
a manada. As fmeas adultas ficam com a famlia,
enquanto os machos, quando chegam puberdade,
vivem sozinhos ou com outros machos, formando
grupos que visitam a famlia, a manada de fmeas
e crias, de forma espordica.
O elefante-africano pode ser encontrado principalmente
na zona central e este de frica.

ELEFANTE-ASITICO
(Elephas maximus)
Famlia: Elephantidae
Ordem: Proboscidea
Estado: Em perigo (Apndice I).
t%FTDSJPO elefante-asitico pertence
a uma espcie diferente da do elefante-africano,
distinguindo-se desta porque tem:
Uma testa maior.
O dorso mais arqueado.
Uma tromba mais lisa, que acaba com um
nico lbio (a do africano tem dois lbios).
Presas mais curtas.
Vivem em manadas de entre 15 a 30
elementos, lideradas por uma fmea velha.
Pode pesar at 5 toneladas.
t)BCJUBUExclusivamente a selva.
t"MJNFOUBP herbvoro, s come erva fresca,
cerca de 220 kg por dia.
t)CJUPTAo contrrio do elefante-africano,
o asitico foi domesticado e constitui uma grande
ajuda para o ser humano, que o utiliza como meio
de transporte e como animal de carga.
Alm disso, tem a capacidade de usar a tromba
como se fosse uma mo.
O elefante-asitico pode ser encontrado no Sul e no Sudeste da sia.

%&4"'*04 t $JODJBTEB/BUVSF[B t oBOP t .BUFSJBMGPUPDPQJWFM4BOUJMMBOB$POTUODJB

283

Manatins
VNNBNGFSPIFSCWPSPBRVUJDPRVF FNJEBEFBEVMUB
QPEFQFTBSDFSDBEFLH)PKFFNEJB IUSTFTQDJFT
EFNBOBUJOTFNUPEPP.VOEPPNBOBUJNEBTBOUJMIBT
PVNBOBUJNEBTDBSBCBT PNBOBUJNEBBNB[OJBFPBGSJDBOP

4PPTOJDPTNBNGFSPTBRVUJDPTBBMJNFOUBSTFFYDMVTJWBNFOUF
EFQMBOUBT

/BTGP[FTEPTHSBOEFTSJPT OPTQOUBOPTFOBTDPTUBTPOEFIBCJUB
PNBOBUJN FTUFUFNVNQBQFMFDPMHJDPNVJUPJNQPSUBOUF QPSRVF
DPOUSPMBBQSPMJGFSBPEFQMBOUBT BPBMJNFOUBSTFEFMBT

Caractersticas do manatim

Conservao

$BSBDUFSTUJDBTQSJODJQBJTEBPSEFNEPTTJSFOEFPT
t 5NVNDPSQPGVTJGPSNFFBTFYUSFNJEBEFTUSBOTGPSNBEBT
FNCBSCBUBOBT BMNEFPVUSBTBEBQUBFTBPNFJP
BRVUJDP
t 1SFDJTBNEFTVCJSTVQFSGDJFQBSBSFTQJSBS NBT
DPOTFHVFNQFSNBOFDFSEFCBJYPEFHVBBUNJOVUPT
2VBOEPTVCNFSHFN PTEPJTPSJGDJPTOBTBJTMPDBMJ[BEPT
VNQPVDPBDJNBEBCPDBTPIFSNFUJDBNFOUFGFDIBEPT
t 5NPTPMIPTQFRVFOPTFPTPVWJEPTTFNQSPUVCFSODJBT
FYUFSOBT
t "EFOUJPOPBQSFTFOUBJODJTJWPTOFNDBOJOPT 
FPTNPMBSFTTPTVCTUJUVEPTDPOTUBOUFNFOUF 
PRVFDPOTUJUVJVNDBTPOJDPFOUSFPTNBNGFSPT
t 0TTFVTPTTPTTPQFTBEPT PRVFGBDJMJUBBJNFSTP FOP
UNFTQJOIBEPSTBM OFNDPTUFMBTPVCBSCBUBOBTGSPOUBJT
t 0TQVMNFTTJUVBNTFFNQPTJPEPSTBM GVODJPOBOEP
DPNPCJBT

0NBOBUJN RVFIBCJUBOPTSJPTEB"NB[OJB 
VNNBNGFSPRVFDPSSFVNTSJPSJTDPEFFYUJOP 
TFHVOEPVNSFMBUSJPFMBCPSBEPQFMP$FOUSPEF
.BNGFSPT"RVUJDPTEP#SBTJM/PMUJNPDFOTPSFBMJ[BEP
OPTSJPTEB"NB[OJBFOP/PSUFEPMJUPSBMBUMOUJDP
EPQBT TGPSBNDPOUBCJMJ[BEPTNBOBUJOT
)WSJBTDBVTBTQBSBBNPSUFEFTUFBOJNBM
BBMUBWFMPDJEBEFEPTCBSDPTRVFDJSDVMBNOPTSJPT 
BTDPOTUSVFTIVNBOBTQFSUPEBTDPTUBT PTEFKFDUPT
FMJYPRVFTPEFJUBEPTEJSFDUBNFOUFQBSBPTSJPT
FBDBBJOEJTDSJNJOBEBQPSQBSUFEPTQFTDBEPSFT
0NBOBUJN RVFQPEFDIFHBSBQFTBSDFSDBEFRVJMPT 
NVJUPBQSFDJBEPEFWJEPTVBDBSOFWFSNFMIB QFMF
FHPSEVSB1BSBFWJUBSBDBBEFTUFTBOJNBJT FTUFN
NBSDIBVNQMBOPQBSBTBMWBSPNBOBUJN RVFDPOTJTUF
FNPGFSFDFSBPTQFTDBEPSFTVNBGPSNBBMUFSOBUJWB
EFHBOIBSFNBWJEB DPNP QPSFYFNQMP QSPKFDUPT
EFEFTFOWPMWJNFOUPUVSTUJDP

284

%&4"'*04 t $JODJBTEB/BUVSF[B t oBOP t .BUFSJBMGPUPDPQJWFM4BOUJMMBOB$POTUODJB

MANATIM-DAS-CARABAS
( Trichechus manatus)
Estado: Vulnervel (Apndice I).
t %FTDSJPCostumam ser cinzentos,
mas tambm existem alguns cor de caf.
O nome cientfico, Trichechus, faz
referncia s suas trs unhas. O corpo
grande e cilndrico, quase sem plos,
e tem uma pele grossa e dura.
As patas dianteiras transformaram-se
em barbatanas e a cauda achatou-se,
formando uma barbatana que o ajuda
a mergulhar.
t )BCJUBUAs margens e as fozes dos rios,
onde haja vegetao aqutica abundante
a menos de cinco metros de
profundidade. Geralmente, os manatins
evitam os locais com temperaturas
inferiores a 20 C.
t 5JQPEFBMJNFOUBPPode chegar
a comer at 80 kg de plantas diariamente.
Alimenta-se de plantas aquticas, muitas
das quais, ao longo da sua evoluo,
se proveram de mecanismos protectores
anti-herbvoros, reduzindo a sua
digestibilidade e o seu valor nutritivo.
Tambm podem comer algas, mas
pouco comum.
t 3FQSPEVPFDSJBTA capacidade
de reproduo relativamente baixa,
quando comparada com a de outros
mamferos. A fmea pode dar luz a cada
dois ou cinco anos. O perodo de gestao
de 13 meses, um dos mais longos do
reino animal. As crias, ao nascer, pesam
cerca de 30 kg e podem medir cerca
de 15 metros de comprimento. As crias
ficam com a me quase at aos dois anos,
que as alimenta com leite at estas terem
os dentes formados e, por conseguinte,
capacidade para comerem por
elas mesmas.

Classificao
Ordem

Famlia

Trichechidae

Espcie

Nome comum

Trichechus manatus

Manatim-das-carabas

Trichechus inunguis

Manatim-da-amaznia

Sirenia
Trichechus senegalensis Manatim-africano
Dugongidae

Dugong dugon

t )CJUPT pachorrento e passa os seus


dias a pastar tranquilamente em guas
pouco profundas, sendo tambm
conhecido como vaca-marinha.
Desloca-se completamente submerso,
mas consegue pr at metade do corpo
fora de gua para se alimentar da
vegetao das margens, apoiando-se
nas barbatanas frontais.
O perodo de maturao dura de quatro
a seis anos e, aparentemente, pode
chegar a viver at 60 anos.
0NBOBUJNEBTDBSBCBTFODPOUSBTFEJTUSJCVEP
EFTEFP4VEFTUFEPT&TUBEPT6OJEPTBUBP
/PSEFTUFEB"NSJDBEP4VMFT$BSBCBT

Dugongo

O manatim-da-amaznia
pode ser encontrado
no rio Amazonas
e noutros rios da
Guiana e do Brasil.
O manatim-africano
vive em zonas
costeiras, rios e caudais
de frica Ocidental.
O dugongo pode ser
encontrado nas costas
do Este de frica,
no Oeste, Sul e Sudeste
da sia, na Austrlia
e nas ilhas do Pacfico.

%&4"'*04 t $JODJBTEB/BUVSF[B t oBOP t .BUFSJBMGPUPDPQJWFM4BOUJMMBOB$POTUODJB

285

Equdeos
5PEPTFMFTTPIFSCWPSPTFTFBMJNFOUBNQSJODJQBMNFOUF
EFFSWB4PBOJNBJTEFHSBOEFBHJMJEBEF BQFTBSEPTFVWPMVNF 
DBSBDUFSJ[BOEPTFQFMBTVBGPSB OPCSF[BFFOFSHJB

Hyracotherium. .FEJBBQSPYJNBEBNFOUF
DFOUNFUSPTEFBMUVSB7JWJBFN[POBT
GMPSFTUBJTFBMJNFOUBWBTFEBTGPMIBTEPT
BSCVTUPT

Equus. &TUFHOFSPDPNQSFFOEFUPEPTPTDBWBMPT
BDUVBJTFPTTFVTBOUFQBTTBEPTNBJTEJSFDUPT

Evoluo do gnero
Equus
"QBSUJSEPBOUFQBTTBEPNBJTQSPWWFM
EFUPEPTPTDBWBMPT PHyracotherium 
RVFWJWFVFNNFBEPTEBFSBUFSDJSJB
BFWPMVPJNQMJDPVNVJUBTNVEBOBT
UBOUPPBVNFOUPEFUBNBOIP DPNPPVUSBT
BMUFSBFTRVFBGFDUBSBNBTEJGFSFOUFTQBSUFT
EBBOBUPNJBEPTBOJNBJT5PEPTPTBOUFQBTTBEPT
EPHOFSPEquusWJWFSBNOPDPOUJOFOUFBNFSJDBOP
FGPJMRVFTFEFVBFWPMVPEFTUFTBOJNBJT"QFOBT
PTBOUFQBTTBEPTNBJTEJSFDUPTEPDBWBMPBDUVBMIBCJUBSBN
P7FMIP.VOEP RVFDPMPOJ[BSBNINFOPTEFEPJT
NJMIFTEFBOPT"FWPMVPEPHOFSPEquus DPOUJOVPV
OB&VSPQB TJBFGSJDB NBTOPOB"NSJDB POEF
PTDBWBMPTTFFYUJOHVJSBNOPJODJPEBFSBRVBUFSOSJB

O QUAGA
O quaga um animal extinto muito
semelhante s zebras e que, tal como
estas, vivia em frica. Caracterizava-se
pela sua cor, j que as listas escuras se
encontravam na parte posterior do corpo.
Era a zebra que ocupava a regio mais
meridional, pois vivia entre os planaltos da
frica Austral, a sul do rio Orange e a este
do rio Key. Na primeira metade do sculo
XIX, a caa e as doenas foram reduzindo
as populaes. Em 1858, morreu o ltimo
espcime em liberdade e, em 1883,
o ltimo em cativeiro, em Amesterdo.

286

"[FCSBEFHSFWZ
IBCJUBOBGSJDB0SJFOUBM OB[POBNBJTTFUFOUSJPOBM
EBSFBUPUBMEFEJTQFSTPEBT[FCSBTPCVSSPTFMWBHFNBGSJDBOP
IBCJUB
OP&TUFEFGSJDB FPDBWBMPTFMWBHFNEFQS[FXBMTLJ
GPJSFJOUSPEV[JEP
OPTFVFTUBEPTFMWBHFNOP&TUF"TJUJDP

%&4"'*04 t $JODJBTEB/BUVSF[B t oBOP t .BUFSJBMGPUPDPQJWFM4BOUJMMBOB$POTUODJB

ZEBRA-DE-GREVY
(Equus grevyi)
Famlia: Equidae
Ordem: Perissodactyla
Estado: Em perigo (Apndice I).
t%FTDSJP a maior zebra. Tem muitas listas finas e verticais
e grandes orelhas redondas. Embora seja a mais forte das zebras das
plancies, a mais fcil de domesticar. As patas so listadas quase at
ao casco, o abdmen branco, sem listas, e o focinho preto.
t)BCJUBUSavana africana; alm disso, gosta muito de gua, pelo que
pode ser encontrada frequentemente em pequenas manadas, perto
de rios ou lagos.
t)CJUPTVive em manadas que chegam a ser muito numerosas
e que, por vezes, permitem que outros animais se juntem ao grupo,
como grous e bfalos.
t$POTFSWBPEstas zebras esto a desaparecer, apesar das medidas
de conservao do meio em que habitam e de outras circunstncias
favorveis.

BURRO-SELVAGEM-AFRICANO
(Equus africanus)
Famlia: Equidae
Ordem: Perissodactyla
Estado: Em perigo crtico (Apndice I).
t%FTDSJP de cor bege, com as caractersticas listas castanhas
horizontais que apresenta nas patas.
t)BCJUBUDesertos rochosos que podem alcanar os 50 C.
o ungulado mais eficaz para explorar os pastos, devido s suas
caractersticas morfolgicas, e pode comer desde erva at ramos
de accias. capaz de aguentar vrios dias sem beber.
t$POTFSWBPOs burros selvagens so de origem africana.
Acredita-se que, na poca dos Romanos, j existiam trs raas
destes burros, das quais s resta uma: o burro-selvagem-da-somlia,
Equus africanus somalicus.

CAVALO-PRZEWALSKI
(Equus przewalskii)
Famlia: Equidae
Ordem: Perissodactyla
Estado: Extinto em estado selvagem (Apndice I).
t%FTDSJPTem um pescoo muito largo e uma grande cabea.
As patas so curtas, quando comparadas com as dos cavalos
domsticos.
t)BCJUBUViveu nas estepes da Monglia at dcada de 1960,
quando se extinguiu em liberdade.
t$POTFSWBPAinda existe em alguns jardins zoolgicos.
A populao em cativeiro ronda os 1300 exemplares, que
descendem de 13 espcimes selvagens, capturados para tentar
perpetuar a espcie. Hoje em dia existe um programa para
a reintroduo dos cavalos-selvagens-de-przewalski criados em
cativeiro na regio do seu habitat natural, na Monglia. O perigo
desse projecto o risco de um cruzamento desta espcie com
os cavalos domsticos criados pelos mongis nmadas.

%&4"'*04 t $JODJBTEB/BUVSF[B t oBOP t .BUFSJBMGPUPDPQJWFM4BOUJMMBOB$POTUODJB

287

Rinocerontes
)BMHVNBTEDBEBTRVFBDBBGVSUJWBSFQSFTFOUBVNBHSBOEF
BNFBBQBSBPTSJOPDFSPOUFTF OPTOPTTPTEJBT UPEBTBT
FTQDJFTUNVNONFSPNVJUPSFEV[JEP FTUBOEPBMHVNBT 
JODMVTJWBNFOUF FNWJBTEFFYUJOP DPNPPSJOPDFSPOUFOFHSP

Caractersticas dos rinocerontes

3JOPDFSPOUFOFHSPBDPNFS
GPMIBTGSFTDBTEFVNBSCVTUP

$BSBDUFSTUJDBTQSJODJQBJTEPTSJOPDFSPOUFT
t 4PBOJNBJTEFHSBOEFQPSUF
t 5NDIJGSFTOBQBSUFGSPOUBMEPDSOJP/PSNBMNFOUFUNEPJT NBTBMHVNBT
FTQDJFT DPNPPSJOPDFSPOUFEFKBWBFPSJOPDFSPOUFJOEJBOP TUNVN
t 5NVNBQFMFNVJUPHSPTTB$PTUVNBNDPCSJSTFEFMBNBQBSBQSPUFHFSFN
BQFMFEBTQJDBEBTEPTJOTFDUPTFQBSBSFHVMBSFNBUFNQFSBUVSB
t 4PRVBESQFEFTDPNUSTEFEPTFNDBEBQBUB$BEBEFEPUFSNJOB
DPNVNDBTDP PRVFMIFTQFSNJUFBUJOHJSVNBWFMPDJEBEFDPOTJEFSWFM
RVBOEPDPSSFN
t 0TPMIPTTPQFRVFOPTFTJUVBNTFFNBNCPTPTMBEPTEBDBCFB
UNVNBWJTPMJNJUBEB
t "TPSFMIBTTPQFRVFOBT FNGPSNBEFUVCP FNFYFNTFSBQJEBNFOUF
OBEJSFDPEFPOEFWFNPTPN5NBBVEJPCFNEFTFOWPMWJEB
t 0PMGBDUPFYDFMFOUF
t "MJNFOUBNTFEFGPMIBT FSWBF FNBMHVNBTPDBTJFT BUEFGSVUPT1SFDJTBN
EFHSBOEFTRVBOUJEBEFTEFBMJNFOUPQBSBTFNBOUFSFN
t #FCFNNVJUBHVB BQFTBSEF FNDPOEJFTSJEBT QPEFSFNFTUBSRVBUSPPVDJODPEJBT
TFNCFCFS
t VNBOJNBMTPMJUSJP NBTBTDSJBTQFSNBOFDFNDPNBNFBUBMDBOBSFNBNBUVSJEBEF

O CHIFRE DO RINOCERONTE
O chifre dos rinocerontes
foi usado tradicionalmente
para fins medicinais, na sia
e na frica, e com fins
ornamentais no Imen.
O chifre constitudo por
fibras de queratina e os
rinocerontes usam-no como
arma de defesa. Durante
anos houve tanta procura,
devido s suas supostas
propriedades afrodisacas,
que os comerciantes
chegaram a pagar grandes
somas em dinheiro pelos
chifres. Isso potenciou a caa
furtiva, que chegou a ser to
indiscriminada que quase
extinguiu os rinocerontes
em todo o Mundo.

288

)PKFFNEJBSFTUBNDJODPFTQDJFT EVBTIBCJUBNFNGSJDBFUSTOBTJBPSJOPDFSPOUFCSBODP
QPEF
TFSFODPOUSBEPOP4VEP OB3FQCMJDB$FOUSP"GSJDBOB QBSUFEP$POHPFUBNCNOBGSJDB.FSJEJPOBM
PSJOPDFSPOUFOFHSP
QPEFTFSFODPOUSBEPEFTEFBGSJDB0SJFOUBMBUSFHJPEP$IBEFFEB/JHSJB 
FEFTEFP4BSBBUGSJDB.FSJEJPOBMPSJOPDFSPOUFEFKBWB
IBCJUBFN+BWBFOP7JFUOBNF
PSJOPDFSPOUFJOEJBOP
IBCJUBFNPJUPSFTFSWBTQSPUFHJEBTEBOEJBFOP4VMEP/FQBM
PSJOPDFSPOUFEFTVNBUSB
WJWFOB#JSNOJB 5BJMOEJB OBQFOOTVMBEB.BMTJBFFNBMHVNBTSFHJFT
EB*OEPDIJOB

%&4"'*04 t $JODJBTEB/BUVSF[B t oBOP t .BUFSJBMGPUPDPQJWFM4BOUJMMBOB$POTUODJB

Rinocerontes africanos
RINOCERONTE-BRANCO
(Ceratotherium simum)

RINOCERONTE-NEGRO
(Diceros bicornis)

Famlia: Rhinocerotidae
Ordem: Perissodactyla
Estado: Menor risco. (Apndice I).

Famlia: Rhinocerotidae
Ordem: Perissodactyla
Estado: Em perigo crtico. (Apndice I).

t%FTDSJPPode chegar a pesar 3,5 toneladas, sendo o


segundo maior animal terrestre a seguir ao elefante. Apesar
do seu tamanho, consegue ser muito gil. cinzento-escuro
e denomina-se branco devido cor da crosta seca que se
forma depois de se rebolar na lama. O crnio alongado
e tem lbios grossos que usa para comer ervas rasteiras.

t%FTDSJP cinzento-escuro. Tem patas curtas e robustas.


muito pesado e pode ser surpreendentemente agressivo.
Tem um lbio superior prensil que usa para partir
as extremidades dos ramos das plantas lenhosas.

t)BCJUBUVive em savanas perto de zonas com gua.


t$POTFSWBPH algumas dcadas encontrava-se em vias
de extino, mas foi salvo graas a eficazes medidas de
proteco que foram tomadas. Actualmente, o aumento
da populao considervel.

t$POTFSWBPDesde 1970 desapareceram 95% dos


rinocerontes-negros. Estima-se que restem apenas cerca
de 2000 em todo o continente africano. A principal ameaa
a caa. o animal que mais rapidamente se est a extinguir
no Mundo.

Rinocerontes asiticos
RINOCERONTE-DE-JAVA
(Rhinoceros sondaicus)

RINOCERONTE-INDIANO
(Rhinoceros unicornis)

Famlia: Rhinocerotidae
Ordem: Perissodactyla
Estado: Em perigo crtico. (Apndice I).

Famlia: Rhinocerotidae
Ordem: Perissodactyla
Estado: Em perigo
(Apndice I).
t%FTDSJPPesa entre
1800 e 2700 kg. Tem
um aspecto couraado
pela pele pregueada
que possui. Alm disso,
apresenta uns pequenos
escudos crneos
Rinoceronte-indiano.
semelhantes a verrugas.
Na nuca tem uma avultao que o diferencia do resto das espcies da famlia.
Utiliza o seu lbio superior prensil para obter ervas altas e pequenos arbustos.
t)BCJUBUPassa bastante tempo na gua, ao contrrio dos outros rinocerontes
que preferem rebolar-se na lama.
t$POTFSWBPRestam aproximadamente 2500 indivduos. Nos ltimos anos
tem-se observado que na ndia Norte Oriental esta populao tem aumentado.

t$POTFSWBPEm Java restam


50 espcimes, e no Vietname menos de
10. H menos de 70 espcimes em todo
o mundo. A sobrevivncia desta espcie
depende da manuteno das medidas de
proteco tomadas nas zonas de reserva.

RINOCERONTE-DE-SUMATRA
(Dicerorhinus sumatrensis)
Famlia: Rhinocerotidae
Ordem: Perissodactyla
Estado: Em perigo crtico. (Apndice I).
t$POTFSWBPEncontra-se seriamente
ameaado pela extino, porque os
exemplares sobreviventes esto muito
dispersos.

%&4"'*04 t $JODJBTEB/BUVSF[B t oBOP t .BUFSJBMGPUPDPQJWFM4BOUJMMBOB$POTUODJB

289

Ciconiformes
"TDFHPOIBT BTHBSBT PTDPMIFSFJSPT PTCJTFPCJDPEFTBQBUP
GPSNBNPHSVQPEPTDJDPOJGPSNFT"HSBOEFNBJPSJBWJWFFN
[POBTINJEBTFQBOUBOPTBTFNVJUPTFOTWFMTBMUFSBFT
RVFTFQSPEV[FNOFTUFTMVHBSFT

Caractersticas dos ciconiformes


$BSBDUFSTUJDBTQSJODJQBJTEPTDJDPOJGPSNFT
t 5BNBOIPNEJP$PSQPSFMBUJWBNFOUFMFWFEFQBUBTFQFTDPPTMPOHPT
t #JDPMPOHPRVFVUJMJ[BNQBSBQFTDBSJOUSPEV[JOEPPOBHVBPV
SFWPMWFOEPCFNPGVOEPEPTMBHPT&NUFSSBCJDBNPTPMPQBSB
BQBOIBSBMHVNWFSNFPVJOTFDUP
t 'SFRVFOUBNUFSSFOPTDPCFSUPTEFHVBEFQPVDBQSPGVOEJEBEF 
PTQOUBOPT PTSJPTFBTDPTUBT
&TQDJFSFQSFTFOUBUJWB

Famlia

"DFHPOIBOFHSB Ciconia nigra


VNBFTQDJF
FNWJBEFFYUJOP/PBOP BQPQVMBPEBT
DFHPOIBTOFHSBTOB1FOOTVMB*CSJDBFSBEFDBTBJT
SFQSPEVUPSFTDFSUPTFQPTTWFJT PRVFNPTUSBVN
BVNFOUPTJHOJGJDBUJWPDPNQBSBOEPDPNPBOUFSJPS
DFOTPSFBMJ[BEPFN POEFTFSFHJTUBSBNDBTBJT
SFQSPEVUPSFTDFSUPTFQSPWWFJT

4VTUFOUBP

4FDPEFVNBBTB

$PSSFOUFEFBS

0WPPEBTBWFT"TVTUFOUBPOPBS
DPOTFHVFTFEFWJEPTEJGFSFOBTOBTDPSSFOUFT
EFBSTPCSFBBTBFQPSCBJYPEFMB

"WFEFFTWPBBSSQJEP

290

"WFQMBOBEPSB

Ardeidae

Gara

Balaenicipitidae

Bico-de-sapato

Scopidae

Cabea-de-martelo

Threskiornithidae

bis e colhereiros

Ciconiidae

Cegonha

Abutres-do-novo-mundo

Abutre-americano

As famlias da ordem dos ciconiformes.

1PSRVFRVFBTBWFTWPBN
A maioria das aves voa e consegue voar graas a vrias
adaptaes:
O seu corpo alargado e aerodinmico, pelo que oferece
uma resistncia mnima ao ar.
As asas servem para se apoiarem e sustentarem no ar.
A beira anterior mais grossa que a posterior ou de sada;
a superfcie superior ligeiramente convexa, e a inferior,
cncava. O ar passa mais depressa pela parte superior,
porque h sempre mais ar debaixo da asa, relativamente
ao vazio superior; como resultado, surge uma fora de
sustentao que impulsiona a subida. Se a beira anterior
se inclinar um pouco para baixo, a ave sobe.
As grandes aves planadoras (abutres, guias, quebra-ossos,
etc.) tm asas de grande envergadura e movem-nas
lentamente; as aves pequenas esvoaam mais rapidamente
e tm asas curtas e largas. Isto permite movimentarem-se
entre a vegetao.

%&4"'*04 t $JODJBTEB/BUVSF[B t oBOP t .BUFSJBMGPUPDPQJWFM4BOUJMMBOB$POTUODJB

BIS-EREMITA (Geronticus eremita)


Famlia: Threskiornithidae
Ordem: Ciconiformes
Estado: Em perigo crtico (Apndice I).
t%FTDSJPTem uma altura de uns 70 cm e a
envergadura das asas de 125 a 135 cm. Os machos
so um pouco maiores do que as fmeas. A plumagem
de cor escura com um brilho metlico, a cabea no
tem plumas e a cabea e o pescoo so vermelhos.
O bico curvado, de cor vermelha, igual s suas patas.
O colar de plumas de cor escura e um pouco alongadas
diferenciam-no dos outros bis.
t)BCJUBU uma espcie colonial, habita em zonas
ridas ou semiridas de estepes, pastagens e campos
de cultivo.
t/JEJGJDBPNidifica em cortados e escarpas.
A postura de dois a quatro ovos. A incubao
e o cuidado das crias so realizados tanto pelo macho
como pela fmea.
t"MJNFOUBPInsectos e pequenos vertebrados.
t$POTFSWBPH cerca de cem anos havia populaes
de bis-eremita em vrios pontos da Europa Central,
Norte de frica e na zona este do Mediterrneo,
mas o nmero de indivduos desta espcie foi
diminuindo e desde os finais da dcada de 1980
apenas se conheciam dois grupos, um em Marrocos
e o outro na Turquia. Actualmente, restam apenas
300 exemplares em liberdade no Sudoeste
de Marrocos.
Do bis-eremita existe actualmente apenas duas colnias,
uma no Noroeste de frica e outra no Oeste da sia.

BICO-DE-SAPATO
(Balaeniceps rex)
Famlia: Balaenicipitidae
Ordem: Ciconiformes
Estado: Menor risco (Apndice II).
t%FTDSJPPossui um aspecto muito
particular devido ao seu bico enorme,
forma do seu pescoo, ao seu corpo
pesado e s suas patas compridas.

t$POTFSWBPConhece-se muito
pouco sobre a sua situao, porque
muito complicado penetrar no seu
habitat.

Mede 1,40 m de altura e a envergadura


das suas asas de 2,60 m.
t)BCJUBUVive nas zonas pantanosas
e hmidas de gua doce com
vegetao alta.
t/JEJGJDBPPe um a trs ovos.
A incubao dura cerca de 40 dias.
Costuma nidificar sobre a vegetao
flutuante, e quando faz muito calor
com o bico verte gua sobre os ovos
para os arrefecer.
t"MJNFOUBPRs e peixes pequenos.
O bico-de-sapato distribui-se
exclusivamente na parte central de frica.

%&4"'*04 t $JODJBTEB/BUVSF[B t oBOP t .BUFSJBMGPUPDPQJWFM4BOUJMMBOB$POTUODJB

291

Flamingos
5NBTQBUBTFPQFTDPPFYUSFNBNFOUFDPNQSJEPT
.BT BQFTBSEPTFVBTQFDUPNVJUPGSHJM FTUBTBWFTQPEFNWJWFS
FNDPOEJFTFYUSFNBTEFTBMJOJEBEFPVEFBMDBMJOJEBEFFTP
NVJUPUPMFSBOUFTTNVEBOBTEFUFNQFSBUVSB

Caractersticas dos flamingos

1PSNFOPSEPCJDPEFVNGMBNJOHP

0TGMBNJOHPTUNVNCJDPNVJUPDBSBDUFSTUJDPBNBOECVMB
TVQFSJPSSHJEBFBJOGFSJPSNWFM0JOUFSJPSEPCJDPUFN
VNBTMBNFMBTRVF KVOUBNFOUFDPNBMOHVB BKVEBN
BGJMUSBSBTHVBTTBMPCSBTQBSBJOHFSJSPBMJNFOUP
/BQPDBEFOJEJGJDBP DBEBDBTBMNBSDBPTFVUFSSJUSJP
WPMUBEPOJOIP RVFGB[FNOPMPEP"QPTUVSBEF
BQFOBTVNPWPFBDSJBDVJEBEBQFMPDBTBMBUBPTUST
NFTFT
"TDSJBTOBTDFNDPNPCJDPSFDUPFFTUFWBJTFDVSWBOEP
NFEJEBRVFDSFTDFN/BTDFNDPNDPSCSBODB EFQPJT
BTQFOBTQBTTBNBTFSDBTUBOIBT FRVBOEPBUJOHFN
BNBUVSJEBEFUPSOBNTFEFDPSSPTBEB

"NJHSBPEBTBWFT
Algumas aves residem sempre na mesma
regio, mas outras emigram a cada seis
meses, na mudana das estaes,
repetindo regularmente as zonas
invernadas. Exemplo de aves migratrias
so os anatdeos (patos, gansos, nades),
os estorninhos, os pintassilgos
e as abetardas.
No Hemisfrio Norte, quando chega
o Inverno, muitas aves deslocam-se mais
para sul, desde o Norte e Centro
da Europa at as proximidades
do Mediterrneo, e chegam inclusive
a frica. Entre a Primavera e o Vero
realizam o percurso em sentido inverso.
Graas migrao, as aves conseguem
chegar a regies ricas em alimentos
e com temperaturas adequadas, boas
para a reproduo e para a invernao.

Passagem migratria de flamingos pela Pennsula Ibrica.

292

%&4"'*04 t $JODJBTEB/BUVSF[B t oBOP t .BUFSJBMGPUPDPQJWFM4BOUJMMBOB$POTUODJB

As lagoas, rios e estepes cerealistas


da Pennsula Ibrica so ecossistemas
muito importantes para estas aves
migratrias, visto que lhes do abrigo,
descanso e alimento.

FLAMINGO-CHILENO
(Phoenicopterus chilensis)
Famlia: Phoenicopteridae
Ordem: Phoenicopteriformes
Estado: Vulnervel (Apndice II).
t%FTDSJPPesa cerca de 2,3 kg.

t"MJNFOUBPO seu alimento


principal so as diatomceas,
algas microscpicas que existem
nas lagoas salgadas.
t)BCJUBUEm costas marinhas, em
lagos salgados e lagos de gua
doce. Desde o nvel do mar at
aos 4500 m de altitude.

O flamingo-chileno natural da Amrica do


Sul. Encontra-se nos Andes do Peru, Bolvia,
Norte do Chile e Norte da Argentina; e nas
terras baixas no Brasil, Uruguai e Argentina.

FLAMINGO-PEQUENO
(Phoeniconaias minor)
Famlia: Phoenicopteridae
Ordem: Phoenicopteriformes
Estado: Localmente comum
(Apndice II).
t%FTDSJPMede entre
80 e 100 cm e pesa cerca
de 2 kg. As asas tm uma
envergadura de 95
a 100 cm.
t"MJNFOUBP
Alimenta-se
principalmente
de algas microscpicas
e pequenos invertebrados.

O flamingo-pequeno originrio de frica


e da sia. Em frica ocupa todo o Centro
e oeste da zona sul do continente africano.
Abunda no Botswana. Na sia, distribui-se
pelo Norte da ndia.

A CONSERVAO DOS FLAMINGOS

Nas ltimas dcadas, as populaes de flamingos diminuram devido


progressiva deteriorao dos pntanos, seca e transformao dos lagos,
que so os lugares onde habitam e as suas reas de nidificao e criao.
No entanto, em alguns pases aplicaram-se medidas de proteco nestas
zonas aquticas e, aps a sua recuperao, observou-se que estas aves
regressaram e esto a reproduzir-se novamente. Mas se a colnia no
conta com um nmero suficiente de indivduos, estes so incapazes
de procriarem.
Toda a famlia de flamingos se encontra no Apndice II do CITES.

O flamingo-pequeno forma os maiores bandos,


de vrios milhes de aves. Observaram-se
no Este e Sul de frica, mas sobretudo nos
grandes lagos do Este de frica.

%&4"'*04 t $JODJBTEB/BUVSF[B t oBOP t .BUFSJBMGPUPDPQJWFM4BOUJMMBOB$POTUODJB

293

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4PBWFTDBSOWPSBTQSFEBEPSBTFBEBQUBEBTQBSBBDBB
UNBNBOECVMBTVQFSJPSEPCJDPDVSWBEBFHSBOEFF
QPTTVFNHBSSBTBGJBEBTFDPNQSJEBT0TFVQBQFMFDPMHJDP
UPJNQPSUBOUFRVFUPEPTPTGBMDPOJGPSNFTTFFODPOUSBN
QSPUFHJEPTQFMP$*5&4

Caractersticas das aves de rapina

FORMA DOS BICOS


O bico das aves um rgo muito especial,
que faz de boca e mos ao mesmo tempo.
As aves empregam-no para apanhar
o alimento, arranjar a sua plumagem,
construir ninhos, defender-se A forma
do bico reflecte o tipo de alimentao: o das
granvoras robusto e cnico, o das voadoras
insectvoras largo e sensvel, nas filtradoras
espalmado e com as beiras serreadas,
e tem a forma de gancho nas de rapina.

"PSEFNGBMDPOJGPSNF BTBWFTEFSBQJOBEJVSOBT EJWJEFTFFNUSTHSBOEFT


GBNMJBTBSagittariidae GPSNBEBQPSVNBTFTQDJF DIBNBEBTFDSFUSJP
BFalconidae EPTGBMDFTFBAccipitrinae RVBMQFSUFODFNBTHVJBT
FPTNJMIBGSFT
0TGBMDFTUNPCJDPSFMBUJWBNFOUFQFRVFOP HSPTTPFDVSWBEPQBSBCBJYP
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FBHJMJEBEF
"THVJBTFNJMIBGSFTTPBTBWFTEFNBJPSQFTPDBQB[FTEFWPBS1PEFNTFS
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NJHSBNWFSUJDBMNFOUF
1PSPVUSPMBEP PTBCVUSFTEB"NSJDBQFSUFODFNGBNMJBCathartidae
FPSEFNEPTDJDPOJGPSNFT4FHVOEPFTUVEPTUBYPONJDPT FTUFTBCVUSFT
FTUPNBJTBQBSFOUBEPTDPNBTDFHPOIBTEPRVFDPNPTBCVUSFT
EB&VSPQB GSJDBFTJB

Papel ecolgico das aves de rapina

3BQJOB HVJB

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BOEPSJOIB

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TFBMJNFOUBNEFFTQDJFTEFDBB WFBEPT KBWBMJTy

DBQUVSBOEPPTJOEJWEVPTNBJTGSBDPTPVEPFOUFT 
FEFBOJNBJTNPSUPT FWJUBOEPBTVB
EFDPNQPTJPFBQSPQBHBPEFDFSUBT
EPFOBTRVFFTUFTQPEFSJBNDBVTBS

"IBSQJB
FTUFOEFTFEFTEFP4VM
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1FOOTVMB*CSJDB0GBMDPQFSFHSJOP

FODPOUSBTFQPSUPEPP.VOEP 
FYDFQUPOB"OUSDUJEB

294

%&4"'*04 t $JODJBTEB/BUVSF[B t oBOP t .BUFSJBMGPUPDPQJWFM4BOUJMMBOB$POTUODJB

HARPIA (Harpia harpyja)


Famlia: Accipitrinae
Ordem: Falconiformes
Estado: Menor risco
(Anexo I).
t%FTDSJP grande
e corpulenta. A envergadura
das asas de cerca de 2 m.
Os machos podem pesar at
5 kg e as fmeas pesam entre
7 e 9 kg.
t)BCJUBUAs selvas hmidas
e os bosques. Normalmente
encontram-se a menos
de 900 m.
t/JEJGJDBPFaz o ninho
numa rvore e pe um ou dois
ovos brancos, mas apenas
nasce uma cria.
t"MJNFOUBPCome
mamferos mdios, como
macacos, sarigueias, e algumas
aves, como papagaios.
t$POTFSWBPAs populaes so afectadas pela
desflorestao e modificao do seu habitat.

CONDOR-DA-CALIFRNIA
(Gymnogyps californianus)
Famlia: Cathartidae
Ordem: Ciconiformes
Estado: Em perigo crtico
(Anexo I).
t%FTDSJP de grandes
dimenses e pesa entre 8
e 14 kg. O macho e a fmea
so de tamanho similar.
A envergadura das asas
de 3 m.
t"MJNFOUBPSo necrfagos,
alimentam-se
de restos de focas, peixes,
baleias ou restos de outros
animais, dependendo do
lugar onde se encontram.
t$POTFSWBPNas ltimas
dcadas do sculo XX foi
exterminada do seu estado
selvagem e em cativeiro
restaram apenas uns 40 indivduos. Graas a programas
de criao pde recuperar-se a espcie e depois
reintroduzir-se com xito na Natureza.

GUIA-IMPERIAL
(Aquila adalberti)

FALCO-PEREGRINO
(Falco peregrinus)

Famlia: Accipitrinae
Ordem: Falconiformes
Estado: Em perigo (Apndice I).

Famlia: Falconidae
Ordem: Falconiformes
Estado: Localmente comum
(Anexo I).

t%FTDSJPPesa entre 2,5


e 3,5 kg.
t)CJUPT uma ave
sedentria, no migratria.
Os adultos permanecem na
mesma localidade durante
todo o ano. Cada casal
defende a rea onde
se encontra o ninho.
t/JEJGJDBPConstri
o ninho sobre as rvores.
A postura pode ser de dois
a trs ovos.
t"MJNFOUBPCome
pequenos mamferos,
coelhos e lebres.
t$POTFSWBPNa Pennsula Ibrica, em 1994, havia apenas
148 casais de guias-imperiais e em 1998 a populao ficou
reduzida a 131 casais. Estes dados indicam que uma das
aves de rapina mais ameaadas do Mundo; se desaparece
da nossa pennsula, ter desaparecido do planeta.
Actualmente esto a levar-se a cabo planos de recuperao
urgentes, dentro de uma estratgia nacional para
a conservao desta espcie.

t%FTDSJPOs machos
tm um comprimento
de aproximadamente 38 cm
e pesam entre 450 g e 1 kg.
As fmeas so de maior
comprimento, at 48 cm,
e pesam entre 700 g e 1,6 kg.
As asas tm uma envergadura
entre 80 e 115 cm.
t)BCJUBUEm locais com
rvores ou em montanhas
com penhascos altos
e escarpados.
t/JEJGJDBPEm falsias
ou em ninhos abandonados
por outras aves. A postura
pode ser de dois a seis ovos.
t"MJNFOUBPPequenas aves e mamferos, assim
como morcegos, rpteis, anfbios, peixes e carnia.
t$POTFSWBP uma ave comum em muitos locais,
apesar de, em meados do sculo XX, os pesticidas terem
causado estragos em algumas populaes desta ave.

%&4"'*04 t $JODJBTEB/BUVSF[B t oBOP t .BUFSJBMGPUPDPQJWFM4BOUJMMBOB$POTUODJB

295

Tetrazes
$IFHBSBNTOPTTBTUFSSBTDPNBQBTTBHFNEBMUJNBHMBDJBP
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HMBDJBSFTUFNQFSJHPFEFWFTFSQSPUFHJEBQBSBHBSBOUJSBTVB
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0DBTBMEJTQFTF
BPBDBTBMBNFOUP

Caractersticas dos galinceos


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1PSGJN POPWPTFSRVFCSBBDBTDB
FBCBOEPOBPPWPEFQPJTEBFDMPTP

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t &TUPBEBQUBEPTBVNBWJEBUFSSFTUSF
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t 5NBTVOIBTEVSBT RVFMIFTTFSWFQBSBFTHSBWBUBS
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t "SFQSPEVP DPNPOPSFTUPEBTBWFT PWQBSB

Reproduo ovpara das aves. 0EFTFOWPMWJNFOUPFNCSJPOSJP


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UFNQFSBUVSBFQSPUFHJEPEPTQSFEBEPSFTGNFB SFTUBJODVCBS
PTPWPT2VBOEPBDSJBKFTUEFTFOWPMWJEB SFBMJ[BTFBFDMPTP 
PRVFSEJ[FSRVFBDBTDBEPPWPTFQBSUFFPQJOUPTBJQBSBPFYUFSJPS

0UFUSB[DBOUCSJDPWJWFOPTCPTRVFTDBEVDJGMJPT GBJBT B[FWJOIPT 


VS[FT BSBOEPT
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EF-VHPBUBPTNPOUFTEF4BKBFN$BOUCSJB FPUFUSB[QJSFOBJDP
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FYDFQPEPWBMFEF)FDIPFOPTFDUPSDFOUSPPSJFOUBM EFTEFPWBMF
EF1JOFUBB$BNQSPEO (FSPOB


296

0UFUSB[QJSFOBJDPIBCJUBOPTQJOIBJTOFHSPTEPQBUBNBSTVCBMQJOP 
FOUSFPTFPTN OPT1JSFOVT

%&4"'*04 t $JODJBTEB/BUVSF[B t oBOP t .BUFSJBMGPUPDPQJWFM4BOUJMMBOB$POTUODJB

TETRAZ (Tetrao urogallus)


Famlia: Tetraonidae
Ordem: Galinceos
Estado: Menor risco, mas vulnervel na Pennsula Ibrica.
t%FTDSJPEsta espcie apresenta dimorfismo sexual,
o que significa que entre o macho e a fmea h diferenas
fsicas. Tambm as duas subespcies da Pennsula Ibrica
tm caractersticas prprias:
O tetraz-cantbrico (Tetrao urogallus cantabricus)
de tonalidade plida, papo verde, peito e abdmen
manchados de branco. As fmeas so de tonalidade
cinzenta.
O tetraz-pirenaico (Tetrao urogallus aquitanicus) de
maior tamanho e a colorao mais negra, com o peito
azulado e a superfcie ventral sem manchas brancas.
As fmeas tm a pelagem parda.
t)BCJUBUVive nos bosques calmos e com muita vegetao
herbcea e frutos. Adaptou-se a climas temperados e frios
das zonas centrais e setentrionais da Eursia.
t"MJNFOUBPAlimenta-se de ervas, crislidas
de formigas, bolotas, bagas, lagartixas e inclusive
pequenas serpentes.
t)CJUPTSobe s rvores apenas para dormir.
No Inverno comporta-se como uma ave arborcola
e alimenta-se dos rebentos das rvores.
t3FQSPEVPA poca do cio do tetraz inicia-se
em Maro e termina em Maio. Ao amanhecer, o macho
inicia o seu chamamento, que pode repetir at mais
de cem vezes. Trepa para o topo de uma rvore ou
de uma pedra para chamar a ateno das fmeas.
As fmeas, depois da cpula, preparam o ninho fazendo
um buraco.
t/JEJGJDBPA postura de 5 a 12 ovos, mas quase
metade dos pintos morre nas primeiras semanas
de vida, pelo que a prole se reduz a um par de crias.

Tetraz-macho.

Tetraz- fmea.

"$0/4&37"0%05&53";

A colonizao do tetraz da Pennsula Ibrica deve ter ocorrido


na glaciao de Wrm, que trouxe fauna de origem siberiana,
quando a populao era mais numerosa, mas foi-se reduzindo
medida que se restabeleceram as condies climticas mais
moderadas, ficando apenas as populaes isoladas, uma nos
bosques cantbricos e outra nos pirenaicos, que deram lugar
s duas subespcies actuais.
No incio do sculo XXI, a populao da subespcie pirenaica
de cerca de 1400 exemplares e a subespcie cantbrica
chega apenas aos 500 indivduos. Por este motivo,
possivelmente, o Comit Nacional de Flora e Fauna,
em Espanha, declarar esta subespcie em perigo de extino.

Os problemas do tetraz-cantbrico so:


O afastamento do seu local ecolgico ptimo, como so
os bosques boreais de conferas.
A fragmentao do bosque cantbrico, que prejudica
o tetraz e favorece os seus predadores naturais, como
o javali e a raposa.
A baixa taxa de sucesso reprodutivo.
As medidas imediatas para travar a diminuio da populao
do tetraz-cantbrico so:
A erradicao da caa furtiva e a regulamentao
da actividade cinegtica.
A conservao do habitat.
A ordenao do excursionismo e da construo arbitrria.
A captura de fmeas e crias para serem criadas em cativeiro.

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297

(SPVT
4PCBTUBOUFDPOIFDJEPTQFMBTVBFMFHBOUFEBOBOVQDJBM
5NBTQBUBTDPNQSJEBTSFMBUJWBNFOUFBPDPSQP QFMPRVF
TFNBOUNBDBNJOIBSBNBJPSQBSUFEPUFNQP"GBNMJB
EPTHSPVTVNBEBTNBJTBNFBBEBTEP.VOEP

(SPVTFNMBHPBT
EB1FOOTVMB*CSJDB

Caractersticas dos grous


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t 5 NPDPSQPFMFHBOUFDPNVNMPOHPQFTDPP
t 4 PCSFBDBCFBUNQMVNBTPSOBNFOUBJTPVVNQFOBDIP
t 4 PNVJUPSVJEPTBT
t /
 JEJGJDBNFNUFSSB
t 0
 TDBTBJTTPFTUWFJTFQPEFNEVSBSUPEBBWJEB
t )BCJUBNFN[POBTQBOUBOPTBT OPFOUBOUP EFTMPDBNTF
BDBNQPTQSYJNPTFNCVTDBEFHSPT FSWBT JOTFDUPT
FBOGCJPT
t 5PEBBGBNMJBFTUQSFTFOUFOP"QOEJDF**EP$*5&4 
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t .VJUBTTPNJHSBUSJBTFGB[FNMPOHBTWJBHFOTEFTEF
B[POBEFDSJBPBUBPTMPDBJTPOEFQBTTBNP*OWFSOP

Conservao dos grous


na Pennsula Ibrica
"1FOOTVMB*CSJDBVNMPDBMEFQBTTBHFNOBTSPUBT
EFNJHSBPEPTHSPVTFOUSF&VSPQB TJBFGSJDB
1PSJTTP BTDPODFOUSBFTEFHSPVTTPBCVOEBOUFT 
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FPVUSPTBOJNBJTPQPSUVOJTUBT

%"/"4%&$035&

A dana nupcial de um casal de grous consiste em dar saltos


muito vistosos e pode durar algumas horas.

298

As aves so mestras na tcnica das danas de corte.


Costumam formar casais estveis para se reproduzirem.
Para estabelecer um casal, o macho deve conquistar
a fmea. Ele exibe as melhores cores da sua plumagem
e realiza uma srie de movimentos para impressionar
o seu futuro par. Se tem xito, a fmea corresponder
ao juntar-se dana. Estes bailados podem ter uma
durao de vrias horas.
As danas podem ser acompanhadas de cantos
especiais cujo intuito chamar a fmea e comunicar
aos outros machos para no se aproximarem. As aves
tambm so mestras em cantar; tm um rgo especial
chamado siringe que, sem ter cordas vocais, lhes
permite uma grande variedade nos tipos de cantos.

%&4"'*04 t $JODJBTEB/BUVSF[B t oBOP t .BUFSJBMGPUPDPQJWFM4BOUJMMBOB$POTUODJB

(306+"10/4
(Grus japonensis)
Famlia: Gruidae
Ordem: Gruiformes
Estado: Em perigo (Anexo I).
t%FTDSJPMacho e fmea so muito similares.
No macho, as penas do pescoo so negras, e na fmea,
de cor cinza-escura. Ambos apresentam um barrete
vermelho.
t$PTUVNFTProtege extremosamente o ninho e as crias.
t"MJNFOUBPConsiste em sementes, folhas, tubrculos
e razes de plantas aquticas. Tambm se alimenta
de insectos, peixes, rpteis e anfbios.
t/JEJGJDBPA postura dos ovos. A fmea passa a maior
parte do tempo a encubar e o macho protege o ninho.
Ambos alimentam as crias.
t$POTFSWBPEsta espcie fazia criao em quatro ilhas
do Japo, mas, devido caa e destruio do seu habitat,
a sua populao reduziu-se consideravelmente. No entanto,
graas a um programa de proteco nos anos 20 do
sculo passado, a populao aumentou desde 20 at 600
exemplares e continua a aumentar na actualidade.
Estima-se que a populao seja de 1700 a 2000 indivduos.
O grou-japons
habita no Este
da sia. Faz
criao no Vero
na Monglia
e passa o
Inverno na China
e na Coreia.

(306%&1&4$00#3"/$0
(Grus vipio)
Famlia: Gruidae
Ordem: Gruiformes
Estado: Vulnervel (Anexo I).
t%FTDSJPO macho e a fmea tm aparncias similares; no entanto,
a fmea de menor tamanho.
t/JEJGJDBPA postura de dois ovos e so incubados durante 30 dias.
O macho e a fmea revezam-se durante a incubao dos ovos. A cria passa
os dez primeiros meses da sua vida com os progenitores.
t"MJNFOUBPAlimentam-se de sementes e de rebentos vegetais.
Nas zonas de invernada, comem apenas nas margens dos rios e lagoas.
t$POTFSWBPEstima-se que a populao desta espcie ser de cerca
de 5000 exemplares. Desde meados do sculo XX assistiu-se a uma reduo
do nmero de indivduos.
Actualmente, h vrios
programas de criao
em cativeiro para que
se recupere esta espcie.

O grou-de-pescoo-branco oriundo da sia.


No Vero faz criao na Monglia, perto da China
e da Rssia. No Inverno regressa China. Tm
zonas de descanso no rio Amarelo e no Yangtz.

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299

"WFTUSPQJDBJT
.VJUBTEBTBWFTRVFWJWFNOBTGMPSFTUBTUSPQJDBJTFTUPFNQFSJHP
EFFYUJOP"EFTUSVJPEFTUFIBCJUBUBQSJODJQBMDBVTBEB
EJNJOVJPEFTUBTQPQVMBFT1PSJTTP QBSBBTQSPUFHFS 
OFDFTTSJPQSFTFSWBSPNFJP

Destruio das florestas


tropicais
"TGMPSFTUBTUSPQJDBJTTPFDPTTJTUFNBTUFSSFTUSFT
NVJUPDPNQMFYPTRVFTFFODPOUSBNOB"NSJDB
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"UFNQFSBUVSBNEJBEF$EVSBOUFUPEP
PBOP
6NBEBTDBSBDUFSTUJDBTNBJTJNQPSUBOUFTEBT
GMPSFTUBTUSPQJDBJTBEFRVFOFMBTTFFODPOUSB
NBJTEFNFUBEFEBCJPEJWFSTJEBEFEPQMBOFUB
"TGMPSFTUBTUSPQJDBJTSFQSFTFOUBNEBTVQFSGDJF
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EFFTQDJFTEFQMBOUBTFBOJNBJTDPOIFDJEPT
.BTEFTEFBTFHVOEBNFUBEFEPTDVMPXX
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GMPSFTUBJT EFSSVCFT QMBOUBFTFNJOFSBP 
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EBTVQFSGDJFEFTUBTGMPSFTUBTGPJEFTUSVEBOFTUF
TDVMP"DBEBNJOVUPQFSEFNTFIFDUBSFT
EFGMPSFTUB4FBFYQMPSBPBDUVBMDPOUJOVBS
FTUBTQFSEFSTFPFNQPVDPTBOPT1PSJTTP 
QBSBQSFTFSWBSBTGMPSFTUBTUSPQJDBJT TFSOFDFTTSJB
BTVBFYQMPSBPTVTUFOUWFM KRVFBTGMPSFTUBT
USPQJDBJTUNVNBHSBOEFJNQPSUODJBTPDJBM
FFDPONJDB FUBNCNQBSBBDPOTFSWBP
EBCJPEJWFSTJEBEFFEBSFHVMBSJ[BPEPDMJNB

Estratos da floresta tropical


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EFWFTFRVBOUJEBEFEFMV[RVFDIFHBBDBEB
FTUSBUP"MV[NBJTBCVOEBOUFOBTDBNBEBTNBJT
BMUBTFNBJTFTDBTTBOBTDBNBEBTJOGFSJPSFT
FOPTPMP
300

"DBUBUVB
PSJHJOSJBEB0DFOJBFTJBBTVBEJTUSJCVJPFTUFOEFTF
EBT'JMJQJOBTBU"VTUSMJBF5BTNOJB0UVSBDP
FYDMVTJWBNFOUF
EFGSJDBEJTUSJCVJTFQFMP4VEPFTUF"GSJDBOP0RVFU[BM
FODPOUSBTF
EFTEFP4VMEP.YJDPBUBP0FTUFEP1BOBN0DPMJCSJ
EJTUSJCVJTFQFMB
[POBUSPQJDBMEPDPOUJOFOUFBNFSJDBOP

%&4"'*04 t $JODJBTEB/BUVSF[B t oBOP t .BUFSJBMGPUPDPQJWFM4BOUJMMBOB$POTUODJB

563"$0%&$3*45"7&3.&-)"
(Tauraco erythrolophus)

CATATUA
Famlia: Cacatuidae
Ordem: Psitaciformes
Estado: Vulnervel (Apndice II).

Famlia: Musophagidae
Ordem: Cuculiformes
Estado: Vulnervel. (Apndice II).

t%FTDSJPAlgumas so
to grandes como as araras
da Amrica e outras so to
pequenas como a carolina.
Existem trs cores
predominantes na
plumagem das catatuas:
branco, negro ou cinzento
com tons rosados.
As catatuas tm plumas
na cabea, na crista ou
penacho, que se estendem
ou retraem como meio de
expresso. Muitas so de
cor atractiva. Esta crista
o que as distingue dos
outros psitaciformes.
Podem mover as penas
da cabea conseguindo
cobrir parcialmente o bico.

t%FTDSJPTm uma colorao brilhante baseada


no pigmento vermelho, que contm uma certa quantidade
de cobre caso nico no Mundo , e no verde, e uma
crista tpica. Tm asas curtas e uma cauda comprida e dois
pares de espores em cada pata.
t)BCJUBUNa savana e nas florestas densas. Encontra-se
apenas nas zonas altas da floresta.
t"MJNFOUBPPrincipalmente fruta.
t)CJUPTPode correr com agilidade por entre os ramos.

26&5;"-

$0-*#3*

(Pharomachrus mocinno)

Famlia: Trochiladae
Ordem: Apodiformes
Estado: (Apndice II).
t%FTDSJPOs
colibris so tropicais.
Encontram-se no
continente americano,
no Equador,
na Colmbia e no
Brasil. A famlia dos
colibris (Trochiladae)
formada por
338 espcies.
Apresentam uma
colorao muito
brilhante, sobretudo
os machos, mas nas
suas penas no
se encontra a cor
vermelha nem a amarela.

Famlia: Trogonidae
Ordem: Trogoniformes
Estado: Vulnervel.
(Apndice I).
t%FTDSJPMede cerca
de 36 cm e pesa cerca
de 200 g. O macho
inconfundvel pela sua
comprida cauda de cor
verde e pela sua crista
em forma de capacete,
que cobre at base
do bico. A fmea e as crias
no tm crista e tm
o peito cinzento. O macho
adulto de um verde
brilhante e de peito
de cor castanha. O bico
amarelo e as patas so
acinzentadas.

t)BCJUBUEm locais hmidos, principalmente nas florestas


montanhosas.

O seu bico comprido e recto ou ligeiramente curvado.


Alimentam-se do nctar que sugam das flores, do qual
recebem a fonte de energia que necessitam, pois gastam
demasiada. O corao tem um ritmo de 500 batimentos
por minuto em descanso e o dobro se estiverem a realizar
qualquer actividade. Tm um sistema respiratrio com
sacos de ar internos que os ajudam a manter a temperatura.

t$POTFSWBP difcil de criar em cativeiro, devido


humidade e alimentao.

O colibri mais pequeno do Mundo o colibri-cubano


(Mellisuga helenae), que mede cerca de 5 cm.

t"MJNFOUBPFrutos e insectos.
t)CJUPTSo aves calmas e, geralmente, juntam-se
em grupos de quatro a seis aves.

%&4"'*04 t $JODJBTEB/BUVSF[B t oBOP t .BUFSJBMGPUPDPQJWFM4BOUJMMBOB$POTUODJB

301

2VFMOJPT
"TUBSUBSVHBTFPTDHBEPTTPSQUFJTRVFGPSNBNPHSVQP
EPTRVFMOJPT VNEPTNBJTBNFBBEPTEPQMBOFUB.BOUN
PTFVBTQFDUPEFTEFINJMIFTEFBOPTFBTVBPSJHFN
BOUFSJPSEPTEJOPTTBVSPT

5"35"36("7&3%&
(Chelonia mydas)
Famlia: Cheloniidae
Ordem: Chelonia
Estado: Em perigo (Anexo I).
t%FTDSJP uma tartaruga marinha de tamanho pequeno.
A cor da carapaa pode variar desde a cor de caf at
ao verde-azeitona. As escamas da cabea tm beiras
amareladas. A mandbula inferior serrilhada.
t"MJNFOUBPAlgas verdes, castanhas, vermelhas e razes
de mangais, assim como pequenos moluscos, crustceos
e esponjas.
t$POTFSWBPA populao da tartaruga-verde
encontra-se seriamente ameaada por:
A caa no mar, quando migra para desovar.
A captura dos ovos do ninho, para o comrcio ilegal
de ovos.
As principais medidas para a sua conservao so
o controlo da caa furtiva e a proteco dos locais
da costa que utilizam para a desova.

A tartaruga-verde encontra-se ao longo de todo


o oceano nas zonas tropicais, subtropicais e temperadas.

-&*563"

A Minha Famlia e Outros Animais, Gerald Durrell


Perguntei-me, qual podia ser a causa
de uma erupo to sbita? Um
terramoto? No os havia to pequenos
e restritos. Uma toupeira? No era
um terreno to rido e seco. Ainda
estava a fazer suposies quando
a terra deu outra sacudidela,
desprenderam-se e saram a rolar
alguns pedaos de terra, e diante
dos meus olhos apareceu uma carapaa
castanha e amarela. () Ter sido esta
a primeira tartaruga da Primavera,
e como a sua sada do dormitrio

302

subterrneo fora um sinal convindo,


subitamente cobriram-se as colinas
de tartarugas. Jamais tinha visto tantas
congregadas num espao to reduzido:
havia-as grandes como pratos de sopa
e pequenas como taas, bisavs cor
de chocolate e jovens plidas de cor
acastanhada, caminhando todas
com passo pesado pelos trilhos
de areia, entrando e saindo da urze
e as murtas, descendo ocasionalmente
ao oliveiral onde a vegetao era mais
suculenta.

%&4"'*04 t $JODJBTEB/BUVSF[B t oBOP t .BUFSJBMGPUPDPQJWFM4BOUJMMBOB$POTUODJB

TARTARUGA-GREGA
( Testudo graeca)
Famlia: Testudinidae
Ordem: Chelonia
Estado: Vulnervel. Em perigo de extino na Pennsula Ibrica
desde 1973 (Apndice II).
t%FTDSJPO macho adulto tem um comprimento entre 17
e 20 cm e pesa entre 500 e 800 g. A fmea adulta um pouco
maior.
A sua carapaa bastante curvada. A cauda pequena e sem
escamas crneas na ponta. de cor amarelo-plida e esverdeada
com placas bordeadas de negro, tendo por vezes uma mancha
central negra que tende a diminuir com a idade. No tem voz
e no pode produzir sons com a boca.
t)BCJUBUTerrestre. Em matagais, pinhais e zonas arenosas.
t"MJNFOUBP herbvora e ocasionalmente pode comer insectos
e at caracis.
t3FQSPEVPOs ovos so ovalados e de cor branca e esto
revestidos por uma casca muito dura. O ninho um buraco com
a forma de funil com uns 10 cm de profundidade que escava na
areia. Os ovos depositam-se no fundo e so cobertos com areia,
pelo que se torna difcil localiz-los. Os ovos incubam-se com o
calor do meio ambiente e a ecloso acontece nos finais de Agosto.
t)CJUPTSo diurnos. Estes rpteis caracterizam-se pela lentido
dos seus movimentos. Podem viver entre 60 e 100 anos.
t$POTFSWBPOs incndios florestais constituem uma ameaa
importante para esta espcie porque os seus habitats so espaos
que ardem com frequncia. Os predadores a guia-real, o javali
e a doninha alimentam-se dos ovos de tartaruga, o que implica
tambm uma diminuio na sua populao. Encontram-se
tambm no Norte de frica e no Sudoeste da sia.

A tartaruga-mora encontra-se na Pennsula Ibrica


em zonas costeiras de escassa precipitao como
Almera e Murcia, na ilha de Maiorca e nas zonas
arenosas do Coto de Doana, em Huelva.

5"35"36("%"4("-1"(04
(Geochelone nigra)
Famlia: Testudinidae
Ordem: Chelonia
Estado: Vulnervel (Anexo I).
t%FTDSJPAs tartarugas-das-galpagos so as maiores do mundo,
pesando mais de 400 kg. Tm um pescoo muito comprido, uma
enorme carapaa e umas extremidades de grandes dimenses.

t$POTFSWBPApesar de ser uma espcie muito


antiga, encontra-se em situao vulnervel devido
introduo nas ilhas de espcies predadoras,
como ratos e gatos, e tambm pela competio
pelo alimento que tem com as cabras e outros
herbvoros.

t3FQSPEVPNa poca da reproduo, o macho procura fmeas


e elas fazem uma cavidade que utilizam como ninhos para a sua
postura de ovos.

A tartaruga-das-galpagos encontra-se
exclusivamente nas ilhas Galpagos.

%&4"'*04 t $JODJBTEB/BUVSF[B t oBOP t .BUFSJBMGPUPDPQJWFM4BOUJMMBOB$POTUODJB

303

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.VJUBTFTQDJFTEFPGEJPT TPCSFUVEPBTEFNBJPSUBNBOIP 
TPQSFEBEPSBT QPSRVFTFWJSBNBGFDUBEBTQFMBTBDUJWJEBEFT
IVNBOBT RVFSFEV[JSBNPTFVFTQBP KRVFOFDFTTJUBN
EFFYUFOTBTSFBTQBSBDBBS

Caractersticas dos ofdios


0TPGEJPTTPSQUFJTRVFBQSFTFOUBNWSJBTDBSBDUFSTUJDBT
t 5 NFTDBNBTMJTBTOBQFMFFDBSFDFNEFQBUBT
t 0TTFVTPMIPTOPUNQMQFCSBT BPDPOUSSJPEPTPVUSPTTVSJPT
t "NBJPSJBIBCJUBFNUFSSB FNCPSBBMHVOT DPNPBDPCSBWJQFSJOB UFOEBNBDBBS
EFOUSPEFHVB
t 4PBOJNBJTDBSOWPSPT
t .VJUBTTFSQFOUFTUNEFOUFTBHVEPTDPNHMOEVMBTEFWFOFOP NBTQPVDBTQPEFN
NPSEFSVNBOJNBMHSBOEF
+*#*"
(Boa constrictor)
Famlia: Boidae
Ordem: Squamata
Estado: Em perigo (em alguns locais)
(Apndice II).
t%FTDSJPA sua cabea e cauda so pequenas em relao
ao tamanho do seu corpo. A sua pele lisa, de tons caf,
com manchas creme ou brancas.
t)BCJUBUTende a frequentar as zonas pantanosas.
t"MJNFOUBP carnvora; alimenta-se de insectos,
roedores e outros mamferos.
t3FQSPEVPOvovivpara. Tem habitualmente entre
10 e 40 crias.
t)CJUPTNo so venenosas, mas matam a sua presa
por asfixia. Defende-se dos seus predadores enrolando-se.
Nesta posio, as manchas da sua pele parecem dois olhos
enormes. So domesticveis.
t$POTFSWBPEm alguns locais encontra-se ameaada
e em outros est em perigo de extino. Esta situao
deve-se a vrios factores:
A destruio do seu habitat.
A caa, por ser considerada, erradamente, venenosa.
O uso em exibies zoolgicas.
O comrcio da sua pele.

A jibia encontra-se na Amrica Central,


Amrica do Sul e algumas ilhas das Carabas.

304

%&4"'*04 t $JODJBTEB/BUVSF[B t oBOP t .BUFSJBMGPUPDPQJWFM4BOUJMMBOB$POTUODJB

$0#3"$&("
(Blanus cinereus)
Famlia: Amphisbaenidae
Ordem: Squamata
Estado: Espcie no ameaada.

A cobra-cega () distribui-se
exclusivamente pela Pennsula
Ibrica, excepto no Norte
e Nordeste, desde o nvel
do mar at aos 1800 m.
A cobra-de-pernas-pentadctila
() uma espcie endmica
da Pennsula Ibrica.
A cobra-de-gua-de-colar ()
tem uma rea de distribuio
euro-asitica e em frica
apresenta algumas populaes.

t%FTDSJPEst adaptada estritamente vida


subterrnea. especialista em cavar tneis e na
localizao de presas debaixo de terra. O corpo
cilndrico e largo e est coberto de escamas
quadrangulares que se alinham em forma de
anis. No possui extremidades. A cabea
de tamanho pequeno e tem o focinho
arredondado. No v, mas o olfacto e a audio
esto muito desenvolvidos. Pode chegar a medir
uns 250 mm.
t)BCJUBUEm azinhais, cedros, carvalhais e pinhais
do tipo mediterrnico.
t"MJNFOUBPInsectos que se encontram nas folhas
ou debaixo das rochas.
t3FQSPEVPReproduzem-se na Primavera. Tm apenas
uma postura de um ou dois ovos.
t)CJUPT diurna e no Vero pode estar activa durante
a noite.
Os seus principais predadores so rpteis e mamferos, dos
quais fogem metendo-se pelas suas galerias ou enrolando-se
em ramos pequenos.

$0#3"%&1&3/"41&/5"%$5*-"
(Chalcides bedriagai)

$0#3"%&(6"%&$0-"3
(Natrix natrix)

Famlia: Scincidae
Ordem: Squamata
Estado: Espcie no ameaada.

Familia: Colubridae
Ordem: Squamata
Estado: Espcie no ameaada.

t%FTDSJPTem a cabea reduzida e o focinho em forma


de cunha. O seu corpo alongado, grosso e cilndrico. Tem
quatro extremidades semiatrofiadas com cinco dedos em
cada uma. A cauda curta e larga no dorso e tem uma
colorao parda-verdosa com uma faixa vertebral larga,
duas laterais mais escuras e ocelos claros bordeados
de negro.

t%FTDSJPAs fmeas so maiores do que os machos e


podem chegar a medir 200 cm de comprimento, mas no
tendem a ultrapassar os 100 cm. uma cobra grossa na sua
maturidade, com a cabea bem definida e os olhos de pupila
redonda com ris alaranjada e vermelha. O dorso tende a ser
de cor cinzenta ou pardo-olivcea com manchas escuras.

t)BCJUBUEm terrenos arenosos, prados e zonas de matagal.

t)BCJUBULocais hmidos e prximos da gua. Prados, sebes


ou florestas mais ou menos secas.

t)CJUPTEst activa durante o dia e ao crepsculo.


Esconde-se debaixo das pedras e troncos e em terrenos
moles.

t)CJUPTDiurna e aqutica. desajeitada nos seus


movimentos, pelo que se torna fcil a sua captura.

t"MJNFOUBPEscaravelhos, aranhas, moscas e mosquitos.

t3FQSPEVPPode ter duas pocas de cio, na Primavera


e no Outono. A fmea pode pr entre 6 a 50 ovos que
demoram cerca de 60 dias a eclodir.

t3FQSPEVP ovovivpara (o ovo desenvolve-se dentro


da fmea) e pare de uma a quatro crias bem desenvolvidas.

t"MJNFOUBPAnfbios e peixes, principalmente.

%&4"'*04 t $JODJBTEB/BUVSF[B t oBOP t .BUFSJBMGPUPDPQJWFM4BOUJMMBOB$POTUODJB

305

4VSJPT
&TUFHSVQPJODMVJBTMBHBSUJYBT MBHBSUPT DBNBMFFTFPTHBT
/B1FOOTVMB*CSJDBINBJTEFFTQDJFTEFTVSJPT"MHVOT
FTUPQSPUFHJEPTQPSMFJ DPNPPMBHBSUPHJHBOUFEFFMIJFSSP 
RVFTFDPOTJEFSBVNEPTDJODPNBJTBNFBBEPTEP.VOEP

%3"(0%&,0.0%0
(Varanus komodoensis)
Famlia: Varanidae
Ordem: Sauria
Estado: Vulnervel (Anexo I).
t%FTDSJPPode medir at 4 m e pesa cerca de 150 kg.
o maior lagarto do mundo. Tem uma enorme mandbula
com que rasga os pedaos de carne, que ingere sem
mastigar. A lngua bfida e de cor amarela.
Um facto surpreendente a presena de bactrias na sua
saliva: possui umas 60 distintas e mais de 50 so
patognicas o que quer dizer que provocam infeces.
Quando o drago morde as suas presas, as bactrias
passam para as feridas, provocando a morte das suas
vtimas atravs da infeco bacteriana. O curioso que
o drago muito resistente a estas bactrias, porque tem
substncias antibacterianas no seu sangue. Os cientistas
esto a estudar a possibilidade de utilizar estas substncias
para fins medicinais, para conferir imunidade em infeces
muito graves.
O drago-de-komodo vive
na Indonsia (nas ilhas de
Komodo, Flores e Rintja).

04("$0.6.
(Tarentola mauritanica)
Famlia: Gekkonidae
Ordem: Sauria
Estado: Pouco preocupante.
t%FTDSJP um pequeno lagarto que pode medir at 15 cm. A pele mole
e rugosa com tubrculos pelo corpo e pela cauda. de cor pardo-acinzentada
com riscas transversais escuras. A cabea grande e achatada. Os olhos
so grandes, e a pupila, vertical. Tem cinco dedos providos de ventosas
almofadadas.
t"MJNFOUBPTraas e pequenos insectos.
t3FQSPEVPA postura de um ou dois ovos, de casca dura, que
se aderem a qualquer cavidade ou greta da parede.
t)BCJUBURochedos e pedregais e nas fendas de edifcios no campo, vilas
e cidades.
t)CJUPTComunica com os da sua espcie com vrios tipos
de gemidos.

306

%&4"'*04 t $JODJBTEB/BUVSF[B t oBOP t .BUFSJBMGPUPDPQJWFM4BOUJMMBOB$POTUODJB

O camaleo () tem uma rea


de distribuio reduzida na
Europa. Encontramo-lo
tambm em algumas ilhas do
Mediterrneo e no litoral sul
da Pennsula Ibrica, onde h
quatro ncleos de populaes:
o Algarve, a costa de Huelva,
a costa atlntica de Cdis
e a Costa do Sol de Mlaga.
A osga-comum ()
encontra-se no Oeste, centro,
Sul e Este da Pennsula
Ibrica e nas ilhas Baleares.
O lagarto-gigante-el-hierro ()
(Canrias), no Noroeste da ilha.

$"."-&0
(Chamaeleo chamaeleon)
Famlia: Chamaeleonidae
Ordem: Sauria
Estado: Pouco preocupante.
t%FTDSJPRptil de corpo arqueado.
As extremidades so longas e finas; a cauda,
prensil. Tem a vantagem de poder variar a cor
do seu corpo. Possui uns olhos proeminentes
de ambos os lados da cabea e uma lngua
muito comprida, que pode projectar a grande
distncia e que usa para apanhar a suas presas.
t)CJUPTDiurno e arborcola, de movimentos
lentos e pausados, solitrio e muito territorial.
t"MJNFOUBPEminentemente insectvoro,
come todo o tipo de insectos que consegue
ingerir, incluindo os de carapaa dura.
t)BCJUBUDunas costeiras e locais prximos
do mar. Principalmente nos pinhais e nos
giestais.
t$POTFSWBPNa Pennsula Ibrica, os principais
problemas so a captura que sofre por aves
e roedores e a destruio dos habitats para
a construo de urbanizaes e estradas.

-"("350(*("/5&%&&-)*&330
(Gallotia simonyi)
Famlia: Lacertidae
Ordem: Sauria
Estado: Em perigo (Anexo I).
t%FTDSJP bastante robusto, de pele de tons pardos e negros com
sries laterais de pontos de cor amarelo-limo, que se intensificam
no perodo reprodutor. Os exemplares adultos tm cerca de 60 cm
de comprimento e podem pesar at 400 g.
t"MJNFOUBPRebentos, folhas e sementes de plantas da regio,
como o taginaste, a tabaiba e algumas gramneas e lquenes.
Alm disso, pode comer escaravelhos, gafanhotos, moscas,
larvas de mariposa, etc.
t3FQSPEVPA postura varia entre os 4 a 14 ovos.

$0/4&37"0%0-"("350(*("/5&%&&-)*&330

Os lagartos viviam ao largo de quase toda a ilha de El Hierro,


mas, na dcada de 1940, estiveram em risco de se extinguir.
Em 1985 capturam-se um macho e duas fmeas e teve incio
um programa de recuperao desta espcie.
No ano seguinte j havia 21 crias nascidas em cativeiro e hoje
em dia existem programas de reintroduo nos seus habitats
naturais. A nica espcie conhecida, entre 1000 e 1700
indivduos, encontra-se num escarpado a noroeste da ilha
dentro da Reserva Natural de Tibataje.

As causas que levaram esta espcie quase extino foram:


a perda do habitat, a predao por gatos selvagens
introduzidos, a competio pelo alimento entre lagartos
e cabras e os problemas devido diminuio da variabilidade
gentica pelo reduzido tamanho da populao. Actualmente,
os animais esto codificados com um microchip, o que
permite efectuar um controlo a qualquer altura dos registos
das biometrias, pesos, cruzamentos e outros dados
de interesse cientfico.

%&4"'*04 t $JODJBTEB/BUVSF[B t oBOP t .BUFSJBMGPUPDPQJWFM4BOUJMMBOB$POTUODJB

307

$SPDPEJMPT
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EB5FSSB DPNPSJHFNBOUFSJPSEPTEJOPTTBVSPT

Conservao dos crocodilos


%VSBOUFNVJUPUFNQP BTQPQVMBFTEFDSPDPEJMPT
GPSBNNVJUPBCVOEBOUFTOPTSJPTBGSJDBOPT)BWJBUBOUPT
DSPDPEJMPTRVFBMHVOTHPWFSOPTQBHBWBNQFMBDBQUVSB
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OBQFMFEPTDSPDPEJMPT GB[FOEPDPNRVFQFSDBNHSBOEF
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RVFBMDBODFNVNNFUSPEFDPNQSJNFOUP BMUVSBFNRVFPTOPWPT
DSPDPEJMPTTPSFJOUSPEV[JEPTOPTTFVTIBCJUBUT%FTUBGPSNB SFEV[TF
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EBTDSJBTQFMBTIJFOBT QFMPTCBCVOPTFNBSBCVT FNDPOEJFT
OBUVSBJT BQFOBTEBTDSJBTDPOTFHVFBMDBOBSBNBUVSJEBEF


$30$0%*-0%0/*-0
(Crocodylus niloticus)
Famlia: Crocodylidae
Ordem: Crocodylia
Estado: Comum. (Anexo I).
t%FTDSJPChega a medir mais de 6 m de comprimento
e pode pesar at uma tonelada.
t3FQSPEVPA postura tem entre 20 a 80 ovos. A fmea
pe os ovos num ninho que ela prpria escava e vigia.
t"MJNFOUBPPeixes e mamferos como antlopes, zebras,
gado bovino e tambm carnia.
t)CJUPT um animal aqutico que se move com
alguma facilidade por terra. um dos predadores mais
especializado em guas de curso lento. muito territorial.

O crocodilo-do-nilo encontra-se ao longo do rio Nilo


e em toda frica ao sul do deserto do Sara, em guas
marinhas prximas do continente e na ilha de Madagscar.

308

%&4"'*04 t $JODJBTEB/BUVSF[B t oBOP t .BUFSJBMGPUPDPQJWFM4BOUJMMBOB$POTUODJB

+"$"3%01"/5"/"(Caiman crocodilus)
Famlia: Alligatoridae
Ordem: Crocodylia
Estado: Comum (Anexo I).

t"MJNFOUBPPeixes, anfbios, rpteis, aves e pequenos


mamferos.

t%FTDSJPChega a medir at 3 m de comprimento.


t)BCJUBUAo longo de todo o curso de gua dos rios.
Prefere depsitos de gua sem corrente. Pode encontrar-se
em gua salgada.

t3FQSPEVPProcriam durante a poca da chuva


(de Maio a Agosto). Formam o ninho com vegetao
seca sobre terra. A ninhada de 15 a 40 crias e a incubao
dura cerca de 13 semanas.
t$POTFSWBPA populao desta espcie
de aproximadamente um milho de exemplares,
mas continua a ser uma espcie ameaada.

O jacar-do-pantanal natural da Amrica. Encontra-se no Mxico,


passando por toda a Amrica Central, at ao Brasil.

("7*"(Gavialis gangeticus)
Famlia: Gavialidae
Ordem: Crocodylia
Estado: Em perigo (Anexo I).

t"MJNFOUBPPeixes, principalmente, mas tambm


pode comer aves e mamferos.

t%FTDSJPPode haver indivduos que atinjam 6 m


de comprimento, mas encontraram-se fsseis de gaviais
at aos 17 m de comprimento.
t)BCJUBU aqutico. Vive nas partes mais profundas
dos rios.

t$POTFSWBPEsteve praticamente exterminado


no sculo XX devido caa abusiva e destruio
do seu habitat.
Na actualidade esto a ser tomadas medidas para
a recuperao desta espcie.

O gavial encontra-se na ndia, no Nepal,


no Paquisto e na Indochina.

%&4"'*04 t $JODJBTEB/BUVSF[B t oBOP t .BUFSJBMGPUPDPQJWFM4BOUJMMBOB$POTUODJB

309

"OGCJPT
4PBOJNBJTPWQBSPTUFSSFTUSFTRVFQBTTBNHSBOEFQBSUFEBTVB
WJEBOBHVB QPOEPBPTTFVTPWPT BQSFTFOUBOEPBEBQUBFT
UBOUPQBSBBWJEBUFSSFTUSFDPNPQBSBBWJEBBRVUJDB

Classificao
0TBOGCJPTDPNQSFFOEFNEPJTHSVQPTPTBOVSPT BOGCJPT
TFNDBVEB
FPTVSPEFMPT BOGCJPTDPNDBVEB

t0TBOGCJPTBOVSPT STFTBQPT
TPBOGCJPTNBJT
BEBQUBEPTBPNFJPUFSSFTUSF$BSFDFNEFDBVEB1PEFN
FNJUJSTPOT DPBYBS
DPNEVBTCPMTBTRVFUNFNBNCPT
PTMBEPTEBGBSJOHFFRVFFODIFNEFBS0TTFVTTPOT
TFSWFNQBSBNBSDBSPUFSSJUSJPFBUSBJSBTGNFBT
"4'-&$)"4%04/%*04
Desde tempos muito remotos, os ndios do Amazonas
conhecem o efeito venenoso de uma substncia segregada
pela pele dos dendrobtidos. Utilizam esta toxina, entre
outras coisas, com o propsito de envenenar a ponta das
suas flechas para caar as suas presas. Os princpios activos
desta secreo so alcalides e tm um efeito paralisante
sobre as suas vtimas.

t0TVSPEFMPT USJUFTFTBMBNBOESBT
UNVNBDBVEB
DPNSFCPSEPTTFNFMIBOUFTBCBSCBUBOBT0TUSJUFT
QBTTBNUPEBBTVBWJEBOBHVBFSFTQJSBNQPSCSORVJBT
"TTBMBNBOESBTTPNBJTUFSSFTUSFTFSFTQJSBNQFMPT
QVMNFT

Conservao
4FHVOEPB6OJP*OUFSOBDJPOBMEF$POTFSWBPEB
/BUVSF[B FN0VUVCSPEFFYJTUJBNDFSDBEF
BOGCJPTFNQFSJHPEFFYUJOP*TUPRVFSEJ[FSRVF
EBTFTQDJFTDPOIFDJEBT NBJTEFFTUBWBN
jHMPCBMNFOUFBNFBBEBTx FODPOUSBOEPTFOVNBTJUVBP
NBJTDSUJDBEPRVFPTNBNGFSPTFBTBWFT
FTQFDJBMNFOUFQSFPDVQBOUFOB"NSJDB-BUJOB EFWJEP
chytridiomycosis VNBEPFOBGOHJDBRVFQPEFDBVTBS
NPSUFTFTQPSEJDBTFNBMHVNBTFTQDJFTFEF
NPSUBMJEBEFOPVUSBT
&TUBEPFOBEFTFOWPMWFTFDPNNBJPSJOUFOTJEBEFOPT
BOPTEFTFDB RVFOBTMUJNBTEDBEBTBVNFOUBSBN
EFWJEPTBMUFSBFTDMJNUJDBT

Algumas indstrias farmacuticas utilizam estas


toxinas no fabrico de medicamentos.

310

/PVUSPTDPOUJOFOUFT BTBNFBBTTPCSFWJWODJBEPT
BOGCJPTTPBEFTUSVJPEPTFVIBCJUBUFBDPOUBNJOBP
EPBSFEBHVB

%&4"'*04 t $JODJBTEB/BUVSF[B t oBOP t .BUFSJBMGPUPDPQJWFM4BOUJMMBOB$POTUODJB

3";6-7&/&/04"(Dendrobates azureus)
Famlia: Dendrobatidae
Ordem: Anura
Estado: Vulnervel. Toda as espcies de dendrobtidos
encontram-se no Anexo II.
t%FTDSJPSo rs com cerca de 1,5 cm e de cores muito
atractivas, sobretudo a parte traseira e as patas.
Estas cores so associadas presena de toxinas
(alcalides) na pele.

t)BCJUBUVivem no solo das selvas tropicais e nos ramos


das rvores, at 2 m de altura.
t"MJNFOUBPPrincipalmente de insectos (larvas
de moscas, moscas adultas e formigas).

Os dendrobtidos distribuem-se pela Amrica


Central e Amrica do Sul.

"90-05&(Ambystoma mexicanum)
Famlia: Ambystomidae
Ordem: Caudata
Estado: Vulnervel (Anexo II).

t5JQPEFBMJNFOUBP carnvoro e alimenta-se


de pequenos peixes, insectos e vermes.

t%FTDSJPPertencem ao grupo das salamandras e tm


um ciclo vital muito surpreendente em vez de perderem
as suas brnquias e converterem-se em adultos, muitas
vezes passam todas as suas vidas como um girino gigante
de quatro patas; alguns exemplares mudam de forma
e assumem vida terrestre.

t)BCJUBU um animal de vida aqutica, encontra-se em


cursos de guas claras, frescas e calmas. O seu nico habitat
natural so os lagos prximos Cidade do Mxico.
t$POTFSWBPNo estado natural encontra-se praticamente
extinto. No entanto, bastante abundante em cativeiro,
pela importncia que tem como animal de laboratrio para
o estudo do desenvolvimento embrionrio.

O axolote tem um habitat natural nico,


os lagos Xochimilco e Chalco, no Sudeste
do Mxico.

%&4"'*04 t $JODJBTEB/BUVSF[B t oBOP t .BUFSJBMGPUPDPQJWFM4BOUJMMBOB$POTUODJB

311

Peixes
.VJUBTEBTFTQDJFTEFQFJYFTFODPOUSBNTFFNQFSJHP
EFFYUJOP EFWJEP FOUSFPVUSBTDBVTBT TPCSFFYQMPSBP
QFTRVFJSBFBMUFSBPEPTIBCJUBUTBRVUJDPT QFMB
DPOUBNJOBPBUSBWTEPTSFTEVPTVSCBOPTFJOEVTUSJBJT

Conservao dos peixes


"QPQVMBPEPTQFJYFTOPTNFJPTBRVUJDPTWJVTF
BGFDUBEBEFTEFNFBEPTEFTDVMPQBTTBEPQFMB
TPCSFFYQMPSBPQFTRVFJSB RVFDIFHPVBDPMPDBSFN
QFSJHPBDPOUJOVJEBEFBMPOHPQSB[PEFBMHVNBTFTQDJFT
"MNEJTTP FTUBTPCSFFYQMPSBPOPJNQMJDBVOJDBNFOUF
PEFTBQBSFDJNFOUPEFBMHVNBTFTQDJFT NBTUBNCN
VNBBMUFSBPEPFRVJMCSJPFDPMHJDP KRVFDBEBFTQDJF
UFNBTVBGVOPOBSFEFUSGJDB
0VUSBEBTDBVTBTQSJODJQBJTEBEFTUSVJPEPNFJP
NBSJOIPBNQSUJDBEBTBDUJWJEBEFQFTRVFJSBT DPNP
PVTPEFSFEFTRVFTFBSSBTUBNQFMPGVOEPEPNBS

1PSPVUSPMBEP PTEFSSBNFTJOEVTUSJBJTFVSCBOPT
TPPTSFTQPOTWFJTQFMBDPOUBNJOBPEPTPDFBOPT
FEBEFHSBEBPEBTHVBT
.VJUPTHPWFSOPTFTUPKBUPNBSNFEJEBTQBSBFWJUBS
RVFPNFJPBRVUJDPDPOUJOVFBEFHSBEBSTF CFNDPNP
PTTFSFTWJWPTRVFPIBCJUBN6NBEBTNFEJEBT
BQFTDBTVTUFOUWFM RVFDPOUFNQMBQBSBHFOT
EFSFHFOFSBPCJPMHJDB FPVUSBPEFTFOWPMWJNFOUP
EBBRVJDVMUVSB RVFQFSNJUFVNNFMIPSDPOUSPMP
EBQSPEVPQFTRVFJSB

56#"30#3"/$0
(Carcharodon carcharias)
Famlia: Lamnidae
Ordem: Lamniformes
Estado: Vulnervel (Anexo II).
t%FTDSJPPode chegar aos 6 m de comprimento
e pesar at uma tonelada. O seu corpo muito
alongado e robusto, com cinco pares de aberturas
branquiais. de cor cinza-escura com padres
azulados e pardos. Os dentes so triangulares com
os bordos serrados.
t"MJNFOUBPQuando jovens, alimentam-se
de peixes, crustceos e outros invertebrados
marinhos. Em adultos, alm disso, comem focas,
golfinhos e baleias.
t3FQSPEVP vivparo.
t)CJUPT muito agressivo e o mais temido
de entre todos os tubares.
t)BCJUBUMares tropicais e temperados de todo
o Mundo.

O tubaro-branco distribui-se por todo


o oceano nas zonas tropicais e temperadas
e apenas ocasionalmente em guas frias.

312

%&4"'*04 t $JODJBTEB/BUVSF[B t oBOP t .BUFSJBMGPUPDPQJWFM4BOUJMMBOB$POTUODJB

1*3"36$6
(Arapaima gigas)

t)BCJUBULagos e rios de pouca corrente.

Famlia: Osteoglossidae
Ordem: Osteoglossiformes
Estado: Vulnervel. (Anexo II).
t%FTDSJPPode medir quase 5 m e pesar at 200 kg.
Tem escamas grossas e grandes. A bexiga natatria funciona
como um pulmo, permitindo a sua sobrevivncia em guas
pantanosas e pobres em oxignio.

t$POTFSWBPDurante as ltimas dcadas foram criados


programas de reproduo em cativeiro em estabelecimentos
de piscicultura no Peru e em alguns pases como na Guiana,
que realiza uma pesca controlada.

t"MJNFOUBPGrande variedade de espcies de peixes.

O pirarucu
encontra-se
nos rios da
Amrica do Sul,
principalmente
na bacia do
Amazonas.

$"7"-0."3*/)0
(Hippocampus guttulatus)
Famlia: Syngathidae
Ordem: Syngathiformes
Estado: Vulnervel (Anexo II).
t%FTDSJPTem um tamanho
de 15-20 cm e um esqueleto externo
de origem drmica.
O corpo e a cabea so arqueados
e tem uma cauda prensil. O focinho
comprido e em forma de tubo.
de cor verde-amarelada.
t)BCJUBUEncontram-se em guas
com pradarias aquticas subtidais
e em locais com algas, onde se
consegue camuflar.
t)CJUPTNada verticalmente e suga as presas
com o focinho.
O macho incuba os ovos que lhe so injectados
pela fmea. As crias nascem s cinco semanas,
totalmente desenvolvidas.

&4563+0
(Acipenser sturio)
Famlia: Acipenseridae
Ordem: Acipenseriformes
Estado: Em perigo. (Anexo I).
t%FTDSJPNo tem escamas e tem, na pele, cinco fileiras
longitudinais com placas rombides e pontiagudas.
A cabea apresenta placas largas e o esqueleto no
se encontra totalmente ossificado.
A boca, sem dentes, est situada na parte ventral e com
ela suga vermes e caracis que detecta com uma espcie
de bigodes que vo varrendo o fundo.
t$POTFSWBPOs ovos de esturjo constituem o cobiado
caviar. Para conseguir este manjar, a pesca do esturjo no
se realizou de forma controlada e esta sobreexplorao
quase terminou com a espcie.

0DBWBMPNBSJOIP
EJTUSJCVJTFQFMPNBS
.FEJUFSSOFPFPNBS/FHSP0FTUVSKP

FODPOUSBTFOBTSFHJFTUFNQFSBEBTEP)FNJTGSJP
/PSUF QSJODJQBMNFOUFOPNBS$TQJP

%&4"'*04 t $JODJBTEB/BUVSF[B t oBOP t .BUFSJBMGPUPDPQJWFM4BOUJMMBOB$POTUODJB

313

*OWFSUFCSBEPT FNQFSJHP
na Pennsula Ibrica
0TJOWFSUFCSBEPTTPNFOPTDPOIFDJEPT QFMPRVFOPGDJM
SFDPOIFDFSBTFTQDJFTRVFFTUPFNQFSJHP.BTDPOIFDFTF
BMHVOTRVFOB1FOOTVMB*CSJDBTPDBEBWF[NBJTFTDBTTPT
#03#0-&5"*4"#&-*/"
(Graellsia isabellae)
Famlia: Saturniidae
Ordem: Lepidpteros
Estado: Em perigo
t%FTDSJP uma espcie nica entre as borboletas nocturnas
da Pennsula Ibrica. A sua envergadura de 45 a 65 mm
e apresenta um dimorfismo sexual muito marcado: o macho
tem as antenas em forma de pente e de cor pardo-avermelhadas.
t)BCJUBUPinhais de pinheiros-silvestres e pinheiros-larcios.
t$POTFSWBP uma espcie endmica da Pennsula Ibrica.
Mariano de la Paz Graells foi o zologo que descobriu
e descreveu a borboleta-isabelina por volta do ano 1850.
Foi director do Gabinete de Histria Natural de Madrid
e dedicou este lepidptero rainha Isabel II.

"NFUBNPSGPTFEBTCPSCPMFUBT
Quando nascem, os insectos tm uma forma
muito diferente daquela que ser a sua forma
em adulta. O seu tipo de desenvolvimento
chama-se metamorfose e tem as seguintes fases:
t1SJNFJSP EPPWPTBJVNBMBSWB RVFQPEF
apresentar a forma de lagarta. Esta alimenta-se
e cresce bastante, at que chega uma altura em
que a sua actividade interrompida.
t%FTFHVJEB QBTTBBPFTUBEPEFQVQB"QFMF
endurece e no seu interior produzem-se vrias
alteraes. Por vezes fecha-se no interior
de um casulo ou crislida.
t1PSMUJNP BQVQBBCSFTFFTBJVNJOTFDUP
adulto.

314

%&4"'*04 t $JODJBTEB/BUVSF[B t oBOP t .BUFSJBMGPUPDPQJWFM4BOUJMMBOB$POTUODJB

&4$"3"7&-)0304-*"(Rosalia alpina)
Famlia: Lucanidae
Ordem: Colepteros
Estado: Em perigo
t%FTDSJP um escaravelho que se caracteriza pela sua
couraa de veludo azul-celeste com manchas negras.
t)BCJUBUFaiais e florestas de montanha.
t$POTFSWBPUm dos principais factores de ameaa
a limpeza da floresta dos troncos cados e folhas secas
para evitar incndios, porque as larvas deste escaravelho
desenvolvem-se na madeira de faia em decomposio.
Por isso, a melhor medida de proteco cuidar e preservar
os faiais hmidos onde vive.

-*#-6-"$&$-*"(Ophiogomphus cecilia)
Famlia: Gomphidae
Ordem: Odonata
Estado: Em perigo
t)BCJUBURios com guas ricas em oxignio e baixos nveis
de nutrientes.
t$POTFSWBPOs seus principais factores de ameaa
so a colheita de exemplares para o coleccionismo,
a utilizao de pesticidas e a contaminao dos rios.
As suas medidas de conservao so, entre outras,
a proteco do seu habitat, a depurao dos resduos
urbanos e uma vigilncia para evitar a excessiva extraco
de gua para regadios.

/07"4&41$*&41305&(*%"4
Em Portugal no existe o Livro Vermelho
sobre os invertebrados e os estudos
aprofundados de invertebrados
so escassos. No entanto, a borboleta
Euchloe tagis referida como uma
espcie ameaada.
Em Espanha, no ano de 1999 incluram-se
no Catlogo Nacional de Espcies
Ameaadas seis espcies e uma
subespcie de invertebrados marinhos
que tinham sofrido uma diminuio
da sua populao pela deteriorao
do seu habitat: lapa-ferrugnea;
nacra; caramujo-do-mediterrneo;
coral-laranja; molusco (Dendropoma
petraeum); porco-espinho-marinho
e asterina pancerii pequena.
O coral-laranja (Astroides calycularis)
instala-se desde a superfcie at zonas
pouco iluminadas abaixo dos 50 m.

"CPSCPMFUBJTBCFMJOB
FTUEJTUSJCVEBQFMB
TFSSBEB(VBEBSSBNB OPT.POUFT6OJWFSTBJT 
TFSSBTEF+BWBMBNCSF TFSSBEF4FHVSB TFSSB
EF$B[PSMBFPT1JSFOVTPSJFOUBJTFTQBOIJT
0FTDBSBWFMIPSPTMJB
FODPOUSBTFOPT
1JSFOVTFFN[POBTNPOUBOIPTBTEP/PSUF
EB1FOOTVMB"MJCMVMBDFDMJB
IBCJUBOP4VM
EB1FOOTVMBFNQPQVMBFTSFMRVJBT

%&4"'*04 t $JODJBTEB/BUVSF[B t oBOP t .BUFSJBMGPUPDPQJWFM4BOUJMMBOB$POTUODJB

315

Fetos
/P$BSCPOGFSP FSBNBTQMBOUBTNBJTBCVOEBOUFTEB5FSSB
FEFTFOWPMWFSBNTFHSBBTBPBNCJFOUFRVFOUFFINJEP
)PKFFNEJB FODPOUSBNTFBQFOBTFN[POBTUSPQJDBJTPVFN
MPDBJTPOEFBTDPOEJFTTPTFNFMIBOUFTTEP$BSCPOGFSP

'&50"3#3&0(Dicksonia antartica)
Famlia: Dicksoniaceae
Ordem: Dicksoniales
Estado: Em perigo (Apndice II).

t%FTDSJPTem um grande porte. O seu tronco grosso


e rematado por um penacho de frondes.
t)BCJUBUFlorestas hmidas, muitas vezes no fundo dos
vales e prximo das correntes de gua.
t$POTFSWBP uma planta muito primitiva, da poca
do Jurssico. Em muitas regies encontra-se em vias de
extino, pelo que a sua comercializao est estritamente
regulamentada no CITES.

O feto-arbreo original da Austrlia


(Nova Gales do Sul, Vitria e Tasmnia).

"GMPSBEP$BSCPOGFSP
As florestas de fetos do Carbonfero
so um dos ecossistemas mais
conhecidos na Histria da Terra e
um dos mais importantes, tanto pela
sua diversidade biolgica como pela
capacidade de neles se formar carvo.
As florestas do Carbonfero eram
constitudas por grandes fetos com
um tronco lenhoso que alcanavam
os 30 m de altura.
Parte da folha de um feto do Carbonfero.

316

%&4"'*04 t $JODJBTEB/BUVSF[B t oBOP t .BUFSJBMGPUPDPQJWFM4BOUJMMBOB$POTUODJB

Estes fetos conhecem-se


fundamentalmente pelos fsseis
dos seus troncos. Nestes fsseis pode
observar-se as cicatrizes deixadas nos
troncos pela queda das folhas, como
consequncia do crescimento.
Em muitos casos encontraram-se
apenas fsseis das folhas, da que
as reconstrues destas plantas
sejam apenas hipotticas.

65*-*;"&4.&%*$*/"*4%04'&504

Alguns fetos foram utilizados como remdios medicinais pelas suas propriedades
curativas desde h muitos anos:
t"BWFODB (Adiantum capillus-veneris) contm flavonides, terpenides, tanino
e muclagos. Utiliza-se as partes areas contra a tosse, bronquite, catarro crnico,
etc. um bom remdio para os problemas do couro cabeludo.
t0QPMJQEJPWVMHBS(Polypodium vulgare) contm saponinas, leo voltil e taninos.
Os seus rizomas favorecem a secreo da blis e um bom laxante.
t"MOHVBDFSWJOB(Scolopendrium vulgare) contm taninos, muclagos e flavonides.
Utiliza-se as suas frondes como adstringente suave e em casos de diarreia.
Tambm diurtico.
Avenca.

'SPOEF

3J[PNB

3B[FT

4PSPT

O Psilotum nudum
OBT[POBTFYUSBUSPQJDBJT FODPOUSBTFBQFOBT
OP4VMEB1FOOTVMB*CSJDBBCristela dentada
FODPOUSBTFOBT
SFBTUSPQJDBJTFTVCUSPQJDBJTEP7FMIP.VOEP OBSFHJPNFEJUFSSOFB
EBJMIBEF$SFUBFOB1FOOTVMB*CSJDB

Constituio de um feto.

'&50 $3*45&-"

(Cristela dentada)

Psilotum nudum

Famlia: Thelypteridaceae
Ordem: Aspleniales
Estado: Vulnervel.
t%FTDSJPEspcie tropical
que habita tambm em
outros stios onde haja
condies ptimas de calor
e humidade no solo.
t)BCJUBUNa Andaluzia,
em solos muito hmidos
e lodosos, com muita
cobertura vegetal. Na
Galiza, em fontes termais.
Nas Canrias, em floresta
umbrfila.
t$POTFSWBPA destruio do seu habitat um dos
principais factores de ameaa. Nas Canrias existe
competio com as plantas invasoras.
t%JTUSJCVJPreas tropicais e subtropicais do Velho
Mundo. Na regio mediterrnea, em Creta e na Pennsula
Ibrica.

Famlia: Psilotaceae
Ordem: Psilotales
Estado: Em perigo.
t)BCJUBUFendas
e fissuras na rocha
da plataforma
termomediterrnea
da Pennsula Ibrica.
t$POTFSWBPAlm
da alterao climtica,
outro dos factores de
ameaa desta espcie
a sua colheita para o
coleccionismo botnico
e para uso ornamental.
t%JTUSJCVJPRegies
tropicais e subtropicais.
Na Macaronsia,
apenas em Cabo Verde,
no nas Canrias. Em
zonas extratropicais,
encontramo-lo apenas
no Sul da Pennsula Ibrica.

%&4"'*04 t $JODJBTEB/BUVSF[B t oBOP t .BUFSJBMGPUPDPQJWFM4BOUJMMBOB$POTUODJB

317

(JNOPTQSNJDBT
/P+VSTTJDPFOP$SFUDFP BTHJNOPTQFSNBTGPSNBWBNEFOTBT
GMPSFTUBT.VJUBTEFMBTFYUJOHVJSBNTFFPVUSBTFODPOUSBNTFFN
SFHSFTTP DPNPBBSBVDSJB FORVBOUPPVUSBTDPOUBNDPNVNB
BNQMBEJTUSJCVJP DPNPPQJOIFJSP

Caractersticas das gimnosprmicas

'PMIBT
$POFT
QJOIBT

Conservao
$BVMF
USPODP

'MPSFT
NBTDVMJOBT

"THJNOPTQSNJDBTTPSWPSFTEFHSBOEFMPOHFWJEBEF EFHSBOEFQPSUFFDPNGPMIBT
TJNQMFTFOVNFSPTBT OBTVBNBJPSJBBDJDVMBSFT RVFFTUPDPCFSUBTEFVNBDVUDVMBRVF
BTQSPUFHFEBQFSEBEFHVB5NGMPSFT NBTOPUNGSVUPT"TGMPSFTTPQFRVFOBT 
TFNDPSFTBUSBDUJWBT FBHSVQBNTFFNJOGMPSFTDODJBT"TGMPSFTNBTDVMJOBTQSPEV[FN
HSPTEFQMFORVFBSSBTUBEPQFMPWFOUPFDIFHBTSWPSFTGFNJOJOBT2VBOEPFTUBTTP
GFDVOEBEBT GPSNBNBTQJOIBT/FTUBTFODPOUSBNTFBTTFNFOUFT QJOIFT
RVFEPMVHBS
BVNBOPWBQMBOUB1SPEV[FNTFNFOUFTEFTQJEBTRVFOPFTUPQSPUFHJEBTQFMPGSVUP

'PMIBT

'MPSFT
GFNJOJOBT
$POF
QJOIB

4FHVOEPBTMJTUBTWFSNFMIBTEB6*$/ DFSDBEFEBTFTQDJFTEFWJOUFGBNMJBTCPUOJDBT
FODPOUSBNTFBNFBBEBT%FTUBT PJUPQFSUFODFNTHJNOPTQSNJDBT"TDBVTBTEFUP
FMFWBEBQSPQPSPQPEFNTFS
"THJNOPTQSNJDBTTPVNHSVQPNVJUPFTUVEBEPFUBNCNNVJUPQFRVFOP QFMPRVF
TPGBDJMNFOUFJEFOUJGJDWFJT
.VJUBTEFMBTGPSBNNVJUPFYQMPSBEBTUBOUPQBSBPCUFSNBEFJSBFQBTUBEFQBQFM DPNP
QBSBGJOTIPSUDPMBT
4PHSVQPTNVJUPBOUJHPTBOWFMFWPMVUJWPFUBMWF[FTUFKBNBTFSFTQFDJBMNFOUFBGFDUBEPT
QFMBTNVEBOBTBNCJFOUBJTEBBDUVBMJEBEF

Gimnosprmica
QJOIFJSP

A Ephedra sinica

EJTUSJCVJTFQFMP0FTUF
EBTJBFQFMBTSFHJFT
NFEJUFSSOJDBT
FB.BDBSPOTJDB
"BSBVDSJB
IBCJUB
OP$IJMFFOB"SHFOUJOB
"1307&*5".&/50%01*/)&*30

Obteno de resina de um
pinheiro. "THJNOPTQFSNBT
UNVNBHSBOEFJNQPSUODJB
FDPONJDBQFMPTTFVT
NMUJQMPTVTPT

318

t%BDBTDBFEPUSPODPSFTJOB MFPQBSB
essncias, substncias teraputicas,
aguarrs, madeira (papel, mveis) e lenha
(combustvel).

%&4"'*04 t $JODJBTEB/BUVSF[B t oBOP t .BUFSJBMGPUPDPQJWFM4BOUJMMBOB$POTUODJB

t%PGSVUPBSSBOKPTGMPSBJTFBEPSOPT
t%BTFNFOUFBMJNFOUPQBSBDPOTVNPIVNBOP
e para certos animais da floresta.
t%BTGPMIBTFTTODJBTFTVCTUODJBTBSPNUJDBT

Os ndios mapuches,
originrios de Arauco,
regio do Chile onde
encontramos a Araucria
araucana, incluem as
sementes destas rvores
na sua dieta alimentar,
j que tem um grande
valor energtico.

$PSOJDBCSB(Ephedra fragilis)

"SBVDSJBEPDIJMF(Araucaria araucana)

Famlia: Ephedraceae
Ordem: Ephedrales
Estado: Espcie no ameaada.

Famlia: Araucariaceae
Ordem: Coniferales
Estado: Em perigo. (Anexo I).

t%FTDSJPPertence classe Gnetopsida, que se considera


um ponto intermdio entre conferas e angiospermas.
um arbusto com forma de giesta, a disposio dos ramos
em forma verticilada e articulam-se pelos seus ns.
As folhas so pequenas e dispem-se em forma oposta
ou em vertculos de trs. So diicas, ou seja, tm flores
femininas e outras masculinas.

t%FTDSJP uma rvore de grande altura chega


a alcanar os 50 m e tem grande longevidade,
podendo viver at aos 1000 anos. As suas folhas so
ovalo-lanceoladas, grossas, resistentes e pontiagudas,
e possuem pinhas quase globosas com pinhes compridos
e combustveis. a nica espcie do seu gnero que resiste
ao frio.
A madeira compacta, de cor branco-amarelada e fcil
de trabalhar.

t)BCJUBUTerrenos calcrios desde o nvel do mar at aos


1100 m. Na Pennsula encontram-se no Este, centro e Sul.
A sua rea geral estende-se do Oeste da sia s regies
mediterrnicas e macaronsica.
t6TPTUtiliza-se na medicina popular como antiasmtico,
anti-reumtico e estimulante. Das espcies asiticas, em
particular, obtm-se um alcalide, a efedrina, que se utiliza
em preparados antiasmticos e para aumentar a presso
arterial.

t)BCJUBU endmica do Chile e Argentina e distribui-se


entre os 600 e 1700 m de altitude.
t6TPTA madeira muito cobiada para a construo
e carpintaria em geral. Antigamente, esta madeira
empregava-se no fabrico de mastros para barcos.
Na actualidade, est proibido o corte destas rvores,
que foram declaradas monumento natural do Chile.

%&4"'*04 t $JODJBTEB/BUVSF[B t oBOP t .BUFSJBMGPUPDPQJWFM4BOUJMMBOB$POTUODJB

319

$BDUPT
&NBMHVOTQBTFT BTVBDPNFSDJBMJ[BPGPJUPGPSUFRVF
UFWFEFTFQSPJCJSBTVBWFOEBQBSBFWJUBSBFYUJOP
EFBMHVNBTFTQDJFT$FSDBEFDBDUPTFTUPDBUBMPHBEPT
DPNPQMBOUBTBNFBBEBT
-&*563"

Descrio
dos cactos
0TDBDUPTGPSNBNVNBGBNMJB
EFDFSDBEFHOFSPTFVNBT
FTQDJFT&ODPOUSBNTF
QSJODJQBMNFOUFOBTSFHJFTEFTSUJDBT
EB"NSJDB$FOUSBM 4VMEPT&TUBEPT
6OJEPTF"NSJDBEP4VMFUNDPNP
QSJODJQBJTDBSBDUFSTUJDBT

'PSNBTEPTDBDUPT
EBEJSFJUBQBSBBFTRVFSEB

BTGJHVFJSBTEBOEJB DPN
PDBVMFFNGPSNBEFQBMBT
Bcholla DPNDBVMFTGJOPTF
FOPSNFTFTQJOIPTFPDFSFVT 
RVFBMUPFSBNJGJDBEP

320

Viagens pela Amrica Meridional,


Flix de Azara (1805)
Apesar de a famlia Cactus L. destas plantas, cujo
tronco, ramos e folhas tm forma de esptulas,
ser de todas as rvores ou arbustos
a mais desproporcionada e aquela cujo aspecto
o menos agradvel, eu vi, no entanto, dois
verdadeiros Cactus L. que eram as rvores melhor
formadas do Mundo; o seu tronco era alto, entre
20 a 24 ps, redondo e unido como se tivesse
sido torneado. Este tronco estava desprovido
de folhas at ponta, que terminava numa
esfera formada por ramos ou folhas em forma
de esptula. Os frutos tm a forma dos de todas
as plantas deste gnero, mas so mais pequenos
que outros, assim como as folhas. Encontrei-os
no Paraguai, em duas florestas diferentes
da povoao de Atira, distanciados um do outro
aproximadamente uma lgua, e surpreendeu-me
encontr-los to distantes, sem ver nenhum
outro do mesmo gnero. Decerto que esta
espcie, reduzida a esses indivduos, casos nicos
no Mundo, desaparecer aquando da morte
dos que descrevi.

t 4 PQMBOUBTTVDVMFOUBTFQFSFOFT
1PEFNBQSFTFOUBSUSTNPSGPMPHJBT
DBVMFHMPCPTP DBVMFBMPOHBEP
FDBVMFBQSVNBEP
t /PJOUFSJPSEPDBVMFBSNB[FOBN
HVBFOBQBSUFFYUFSOBEPDBVMF 
RVFEFDPSWFSEF SFBMJ[BN
BGVOPGPUPTTJOUUJDB
t /PUNGPMIBT NBTTJNFTQJOIPT
FQMPT
t "TGMPSFTTPIFSNBGSPEJUBT 
HSBOEFTFBUSBDUJWBT1PMJOJ[BNTF
QPSDPMJCSJT NPSDFHPTFCFTPVSPT
t 0GSVUPVNBCBHBRVFUFOEFBUFSFTQJOIPT

%&4"'*04 t $JODJBTEB/BUVSF[B t oBOP t .BUFSJBMGPUPDPQJWFM4BOUJMMBOB$POTUODJB

$"$50%&"-$"$)0'3"
(Obregonia denegrii)
Famlia: Cactaceae
Ordem: Caryophyllales
Estado: Vulnervel (Anexo I).
t%FTDSJPPode medir at 12 cm de dimetro.
O caule formado por grandes segmentos em forma
triangular, sobrepostos em espiral e parecidos com
folhas. Na extremidade de cada segmento surgem
espinhos curtos. As flores so de cor branca e nascem
no centro da planta.
t$POTFSWBPA populao do cacto-de-alcachofra tem
decrescido nas ltimas dcadas para aproximadamente
5000 exemplares. As causas principais desta diminuio
rpida so o pastoreio abusivo, a colheita para
o comrcio ilegal e o uso medicinal por parte
da populao local.

MAMMILLARIA GLOCHIDIATA
(Mammillaria glochidiata)
Famlia: Cactaceae
Ordem: Caryophyllales
Estado: Extinto no estado selvagem (Anexo I).
t%FTDSJPOs segmentos tm forma cnica e no
de costela, como nos outros cactos. As flores
situam-se na axila dos segmentos. So de cor rosada,
medem 1,5 cm de dimetro e esto abertas cinco dias
na Primavera.
t$POTFSWBP uma espcie endmica do Mxico
que est extinta em estado selvagem. Em 1991
encontrou-se uma pequena populao de uns
50 indivduos. Dois anos mais tarde, a populao
tinha-se reduzido a uns 15 exemplares e posteriormente
comprovou-se que j no restava nenhum na Natureza.

STROMBOCACTO
(Strombocactus disciformis)
Famlia: Cactaceae
Ordem: Caryophyllales
Estado: Em perigo (Anexo I).
t%FTDSJPTem uma raiz axonomorfa e cresce
de forma espalmada sobre o solo. O caule de cor
verde-acinzentada e os segmentos so romboidais
e espalmados, dispostos em espiral e muito prximos
entre si. A superfcie enrugada.
t$POTFSWBPTodo o gnero est protegido pelo
CITES no Apndice I. totalmente proibida a extraco
de plantas e sementes do seu habitat natural. Este
gnero floresce com facilidade e proporciona grande
quantidade de sementes que no tm problemas
de germinao.
Por isso, a partir das suas sementes ser possvel a sua
recuperao com relativa facilidade.

%&4"'*04 t $JODJBTEB/BUVSF[B t oBOP t .BUFSJBMGPUPDPQJWFM4BOUJMMBOB$POTUODJB

321

0SRVEFBT
"GBNMJBNBJTOVNFSPTBEPSFJOPEBTQMBOUBTBEBTPSRVEFBT 
RVFBHSVQBVNBTFTQDJFTTFMWBHFOTDPOIFDJEBT
&ODPOUSBNTFQPSUPEBB5FSSB FYDFQUPOBT[POBTQPMBSFT
FOPTEFTFSUPTEFBSFJB

Caractersticas das orqudeas

BGBNMJBNBJTFWPMVEBEFOUSPEPSFJOPEBTQMBOUBTQFMBTVB
SFQSPEVPFQFMBTVBDPNQMJDBEBFTUSBUHJBBEBQUBUJWB

"TPSRVEFBTTPNPOPDPUJMFEOFBTFQFSUFODFNGBNMJB
Orchidaceae"NBJPSJBDPODFOUSBTFOBTGMPSFTUBTUSPQJDBJT
EB"NSJDBEP4VM "VTUSMJBF/PWB;FMOEJB&TUBTUFOEFN
BTFSFQGJUBT QBSBQPEFSDBQUBSBMV[TPMBS/B&VSPQB
UBNCNQPEFNTFSFODPOUSBEBTOBTGMPSFTUBTBCFSUBT 
INJEBTFSJDBTFNINVT/FTUFDBTP BTPSRVEFBTTP
UFSSFTUSFT"TVBGMPSIFSNBGSPEJUBF[JHPNPSGB DPNVN
OJDPQMBOPEFTJNFUSJB
5FNUSTUQBMBTFUSTQUBMBT 
VNBEFMBTUSBOTGPSNBEBOPMBCFMP RVFVNBFTUSVUVSB
UQJDBEBTPSRVEFBT"TGMPSFTQPEFNTFSJTPMBEBTPVFTUBS
FNHSVQPT GPSNBOEPJOGMPSFTDODJBT FTPQPMJOJ[BEBT
QPSJOTFDUPTPVBWFT4PBUSBEPTQFMPTPEPSFTFDPSFT
BUSBDUJWBTPVQFMBTEJTUJOUBTGPSNBTEPMBCFMP
0QPMJOJ[BEPS BPQPVTBSOPMBCFMPQBSBBMDBOBS
PODUBSEPOFDUSJP JNQSFHOBTFEFQMFORVFWBJ
USBOTQPSUBSEFGMPSFNGMPS QPTTJCJMJUBOEPBTTJN
BGFDVOEBPEFTUBTQMBOUBT

/PTMVHBSFTUSPQJDBJT 
BTPSRVEFBTTP
FQGJUBT7JWFN
GJYBEBTTPCSFBT
SWPSFTEBGMPSFTUB 
UNVNDBVMFF
NVJUBTSB[FTBSFBT
QFOEVSBEBTDPN
GVOPBCTPSWFOUF
FRVFQPEFNSFBMJ[BS
BGPUPTTOUFTF

5BNCNGSFRVFOUFBNVMUJQMJDBPWFHFUBUJWBBUSBWT
EFQSPQHVMPTPVCVMCJMIPT
"TTFNFOUFTTPOVNFSPTBTFUPQFRVFOBTRVFPWFOUP
RVFBTEJTQFSTBDPNPTFGPTTFNFTQPSPT1BSBRVFBT
TFNFOUFTHFSNJOFN OFDFTTSJBBQSFTFOBEFGVOHPT
FTQFDGJDPT

-&*563"

A Viagem do$IBMMFOHFS(1872-1876),
Eric Linklater
/B&VSPQB BT
PSRVEFBTUFOEFN
BTFSUFSSFTUSFT
"MHVOTHOFSPT 
DPNPOphyrs 
OrchisFSerapias 
BCVOEBNFNQSBEPT
FFNBNCJFOUFT
BCFSUPTPVINJEPT 
DPNPGMPSFTUBTEF
DBSWBMIPTPVGBJBT

322

A botnica e os costumes
nativos ocuparam Moseley
durante a semana que
o Challenger esteve em
Puerto Nares. A botnica
das ilhas era praticamente
desconhecida e ele
molhava-se com frequncia
at cintura para recolher
orqudeas e fetos que

%&4"'*04 t $JODJBTEB/BUVSF[B t oBOP t .BUFSJBMGPUPDPQJWFM4BOUJMMBOB$POTUODJB

estavam pendurados,
a meio metro por cima
da gua, dos imensos ramos
horizontais das rvores
que cresciam lambidos
pelas ondas, na mesma
margem do mar. Uma
orqudea e um dos fetos
arbreos que encontrou
eram novos para a Cincia.

Comercializao
das orqudeas
/B&VSPQB PJOUFSFTTFQFMPDVMUJWPEFPSRVEFBTTVSHJV
BQBSUJSEBTFYQFEJFTEPTDVMP97***RVFTFSFBMJ[BSBN
OB"NSJDB POEFTFEFTDPCSJVVNOPWPNVOEPEF
FTQDJFTEFQMBOUBTFBOJNBJT)PKFFNEJB BPSRVEFB
VNBQMBOUBPSOBNFOUBMNVJUPBQSFDJBEB EFHSBOEF
JNQPSUODJBFDPONJDBBOWFMNVOEJBM
&OUSFPTQBTFTQSPEVUPSFTEFPSRVEFBTFTUP#SBTJM 
$IJOB $PTUB3JDB &TUBEPT6OJEPT 'JMJQJOBT *OEPOTJB 
)PMBOEBF5BJMOEJB(SBBTQSPDVSBEFTUBTGMPSFTQPS
QBSUFEPTQBTFTEFTFOWPMWJEPT UFNTFJNQVMTJPOBEP
PNFSDBEPEFFYQPSUBPFNQBTFTFNWJBT
EFEFTFOWPMWJNFOUP

Conservao das orqudeas

"TPSRVEFBTRVFTFDPNFSDJBMJ[BNQSPDFEFNEFICSJEPT
SFTVMUBOUFTEPDSV[BNFOUPTFOUSFFTQDJFTEJTUJOUBT

"GBNMJBEBTPSRVEFBTFTUJODMVEBOB"QOEJDF**
EB$*5&4QBSBFWJUBSPDPNSDJPEBTFTQDJFTEJSFDUBNFOUF
FYUSBEBTEB/BUVSF[B KRVFBSFDPMIBEFTUBTQMBOUBT
EPTFVIBCJUBUOBUVSBM TPCSFUVEPEBTFTQDJFTRVFUN
WBMPSIPSUDPMB BTUFNDPMPDBEPFNTJUVBPEFBNFBB 
IBWFOEPBUBMHVNBTFNQFSJHPEFFYUJOP DPNP
BTRVFQFSUFODFNBPHOFSPLycastes. .BT FYDFQP
EFTUBNFEJEB BNFMIPSNBOFJSBEFQSPUFHFSFTUBT
FTQDJFTDPOTFSWBOEPPTFVIBCJUBU
&NBMHVOTQBTFT DPNPP.YJDP FYJTUFNQSPHSBNBT
EFEFTFOWPMWJNFOUPTVTUFOUWFMEFFTQDJFTFNQFSJHP
EFFYUJOP.BJTDPODSFUBNFOUF OB3FTFSWBEB#JPTGFSB
EPT5VYMBTDSJBSBNTFUSTFNQSFTBTEFQSPEVP
FDPNFSDJBMJ[BPEFQMBOUBTEFJNQPSUODJBFDPONJDB
FFDPMHJDB"TTJN OPBOP PCUJWFSBNTF
QMBOUBTEFPSRVEFBTFNQFSJHPEFFYUJOPOPMBCPSBUSJP
EFDVMUVSBin vitroDPNEVBTGJOBMJEBEFTBDPNFSDJBMJ[BP
FBSFQSPEVPOPTFVNFJPOBUVSBM

"TPSRVEFBTGPSNBNVNBGBNMJBGBTDJOBOUFQFMBEJWFSTJEBEF
FBDPNQMFYJEBEFEFDBEBVNBEBTTVBTFTQDJFT

"#"6/*-)"
A baunilha (Vanilla planifolia) que utilizamos
na nossa alimentao uma orqudea
trepadora tropical e originria do Mxico
e Amrica Central. Os ndios astecas j
a utilizavam e os conquistadores espanhis
trouxeram-na para toda a Europa, juntamente
com o cacau. Hoje em dia, cultiva-se para
comercializao. Tem um caule comprido
que vai trepando atravs de razes areas
e chega at aos 10 m. As flores so de cor
verde e apenas se polinizam por intermdio
de uma abelha tropical, a melipona, e uma
espcie de colibri mexicano.

%&4"'*04 t $JODJBTEB/BUVSF[B t oBOP t .BUFSJBMGPUPDPQJWFM4BOUJMMBOB$POTUODJB

323

1MBOUBTDBSOWPSBT
/PTPVNBJOWFOPEFFTDSJUPSFTEFOPWFMBTGBOUTUJDBT
/P.VOEPFYJTUFNDFSDBEFFTQDJFTEFQMBOUBTDBSOWPSBT 
RVFDBQUVSBNJOTFDUPTFPVUSPTJOWFSUFCSBEPT"MHVNBTQPEFN 
JODMVTJWF BQBOIBSSTQFRVFOBT

Caractersticas das plantas carnvoras


"TQMBOUBTDBSOWPSBTDBQUVSBNJOTFDUPTQBSBSFUJSBS
PTFVDPOUFEPFNTBJTNJOFSBJTFOPBNBUSJB
PSHOJDB RVFTFEFDPNQF5NFTUBTFTUSBUHJBT
UPQBSUJDVMBSFTDPNPBEBQUBPBPNFJPFNRVF
TFFODPOUSBN
t 7JWFNFNBNCJFOUFTNVJUPQPCSFTFNOVUSJFOUFT UBJT
DPNPUVSGFJSBT QOUBOPT QOUBOPTDJEPTFMBEFJSBT
EFQFESBDBMDSJB

t %
 FTFOWPMWFNTFFNTPMPDJEPFQPCSFFNOJUSPHOJP
BTTJNJMWFM
"TUSTQSJODJQBJTDBSBDUFSTUJDBTEBTQMBOUBTDBSOWPSBTTP
t 1PTTVFNNFDBOJTNPTEFBUSBDPEBTTVBTQSFTBT 
DPNP QPSFYFNQMP ODUBS PVDPSFTFPEPSFTBUSBDUJWPT
t 5NBSNBEJMIBTQBSBBQBOIBSBTQSFTBT
t 1PTTVFNFO[JNBTEJHFTUJWBTQBSBEJHFSJSBTTVBTQSFTBT

Diferentes habitats
"TQMBOUBTDBSOWPSBTEJTUSJCVFNTFQPSUPEPTPTMVHBSFTEPQMBOFUB FYDFQUPOPTEFTFSUPTFQMPT.BJTDPODSFUBNFOUF 
UFOEFNBFODPOUSBSTFFNRVBUSPIBCJUBUTEJTUJOUPT

.VJUBTFTQDJFTEPHOFSPUtriculariaWJWFNFNSJPT DIBSDPT
PVMBHPT OPSNBMNFOUFFNHVBTUSBORVJMBT"TFTQDJFTSFTJTUFOUFT
BPGSJPQBTTBNP*OWFSOPOPGVOEPEPDIBSDPFOB1SJNBWFSB
WPMUBNBDSFTDFSFTVSHFNTVQFSGDJF

"TUVSGFJSBTTPPTIBCJUBUTNBJTDPNVOT POEFTFQPEF
FODPOUSBSFTQDJFTEPTHOFSPTSarraceniaFDrosera

&N[POBTUSPQJDBJTDPNVNBUFNQFSBUVSBFOUSFPTF$ FN
MVHBSFTTPNCSJPTFDPNBMUBIVNJEBEFBNCJFOUBM QPEFFODPOUSBSTF
FTQDJFTEPTHOFSPTNepenthesFTriphyophyllum FOUSFPVUSBT

/BT[POBTEFNPOUBOIB FNMPDBJTGSFTDPTFINJEPT QPEF


FODPOUSBSTFFTQDJFTEPTHOFSPTPinguicolaFHeliamphora

324

%&4"'*04 t $JODJBTEB/BUVSF[B t oBOP t .BUFSJBMGPUPDPQJWFM4BOUJMMBOB$POTUODJB

Mecanismos de captura
#BTJDBNFOUF FTUBTQMBOUBTFNQSFHBNUSTFTUSBUHJBTEJGFSFOUFTEFjDBBx
Cavidade
0TNephentesUNGPMIBT
RVFBERVJSFNVNBGPSNB
EFKBSSPRVFTFFODIFEFHVB
"PTJOTFDUPTRVFFOUSBN
OPTFVJOUFSJPSUPSOBTFNVJUP
EJGDJMTBJS QPJTBGPMIBUFN
QMPTEJSJHJEPTQBSBEFOUSP
FTVQFSGDJFTNVJUP
FTDPSSFHBEJBT'JDBN 
QPSUBOUP OPMRVJEP POEF
BDBCBNQPSEFDPNQPSTF

Substncia pegajosa
"TBQBOIBNPTDBT
EPHOFSPDrosera 
FPVUSBT UNQMPT
QFHBKPTPTBPTRVBJT
BEFSFNPTJOTFDUPT
QFRVFOPT2VBOEPTF
EFDPNQFN BQMBOUB
BCTPSWFPTOVUSJFOUFT

Armadilha
"EJPOFJB Dionaea muscipula

UFNGPMIBTDPNFTQJOIPTOBT
FYUSFNJEBEFTFQMPTOPOFSWP
DFOUSBM2VBOEPVNJOTFDUPUPDB
FTTFTQMPT BGPMIBEPCSBTFQBSB
PDFOUSPFPJOTFDUPGJDBFODVSSBMBEP
OVNBFTQDJFEFKBVMB

Classificao

Conservao

"TQMBOUBTDBSOWPSBTBHSVQBNTFFNRVBUSPPSEFOTEJTUJOUBT
EFEJDPUJMFEOFBTNepenthales Gunnerales EricalesFLamiales
RVFQPSTVBWF[TFEJWJEFNOBTTFHVJOUFTGBNMJBTFHOFSPT

"TFTQDJFTEBTGBNMJBTNepenthaceae
FSarraceniaceaeFODPOUSBNTFJODMVEBT
OPT"QOEJDFT*F**EB$*5&4QFMBBNFBB
RVFTVQFBEFTUSVJPEPTIBCJUBUTFNRVF
WJWFN

Ordem

Famlia
Nepenthaceae

Nepenthales

Drosophyllaceae

Dioncophyllaceae
Gunnerales

Ericales

Cephalotaceae

Sarraceniaceae

Byblidaceae

(OFSP

&TQDJFT

Nepenthes

96

Aldrovanda

Dionaea

Drosera

154

Drosophyllum

Triphyophyllum

Cephalotus

Darlingtonia

Heliamphora

Sarracenia

Byblis

Genlisea

21

Pinguicola

80

Utricularia

220

6NBQMBOUBDBSOWPSBBQBOIBVNJOTFDUPUSBUBTF
EFVNFYFNQMPEFOBTUJBBTQMBOUBTGFDIBNTFTPCSF
BQSFTBBPNFOPSDPOUBDUP

Lamiales
Lentibulariaceae

%&4"'*04 t $JODJBTEB/BUVSF[B t oBOP t .BUFSJBMGPUPDPQJWFM4BOUJMMBOB$POTUODJB

325

SWPSFTBNFBBEBT
na Pennsula Ibrica
"1FOOTVMB*CSJDB RVFDPOUBDPNVNBFOPSNFWBSJFEBEF
WFHFUBM UFNDFSDBEFFTQDJFTEFSWPSFTBVUDUPOFT
.VJUBTEFMBTUFOEFNBGPSNBSGMPSFTUBTFBMHVNBTUNVNB
HSBOEFJNQPSUODJBGMPSFTUBM

Regies florestais

0TDBSWBMIBJTTPUQJDPTEBSFHJPFVSPTJCFSJBOB

"1FOOTVMB*CSJDBFODPOUSBTFEFOUSPEBTHSBOEFT
SFHJFTBFVSPTJCFSJBOB BOPSUF FBNFEJUFSSOJDB RVF
PDVQBPSFTUPEB1FOOTVMB1PSPVUSPMBEP B.BEFJSB
PT"PSFT BT4FMWBHFOT $BCP7FSEFFBT$BOSJBT
GPSNBNQBSUFEBSFHJPNBDBSPOTJDB$BEBVNBEFTUBT
SFHJFTBQSFTFOUBVNBWFHFUBPUQJDB GPSNBEB
QPSSWPSFTFBSCVTUPTRVFEPMVHBSBGMPSFTUBT
DBSBDUFSTUJDBTQVSBTPVNJTUBT/P/PSUFEB1FOOTVMB
EFTUBDBNTFQSJODJQBMNFOUFPTGBJBJT PTDBSWBMIBJTFBT
CUVMBTBDPNQBOIBEPTEFVS[FEPTFUPKPTFOBSFTUBOUF
SFB PTQJOIBJT PTDBSWBMIPTOFHSBJT BTB[JOIFJSBT
PTTPCSFJSBJTFPTTBCJOBSFT BTTJNDPNPBTGPSNBFT
EFNBUPTDPNPCytisusscoparius UPNJMIBSFT VS[FEPT
FBSCVTUPT5PEBTBTGMPSFTUBTQPEFNFTUBSBDPNQBOIBEBT
QPSGPSNBFTEFNBSHFOTFNMVHBSFTQSYJNPTEPT
SJPTOPGVOEPEPTWBMFT RVFTFDBSBDUFSJ[BNQPSTFSFN
MVHBSFTSFTHVBSEBEPTFDPNVNOWFMEFIVNJEBEFBMUB
/B.BEFJSBFOBT$BOSJBTFODPOUSBNTFPT
QJOIBJTDBOSJPTFPTTBCJOBSFT RVFTPGMPSFTUBT
NPOPFTQFDGJDPT FUBNCNDPNGPSNBFTNJTUBT 
DPNPBMBVSJTTJMWB PGBJBMCSF[BMFBTGMPSFTUBTUFSNGJMBT

0TTPCSFJSBJTOBSFHJPNFEJUFSSOFB

"GMPSFTUBMBVSJTTJMWBTPCSFWJWFOBTJMIBTRVFQFSUFODFNSFHJP
NBDBSPOTJDB

326

%JTUSJCVJPEBTGMPSFTUBTOB1FOOTVMB*CSJDB

%&4"'*04 t $JODJBTEB/BUVSF[B t oBOP t .BUFSJBMGPUPDPQJWFM4BOUJMMBOB$POTUODJB

rvores ameaadas na Pennsula Ibrica

Tuia-da-arglia Tetraclinis articulata


'BNMJBCupressaceae0SEFN
Coniferales6NBSWPSFEPRVFQPEFBMDBOBSBUPTN)BCJUB
OBTFSSBEF$BSUBHFOB .SDJB
OBTMBEFJSBTEFTPMSJPT FBQFOBT
SFTUBNVNBTDFOUFOBT

Zimbro Juniperus thurifera


'BNMJBCupressaceae0SEFNConiferales
VNBSWPSFEFGPMIBQFSFOFEFUBNBOIPNEJP$SJBTFOBTTFSSBT
EB1FOOTVMBBUBPTNEFBMUJUVEFFN$VFODB 5FSVFM 4PSJB 
(VBEBMBKBSBF#VSHPT"TTVBTQPQVMBFTTPSFEV[JEBT

Azevinho Ilex aquifolium


'BNMJBAquifoliaceae0SEFNCelastrales
)BCJUBFN[POBTINJEBTFTPNCSJBTEBNFUBEFEP/PSUFQFOJOTVMBS
0TFVVTPDPNPFOGFJUFOBUBMDJPUFNSFEV[JEPEFGPSNBBMBSNBOUF
PONFSPEFFYFNQMBSFTOB1FOOTVMB*CSJDB

Teixo Taxus baccata


'BNMJBTaxaceae0SEFNTaxales&ODPOUSBTF
QPSRVBTFUPEBB1FOOTVMB FNCBSSBODPTFMVHBSFTTPNCSJPTEF
NPOUBOIBT NBTOBBDUVBMJEBEFBTVBQPQVMBPFTDBTTB KRVF
UFNTJEPVNBFTQDJFNVJUPBQSFDJBEBEFWJEPTVBNBEFJSB

rvores ameaadas na Madeira e nas Canrias

Dragoeiro Dracaena draco


'BNMJBDracaenaceae0SEFNAsparagales
VNBFTQDJFFOENJDBEBSFHJPNBDBSPOTJDB)BCJUBEFGPSNB
OBUVSBMOB.BEFJSB $BCP7FSEFF$BOSJBT FNFTUBEPTFMWBHFN 
TFYJTUFFN5FOFSJGFF(SBOEF$BOSJB
&TUBQMBOUBGPJDVMUJWBEB
FNEJWFSTPTMVHBSFTEBT$BOSJBTFIPKFFNEJBQPEFFODPOUSBSTF
DPNGBDJMJEBEFDPNTJMWBTFNSPDIFEPTFFTDBSQBT

Sabugueiro-canrio Sambucus palmensis


'BNMJBCaprifoliaceae
0SEFNDipsacales1PEFBMDBOBSBUPTNEFBMUVSBFUFNTJEP
VUJMJ[BEPQBSBDVSBSEPFOBTEFQFMF)BCJUBFNMVHBSFTINJEPT
NBTFTUFNQFSJHPEFFYUJOPFBQFOBTTFFODPOUSBFNQPVDBT
MPDBMJ[BFT

%&4"'*04 t $JODJBTEB/BUVSF[B t oBOP t .BUFSJBMGPUPDPQJWFM4BOUJMMBOB$POTUODJB

327

/05"4%0130'&4403

328

%&4"'*04 t $JODJBTEB/BUVSF[B t oBOP t .BUFSJBMGPUPDPQJWFM4BOUJMMBOB$POTUODJB

PARTE

PARTE

8
Vocabulrio escolar

8
Vocabulrio
escolar

t * OUSPEVP
t 7FSCPTJOTUSVDJPOBJT

330
331

329

PARTE

Vocabulrio escolar

7PDBCVMSJPFTDPMBS
*OUSPEVP
"FYJTUODJBEFUFSNPTRVFPBMVOPEFTDPOIFDFPVOPEPNJOBOBUPUBMJEBEF OPTFOVODJBEPTEPTFYFSDDJPTFTDP
MBSFT QPEFGB[FSDPNRVFFTUFESFTQPTUBTFSSBEBTPVDPNRVFBTTVBTSFTQPTUBTOPDPSSFTQPOEBNFYBDUBNFOUF
BPRVFFSBQFEJEP QPSNJOUFSQSFUBPEPFOVODJBEP&TUFVNQSPCMFNBRVFPDPSSFDPNGSFRVODJBFOUSF
PTBMVOPTQPSUVHVFTFTFRVFTFBHSBWBOPTBMVOPTEFPVUSBTMOHVBTNBUFSOBT
0WPDBCVMSJPFTDPMBSRVFBRVJBQSFTFOUBNPTDPOTJTUFOVNDPOKVOUPEFWFSCPTRVFPDPSSFNOPSNBMNFOUFOPT
FOVODJBEPTEPTFYFSDDJPT4PWFSCPTDPNPJEFOUJGJDBS DJSDVOEBS SFGFSJS FUD"MJTUBOPFYBVTUJWBFSFTVMUBEF
VNMFWBOUBNFOUPEFWFSCPTSFBMJ[BEPBQBSUJSEBDPOTVMUBEFNBOVBJTFTDPMBSFT EFGJDIBTEFBWBMJBPFEFQSPWBT
EFBGFSJP
1BSBDBEBUFSNPBQSFTFOUBEBVNBEFGJOJP VNFYFNQMPDPODSFUPFBUSBEVPEPUFSNPFNVDSBOJBOP DBCP
WFSEJBOPFNBOEBSJN"TQBMBWSBTEPVDSBOJBOPFEPNBOEBSJN FTDSJUBTFNBMGBCFUPDJSMJDPFFNDBSBDUFSFTDIJOFTFT 
SFTQFDUJWBNFOUF TPBOUFDFEJEBTEFVNBSFQSFTFOUBPBMGBCUJDPGPOUJDBEFBQPJPTVBMFJUVSB
&TUFVNNBUFSJBMEFRVFPQSPGFTTPSTFQPEFTFSWJSQBSBBKVEBSPTBMVOPTFTUSBOHFJSPT FUBNCNPTQPSUVHVFTFT 
BNFMIPSDPNQSFFOEFSFNBTJOTUSVFTEPTFOVODJBEPT
0DPOUFEPEFTUFDBQUVMPGPJBEBQUBEPEP$%EBPCSB.ATEUS .BSJB)FMFOB1EREIRA %VMDF'ISCHER (MSJB DPPSE

Diversidade Lingustica na Escola Portuguesa-JTCPB'VOEBP$BMPVTUF(VMCFOLJBO 
&TUBPCSBSFOFPTSFTVMUBEPTEBJOWFTUJHBPMFWBEBBDBCPOP1SPKFDUP%JWFSTJEBEF-JOHVTUJDBOB&TDPMB1PSUVHVFTB 
EFTFOWPMWJEPOP*OTUJUVUPEF-JOHVTUJDB5FSJDBF$PNQVUBDJPOBM *-5&$
FOUSFF0QSPKFDUPGPJGJOBODJBEP
QFMB'VOEBP$BMPVTUF(VMCFOLJBOFUFWFBDPMBCPSBPEP.JOJTUSJPEB&EVDBP
1BSBNBJTJOGPSNBFT DPOTVMUFBQHJOBEB*OUFSOFUEPQSPKFDUPFNIUUQXXXJMUFDQUEJWMJOHJOEFYIUNM

1TUFSEP1SPKFDUP%JWFSTJEBEF-JOHVTUJDBOB&TDPMB1PSUVHVFTB

330

%&4"'*04 t $JODJBTEB/BUVSF[B t oBOP t 4BOUJMMBOB$POTUODJB

BQSFTFOUBS
BSHVNFOUPT SB[FT
QBSBEFGFOEFSVNB
JEFJB PQJOJP FUD

SFBMBSDPNVNB
NBSDBPVVNTJOBM

BTTJOBMBS

PCTFSWBSPV
DPOTJEFSBS
BUFOUBNFOUFFFN
QPSNFOPS BGJNEF
QFSDFCFS FTDMBSFDFS
PVFYQMJDBS

BOBMJTBS

BSHVNFOUBS

GB[FSVNB
NPEJGJDBP 
NPEJGJDBS

BMUFSBS

SFGFSJS FYQPSBMHP

PSHBOJ[BSFNHSVQPT 
DPOKVOUPT DMBTTFTPV
DBUFHPSJBT

BHSVQBS

BQSFTFOUBS

KVOUBSPVBEJDJPOBS
BMHVNBDPJTBBPVUSB

BDSFTDFOUBS

DEFINIO

3
0YJHOJP
"[PUP
0VUSPTHBTFT

0BSDPOTUJUVEPQPSPYJHOJP 
B[PUP 

FPVUSPTHBTFT 
"TTJOBMBDPNVNBDSV[ x

PQSJODJQBMDPOTUJUVJOUFEPBS

3&VBDIPRVFBSFDJDMBHFNNVJUPJNQPSUBOUF 
QPJTBPTFQBSBSPMJYPQPVQBNPTPNFJPBNCJFOUF
FDPOUSJCVNPTQBSBPOPTTPCFNFTUBSOPGVUVSP

"SHVNFOUBBGBWPSEBSFDJDMBHFNEFQSPEVUPT

3NJMJMJUSPTEFMFJUF

$POTJEFSBBGSBTF0+PPCFCFVD-EFMFJUF
"QSFTFOUBBNFTNBRVBOUJEBEFEFMFJUFFN
NJMJMJUSPT

30TVKFJUPEBGSBTFP+PP

"OBMJTBBTFHVJOUFGSBTF0+PPHPTUBEFCPMPT
2VBMPTVKFJUPEBGSBTF

3""OBGBMBSNVJUP

"MUFSBBGSBTFTFHVJOUFEFNPEPRVFPUFNQP
WFSCBMEBGSBTFTFKBPGVUVSPEPJOEJDBUJWP""OB
GBMBNVJUP

3/PNFTDPFCPMP
7FSCPTDBTBSFDPNFS

"HSVQBBTQBMBWSBTDPNBNFTNBDMBTTF
HSBNBUJDBMDP DBTBS DPNFS CPMP

3$PNPUFDIBNBT

"DSFTDFOUBBQPOUVBPBEFRVBEBTFHVJOUF
GSBTFJOUFSSPHBUJWB$PNPUFDIBNBT

EXEMPLO

TJOBMB NBSLBLVTJOBM 
QPJVOTJOBM

BSHVNFOUB GMBQBNPEJ 
EJGFOEFVOJEFBPVO
PQJOJPO NPTUSBNBUFO
SB[PO

BQSJ[FOUB NPTUSBBMHVO
LVTB

BOBMJ[B SBQSBESFUV 
EKPCFESFUV NPLJ
LVTB

BMUFSB NPEJGJLB NVEB 


USPLB

BHSVQB EKVOUB 
PSHBOJ[BOBVOHSVQP

LJSTFOUB LJSTJ QPJNBT 


EKVOUB PNFOUB

CRIOULO CV

poznachty

argumentuvty

okzuvaty, stanovty

analizuvty

zmniuvaty

grupuvty

fn z

zu j ho y bio sh

bin ln

ji sho

fn x

gi bin

ji

dodavty

MANDARIM

UCRANIANO

Vocabulrio escolar

VERBOS
INSTRUCIONAIS

PARTE

%&4"'*04 t $JODJBTEB/BUVSF[B t oBOP t 4BOUJMMBOB$POTUODJB

331

332

FTUBCFMFDFSVNB
MJHBPPVSFMBP
FOUSFEPJTPVNBJT
FMFNFOUPT

GB[FSDMDVMPTDPOUBT
QBSBEFUFSNJOBSVNB
RVBOUJEBEF
PVHSBOEF[B

GB[FSVNDSDVMP
WPMUBEFBMHP

JEFOUJGJDBSBDBUFHPSJB
EFVNFMFNFOUP
EFOUSPEFVN
DPOKVOUP

EBSVNBPQJOJP
PVFYQMJDBPTPCSF
EFUFSNJOBEPBTTVOUP

DBMDVMBS

DJSDVOEBS

DMBTTJGJDBS

DPNFOUBS

DEFINIO

BTTPDJBS

VERBOS
INSTRUCIONAIS

QTTFHP
NB
CBOBOB

A
t
t
t

t
t
t

t
t
t

t
t
t

NBDJFJSB
CBOBOFJSB
QFTTFHVFJSP

NBDJFJSB
CBOBOFJSB
QFTTFHVFJSP

%&4"'*04 t $JODJBTEB/BUVSF[B t oBOP t 4BOUJMMBOB$POTUODJB

LBMLVMB GBTFLOUB

BTPTJB SFMBTJPOBEPTP
NBTLVTBLV
LVOQBOIFSV EKVOUB
LVTB
OBLVOQBOIFSV

CRIOULO CV

3/PTFEFWFDPOEV[JSEFQPJTEFCFCFS VNBWF[
RVFBTCFCJEBTBMDPMJDBTEJNJOVFNBDBQBDJEBEF
EFBUFOPFEFSFBDPEPDPOEVUPS

$PNFOUBBTFHVJOUFGSBTF4FDPOEV[JS OPCFCB

3"QBMBWSBMJWSPGB[QBSUFEBDMBTTFHSBNBUJDBM
EPTOPNFT

$MBTTJGJDBHSBNBUJDBMNFOUFBQBMBWSBMJWSP

3CPSSBDIB DIWFOB UFMFWJTPFMQJT

LPNFOUB EBPQJOJPO
TPCSJVOBTVOUV QBQJB
EJBTVOUV TQMJLB

MVHS

LMBTJGJLB PSEJB QPLBEB


LVTBOBTJ

TJSLVOEBGBTFVOSPEB
%PTPCKFDUPTRVFTFTFHVFN DJSDVOEBBRVFMFT
RVFVUJMJ[BTOBFTDPMBCPSSBDIB DIWFOB UFMFWJTP OBWPMUBEJBMHVOLVTB
FMQJT

30+PPQFTBRVJMPT

0+PPUFNEVBTWF[FTPQFTPEB.BSJB
".BSJBQFTBRVJMPT$BMDVMBPQFTPEP+PP

3

QTTFHP
NB
CBOBOB

"TTPDJBPGSVUPEBDPMVOB"SWPSFEBDPMVOB#

EXEMPLO

pidrakhvuvaty

komentuvty

klasyfikuvty

otchuvaty

png ln

jn xng fn li

hu qun

j sun

jin l lin x

zv'izuvaty,
z'idnuvaty

MANDARIM

UCRANIANO

Vocabulrio escolar
PARTE

DSJBSBMHVNBDPJTB

VTBSBMHVNBDPJTB VN
EJDJPOSJP VNMJWSP 
FUD
QBSBPCUFS
JOGPSNBFT 
FTDMBSFDJNFOUPT 
FYQMJDBFT

DPOTVMUBS

UFSFNDPOUB
PCTFSWBS

DPOTJEFSBS

DPOTUSVJS

QSGJN UFSNJOBS

DPODMVJS

EJ[FSEFRVF
DPOTUJUVEP

UPSOBSVNBDPJTB
VNBGSBTF QPS
FYFNQMP
DPNQMFUB 
BEJDJPOBOEPMIF
PRVFGBMUB

DPNQMFUBS

DPOTJTUJS

PMIBSQBSBEVBT
PVNBJTDPJTBTFEJ[FS
BTEJGFSFOBT
FTFNFMIBOBTRVF
FYJTUFNFOUSFTJ

DPNQBSBS

DEFINIO

TP

3#TTPMBVNBQBSFMIPEFPSJFOUBPRVF
QPTTVJVNBBHVMIBNBHOUJDBRVFJOEJDBPOPSUF

$POTVMUBOVNEJDJPOSJPPTJHOJGJDBEPEBQBMBWSB
CTTPMB

30+PPFTUVEBUPEPTPTEJBT

$POTUSJVNBGSBTFFNRVFVUJMJ[FTPWFSCP
FTUVEBS

30BSVNBNJTUVSBEFHBTFTRVFGPSNB
BBUNPTGFSBDPOTUJUVEPQPSPYJHOJP B[PUP
FPVUSPTHBTFT

%J[FNRVFDPOTJTUFPBS

3"GPSNBWFSCBMDBJVFODPOUSBTFOPQSFUSJUP
QFSGFJUPEPJOEJDBUJWP

$POTJEFSBBTFHVJOUFGSBTF""OBDBJV2VBMP
UFNQPEBGPSNBWFSCBMDBJV

3(SPBHSPFODIFBHBMJOIBPQBQP

$PODMVJPQSPWSCJPHSPBHSP

35PEPTPTMFFTTPTFMWBHFOT

5PEPTPT

$PNQMFUBBGSBTFDPNBTQBMBWSBTTFMWBHFOT
FMFFT

3/P/BQSJNFJSBGSBTF B"OBPTVKFJUP
FOBTFHVOEBB"OBPDPNQMFNFOUPEJSFDUP


0+PPBCSBPVB"OB
""OBPTVKFJUPOBTEVBTGSBTFT

$PNQBSBBTTFHVJOUFTGSBTFT

""OBBCSBPVP+PP

EXEMPLO

LPOTVMUB EKPCF
JOGPSNBTPOOBBMHVO
LBV

LPOTUSVJ GBTF

LPOTJTUJ GMBLVTLJUFO
OBFM

LPOTJEFSB QFOTB 
NBUVUB LVEB P[FSCB 
TVNSB

LPOLMVJLBCB GJOEB 
UFSNJOB

LPOQMFUB QPJEKVOUB
LFMLJGBMUB

LPOQSB EKPCFEPT
LVTBQBNPTUSBTFT
EJGFSFOTBLVTJNFMIBOTB

CRIOULO CV

poshukty,
podyvtysia

buduvty,
stvriuvaty

skladtysia

,
,

vvazhty, vrakhvuvaty,
rozgliadty

zaknchuvaty

dopvniuvaty

ch xn

gu zo

cn zi y

ko l

wn chng

wn chng

b jio

porvniuvaty

MANDARIM

UCRANIANO

Vocabulrio escolar

VERBOS
INSTRUCIONAIS

PARTE

%&4"'*04 t $JODJBTEB/BUVSF[B t oBOP t 4BOUJMMBOB$POTUODJB

333

334

FTDSFWFSPVEFTFOIBS
BMHVNBDPJTB
FYBDUBNFOUFDPNP
FTUFTDSJUBPV
EFTFOIBEBOPVUSP
TUJP

BMUFSBSBMHVNBDPJTB
RVFFTUFSSBEB EF
NPEPRVFGJRVF
DPSSFDUB

EJTDVUJSVNBTTVOUP
DPNPVUSBTQFTTPBT

QSPWBSBMHPFYQMJDBS
QPSNFOPSJ[BEBNFOUF
FFYFNQMJGJDBS
PGVODJPOBNFOUP
EFBMHP

BDIBS FODPOUSBS 
MPDBMJ[BS

DPSSJHJS

EFCBUFS

EFNPOTUSBS

EFTDPCSJS

DEFINIO

DPQJBS

VERBOS
INSTRUCIONAIS

%&4"'*04 t $JODJBTEB/BUVSF[B t oBOP t 4BOUJMMBOB$POTUODJB

30OPNFDVKBGPSNBOPTJOHVMBSJHVBMGPSNB
OPQMVSBMMQJTVNMQJTEPJTMQJT

%PTRVBUSPOPNFTRVFTFTFHVFN EFTDPCSF
BRVFMFFNRVFBGPSNBOPQMVSBMJHVBMGPSNB
OPTJOHVMBSNBQB CPSSBDIB MQJTFRVBESP

30ONFSPVNONFSPQSJNPQPSRVF
QPTTWFMEJWJEJMPQPS 
FQPS 


6NONFSPQSJNPVNONFSPRVFBQFOBTTF
QPEFEJWJEJSQPSFQFMPQSQSJPONFSP
%FNPOTUSBRVFPONFSPVNONFSPQSJNP

4FQFOTBSFTCFN OPEUBOUPUSBCBMIPBTTJN
%FWJBTGB[MPQBSBQSFTFSWBSPNFJPBNCJFOUF

3"NJNENFNVJUPUSBCBMIPTFQBSBSPMJYP

%FCBUFDPNPUFVDPMFHBPUFNBEBSFDJDMBHFN

30TNFOJOPTFTUPBCSJODBS

"TFHVJOUFGSBTFFTUFSSBEBPTNFOJOPFTUBS
BCSJODBS$PSSJHFB

3/PGPJFTDPMBQPSRVFTFFODPOUSBWB
DPOTUJQBEP

$PQJBEPUFYUPBGSBTFRVFFYQMJDBQPSRVF
NPUJWPP7BTDPOPGPJFTDPMB07BTDPPOUFN
GJDPVFNDBTB/PGPJFTDPMBQPSRVFTF
FODPOUSBWBDPOTUJQBEP

EXEMPLO

EJTLVCSJ BUYBBMHVO
LVTB

EJNPOTUSB NPTUSB 
TQMJLB BMHVOLVTBEB
QSPWBEJBMHVOLVTB

EJCBUF EJTLVUJVO
BTVOUV QBQJBEJVO
BTVOUV 

LVSJKJ JNFOEB USBSV

LPQJB GBTFJHVBM LPQJB


EJBMHVOLBVQBPUVLBV

CRIOULO CV

znakhdyty,
vidshukty

demonstruvty

obgovriuvaty

vypravlity

f xin

ln zhng

to ln

gi zhng

cho xi

kopiiuvty,
perepsuvaty

MANDARIM

UCRANIANO

Vocabulrio escolar
PARTE

JOEJDBS VNBBVNB 
BTQBSUFTEFVN
DPOKVOUP

EBSQSFGFSODJBB
BMHVNPVBBMHVNB
DPJTBTFMFDDJPOBS

FOVNFSBS

FTDPMIFS

EJ[FSPOPNFEF
BMHVNBDPJTB

EFTJHOBS TF

SFBMBSPVGB[FS
TPCSFTTBJSBMHP

GB[FSPEFTFOIP
EFBMHVNBDPJTB

EFTFOIBS

EFTUBDBS

FYQMJDBS
QPSNFOPSJ[BEBNFOUF
BTDBSBDUFSTUJDBT
EFBMHVNPV
EFBMHVNBDPJTB

EFTDSFWFS

DEFINIO

3$PS7FSEF"T-shirtEFRVFFVNBJTHPTUP
BRVFMBWFSEFDPNVNCPOFDPFTUBNQBEP

&TDPMIFVNBDPSEFRVFHPTUFTFDPOTUSJVNB
GSBTFPOEFFMBBQBSFB

30TBOHVFDPNQPTUPQPSQMBTNB HMCVMPT
WFSNFMIPT HMCVMPTCSBODPTFQMBRVFUBT

&OVNFSBPTFMFNFOUPTRVFDPNQFNPTBOHVF

3A.BSJBFo+PPGPSBNaoUFBUSP

%FTUBDBPTBSUJHPTEBTFHVJOUFGSBTF
".BSJBFP+PPGPSBNBPUFBUSP

3"QBSUFEBGSFOUFEFVNOBWJPEFTJHOBTFQPS
QSPB

$PNPTFEFTJHOBBQBSUFEBGSFOUFEFVNOBWJP

3

%FTFOIBVNMPTBOHP

3)PKFFTUPVWFTUJEPDPNVNBT-shirtBNBSFMB 
VNBTDBMBTEFHBOHBB[VJTFVOTUOJTCSBODPT
DPNVNBTMJTUBTQSFUBT

%FTDSFWFPNPEPDPNPFTUTWFTUJEPIPKF

EXEMPLO

TLPEKF

GBTFMJTUB

QPJOBEJTUBLJ SFBMTB 
NPTUSBESFUV

UYPNB GMBONJ

EJ[FOIB

GBTFEJTLSJTPO NPTUSB
GMBTQMJLBNEJLJ

CRIOULO CV

vybyrty

perelchuvaty,
pererakhvuvaty

vydility

,
(-)

vyznachty,
nazyvty(-sia)

maliuvty

xun z

li j

qing dio

mng mng

hu

mio sh

opsuvaty

MANDARIM

UCRANIANO

Vocabulrio escolar

VERBOS
INSTRUCIONAIS

PARTE

%&4"'*04 t $JODJBTEB/BUVSF[B t oBOP t 4BOUJMMBOB$POTUODJB

335

336

BQSFTFOUBSVN
FYFNQMP VNDBTP
UQJDPJMVTUSBS

EJ[FSBTSB[FT PT
NPUJWPTBQSFTFOUBS
KVTUJGJDBP

SFQSFTFOUBSBUSBWT
EFVNBGJHVSBBT
JEFJBTHFSBJTEFVN
EJTDVSTP EFVN
QSPKFDUP FUD

FTUBCFMFDFSVNB
SFMBPFOUSFEVBT
PVNBJTDPJTBT

FYQMJDBS

GB[FSVN
FTRVFNB
FTRVFNBUJ[BS

GB[FS
DPSSFTQPOEFS

DEFINIO

FYFNQMJGJDBS

VERBOS
INSTRUCIONAIS

%&4"'*04 t $JODJBTEB/BUVSF[B t oBOP t 4BOUJMMBOB$POTUODJB

FTUQSPOUP

MFWBTFBPGPSOP

CBUFTFBNBTTB

KVOUBNTFPTJOHSFEJFOUFT


MJNP
CBOBOB




3

MJNP
CBOBOB

MJNPFJSP

CBOBOFJSB

MJNPFJSP

CBOBOFJSB

'B[DPSSFTQPOEFSPGSVUPSWPSF

3

'B[VNFTRVFNBRVFEFNPOTUSFDPNPTFGB[
VNCPMP

30UBCBDPQSFKVEJDBBTBEFQPSRVFUFNNVJUBT
TVCTUODJBTUYJDBTRVFQPEFNQSPWPDBSEPFOBT

&YQMJDBQPSRVFRVFPUBCBDPQSFKVEJDBBTBEF

36NBEKFDUJWPUFNDPNPGVOPBUSJCVJSVNB
RVBMJEBEFBVNOPNF/BGSBTF0SBQB[NBV
CBUFVOPDP PBEKFDUJWPNBVFODPOUSBTFB
RVBMJGJDBSPOPNFSBQB[

2VBMBGVOPEPTBEKFDUJWPT &YFNQMJGJDB

EXEMPLO

GBTFMJHBTPOEJLVTBTLJ
UFOSFMBTPOLV
LVOQBOIFSV MJHB 
LVOCJOB

GBTFVOTLNB 
SBQSF[FOUBVOJEFBOB
GJHVSB

TQMJLB GMBQBNEJ

J[FOQMJGJLB EBJ[FOQMV

CRIOULO CV

poisniuvaty

vstanvliuvaty
vidpovdnist',
poidnuvaty

buduvty skhmu,
skhematyzuvty

sh xing du yng

yng t bio sh

ji sh

j l shu mng

navest prklad

MANDARIM

UCRANIANO

Vocabulrio escolar
PARTE

SFDPOIFDFSBMHVN
PVBMHVNBDPJTB
BQBSUJSEF
QSPQSJFEBEFT
FDBSBDUFSTUJDBTRVF
MIFTPFTQFDGJDBT

JEFOUJGJDBS

DPNQMFUBSPVEFDPSBS
VNUFYUPDPN
EFTFOIPT 
GPUPHSBGJBT HSGJDPT 
FUDEBSFYFNQMPT

DPOTUSVJSBMHP 
FYQPSDPNDMBSF[B 
FYQSJNJS

GPSNVMBS

JMVTUSBS

DSJBS QSPEV[JS

GPSNBS

DEFINIO

GVSNVMB LPOTUSVJGBTF
VOQVSHVOUB VOJQUJT

GPSNB GBTF

CRIOULO CV

Miguel
Joana
Patrcia

30WFSCPDPNFSVNWFSCPUSBOTJUJWPQPSRVF
UFNVNDPNQMFNFOUP/BGSBTF0+PPDPNFV
PCPMP PCPMPPDPNQMFNFOUPEJSFDUP
EPWFSCPDPNFS


0WFSCPDPNFSVNWFSCPUSBOTJUJWP *MVTUSB
BUVBSFTQPTUBDPNVNFYFNQMP

3


0.JHVFMUJOIBSFCVBEPT%FV+PBOB 
1BUSDJBFGJDPVDPN*MVTUSBFTUBEJWJTP DSJBOEP
VNHSGJDP

3"TQBMBWSBTRVFTFFODPOUSBNOPQMVSBMTP
QFTFQSBUPT

JMVTUSB EJ[FOIB QJOUB 


FOGFUB

*EFOUJGJDBBTQBMBWSBTRVFTFFODPOUSBNOPQMVSBM JEFOUJGJLB SBLVOIFTJ 


NPTUSB
NBDBDP QFT QSBUPTFDP

3%FTDVMQBUFSUFQJTBEP +PP'PJTFNRVFSFS

0+PPQJTBP3JDBSEPTFNRVFSFS
'PSNVMBVNQFEJEPEFEFTDVMQBT

3

'PSNBVNUSJOHVMPDVKPTMBEPTUFOIBN
PNFTNPDPNQSJNFOUP

EXEMPLO

formuliuvty

iliustruvty

identyfikuvty,
ototzhniuvaty

yng t shu mng

bin bi

yu tio l de t ch

chung zo

utvriuvaty,
skladty

MANDARIM

UCRANIANO

Vocabulrio escolar

VERBOS
INSTRUCIONAIS

PARTE

%&4"'*04 t $JODJBTEB/BUVSF[B t oBOP t 4BOUJMMBOB$POTUODJB

337

338

%&4"'*04 t $JODJBTEB/BUVSF[B t oBOP t 4BOUJMMBOB$POTUODJB

EFNPOTUSBSPVQSPWBS $POTJEFSBTRVFJNQPSUBOUFQSBUJDBSFYFSDDJP
BMHVNBDPJTB
GTJDP +VTUJGJDBBUVBSFTQPTUB

KVTUJGJDBS

MFHFOEBS

DSJBSJNBHJOBSVNB
DPJTBPSJHJOBMPVOPWB

JOWFOUBS

Azoto
Oxignio
Outros gases


-FHFOEBPTFHVJOUFHSGJDPEBDPOTUJUVJPEP
BS

35PSSFEF#FMN

FTDSFWFSVNQFRVFOP 
-FHFOEBBTFHVJOUFJNBHFN
UFYUPDPNVNB
FYQMJDBPQBSB
BDPNQBOIBSVNB
JMVTUSBP HSGJDP 
NBQB FUD EFNPEP
BGBDJMJUBSBTVB
DPNQSFFOTP

34JN0FYFSDDJPGTJDPGB[NVJUPCFNTBEF
5SB[NVJUPTCFOFGDJPTBPTTJTUFNBTSFTQJSBUSJP
FDBSEJPWBTDVMBSGPSUBMFDFPTNTDVMPTCPN
QBSBQFSEFSQFTPFOUSFNVJUBTPVUSBTDPJTBT

30UFTUFEF.BUFNUJDBOPGPJEJGDJM

*OWFOUBVNBGSBTFFNRVFVUJMJ[FTPBEKFDUJWP
EJGDJM

3"PQPDPSSFDUBBB


C
 0DVCPVNBGJHVSBHFPNUSJDB

B
 0DVCPVNTMJEPHFPNUSJDP

*OEJDBBPQPDPSSFDUB

EXEMPLO

EJ[FSPVNPTUSBSBMHP

DEFINIO

JOEJDBS

VERBOS
INSTRUCIONAIS

MJKFOEB GBTFMJKFOEB QPJ


QBMBCSBEJCYVEJ
EJ[FOIVTLSFCFONJ
EJLBEBLVTB 

EKVTUVGJLB 
EBEKVTUJGJLBTPO 
GMBQBNEJ

JOWFOUB JNBKJOB

JOEJLB NPTUSB QPOUB

CRIOULO CV

pidpysty,
suprovdyty
tkstom

dokzuvaty,
obgruntvuvaty

vynakhdyty

shu mng t pin

zhng mng

f mng

zh sh

vkzuvaty

MANDARIM

UCRANIANO

Vocabulrio escolar
PARTE

EJ[PRVFTJHOJGJDB
BMHP

PRVFFOUFOEFT
QPS

BUSJCVJSBDBEB
FMFNFOUPPVPCKFDUP
VNONFSPQSQPS
PSEFNOVNSJDB

OVNFSBS

PMIBSBUFOUBNFOUF

EJ[FSPOEFTF
FODPOUSBBMHP
JEFOUJGJDBSPMVHBS

MPDBMJ[BS

PCTFSWBS

GB[FSVNBMJTUB

MJTUBS

DEFINIO

OVNFSB QPJOVOCSV

MPLBMJ[B GMBOBVOEJ

GBTFVOMJTUB

CRIOULO CV

36NBOJNBMJOWFSUFCSBEPVNBOJNBMRVFOP
QPTTVJDPMVOBWFSUFCSBM

0RVFFOUFOEFTQPSBOJNBMJOWFSUFCSBEP

3VNCPMPEFTFNQFOIBBGVOPTJOUDUJDB
EFDPNQMFNFOUPEJSFDUP

LVTLJUBTJOJGJLB NEJ
LJCVUBTQMJLB

0CTFSWBBTFHVJOUFGSBTF0+PPDPNFVVNCPMP PCTFSWBP[FSCB EKPCF 


SBQBSB
2VFGVOPTJOUDUJDBEFTFNQFOIBVNCPMP


0.JHVFMGPJQBSBBFTDPMB


0.JHVFMWFTUJVTF


0.JHVFMBDPSEPV

3

0.JHVFMGPJQBSBBFTDPMB

0.JHVFMBDPSEPV

0.JHVFMWFTUJVTF

/VNFSBBTTFHVJOUFTGSBTFTEFNPEPRVFB
PSEFNEFBDPOUFDJNFOUPTGJRVFDPSSFDUB

30BSUJHPEFGJOJEPNBTDVMJOPTJOHVMBSP

-PDBMJ[BOBTFHVJOUFGSBTFPBSUJHPEFGJOJEP
NBTDVMJOPTJOHVMBS""OBDPNFVPTCPMPTUPEPT
FOFNTFMFNCSPVEFRVFP+PPRVFSJBDPNFSVN

3"TDPSFTEPBSDPSJTTPWFSNFMIP MBSBOKB 
BNBSFMP WFSEF B[VMDMBSP B[VMFTDVSPFWJPMFUB

-JTUBBTDPSFTEPBSDPSJT

EXEMPLO


...

scho ty rozumiesh pid


...

vyvchty,
sposterigty

numeruvty,
poznachty
tsframy

znakhdyty,
vyznachty mstse

de y si sh

gun ch

gi bin ho

zho do

li ch

skladty spsok

MANDARIM

UCRANIANO

Vocabulrio escolar

VERBOS
INSTRUCIONAIS

PARTE

%&4"'*04 t $JODJBTEB/BUVSF[B t oBOP t 4BOUJMMBOB$POTUODJB

339

340

BHSVQBSEFBDPSEP
DPNEFUFSNJOBEB
PSEFNQSFNPSEFN

PDVQBSBMHVNBDPJTB 
VNFTQBPPVUFNQP

GB[FSBMUFSBFT 
NPEJGJDBFT

KVOUBS SFVOJSEBEPT
PVJOGPSNBFT
SFMBUJWPTB
EFUFSNJOBEBNBUSJB

FTDSFWFS

WPMUBSBFTDSFWFS

QSFFODIFS

QSPDFEFSB
BMUFSBFT

SFDPMIFS
JOGPSNBFT

SFEJHJS

SFFTDSFWFS

DEFINIO

PSEFOBS

VERBOS
INSTRUCIONAIS

%&4"'*04 t $JODJBTEB/BUVSF[B t oBOP t 4BOUJMMBOB$POTUODJB

3""OBDPNFBTPQB QSFTFOUF

""OBDPNFVBTPQB QSFUSJUPQFSGFJUP

&TDSFWFVNBGSBTFVTBOEPPQSFTFOUFEP
JOEJDBUJWP3FFTDSFWFFTTBGSBTFVTBOEP
PQSFUSJUPQFSGFJUPEPJOEJDBUJWP

30+PPJOUFMJHFOUFNBTQSFHVJPTP

3FEJHFVNBGSBTFFNRVFVUJMJ[FTEPJTBEKFDUJWPT

31BSBBCSJSVNBDPOUBCBODSJB QSFDJTPEFNF
EJSJHJSBVNCBODP QSFFODIFSVNJNQSFTTPFMFWBS
 PNFVCJMIFUFEFJEFOUJEBEFFPNFV
DBSUPEFDPOUSJCVJOUF

3FDPMIFBTJOGPSNBFTOFDFTTSJBTQBSBBCSJS
VNBDPOUBOPCBODP

301FESPOPHPTUBOFNEFrockOFN
EFhip-hop

1SPDFEFTBMUFSBFTRVFBDIBSFTOFDFTTSJBT
QBSBRVFBGSBTFGJRVFOBOFHBUJWB01FESPHPTUB
EFrockFEFhip-hop

3"NFFTUBCSJODBSDPNPGJMIP

1SFFODIFPTFTQBPTFNCSBODPDPNPTBSUJHPT
BEFRVBEPT NFFTUBCSJODBSDPN GJMIP

3BNBSFMP DBTUBOIP SPYPFWFSEF

0SEFOBBMGBCFUJDBNFOUFBTTFHVJOUFTDPSFTSPYP 
DBTUBOIP WFSEFFBNBSFMP

EXEMPLO

UPSOBTLSFCF

SFEJKJ TLSFCF

SBLPEKFJOGPSNBTPO 
BUYBEJTLVCSJ
JOGPSNBTPO

GBTFBMUFSBTPO 
NPEJGJLB

QSJOYJ LPOQMFUB

PSEFOB QPJQBPSEJ

CRIOULO CV

perepsuvaty,
pererbliaty

(),

skladty (pys'mvo),
zapysty

zibrty/zbyrty
informtsiiu

vnest zmny

zapvniuvaty

chng xi

bin xi

su j z lio

gi bin

tin xi

pi x

rozstavlity po poridku,
vporiadkvuvaty

MANDARIM

UCRANIANO

Vocabulrio escolar
PARTE

EJ[FSNFODJPOBSBMHP

NFODJPOBSBOPUBS
BMHPQPSFTDSJUP

FTUBCFMFDFSVNB
MJHBPFOUSFEVBT
PVNBJTDPJTBT

FODPOUSBSBTPMVP
QBSBBMHPDBMDVMBS
BTPMVPEFVNB
FRVBP

FTDPMIFSBMHVNB
DPJTB EFBDPSEPDPN
EFUFSNJOBEBT
DBSBDUFSTUJDBT

GB[FSVNBTFQBSBP
EFTVOJSJTPMBSVNB
DPJTBEFPVUSB

EJ[FSPTJHOJGJDBEPEF
EJ[FSFNRVFDPOTJTUF

referir

registar

relacionar

resolver

seleccionar

separar

significar

DEFINIO

DBOFUB
UFTPVSB
CPSSBDIB

BQBHBS
FTDSFWFS
DPSUBS

3"FYQSFTTPBOEBSBQBTTPEFDBSBDPMTJHOJGJDB
BOEBSNVJUPEFWBHBS

0RVFsignificaBFYQSFTTPBOEBSBQBTTP
EFDBSBDPM

3IJQPQUBNP

Separa BTTMBCBTEBQBMBWSBIJQPQUBNP

34VCTUBOUJWPNBTDVMJOPWFTUJEP

SeleccionaVNTVCTUBOUJWPNBTDVMJOP
EBTFHVJOUFGSBTF""OBDPNQSPVVNBTDBMBT 
VNWFTUJEPFVNDIBQV

33 3 5

ResolveBTFHVJOUFFRVBP3





RelacionaPTPCKFDUPTDPNBTVBGVOP

30TBEKFDUJWPTRVFUNVNTFOUJEPQPTJUJWPTP
TJNQUJDPFBMFHSF

"EKFDUJWPTNBV TJNQUJDP QBSWPFBMFHSF

"QSPGFTTPSBWBJEJ[FSRVBUSPBEKFDUJWPTRegista
PTRVFNPTUSBNRVBMJEBEFTQPTJUJWBT

35FSSB .BSUFF+QJUFS

ReferePOPNFEFUSTQMBOFUBT

EXEMPLO

TJOJGJLB

TVQSB SBQBSUJLVTBEJ
LVOQBOIFSV

TJMFTJPOB TLPEKF

SF[PMWF SB[PMCF

SFMBDJPOB GBTFMJHBTPO
EJVOLVTBLVPUV

SFKJTUB TLSFCF

SJGJSJ QBQJBEJ GMBEJ 


LPOUB NPTUSB

CRIOULO CV

oznachty, mty
znchennia

,
,

vidokrmliuvaty,
viddility, rozdility

vybyrty,
vidbyrty

vyrshuvaty,
rozv'izuvaty

vstanvliuvaty
zv'iazk, poidnuvaty

reiestruvty,
zapsuvaty

bio sh y si

fn ki

xun z

ji ju

lin x

dng j

jing sh

govorty pro ...,


zgduvaty,
posyltysia na

...,
,

MANDARIM

UCRANIANO

Vocabulrio escolar

VERBOS
INSTRUCIONAIS

PARTE

%&4"'*04 t $JODJBTEB/BUVSF[B t oBOP t 4BOUJMMBOB$POTUODJB

341

342

DPQJBSVNUFYUP
FTDSJUPPVQBSUFEFMF
EFVNTUJPQBSB
PVUSPQBTTBSVN
UFYUPPSBM
BUFYUPFTDSJUP

NPEJGJDBSUPSOBS
EJGFSFOUF

DPOGFSJS DPOTUBUBS
BMHPBUSBWTEB
PCTFSWBPPV
BOMJTFEFGBDUPT
PVEBEPT

USBOTDSFWFS

%&4"'*04 t $JODJBTEB/BUVSF[B t oBOP t 4BOUJMMBOB$POTUODJB

USBOTGPSNBS

WFSJGJDBS

3"GSBTF#BUJQPSUBUS[WF[FTDPOUNVNFSSP
PSUPHSGJDP5STFTDSFWFTFDPNTFOPDPN
[

7FSJGJDBTFBTFHVJOUFGSBTFDPOUNBMHVNFSSP
#BUJQPSUBUS[WF[FT

30+PPOPHPTUBEFQFJYF

5SBOTGPSNBBTFHVJOUFGSBTFOVNBQFSHVOUB
FEMIFBGPSNBOFHBUJWB
0+PPHPTUBEFQFJYF

30TOPNFTDPNVOTQSFTFOUFTOPUFYUPTPMQJT 
EFTFOIP QSPGFTTPSBFDPMFHBT

5SBOTDSFWFEPUFYUPUPEPTPTOPNFTDPNVOTRVF
FODPOUSBSFT""OBGF[VNCPOJUPEFTFOIPDPN
VNMQJT
"QSPGFTTPSBHPTUPVNVJUPFNPTUSPVPBPT
DPMFHBT

3".BSJBCBJYB

4VCTUJUVJBQBMBWSBTVCMJOIBEBQPSPVUSBEF
TFOUJEPDPOUSSJP BOUOJNP
".BSJBBMUB

QSVNBDPJTBOP
MVHBSEFPVUSBUSPDBS

TVCTUJUVJS

EXEMPLO

GB[FSVNBMJOIBQPS
4VCMJOIBPTBEKFDUJWPTEBTFHVJOUFGSBTF
CBJYPEFVNBQBMBWSB  0NFOJOPNBVCBUFVOPQFRVFOPDP
GSBTF FUDDPNP
30NFOJOPNBVCBUFVOPQFRVFOPDP
PCKFDUJWPEFMIFTEBS
SFMFWPBDFOUVBSCFN 
SFBMBS

DEFINIO

TVCMJOIBS

VERBOS
INSTRUCIONAIS

CFSJGJLB LVOGJSJ 
EKPCFESFUV

USBOTGPSNB NVEB

USBOTLSFCF LPQJB

TVCTUJUVJ USPLBVOLVTB
QBPUV

TVCMJOIB SJTLB
EJQBCYV

CRIOULO CV

perevirity

peretvriuvaty

perepsuvaty

zaminity,
zamischty

jin ch

gi bin

cho xi

di t

zi xi hu xin

pidkrsliuvaty

MANDARIM

UCRANIANO

Vocabulrio escolar
PARTE

PARTE

PARTE

9
Tcnicas e mtodos de estudo

9
Tcnicas e mtodos
de estudo
t 5
 DOJDBT
EFFTUVEP
t 4VCMJOIBS
t *OGFSJSJEFJBT
QSJODJQBJT
t 3FTVNJS

344
344
349
351

t 0
 SHBOJ[BSHSBGJDBNFOUF
BJOGPSNBPFTRVFNBT
FUBCFMB
t 1SFQBSBPEFBWBMJBFT
t 3FWFSDPOUFEPT
t 3FWFSQSPDFEJNFOUPT

357
363
363
370

t 3
 FGMFDUJSTPCSFBQSQSJB
BQSFOEJ[BHFN
t "QSFTFOUBPEFUSBCBMIPT
t 1FTRVJTBSJOGPSNBP
t &MBCPSBSUSBCBMIPTFTDSJUPT
t "QSFTFOUBSFYQPTJFTPSBJT

376
379
379
384
389

343

PARTE

Tcnicas e mtodos de estudo

5DOJDBTEFFTUVEP

4VCMJOIBS
 &NRVFDPOTJTUFTVCMJOIBS?
4VCMJOIBSEFTFOWPMWF
t BBUFOP
t BDPODFOUSBP
t BDBQBDJEBEFEFBOMJTF

4VCMJOIBSJNQMJDBEFUFDUBSBRVJMPRVFNBJTJNQPSUBOUFEFOUSPEFVN
UFYUP.BTTFSRVFPNBJTJNQPSUBOUFTFNQSFPNFTNP
%FBDPSEPDPNPTPCKFDUJWPTRVFUFNPT QPEFNPTSFBMJ[BSEJGFSFOUFTUJQPT
EFTVCMJOIBEPQPTTWFMRVFTQSFUFOEBNPTMPDBMJ[BSVOTEBEPTUBMWF[
QSPDVSFNPTBJEFJBFTTFODJBMFBTJEFJBTTFDVOESJBTPVQPEFTFSRVFRVFJ
SBNPTFYBNJOBSPUFYUPEFGPSNBQPSNFOPSJ[BEB
4FHVOEPPPCKFDUJWPBRVFOPTQSPQPNPT TFSQFSUJOFOUFTVCMJOIBSNBJT
PVNFOPTRVBOUJEBEFEFUFYUP

 1PSRVFSB[PTVCMJOIBNPT 
t 4VCMJOIBNPTQBMBWSBTDIBWFQBSBHFSBSNBSDBEPSFTNFOUBJT
&TUFUJQPEFTVCMJOIBEPFTQFDJBMNFOUFUJMQBSBBQSFOEFSDPODFJUPTFQBSB
FYQMJDBSEFQPJTPTFVTJHOJGJDBEP
 BEJHFTUPQBSUJDJQBNWSJBTQBSUFTEPBQBSFMIPEJHFTUJWP
/
t /BCPDB PTBMJNFOUPTEFTGB[FNTFDPNPTEFOUFTFNJTUVSBNTFDPN
BTBMJWB QSPEV[JEBQFMBTHMOEVMBTTBMJWBSFT"TTJNTFGPSNBPCPMPBMJNFOUBS

"QSPWFJUFFTUFUJQP
EFTVCMJOIBEPQBSB
FMBCPSBSFTRVFNBT

15253

%FOUFT
(MOEVMBTTBMJWBSFT
-OHVB

321

123

%JHFTUP

#PDB

#PMPBMJNFOUBS

t 4VCMJOIBNPTQBSUFTEPUFYUPQBSBJEFOUJGJDBSBTJEFJBTQSJODJQBJT
&TUFUJQPEFTVCMJOIBEPUJMQBSBFTUVEBSVNUFNBFEFTFOWPMWMP
.BUFSJBMOFDFTTSJP
t 6NMJWSPRVFQPTTBTFS
SJTDBEP PVVNBGPUPDQJB

t 6NMQJTFVNBCPSSBDIB 
QBSBQPEFSSFDUJGJDBS

/BEJHFTUPQBSUJDJQBNWSJBTQBSUFTEPBQBSFMIPEJHFTUJWP
t /BCPDB PTBMJNFOUPTEFTGB[FNTFDPNPTEFOUFTFNJTUVSBNTFDPN
BTBMJWB QSPEV[JEBQFMBTHMOEVMBTTBMJWBSFT"TTJNTFGPSNBPCPMPBMJNFOUBS

"QSPWFJUFFTUFUJQP
EFTVCMJOIBEPQBSB
SFEJHJSSFTVNPT

344

%&4"'*04 t $JODJBTEB/BUVSF[B t oBOP t 4BOUJMMBOB$POTUODJB

PARTE

9
Tcnicas e mtodos de estudo

 &TUSBUHJBTTVCMJOIBSQBMBWSBTDIBWF
"PTVCMJOIBSQBMBWSBTDIBWF PTBMVOPTFTUPBEJTUJOHVJSPTUFSNPT
JNQPSUBOUFTEPTRVFOPTPJNQPSUBOUFTPVTFKB FTUPBJEFOUJGJDBS
PTDPODFJUPTGVOEBNFOUBJTSFGFSJEPTOPUFYUP
2VBOEPPTBMVOPTDPNFBNBGB[FSFYFSDDJPTEFTVCMJOIBEP OFDFTTJUBN
EFBKVEBGSFRVFOUFRVFUFOIBNUFOEODJBBTVCMJOIBSEFNBTJBEPFQPEF
TFSRVFOPTBJCBNTFEFWFNTVCMJOIBSjQBMBWSBTTPMUBTxPVjQBSUFTJOUFJSBTx
EPUFYUP
3FBMJ[FBTQSJNFJSBTBDUJWJEBEFTEFGPSNBNVJUPEJSJHJEBJTTPJSUSBORVJMJ[
MPT*ODPSQPSFFYFSDDJPTEFTVCMJOIBEPDPNPQSUJDBIBCJUVBMFPCTFSWBS
RVFPTTFVTBMVOPTBVNFOUBSPHSBEVBMNFOUFBTVBEFTUSF[B
2VBOEPRVFTFUFNEFTVCMJOIBS
t /BQSJNFJSBWF[RVFTFMPUFYUP  /0
t /BTFHVOEBWF[RVFTFMPUFYUP RVBOEPTFDPNQSFFOEFPDPOUFEP  SIM
$PNPTBCFSTFGPSBNTVCMJOIBEBTBTQBMBWSBTDIBWFEFVNUFYUP
"RVJMPRVFTVCMJOIBEPEFWFUFSVOJEBEFEFTFOUJEP OPFOUBOUP QPTTWFM
RVFQBSBPTBMVOPTEFTUFOWFMTFKBBJOEBEJGDJMDPNQSFFOEFSFTUFDPODFJUP
1PSJTTP QSUJDPQFEJSMIFTRVFTVCMJOIFNBTQBMBWSBTRVFSFTQPOEFN
BRVFTUFTDPNPBTTFHVJOUFT
t 2VBJTTPBTGBTFTEB-VB
t $PNRVFVOJEBEFTNFEJNPTPUFNQP
t 2VFDBSBDUFSTUJDBTUNPTNBSTVQJBJT
$PNQSPWBTFEFQPJTRVFFTUBTRVFTUFTQPEFNTFSSFTQPOEJEBTDPN
PTUFSNPTTVCMJOIBEPT
0CTFSWFRVFFTTBNFTNBQFSHVOUBEFWFSJGJDBPBRVFQSFWJBNFOUFNPUJWB
BBDUJWJEBEFEFTVCMJOIBS1PSFYFNQMP
t 4VCMJOIBNTFBTGBTFTEB-VB
t 4VCMJOIBNTFBTVOJEBEFTEFNFEJEBEFUFNQP
t 4VCMJOIBNTFBTDBSBDUFSTUJDBTEPTNBSTVQJBJT
& QPSMUJNP PCTFSWFUBNCNRVFFTTBQFSHVOUBBCBSDBBJOGPSNBPEPUFNB
t 'BTFTEB-VB
t 6OJEBEFTEFNFEJEBEFUFNQP
t $BSBDUFSTUJDBTEPTNBSTVQJBJT
0TWVMDFT
"MBWBBTDFOEFQPSVNBDPOEVUB BDIBNJOWVMDOJDB FTBJQBSBPFYUFSJPSQPS
VNPSJGDJP BDSBUFSB"MNEBMBWB PTWVMDFTFYQVMTBNHBTFTFGSBHNFOUPT
EFSPDIB5PEPTFTUFTNBUFSJBJTTFWPBDVNVMBOEPFNSFEPSEBDSBUFSBFEP
PSJHFNBPDPOFWVMDOJDP
1FSHVOUBEFWFSJGJDBP
t 2VFQBSUFTDPOTUJUVFNVNWVMDP
3FTQPTUB
t "DIBNJOWVMDOJDB   t "DSBUFSB   t 0DPOFWVMDOJDP

%&4"'*04 t $JODJBTEB/BUVSF[B t oBOP t 4BOUJMMBOB$POTUODJB

345

PARTE

Tcnicas e mtodos de estudo

9
4TFTVCMJOIBNTVCTUBOUJWPT BEKFDUJWPTFWFSCPT
/BIPSBEFDPSSJHJS
%JHBFNWP[BMUBPRVF
TVCMJOIBSJB QBSBRVFPTBMVOPT
QPTTBNDPNQBSBSDPNBRVJMP
RVFTVCMJOIBSBN
*OEJRVFMIFTPRVFEFWFN
SFDUJGJDBS NBTUFOUFRVF
BQBHVFNFDPSSJKBNBQFOBT
PRVFSFBMNFOUFQFSUJOFOUF

0TUFSNPTRVFTFTVCMJOIBNDPNNBJPSGSFRVODJBTPQBMBWSBTDPNVNB
GPSUFDBSHBTFNOUJDBTVCTUBOUJWPT BEKFDUJWPTFWFSCPT RVFDPOTUJUVFN
PFTRVFMFUPJOGPSNBUJWPEFVNUFYUP
/PFOUBOUP FNEFUFSNJOBEPTDBTPT QPEFTFSOFDFTTSJPTVCMJOIBSBEWSCJPT
RVFTPJNQSFTDJOEWFJTQBSBJOEJDBSDJSDVOTUODJBTSFMFWBOUFT1PSFYFNQMP
Titanic [] VNBWJBHFN [] T

&NBMHVOTUFYUPT QPEFTFSDPOWFOJFOUFTVCMJOIBSDPOFYFTMHJDBTQBSB
JOUFSMJHBSBTEJGFSFOUFTJEFJBT
$IVWBTBCVOEBOUFT [] $POUVEP [] FTDBTTPDBVEBM

-FJUPTTFDPT [] QPSRVF [] DIVWBTTB[POBJT

&NUFYUPTTFRVFODJBJT QPEFTFSJOFWJUWFMEFTUBDBSPTNBSDBEPSFTUFNQPSBJT
*OWFSOP [] TFNFBEVSBEF7FSP [] DFJGB

&NQSJNFJSPMVHBS [] BSBS%FQPJT [] GPSNBSTVMDPT

1PEFNBEJDJPOBSTFQBMBWSBT
&NDFSUBTPDBTJFT PTBMVOPTUFSPEJGJDVMEBEFFNFODPOUSBSTFOUJEPQBSB
BTQBMBWSBTTVCMJOIBEBTEFVNUFYUP KRVFQPSTJNFTNBTQPEFNOPGB[FS
TFOUJEP
/FTUFTDBTPT TVHJSBMIFTRVFDPNPNFTNPMQJTDPNRVFFTUPBUSBCB
MIBSFTDSFWBNTPCSFPUFYUPVNTJOOJNPEBRVJMPRVFTVCMJOIBSBN
JNQPSUBOUFRVFJTUPOPEJGJDVMUFEFQPJTBMFJUVSBEPTVCMJOIBEP
 PGSVUGFSPJOWFOUPS5IPNBT"MWB&EJTPOEFWFNPTMIFBJOWFOP FN 
"
EPGPOHSBGP

 &TUSBUHJBTTVCMJOIBSQBSUFTEPUFYUP
"PTVCMJOIBSQBSUFTEPUFYUP PTBMVOPTJEFOUJGJDBNBTJEFJBTQSFTFOUFT
OPNFTNP*TUPTJHOJGJDBRVFFTUPBDPNQSFFOEFSBJOGPSNBP
1BSBTVCMJOIBSQBMBWSBTDIBWF OPFTUPFNKPHPFYBDUBNFOUFPTNFTNPT
QSPDFTTPTNFOUBJTRVFQBSBTVCMJOIBSQBSUFTEPUFYUP"QSJNFJSBUDOJDB
DPSSFTQPOEFBVNOWFMNBJTTVQFSGJDJBMEFDPNQSFFOTP FORVBOUPBTFHVOEB
SFRVFSVNFTGPSPDPHOJUJWPNBJPS

346

%&4"'*04 t $JODJBTEB/BUVSF[B t oBOP t 4BOUJMMBOB$POTUODJB

PARTE

9
Tcnicas e mtodos de estudo

%JUPEFPVUSBNBOFJSBQPTTWFMTVCMJOIBSDPSSFDUBNFOUFQBMBWSBTDIBWF
EPUFYUPFOPDPNQSFFOEFSPRVFTFFTUBMFSDPOUVEP QSBUJDBNFOUF
JNQPTTWFMTVCMJOIBSDPSSFDUBNFOUFQBSUFTEPUFYUPTFOPTFDPNQSF
FOEFBRVJMPRVFTFM
"MNEPGBDUPEFTFSEFTFKWFMBEFGJOJPEFVNBUDOJDBEFBOMJTFBDPN
QBOIBEBEFVNBWFSEBEFJSBDPNQSFFOTPEPUFYUP FTUBEJGFSFOBFOUSF
TVCMJOIBSQBMBWSBTDIBWFFTVCMJOIBSQBSUFTEPUFYUPNFSFDFVNBSFGMFYP
QFEBHHJDBRVFQPEFTFSUJMOBTBMBEFBVMB
&YJTUFNNFDBOJTNPTNFSBNFOUFQFSDFQUJWPTRVFQFSNJUFNBPBMVOP
JEFOUJGJDBSBTQBMBWSBTDIBWF NFTNPBOUFTEFUFSJOUFSJPSJ[BEPVNBT1PS
FYFNQMP

/BBVMB
&WJUFRVBMJGJDBSPTFYFSDDJPT
EFTVCMJOIBEP0TVCMJOIBEP
OPVNGJNFNTJNFTNP
0WFSEBEFJSPJOUFSFTTF
EFBQSFOEFSBTVCMJOIBS
EFTFOWPMWFSBDBQBDJEBEF
EFBOMJTFEBJOGPSNBP

t "TJUVBPEFBQSFOEJ[BHFN$PNPPBMVOPWBJMFSVNUFYUPJOTUSVUJWP 
QSFEJTQFTFBMPDBMJ[BSUFSNPTEJGDFJT QBMBWSBTEFTDPOIFDJEBTPVWPD
CVMPTQSFDJTPTRVFJEFOUJGJDBDPNPpalavras do livro"CPSEBBUBSFGBTBCFOEP
RVFUPEPTFTTFTUFSNPTBDBCBSPTVCMJOIBEPT
t 0DPOUFYUP2VBOEPDPNFBBMFSPUFYUP GB[TFVNBJEFJBEBSFBFEP
UFNB"QSQSJBQHJOBQSPQPSDJPOBMIFNVJUBJOGPSNBPUUVMPTFTVCU
UVMPTGPUPHSBGJBTFEFTFOIPTUFSNPTBOFHSJUPPVJUMJDP FOUSFPVUSPT&TTFT
FMFNFOUPTGB[FNOPFWPDBSBTQBMBWSBTSFMBDJPOBEBTDPNFTTFDPOUFYUP
UBOUPBTRVFDPOGJHVSBNPTFVWPDBCVMSJPBDUJWP DPNPBTRVFDPOTFSWB
MBUFOUFTOPTFVWPDBCVMSJPQBTTJWP"TTJN PBMVOPQSFEJTQFTFBSFDP
OIFDFSQBMBWSBTDIBWFSFMBDJPOBEBTDPNPUFNB
t 0DBSDUFSJTPMBEPEBTQBMBWSBTDIBWF0DSFCSPQFSDFCFBTDPNPJMIBT
OPNFJPEFVNNBSEFQBMBWSBT&NQBSUF VNBJEFOUJGJDBPJOUVJUJWB
QPSDPOUSBTUF TFNFMIBOUFEJTUJOPGVOEPGJHVSB
$POUVEP PTBMVOPTOPEJTQFNEFTUFUJQPEFBKVEBTRVBOEPUNEFTVCMJ
OIBSJEFJBT"TJEFJBTFTUPOPUFYUP UFDJEBTFNGPSNBEFSFEF QSYJNBTFOUSF
TJFEFQFOEFOUFTVNBTEBTPVUSBT1PSJTTP NVJUBQSUJDBFCPOTDPOTFMIPT
TPFTTFODJBJT

4VHFTUFTQBSBTVCMJOIBSJEFJBT
1. -EVBTWF[FTPUFYUPBOUFTEFDPNFBSBTVCMJOIBS
2. 1SJNFJSPRVFUVEP FODPOUSBBJEFJBQSJODJQBM
3. &ODPOUSBTUFBJEFJBQSJODJQBM .BSDBBCFNQBSBRVFTFKBWJTWFMRVFNBJT
JNQPSUBOUFEPRVFBTEFNBJT
4. $BEBWF[RVFTVCMJOIBTVNBJEFJB WPMUBBMMBFBTTFHVSBUFEFRVFOP
UFTPCSBOBEB4FGPSOFDFTTSJP BQBHBQBSUFEPTVCMJOIBEP

$PNPFODPOUSBSBJEFJBQSJODJQBM
%JTUJOHVFNTFEVBTFTUSVUVSBTUFYUVBJTCTJDBT
t 5FYUPBOBMUJDP&YQFTFOPQSJODQJPBJEFJBQSJODJQBMF FNTFHVJEB 
EFTFOWPMWFNTFBTJEFJBTTFDVOESJBT
t 5FYUPTJOUUJDP&YQFNTFPTEBEPT PVBTJEFJBTTFDVOESJBT PVPT
BSHVNFOUPT EFQFOEFOEPEPBTTVOUP
FUFSNJOBTFDPNBJEFJBQSJODJQBM
FNKFJUPEFDPODMVTP

%&4"'*04 t $JODJBTEB/BUVSF[B t oBOP t 4BOUJMMBOB$POTUODJB

347

PARTE

Tcnicas e mtodos de estudo

9
GSFRVFOUF TPCSFUVEPFNUFYUPTEFNBOVBJTFTDPMBSFT RVFBJEFJBQSJODJQBM
FTUFKBOPQSJNFJSPQBSHSBGPEPUFYUP&NDFSUBTPDBTJFT FYJTUFVNQSJNFJSP
QBSHSBGPRVFTFSWFEFJOUSPEVPBPDPOUFEPCBTUBSDPOUJOVBSBMFSQBSB
FODPOUSBSEFJNFEJBUPRVBTFHBSBOUJEBNFOUFBJEFJBQSJODJQBMEP
UFYUP
5UVMP UFNBPVJEFJBQSJODJQBM
3FTQPOEBTEWJEBTNBJTGSFRVFOUFTEPTTFVTBMVOPT1PSFYFNQMP
t 4VCMJOIPPUUVMP
 4TFPUUVMPFYQSFTTBPUFNBEPUFYUP
t $PNPTFJRVBMPUFNBEFVNUFYUP
 0
 UFNBBRVJMPEFRVFUSBUBPUFYUPVNBFYQSFTTPCSFWFRVFDPOUN
VNOPNF HFSBMNFOUFVNOJDPTJOUBHNB
t 0UFNBPNFTNPRVFBJEFJBQSJODJQBM
 /P0UFNBFYQSFTTBTFDPNVNTJOUBHNBBJEFJBVNBPSBP1PS
FYFNQMP
 5&."0TCBSDPTWFMFJSPT
 *%&*"13*/$*1"-0TCBSDPTWFMFJSPTTPNBJTJOTFHVSPTQBSBWJBKBS
t $PNPWPVSFDPSEBSPUFNBFBJEFJBQSJODJQBM
  UJMFORVBESBSPUFNBQBSBPEJTUJOHVJSEFUVEPPRVFFTUTVCMJOIBEP
5BNCNTFQPEFEFTUBDBSBJEFJBQSJODJQBMTVCMJOIBOEPBDPNVNBDPS
EJTUJOUBEPSFTUP
$POWNGB[FSDPNFOUSJPTFORVBOUPTFTVCMJOIB
/PTNBOVBJTEFUDOJDBTEFFTUVEPIBCJUVBMTVHFSJSRVFRVBOEPTFTVCMJOIB
VNUFYUPTFBOPUFOBNBSHFNBRVFTFSFGFSFPTVCMJOIBEP
&TUFTJTUFNBUFNBWBOUBHFNEFPBMVOPFTUSVUVSBSFIJFSBSRVJ[BSBTJEFJBT
FNTJNVMUOFP0JODPOWFOJFOUFRVFBEJDJPOBDPNQMFYJEBEFBPQSPDFTTP 
QPSRVFPBMVOP QPSDBEBJEFJBRVFFODPOUSB UFNEFEFUFSNJOBSVNUFNB
PVVNTVCUFNB
"DPOWFOJODJBPVOPEFKVOUBSBNCBTBTUDOJDBTEFQFOEFSEBEFTUSF[B
EPTBMVOPTFEPTTFVTDSJUSJPT FORVBOUPEPDFOUF$PNBMVOPTEFTUFOWFM 
DPOWNRVFTFKBPQSPGFTTPSBUPNBSBEFDJTPPTBMVOPTBEPQUBSPPNUPEP
RVFMIFTTFKBPGFSFDJEPDPNPNPEFMP

348

%&4"'*04 t $JODJBTEB/BUVSF[B t oBOP t 4BOUJMMBOB$POTUODJB

PARTE

9
Tcnicas e mtodos de estudo

*OGFSJSBTJEFJBTQSJODJQBJT
 &NRVFDPOTJTUFJOGFSJS?
*OGFSJSJNQMJDB
t PCTFSWBS
t DPNQSFFOEFS
t JOUFSQSFUBS
t DPOKFDUVSBS

*OGFSJSFYUSBJSVNBDPOTFRVODJBPVVNBDPODMVTPBQBSUJSEFEBEPT 
EFJOGPSNBFTPVEFJOEDJPT2VBOEPOPTBQSPYJNBNPTEFVNBGPOUF
EFJOGPSNBP NVJUPUJMDPMPDBSFNNBSDIBQSPDFTTPTEFJOGFSODJB
/PUFSSFOPEB-HJDB OPFYJTUFVNBJEFOUJGJDBPUPUBMFOUSFJOGFSJSFEFEV[JS
EFEVPPVUPSHBTFVNDBSDUFSFYBDUPEFVNBQSFNJTTBPVEBDPOKVOP
EFWSJBTQSFNJTTBTPCUNTFVNBDPODMVTPJOFRVWPDB
/PFOUBOUP GSFRVFOUFBQSPYJNBSNPOPTEPDPOIFDJNFOUPTFNEJTQPSNPT
EFTTBTDPODMVTFTJOFRVWPDBT2VBOEPOPEJTQPNPTEFQSFNJTTBTFYBDUBT 
RVBOEPOPTGBMUBNEBEPTPVRVBOEPBJOEBOPBOBMJTNPTTVGJDJFOUFNFOUF
BJOGPSNBP OPQPEFNPTEFEV[JSFNTFOUJEPFTUSJUP NBTQPEFNPTJOGFSJS
6NBJOGFSODJBBDPODMVTPRVFBMHVNQPEFUJSBSEFBDPSEPDPN
PRVFDPOIFDF

 1PSRVFSB[PJOGFSJNPT?
/BDPOTUSVPEBTBQSFOEJ[BHFOT BJOGFSODJBUPSOBTFVNQSPDFEJNFOUP
NVJUPFGJDB[ DPNNMUJQMBTQPTTJCJMJEBEFTFTUSBUHJDBT
&9&.1-04%&*/'&3/$*"43&"-*;"%"41036."-6/0
&.4*56"&4%&"13&/%*;"(&.."5&.5*$"
*OGFSJNPTQBSB
OPTBOUFDJQBSNPT
BVNQSPDFTTP
EFDPNQSFFOTP

1FSBOUFVNEFTFOIPEFVNBUBSUFRVFSFQSFTFOUB
FPVUSPRVFSFQSFTFOUB PBMVOPDPNQSFFOEFDPN
GBDJMJEBEFRVFBGSBDPNBJPSEPRVFBGSBDP

*OGFSJNPTQBSB
DPNQMFUBSVN
UPEP

4FBBVMBEVSBVNBIPSBFEFDPSSFSBNRVBSFOUBNJOVUPT 
PBMVOPDBMDVMBRVFSFTUBNFOPTUFNQPEPRVFBRVFMF
RVFKQBTTPV"FTUJNBUJWB PDMDVMPQPSBQSPYJNBP
FPBSSFEPOEBNFOUPCBTFJBNTFOFTUFNFDBOJTNP

*OGFSJNPT
QBSBFYUSBJS
DPODMVTFT

"PPCTFSWBSVNHSGJDPEFMJOIBTDPNBDPNQSBTFNBOBM
EFEVBTGBNMJBT PBMVOPTBCFRVBMEFMBTDPSSFTQPOEF
BVNBGBNMJBEFVNQBTEFTFOWPMWJEPFRVBMSFQSFTFOUB
VNBGBNMJBEFVNQBTNFOPTEFTFOWPMWJEP

*OGFSJNPT
QBSBEFUFSNJOBS
DPOTFRVODJBT

1FSBOUFPQSPCMFNBj-EJBFPTTFVTJSNPTFOUSBNOVNB
TBQBUBSJBFUPEPTTBFNDPNTBQBUPTOPWPT5FSPDPNQSBEP
 PVTBQBUPT x PBMVOPEFUFSNJOBSRVF KRVF
TBCFRVFFSBN QFMPNFOPT USTQFTTPBT

 &TUSBUHJBTEFUFDUBSJEFJBTBOUFTEFMFS
/PTUFYUPTJODMVFNTFEJGFSFOUFTFMFNFOUPTRVFEFJYBNPBMVOPEFTPCSFB
WJTPQBSBDPNFBSBQSPDVSBSBTJEFJBTQSJODJQBJT BOUFTNFTNPEFBQSPGVOEBS
BMFJUVSB"MHVOTEFTTFTFMFNFOUPTTPUPFWJEFOUFTRVFPTBMVOPTOPUN
EJGJDVMEBEFFNJEFOUJGJDMPT DPNPPTFYFNQMPTRVFTFBQSFTFOUBNEF
TFHVJEB
%&4"'*04 t $JODJBTEB/BUVSF[B t oBOP t 4BOUJMMBOB$POTUODJB

349

PARTE

5UVMP

"TQBSUFTEBHFPTGFSB

1BMBWSBT
BOFHSJUP

A DSPTUBUFSSFTUSFBDBNBEBNBJTFYUFSOBEBHFPTGFSBDPNQPTUBQPS
NBUFSJBJTTMJEPTFNBJTFTQFTTBOPTDPOUJOFOUFTEFRVFTPCPTPDFBOPT
O NBOUPBDBNBEBJOUFSNEJBEBHFPTGFSB"TVBUFNQFSBUVSBNBJT
FMFWBEBEPRVFBEBDSPTUB&NBMHVNBT[POBTEPNBOUPFODPOUSBNTF
SPDIBTGVOEJEBT RVFSFDFCFNPOPNFEFNBHNB
O ODMFPBDBNBEBNBJTJOUFSJPSEBHFPTGFSBDPNQPTUBQPSGFSSP
FPVUSPTNFUBJT5FNVNBUFNQFSBUVSBNVJUPFMFWBEB%JWJEFTFFNEVBT
QBSUFTPODMFPFYUFSOPFPODMFPJOUFSOP

&OVNFSBP

"HFPTGFSBBQBSUFTMJEBEB5FSSB1BSUFEBHFPTGFSBFTUTPC
PTPDFBOPT GPSNBOEPPTMFJUPTNBSJOIPT FQBSUFFNFSHFFGPSNB
PTDPOUJOFOUFTFBTJMIBT

3442441

%FGJOJP

$MBTTJGJDBP

"(&04'&3"

5UVMPQSJODJQBM

3442441

Tcnicas e mtodos de estudo

"TSPDIBTFPTNJOFSBJT
"TSPDIBTTPPTNBUFSJBJTOBUVSBJTRVFGPSNBNBDSPTUBUFSSFTUSF
"TSPDIBTTPGPSNBEBTQPSWSJPTDPNQPOFOUFT
RVFTFPCTFSWBNDPNPHSPTEFEJWFSTPTUBNBOIPTFDPSFT
&TUFTDPNQPOFOUFTTPPTNJOFSBJT
4VCUUVMP

.BSDBT
HSGJDBT

5JQPTEFSPDIBT
&YJTUFNUSTHSVQPTEFSPDIBTTFHVOEPBTVBPSJHFN PVTFKB TFHVOEP
BTVBGPSNBP
t "TSPDIBTTFEJNFOUBSFTGPSNBNTFBQBSUJSEFNBUFSJBJTQSPWFOJFOUFT
EFPVUSBTSPDIBTPVEFTFSFTWJWPT0DBSCPOP
PHFTTPPVPBSFOJUPTPSPDIBTTFEJNFOUBSFT
t "TSPDIBTHOFBTPSJHJOBNTFBUSBWTEBTPMJEJGJDBPEPNBHNB
0HSBOJUPFPCBTBMUPTPSPDIBTHOFBT
t "TSPDIBTNFUBNSGJDBTPSJHJOBNTFRVBOEPPVUSBTSPDIBTTP
BRVFDJEBTPVDPNQSJNJEBT0NSNPSFFPYJTUPTPSPDIBT
NFUBNSGJDBT

DPOWFOJFOUFEFGJOJSBBQSPYJNBPFNUSTGBTFTTVDFTTJWBTFGB[FSDPN
RVFPTBMVOPTFGFDUVFNJOGFSODJBTBQBSUJSEPTJOEDJPT
'"4&4

-FSPUUVMP
QSJODJQBM PTUUVMPT
FPTTVCUUVMPT

026&"7&3*(60

t 0UFYUPUSBUBEBHFPTGFSB
t &YJTUFVNBJOUSPEVPRVFUBMWF[FYQMJRVFPRVF
BHFPTGFSB%FQPJT FYJTUFNEVBTTFDFTVNBTPCSF
BTQBSUFTEBHFPTGFSBFPVUSBTPCSFBTSPDIBTFNJOFSBJT
OFTUFMUJNPJODMVFNTFPTUJQPTEFSPDIBT

&YBNJOBSPQSJNFJSP t QSPWWFMRVFOPQSJNFJSPQBSHSBGPEPUFYUP
FEFDBEBTFDPIBKBVNBJEFJBQSJODJQBM
QBSHSBGP
BTQBMBWSBTBOFHSJUP t "TQBMBWSBTBOFHSJUPTFSPDPODFJUPTDIBWF
FBTNBSDBTHSGJDBT t OFDFTTSJPJOUFSQSFUBSRVBMRVFSNBSDBHSGJDB

t "TEFGJOJFTEFDPODFJUPTBQBSFDFNDPNDPOTUSVFT
*EFOUJGJDBS
BTEFGJOJFT
BTFOVNFSBFT
FBTDMBTTJGJDBFT

DPNPj9yx j$IBNBNPT9Byx

t "TFOVNFSBFTFYQSFTTBNPSEFOBEBNFOUFBTQBSUFT
EFVNDPOKVOUP

t "TDMBTTJGJDBFTBOVODJBNTFDPNFYQSFTTFTDPNP
jFYJTUFN9HSVQPTEFyx RVFUFSNJOBNDPNEPJTQPOUPT

350

%&4"'*04 t $JODJBTEB/BUVSF[B t oBOP t 4BOUJMMBOB$POTUODJB

PARTE

9
Tcnicas e mtodos de estudo

3FTVNJS
 &NRVFDPOTJTUFSFTVNJS?
3FTVNJSQFSNJUF
t DPNQSFFOEFS
FNQSPGVOEJEBEF
t SFGMFDUJSTPCSFBRVJMPRVF
TFMFV
t BTTJNJMBSBJOGPSNBP

3FTVNJSDPOTJTUFFNSFEV[JSBJOGPSNBPBPFTTFODJBMFSFEJHJMB
1FMPDBNJOIP QSFTDJOEFTFEPTVQSGMVP EPBOFEUJDP EPTFYFNQMPT 
EBTDMBSJGJDBFTy
/PTNBOVBJT IBCJUVBMBGJSNBSTFRVFVNCPNSFTVNPEFWFUFSDFSDBEF
USJOUBQPSDFOUPEPUBNBOIPUPUBMEPUFYUPPSJHJOBM NBTBTNFEJEBTQPVDP
JNQPSUBNOVNOWFMJOJDJBM DPNPFTUFEPTBMVOPTEP&OTJOP#TJDP
/PSFTVNP BPDPOUSSJPEPTVCMJOIBEP PTBMVOPTUNEFQSPDFTTBSFSFFMB
CPSBSBJOGPSNBP

 1PSRVFSB[PSFTVNJNPT?
t 3FTVNJNPTQBSBDPNQSFFOEFS NBT QPSPVUSPMBEP QBSBSFTVNJSJNQSFT
DJOEWFMUFSDPNQSFFOEJEPQSFWJBNFOUF
 "
 TTJN DPNPSFTVNP BTDBQBDJEBEFTEFDPNQSFFOTPFEFTOUFTFBMJ
NFOUBNTFEFGPSNBSFUSPBDUJWB0TQSPDFTTPTGPSNBNVNDJDMPNVJUP
FGJDB[FNRVBMRVFSTJUVBPEFBQSFOEJ[BHFN
DPNQSFFOEFS
QBSB

QBSB
SFTVNJS

t 3FTVNJNPTQBSBBOBMJTBSBJOGPSNBP1PSJTTP GSFRVFOUFPSFTVNP
BQBSFDFSFNDPNCJOBPDPNPVUSBTUDOJDBTEFTOUFTF
1PEFTFSPQBTTPTFHVJOUFEPTVCMJOIBEP

3FTVNP

BBOUFDNBSBEPFTRVFNB

t 3FTVNJNPTQBSBFTUVEBSFQSFQBSBSNBJTGBDJMNFOUFVNUFNB$PNBBKVEB
EPSFTVNP PBMVOPTVQFSBBTQSJNFJSBTGBTFTEPFTUVEP
MFVDPNQSFFOEFVTFMFDDJPOPVSFFMBCPSPVBJOGPSNBP

"QBSUJSEBRVJ SFTUBBPBMVOPVOJDBNFOUFGJYBSBJOGPSNBPFFGFDUVBS
BTSFWJTFTQFSUJOFOUFT

%&4"'*04 t $JODJBTEB/BUVSF[B t oBOP t 4BOUJMMBOB$POTUODJB

351

PARTE

Tcnicas e mtodos de estudo

9
 &TUSBUHJBTQFTRVJTBSBTJEFJBT
&YQMJRVF
/PTMJWSPTEFUFYUPVUJMJ[BEPT
OBBVMBFODPOUSBSP
GSFRVFOUFNFOUFVNBJEFJB
QPSDBEBQBSHSBGP

"OUFTEFSFTVNJS OFDFTTSJPFODPOUSBSPUFNBFBTJEFJBTQSJODJQBJT
*OEFQFOEFOUFNFOUFEPQSPDFEJNFOUPFTDPMIJEP BQSJNFJSBGBTFEFVN
SFTVNPBJEFOUJGJDBPEPUFNBFEBTJEFJBTQSJODJQBJT
0RVFGBP

0RVFDPOTJHP

6NBQSJNFJSBMFJUVSBHMPCBM

$PNQSFFOEPPUFYUP

6NBMFJUVSBQSPGVOEB

3FDPOIFPBTJEFJBTQSJODJQBJT

/PWBMFJUVSBQSPGVOEB QBSHSBGP
BQBSHSBGP

$PNQSFFOEPBTJEFJBT
FSFMBDJPOPBT BTTJNKQPTTP
DPNFBSBSFTVNJS

$PNPQSPDVSBSBTJEFJBTQSJODJQBJT
1PEFTVCMJOIBSTFPUFYUPFDPQJBSBTJEFJBTQBSBVNSBTDVOIPPVQBTTBS
EJSFDUBNFOUFEBMFJUVSBQSPGVOEBGPSNVMBPEBTJEFJBTQSJODJQBJT
+PHPEBHMSJB
1BSBKPHBSBP+PHPEBHMSJB 
OFDFTTSJPVNUBCVMFJSP
FTQFDJBM0UBCVMFJSPEP+PHP
EBHMSJBSFQSFTFOUBVN
QFSDVSTPEFDBTBT
1BSBKPHBS QSFDJTPUFS
VNEBEPFVNNBSDBEPS
EFDPSEJGFSFOUFQBSBDBEB
KPHBEPS

4VCMJOIBSBTJEFJBT
PVDPQJMBT
(MSJB
1BSBKPHBSBP+PHPEBHMSJB 
OFDFTTSJPVNUBCVMFJSP
FTQFDJBM0UBCVMFJSPEP+PHP
EBHMSJBSFQSFTFOUB
VNQFSDVSTPEFDBTBT
1BSBKPHBS QSFDJTPUFS
VNEBEPFVNBGJDIBEFDPS
EJGFSFOUFQBSBDBEBKPHBEPS

352

%&4"'*04 t $JODJBTEB/BUVSF[B t oBOP t 4BOUJMMBOB$POTUODJB

'PSNVMBSBTJEFJBT
EJSFDUBNFOUF
5FNB
0+PHPEBHMSJB
*EFJBTQSJODJQBJT
t 0UBCVMFJSPSFQSFTFOUB
VNQFSDVSTPEFDBTBT
t +PHBTFDPNVNEBEP
FVNNBSDBEPSEFDPS
EJGFSFOUFQBSBDBEBKPHBEPS

PARTE

9
Tcnicas e mtodos de estudo

 &TUSBUHJBTSFEJHJSPSFTVNP
"PSFTVNJSOBBVMB
'PNFOUFBDPMBCPSBPFOUSF
PTBMVOPT QBSBSFTPMWFSFN
QBSUFTDPODSFUBTEPSFTVNP 
NBTDPOWFOBPTBOP
DPQJBSFNVOTQFMPTPVUSPT

"PSFTVNJS EFWFFYQSFTTBSTFDPNNVJUBTDMBSF[BFQSFDJTP$POWNSFEJHJS
DPNTJNQMJDJEBEF FWJUBSBTPSBFTMPOHBTPVFYDFTTJWBNFOUFDPNQMFYBT
FNBOUFSBPSEFNTJOUDUJDBTVKFJUPQSFEJDBEP

3FEBDP
QPVDP
SFDPNFOEWFM

/VNTFHVOEP 
VNTPNQFSDPSSF
NFUSPT

"PTNPWJNFOUPT
TTNJDPTRVFUN
PSJHFNOPNBS
DIBNBNPT
NBSFNPUPT

3FEBDP
SFDPNFOEWFM

0TPNQFSDPSSF
NFUSPT
QPSTFHVOEP

6NNBSFNPUP
VNNPWJNFOUP
TTNJDPRVFTFQSPEV[
OPNBS

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353

PARTE

Tcnicas e mtodos de estudo

9
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PARTE

9
Tcnicas e mtodos de estudo

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355

PARTE

Tcnicas e mtodos de estudo

9
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356

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PARTE

9
Tcnicas e mtodos de estudo

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357

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Tcnicas e mtodos de estudo

9
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PARTE

9
Tcnicas e mtodos de estudo

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359

PARTE

Tcnicas e mtodos de estudo

9
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PARTE

9
Tcnicas e mtodos de estudo

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BQSFFODIFSUBCFMBTFBMFS
PTEBEPTOFMBTDPOUJEPT 
NBJTTJNQMFTTFSQBSBFMFT

6NBUBCFMBVNFTRVFNBOPRVBMTFFTUBCFMFDFNEVBTMJOIBTEFMFJUVSB
EBFTRVFSEBQBSBBEJSFJUBFEFDJNBQBSBCBJYP7FKBNPTVNFYFNQMP

'&45&+04&4$0-"3&4
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QFSPEP

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FTDPMBSFTTFDFMFCSBSBNOPQSJNFJSPUSJNFTUSF OPTFHVOEPFOPUFSDFJSP 
UBOUPEFOUSPEBFTDPMBDPNPGPSBEFMB
t 4FMFSNPTBUBCFMBEFDJNBQBSBCBJYP TBCFSFNPTRVFGFTUFKPTFTDPMBSFTTF
DFMFCSBSPEFOUSPEBFTDPMBFGPSBEBFTDPMB FNDBEBVNEPTUSTUSJNFTUSFT
%FTEFPTQSJNFJSPTOWFJTFTDPMBSFTRVFBTDSJBOBTQSFFODIFNUBCFMBT 
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2VBOEPJOJDJBSVNBUBCFMB 
&YJTUFNEPJTSFRVJTJUPTNOJNPTOPTRVBJTTFQPEFQSFTTVQPSPBDPSEPEFUPEPT
PTEPDFOUFT TFKBRVBMGPSPNUPEPRVFVUJMJ[FNQBSBFOTJOBSPTTFVTBMVOPT
BSFBMJ[BSUBCFMBTFFTRVFNBT
"OUFTEFDPNFBS JNQSFTDJOEWFM
t 5FSSFBMJ[BEPVNBMFJUVSBHMPCBMEPUFYUP
t 5FSJEFOUJGJDBEPPUFNB
 0UFYUPGBMBEFy
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2VBOEPFTUPCFNGFJUPTVNFTRVFNBPVVNBUBCFMB 
/BIPSBEFDPSSJHJS
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USBUBEFSFQFUJSBUBSFGB NBT
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6NFTRVFNBPVVNBUBSFGBFTUPDPSSFDUPTRVBOEPDVNQSFNEVBTDPOEJFT
1. $POUNUPEBBJOGPSNBPJNQSFTDJOEWFM BUBPOWFMRVFEFUFSNJ
ONPT

2."PSHBOJ[BPEPTFMFNFOUPTFTUDPSSFDUB
6NBWF[BTTFHVSBEBTFTUBTEVBTQSFNJTTBT PSFTUBOUFEFWFSTFSBWBMJBEP
DPNGMFYJCJMJEBEF QFSNJUJOEPBJOJDJBUJWBEPBMVOP BDFJUBOEPPVUSBTJOUFSQSF
UBFTPVGPSNBTEFFYQPSSB[PBWFMNFOUFBJOGPSNBP
/FTUFOWFMEP&OTJOP#TJDP BDFJUWFMRVFBTJEFJBTOPFTUFKBNTJOUFUJ[BEBT
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%&4"'*04 t $JODJBTEB/BUVSF[B t oBOP t 4BOUJMMBOB$POTUODJB

361

PARTE

Tcnicas e mtodos de estudo

9
1PSMUJNP EFWFUFSTFFNDPOTJEFSBPBEJGJDVMEBEFRVFJNQMJDBPEFTFOIP
EBUBCFMBFNTJEFUFSNJOBSBTMJOIBTFBTDPMVOBT EJTUSJCVJSBTDMVMBTEPT
DBCFBMIPT DBMDVMBSPFTQBPOFDFTTSJPBUPEBTBTDBTBTFBUPEBBJOGPSNB
P FUDTFNQSFSFDPNFOEWFMRVFVUJMJ[FNSFHSBTFRVFPTQSJNFJSPT
USBCBMIPTTFKBNGFJUPTFNQBQFMRVBESJDVMBEP
&TUNBMTFGJ[FSEFPVUSBGPSNB 
/BSFBEBTUDOJDBTEFFTUVEPSBSBNFOUFFYJTUFNTPMVFTOJDBT&TUBDJS
DVOTUODJBDSJBGSFRVFOUFNFOUFJOUSBORVJMJEBEF UBOUPBEPDFOUFTDPNPB
BMVOPT/BIPSBEFFTDPMIFSVNUJQPEFFTRVFNBPVEFUBCFMB UNJOGMVODJB
NMUJQMPTGBDUPSFT
t $PNPBJOGPSNBP 4FBJOGPSNBPTFDPNQFEFUFSNPTJTPMBEPT 
DPNQPVDPUFYUP UFSFNPTNBJTMJCFSEBEFEFFTDPMIBNBTTFSFEV[JSNVJUP
UFYUPPVTFOFDFTTJUBSEFSFEJHJSBMHVNBTQBSUFT BTQPTTJCJMJEBEFTSFEV[FN
TFFNFMIPSRVFBTQBSUFTEFVNNFTNPOWFMWPTFOEPEJTQPTUBTVNBT
TPCBTPVUSBT
t "DBQBDJEBEFMHJDPFTQBDJBMEPBMVOP0TBMVOPTDVKBDBQBDJEBEFEF
SFQSFTFOUBPFTQBDJBMFTUFKBEFTFOWPMWJEBNPTUSBSTFPJOEFQFOEFOUFT
QBSBFTDPMIFSVNUJQPEFFTRVFNBDPOUVEP QBSBPVUSPTTFSNFMIPSBQSFO
EFSVNNPEFMPQPMJWBMFOUF QPSFYFNQMP PFTRVFNBEFDIBWFUBT
FBQMJD
MPSFQFUJEBNFOUFBRVBMRVFSUJQPEFUFYUP BURVFTFTJOUBNNBJTTFHVSPT
1FSNJUBRVFPTBMVOPTTFMFDDJPOFNPSFDVSTPRVFMIFTNBJTUJMQBSB
PSHBOJ[BSPTTFVTFTRVFNBT*ODMVTJWBNFOUF TFEJTQVTFSEFUFNQP QSPQPOIB
MIFTRVFUFTUFNBTWSJBTGPSNBTFDPNFOUFDPNFMFTBTWBOUBHFOTRVFMIFT
PGFSFDFNPTEJGFSFOUFTNPEFMPTFNDBEBDBTP
0TNFVTBMVOPTWPNFMIPSBOEPBTVBEFTUSF[B 
&YFDVUFVNUFTUFDPNPTBMVOPTBTTJNRVFUFOIBNGFJUPDPOTJHPBMHVOT
FTRVFNBT-FJBMIFTFTUFCSFWFUFYUPFQFBMIFTRVFEFGPSNBJOEJWJEVBM
FFTQPOUOFBQBTTFNBJOGPSNBPQBSBVNFTRVFNB
&OUSFBTQFSTPOBHFOTNBJTJNQPSUBOUFTEB*EBEF.EJB EFTUBDBTF
t %"GPOTP)FOSJRVFTGPJPQSJNFJSPSFJEF1PSUVHBM DPOTFHVJOEPDFMFCSBSP5SBUBEP
EF;BNPSBFNFTFSSFDPOIFDJEPQFMPQBQB"MFYBOESF***FN

&TUFTFSJBPNYJNPEFJOGPSNBPRVFEFWFSJBNSFDPMIFS
1FSTPOBHFNEB*EBEF.EJB
t %"GPOTP)FOSJRVFT %"GPOTP*

 1SJNFJSPSFJEF1PSUVHBM
 $FMFCSPVP5SBUBEPEF;BNPSB
 'PJSFDPOIFDJEPQFMP1BQB

$POUVEP BTSFQSFTFOUBFTQPTTWFJTTPNMUJQMBT5PEBTTFSPDPSSFDUBT
TFBQBSUJSEPUUVMPUJWFSFNUSTFMFNFOUPTFTFEFDBEBVNEFTTFTFMFNFO
UPTEFSJWBSFNBTJOGPSNBFTQFSUJOFOUFT

362

%&4"'*04 t $JODJBTEB/BUVSF[B t oBOP t 4BOUJMMBOB$POTUODJB

PARTE

1SFQBSBPEFBWBMJBFT

Tcnicas e mtodos de estudo

3FWFSDPOUFEPT
 &NRVFDPOTJTUFSFWFSDPOUFEPT 
"OUFTEFSFWFS
t MFSNJOVDJPTBNFOUF
t DPNQSFFOEFS
t PSHBOJ[BSBTJEFJBT
t JOUFSJPSJ[MBT

3FWFSDPOUFEPTDPOTJTUFFNSFHSFTTBSJOGPSNBPQSFWJBNFOUF
QSPDFTTBEB PVTFKB KDPNQSFFOEJEBFBTTJNJMBEB
5BOUPPTNBOVBJTEFUDOJDBTEFFTUEJPDPNPPTEPDFOUFTFPTQSQSJPT
BMVOPTVUJMJ[BNPUFSNPSFWJTPDPNEPJTTFOUJEPT"TSFGFSODJBTEPTBMVOPT
QBSFDFNFTDMBSFDFEPSBT
t 3FWJTP5MUJNBGBTFEPFTUVEPj+BQSFOEJFBHPSBJSFJSFWFSWSJBTWF[FT
QBSBFTUBSNBJTTFHVSPx
t 3FWJTP5$BEBDJDMPEBNFNPSJ[BP
j3FWJVNBWF[PCTFSWBOEPPMJWSPFPVUSBDPNPNFVSFTVNP+RVBTFRVF
BQSFOEJ"HPSBWPVSFWFSFNWP[BMUB DPNPFTRVFNBGSFOUFQBSBOPNF
QFSEFS&EFQPJTDPOUPPBUJ QBSBWFSTFTFJ DFSUP x

 1PSRVFSB[PSFWFNPTPTDPOUFEPT 
"SFWJTPQPEFPCFEFDFSBEJGFSFOUFTOFDFTTJEBEFTF QPSUBOUP PTPCKFDUJWPT
EFBDPSEPDPNPTRVBJTTFSFWUBNCNTPEJGFSFOUFT&JTBRVJEVBTQFST
QFDUJWBTEJTUJOUBTQBSBBCPSEBSBTSFWJTFT

 FTUVEBOUFFTUBCFMFDFPRVFUFNEFGB[FSDPNPTDPOUFEPTRVFWBJ
1. 0
SFWFS
t 3FWQBSBDPOTFHVJSVNBWJTPHMPCBMEPUFNBUSBCBMIBEPOBBVMB
j5FSNJONPTPUFNBEPOPNFFUFOIPEFSFVOJSUPEBBJOGPSNBPx
t 3FWQBSBNFNPSJ[BSVNUFNBDPNQMFUPj5FOIPEFBQSFOEFSPUFNB
04JTUFNB4PMBSx
t 3FWQBSBNFNPSJ[BSDPOUFEPTDPNQMFYPTRVFFYJHFNFYBDUJEP
j5FOIP EF BQSFOEFS BT FTDBMBT EF VOJEBEFT EF MPOHJUVEF  NBTTB
FDBQBDJEBEFx
1SFQBSBSNBUFSJBM
4VHJSBBPTBMVOPTRVF QBSB
SFWFS UFOIBNNPQBQFM
FMQJT

2. 0FTUVEBOUFFTUBCFMFDFDPNPEFNPOTUSBSRVFEPNJOBFTTFTDPOUF
EPT
t 3FWQBSBQSFQBSBSVNBQSPWBFTDSJUB
t 3FWQBSBQSFQBSBSVNBFYQPTJPPSBM
t 3FWQBSBQSFQBSBSVNBBQSFTFOUBPEFHSVQP

 &TUSBUHJBTSFMFS
1FSBOUFRVBMRVFSUBSFGBEFFTUVEPFQBSBBQSFQBSBPEFVNBQSPWB 
JOEJTQFOTWFMSFMFSPTUFNBTFPTBQPOUBNFOUPT
0TBMVOPTEP&OTJOP#TJDPQPEFNBQSFOEFSBSFWFSBQBSUJSEFVNNPEFMP
TJTUFNUJDP RVFEFWFNQSBUJDBSFNBDUJWJEBEFTEFHSVQP"GPSNBNBJT
TJNQMFTEFJOJDJBSPTBMVOPTOBSFWJTPJODMVMBOBNFUPEPMPHJBEBSFB
EF&TUVEPEP.FJPVNBWF[DPOTPMJEBEPPNUPEP FTUFQPEFFTUFOEFSTF
BRVBMRVFSPVUSBSFB

%&4"'*04 t $JODJBTEB/BUVSF[B t oBOP t 4BOUJMMBOB$POTUODJB

363

PARTE

Tcnicas e mtodos de estudo

9
.50%01"3"3&-&305&."/0-*730%&5&9500604"10/5".&/504
1. 3FMFSPUFNBVNBWF[ UPEPEFTFHVJEB -FS

-FJUVSBTJMFODJPTB
4FSWFQBSBSFDPSEBSBJEFJBHMPCBMEPUFNBEFRVFUSBUB RVFQBSUFTUFN
2. 3FMFSEFOPWPTFDPBTFDP -FS1GJYBS

-FJUVSBPSBM
4FSWFQBSBFOVODJBSPUUVMPEBTFDPFGJYBSPTDPOUFEPTDPODSFUPTEFTTB
QBSUFGVOEBNFOUBMRVFPBMVOPBTTPDJFBDBEBUUVMPPDPOUFEPQSFDJTP
3. 3FMFSFBSSBTUBS -FS1GJYBS1SFMBDJPOBS

-FJUVSBPSBMDPNFOUBEB
"PUFSNJOBSEFSFMFSDBEBTFDP WPMUBSBUSTQBSBTBCFSRVFMVHBSPDVQB
FTTBTFDPOBUPUBMJEBEFEPUFNBFSFMBDJPOMBDPNPKWJTUP
4FSWFQBSBMJHBSUPEBBJOGPSNBPOVNUPEP

6NQFRVFOPUSVRVF
4FIBCJUVBMNFOUFDPNFB
BVOJEBEFMFOEPDPNPTTFVT
BMVOPTBJOGPSNBPEPMJWSP 
FTUFNUPEPTFSJHVBMNFOUF
UJMOFTTFQSPDFTTPJOJDJBM
2VFSTFKBIBCJUVBMQFEJSMIFT
RVFSFTVNBNPUFNBPV
OP FTUBSPUJOBGBDJMJUBSB
DPNQSFFOTPFBBTTJNJMBP

$PNPNUPEPEFSFWJTP EFWFTFBQMJDMPRVBOEPKTFUJWFSUSBCBMIBEP
PUFNBF QPSUBOUP PTBMVOPTKDPOUBDUBSBNBOUFSJPSNFOUFDPNBJOGPSNB
PFKSFBMJ[BSBNBTBDUJWJEBEFT
6NUFYUPEFWFSTFSSFMJEPQFMBQSJNFJSBWF[EFGPSNBJOEJWJEVBMFTJMFODJPTB 
NBTBTPVUSBTEVBTTPOFDFTTBSJBNFOUFPSBJTFDPMFDUJWBTJNQPSUBOUFRVF
PQSPGFTTPSSFQSPEV[BFNWP[BMUBFTTFQSPDFTTPNFOUBMRVFTFPSJHJOBRVBOEP
VNMFJUPSUFOUBGJYBSVNBJOGPSNBPFSFMBDJPOMBDPNBTPVUSBTRVFPUFYUP
DPOUN1FMBNFTNBSB[P BTJOUFSWFOFTEPTBMVOPTFOSJRVFDFNBFYQF
SJODJBEPTDPMFHBT
OFDFTTSJPSFMFSUVEP
"URVFPTBMVOPTOPUFOIBNBERVJSJEPTVGJDJFOUFBVUPOPNJB SFTQPOEBMIFT
TFNQSFBFTUBQFSHVOUB"OUFTEFFTUBCFMFDFSFNPRVFSFMFS UNEFTBCFS
FNRVFNPNFOUPEFBQSFOEJ[BHFNTFFODPOUSBNFDPNRVFGJOBMJEBEF
FTUPBQMBOFBSBOPWBMFJUVSB1PSFYFNQMP
j%PUFNBj1S)JTUSJBx OFDFTTSJPSFWFSBTTFDFTRVFTFSFGFSFN
BPBSUFTBOBUPFBSUF QPSRVFBNBOIWBNPTWFSVNEPDVNFOUSJP
FBTTJNTBCFSFNPTEPRVFUSBUBx
&WJUF TFNQSFRVFQPTTWFM FYQFSJODJBTEFTBOJNBEPSBT DPNPSFMFSUPEP
PUFNB RVBOEPCBTUBSFMFSVNBQBSUF3FMFSQPSDPNQMFUPVNUFNBUFN
VUJMJEBEFQBSBFTUVEBS QBSBGFDIBSBVOJEBEFPVQBSBQSFQBSBSVNBQSPWBPV
VNBFYQPTJP-FNCSFTFEFRVFBDIBWFQBSBRVFVNFTUVEBOUFBDBCF
QPSBERVJSJSVNNUPEPEFFTUVEPQSQSJPRVFDPNQSPWFRVFDPOTFHVF
NFMIPSFTSFTVMUBEPTDPNNFOPTFTGPSP
4FSWFEFBMHPSFMFSPTUUVMPT
/VNMJWSPEFUFYUP BJOGPSNBPBQBSFDFPSEFOBEBFPSHBOJ[BEBF BMNEJTTP 
RVBTFUPEPTPTQSPGFTTPSFTDPOWJEBNPTTFVTBMVOPTBGB[FSFNSFTVNPTOPT
RVBJTTFTJOUFUJ[BBJOGPSNBPFTFEFQVSBBPSHBOJ[BPEBNFTNB"TTJN 
OPSFTVNPEFVNUFNB PTUUVMPTFPTTVCUUVMPTFOVODJBNPTDPOUFEPTTPCSF
PTRVBJTWFSTBBJOGPSNBP QPSDBUFHPSJBT1PSJTTP SFWFSPTUUVMPT

364

%&4"'*04 t $JODJBTEB/BUVSF[B t oBOP t 4BOUJMMBOB$POTUODJB

PARTE

9
Tcnicas e mtodos de estudo

t QFSNJUFRVFTFGPSNFVNBJEFJBDPNQMFUBEPUFNB
t QFSNJUFDPNQSFFOEFSFNRVBOUBTQBSUFTTFEJWJEFPUFNBFEFRVFUSBUB
DBEBVNBEFTTBTQBSUFT
2VBOEPPBMVOPQSFQBSBVNBQSPWBOBRVBMUFNEFEFTFOWPMWFSDPOUFEPT 
FTQFDJBMNFOUFBQSPQSJBEP
t SFMFSUPEPTPTUUVMPTEPUFNB DPNPTFTFUSBUBTTFEFVNFTRVFNB
t SFMFSPUUVMPEFDBEBTFDPFSFWFSFNWP[BMUBPRVFDPOUN
*ODMVTJWBNFOUF FNBMHVOTUFNBTEF.BUFNUJDB OPTRVBJTBJOGPSNBP
BBQSFOEFSNVJUPDPODSFUB UJMSFMFSPTUUVMPT1PSFYFNQMP BPSFWFS
PUFNBjSFBEFGJHVSBTQMBOBTx PBMVOPQPEFSFWFSBTQHJOBTEPMJWSP
EBTFHVJOUFGPSNB
-&3$"%"556-0%&4&$0

1&3.*5&&70$"3

2VBMBSFBEFVNBGJHVSB

2VBMBTVQFSGDJFRVFPDVQBVNBGJHVSB
QMBOB

6OJEBEFTEFTVQFSGDJF

2VFBTVOJEBEFTTPPDFOUNFUSP
RVBESBEP PEFDNFUSPRVBESBEPFPNFUSP
RVBESBEP&RVFWPEFFN

SFBEPSFDUOHVMP
FEPRVBESBEP

2VFJHVBMCBTFWF[FTBBMUVSB
2VFMBEPQPSMBEP

SFBEPUSJOHVMP

2VFJHVBMCBTFWF[FTBBMUVSBBEJWJEJS
QPSEPJT

 &TUSBUHJBTSFFMBCPSBSBJOGPSNBP
GVOEBNFOUBM
3FWFSVNSFDVSTPQBSBSFFMBCPSBSBJOGPSNBP3FFMBCPSBSBJOGPSNBP
PNUPEPNBJTFGJDB[EFSFWJTP&BNCPT SFWJTPFSFFMBCPSBP TPGBTFT
JOFWJUWFJTEPFTUVEP
/PTFUSBUBEFVNKPHPEFQBMBWSBT NBTEFVNEFUBOUPTQSPDFTTPTEF
SFUSPBMJNFOUBPRVFPDPSSFNOBSFBEBBQSFOEJ[BHFNTJHOJGJDBUJWB
"SFWJTPVNJOTUSVNFOUPNVJUPQPEFSPTPRVFQSPQPSDJPOBVNBFMFWBEB
SFOEJCJMJEBEFJOUFMFDUVBM
"MHVNBTFTUSBUHJBTDPODSFUBTQBSBSFFMBCPSBSBJOGPSNBPGVOEBNFOUBM
EFVNUFNBTPBTTFHVJOUFT
t 'B[FSVNBMJTUBEFQFSHVOUBTQPTTWFJT JODMVTJWBNFOUFBMHVNBTRVF
QPTTBNGB[FSQBSUFEFPVUSBT*TUPPCSJHBPBMVOPBQFOTBSOBJOGPSNBP
TPCEJGFSFOUFTQFSTQFDUJWBT
t "QSFTFOUBSEWJEBTOBBVMB0TBMVOPTRVFGB[FNQFSHVOUBTDPTUVNBN
UFSVNBNBJPSQSFEJTQPTJPQBSBSFGMFDUJSTPCSFPDPOUFEPEBJOGPSNBP
FTPCSFPTTFVTQSQSJPTQSPDFTTPTEFDPNQSFFOTP/PNFTNPTFOUJEP 
PTBMVOPTDPNQPVDBEJTQPTJPFTUSBUHJDBUNEJGJDVMEBEFTFNBQSFTFO
UBSBTTVBTEWJEBT QPSRVFOPTBCFNDPODSFUJ[MBT

%&4"'*04 t $JODJBTEB/BUVSF[B t oBOP t 4BOUJMMBOB$POTUODJB

365

PARTE

Tcnicas e mtodos de estudo

9
t 3FTQPOEFSTEWJEBTEPTDPMFHBT0TQSPCMFNBTFOUSFJHVBJTTPCFO
GJDPTUBOUPQBSBPBMVOPRVFUFNBMHVNBEWJEBDPNPQBSBPDPMFHBRVF
PBKVEBBFTDMBSFDMB
t &YQMJDBSPNFTNPEFPVUSBNBOFJSB2VBOUPNBJTEJGDJMBJOGPSNBP 
NBJTUJMTFSFTUBFTUSBUHJBEFGBMBSDPOTJHPNFTNP"DIBWFFTUFN
FTUBCFMFDFSRVFEFWFFYQMJDBSTFDPNPTFGPTTFBBMHVNRVFOPDPOIFDF
PVOPFOUFOEF
t 3FQFUJSFTRVFNBTFEFTFOIPTFORVBOUPTFFYQMJDBNFNWP[BMUBBTJEFJBT
RVFSFQSFTFOUBN
t 3FWFSUPNBOEPOPUBTDPNQBQFMFMQJT4VQFJSSFQSPEV[JOEPPEJTDVSTP
DPNBJOGPSNBPFORVBOUPTFQSPDVSBPBQPJPEFFTCPPTRVFSFDPSEBN
EFTFOIPTPVHSGJDPT EFUSBPTRVFSFQSFTFOUBNFTRVFNBT EBFTDSJUB
SQJEBEFOPNFTEJGDFJT FUD
t "QPJBSTFOVNQMBOPRVFDPOUFOIBBQFOBTPTUUVMPTFTVCUUVMPT4FSWF
RVBOEPPBMVOPDPOUBBTJNFTNPBJOGPSNBP HFSBMNFOUFEFGPSNBPSBM
$POWNOPVUJMJ[BSFTUBFTUSBUHJBBURVFTFUFOIBNFNPSJ[BEPPTVGJ
DJFOUF EBEPRVFOPQMBOPOPFTUBJOGPSNBPQSPQSJBNFOUFEJUB
t "QPJBSTFOVNFTRVFNBPNBJTDPODJTPQPTTWFM4FSWFQBSBDPOTUSVJS
VNEJTDVSTPQFSTPOBMJ[BEP NBTNBOUFOEPVNBPSHBOJ[BPGJYBFBTTF
HVSBOEPUPEBTBTJOGPSNBFTGVOEBNFOUBJT1FSNJUFRVFPBMVOPJODPSQPSF
VNBHSBOEFRVBOUJEBEFEFDPOFDUPSFTMHJDPT QBSBRVFPEJTDVSTPUPNF
DPSQP
DPOWFOJFOUFSFWFSPTFYFSDDJPTSFTPMWJEPT
/BBVMB
%NVJUBJNQPSUODJBBRVF
BTUBSFGBTTFKBNUPUBMNFOUF
DPSSJHJEBT"TTJN OPTTF
SFTPMWFNEWJEBTFDPSSJHFN
FSSPT NBTQFSNJUFTFUBNCN
RVFPTUSBCBMIPTTJSWBN
EFQPJTDPNPSFGFSODJBQBSB
BTSFWJTFT

/BSFBEBT$JODJBTEB/BUVSF[B NVJUPUJMSFWFSPTFYFSDDJPTGFJUPT
OBBVMBFFNDBTB QPSRVFMFWBOUBNRVFTUFTRVFBKVEBNPBMVOPBSFFMBCPSBS
BJOGPSNBP"KVEBNOPBTPMUBSTFEBMJUFSBMJEBEFEPMJWSPPVEPTBQPOUB
NFOUPTFUPSOBNOPEJTQPOWFMQBSBBQMJDBSPRVFBQSFOEFV
/BSFBEB.BUFNUJDB BGPSNBNBJTFGJDB[EFSFWJTPWPMUBSBSFTPMWFS
PTNFTNPTFYFSDDJPTGFJUPTOBBVMB1BSBRVFPBMVOPQPTTBGB[FSVNBSFWJTP
TP[JOIP JNQSFTDJOEWFMRVFUFOIBPTFYFSDDJPTCFNSFTPMWJEPTOPTFV
DBEFSOP
/BSFBEBT-OHVBT SFMFSPTFYFSDDJPTEFWPDBCVMSJPFPTEFGVODJPOBNFOUP
EBMOHVBQPEFTFSEFHSBOEFVUJMJEBEF0NFMIPSMFSPFOVODJBEPUBQBOEP
BTPMVPFSFTQPOEFSEFGPSNBPSBM
DPOWFOJFOUFSFWFSBTJMVTUSBFTEPMJWSP
"DPOTFMIFPTTFVTBMVOPTB EVSBOUFBTTVBTSFWJTFT SFWFSFNBTJNBHFOT
FPTHSGJDPTRVFBQBSFDFNOPMJWSPEFUFYUP1PEFNBQPJBSTFOBTJNBHFOT
FSFQFUJSBJOGPSNBPOVNBPSEFNEJGFSFOUFEPSFTVNP"MNEJTTP 
TFSFUJWFSFNBJNBHFN BTTPDJMBPTJEFJBTRVFBBDPNQBOIBNFJTTP
SFGPSBSBNFNPSJ[BP
1PSFYFNQMP FN)JTUSJBF(FPHSBGJBEF1PSUVHBMNVJUPTDPOUFEPTIJTU
SJDPTQPEFNBQPJBSTFFNJNBHFOTBTHSBOEFTPCSBTBSRVJUFDUOJDBTEPT
3PNBOPTVNNPTUFJSPNFEJFWBMVNRVBESPEF(SP7BTDPGPUPHSBGJBT
DPNUJQPTEFQBJTBHFOTPVEFMPDBJTPOEFEFDPSSFSBNBDPOUFDJNFOUPT
IJTUSJDPT

366

%&4"'*04 t $JODJBTEB/BUVSF[B t oBOP t 4BOUJMMBOB$POTUODJB

PARTE

9
Tcnicas e mtodos de estudo

1PSRVSFWFSFNWP[BMUB
3FWFSFNWP[BMUBPCSJHBPFTUVEBOUFBSFFMBCPSBSBJOGPSNBPQSPDVSB
EJGFSFOUFTGPSNBTEFFYQSFTTBSBJOGPSNBPGVOEBNFOUBMFOFDFTTJUBEFJS
FTUBCFMFDFOEPSFMBFTMHJDBTRVFMJHVFNVNBTJEFJBTBPVUSBT
$BTPBTVBGPSNBOBUVSBMEFNFNPSJ[BSTFKBSFWFSVNBFPVUSBWF[PUFYUP
PSJHJOBMFNTJMODJP DPOWNRVFGBBQFMPNFOPTVNQBSEFSFWJTFTFN
WP[BMUBQPSRVF DBTPOPPGBB DPSSFPSJTDPEFNFNPSJ[BSMJUFSBMNFOUF
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t "QSFTFOUBNBJOGPSNBPPSEFOBEB PSHBOJ[BEBFIJFSBSRVJ[BEB
t 3FDPMIFNPWPDBCVMSJPFTQFDGJDPF FNTJNVMUOFP PEJTDVSTPGJDBTVGJ
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367

PARTE

Tcnicas e mtodos de estudo

9
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t 3FQFUJSBMHVOTEFDBEBUJQP UBQBOEPBTPMVPF FNTFHVJEB WFSJGJDBS
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 7PDBCVMSJPBDP[JOIBBSVBPTONFSPT
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t 0DVQBSUPEPPUFNQPOFDFTTSJPBDPNQSFFOEFS/PUFNQPQFSEJEP 
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%&4"'*04 t $JODJBTEB/BUVSF[B t oBOP t 4BOUJMMBOB$POTUODJB

PARTE

9
Tcnicas e mtodos de estudo

Estratgia de estudante eficaz:1SFTUBSNVJUBBUFOPTFYQMJDBFTOBBVMB


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Estratgia de estudante eficaz:'B[FSPTSFTVNPTFPTFTRVFNBTTFNQSF
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369

PARTE

Tcnicas e mtodos de estudo

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t 4FVNQSPDFEJNFOUPUJWFSYJUP PBMVOPOPWBJQFSHVOUBSTFGF[CFNPVNBM
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%&4"'*04 t $JODJBTEB/BUVSF[B t oBOP t 4BOUJMMBOB$POTUODJB

PARTE

9
Tcnicas e mtodos de estudo

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371

PARTE

Tcnicas e mtodos de estudo

9
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372

%&4"'*04 t $JODJBTEB/BUVSF[B t oBOP t 4BOUJMMBOB$POTUODJB

PARTE

9
Tcnicas e mtodos de estudo

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373

PARTE

Tcnicas e mtodos de estudo

9
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t *ODPSQPSBPDPODFJUPEFGSBDP
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FEFTFOIPPVUSPT
EPJTOHVMPTEPNFTNP
UJQP

/VNBBRVJDVMUVSB
FYJTUFNUBORVFTDPN
USVUBTFTBMNFT
DBEBVN'PSNVMB
UVVNBQFSHVOUB
DPNVNQSPCMFNB
RVFFOWPMWBTPNB
FNVMUJQMJDBP

t /BSFBEBT$JODJBTEB/BUVSF[B
$PQJBPFTRVFNB
EPBQBSFMIPSFTQJSBUSJP
FJOEJDBPOPNFEFDBEB
SHP
%FQPJT DIFHBBBDPSEP
DPNPUFVDPMFHB
QBSBUSBCBMIBSFN
EBNFTNBGPSNB
PVUSPEPTBQBSFMIPT
RVFFTUVENPT

374

%&4"'*04 t $JODJBTEB/BUVSF[B t oBOP t 4BOUJMMBOB$POTUODJB

*OWFOUBVNQSPCMFNB
EFTPNBFEJWJTPBQBSUJS
EBJMVTUSBP

PARTE

9
Tcnicas e mtodos de estudo

 %FUFDUBSFSSPTOPQSPDFEJNFOUP
0TBMVOPTEP&OTJOP#TJDPQSFDJTBNEFBKVEBQBSBEJTUJOHVJSTFVNFSSP
OPSFTVMUBEPTFEFWFBVNFSSPEFQSPDFEJNFOUP1PSFYFNQMP OVNFYFSDDJP
EFQPUODJBTRVFFTUNBMSFTPMWJEPQPEFIBWFSVNFSSPEFDMDVMPPVVN
FSSPEFQSPDFEJNFOUP

FMFWBEPB5
9 3 9 5  3 9 5

FMFWBEPB5
9 3 3 5

&OHBOPVTFBPNVMUJQMJDBS3 9

1FOTPVRVFFMFWBSBPDVCP
NVMUJQMJDBS3 3

0QSPDFEJNFOUP
FTUDPSSFDUP

0QSPDFEJNFOUP
FTUJODPSSFDUP

&YFNQMPTEFSPUJOBTQBSBSFWFSQSPDFEJNFOUPT
4FPTBMVOPTTFIBCJUVBSFNEFTEFDFEPBFTUBCFMFDFSSPUJOBTEFWFSJGJDBP 
BTTVNJSPEFGPSNBOBUVSBMBSFTQPOTBCJMJEBEFTPCSFBRVBMJEBEFEBTTVBT
BQSFOEJ[BHFOT$POWNRVFTFKBNSPUJOBTNVJUPTJNQMFTFQPMJWBMFOUFT
t 2VBOEPFTDSFWPBMHP SFMFJPP
 7FSJGJDPTFNFFYQSFTTFJDPNDMBSF[B
 3FWFKPTFOPIFSSPTEFPSUPHSBGJB
 3FWFKPTFUVEPFTUDPSSFDUP FNFTQFDJBMTFDPQJPVNBJOGPSNBP
PVVNFOVODJBEPEFFYFSDDJP
t 2VBOEPSFBMJ[PVNBPQFSBPNBUFNUJDB BSFWJTP
 4FSFBMJ[PTVCUSBDFTPVEJWJTFT BQMJDPBQSPWBDPSSFTQPOEFOUF
t 4FSFTPMWJVNFYFSDDJP SFMFJPPFOVODJBEP
 'J[PRVFNFFSBQFEJEP 4BCJBDPNPGB[FSPVGJ[VNBDPOTVMUB
 &YQSFTTFJPSFTVMUBEPDPNPNFQFEJEP
t 4FSFTPMWJVNQSPCMFNB SFWFKPP
 3FMFJPPQSPCMFNB"OPUFJCFNPTEBEPT
 3FMFJPBQFSHVOUBGJOBM0RVFNFFSBQFEJEP 2VFQBTTPTEFJQBSB
BSFTPMWFS "SFTQPTUBDPSSFTQPOEFQFSHVOUB
 3FWFKPBTPQFSBFTQBSBNFBTTFHVSBSEFRVFGJ[CFNPTDMDVMPT
t 4FNFFOHBOPWSJBTWF[FTOPNFTNPUJQPEFFYFSDDJP SFDPSSP
DPOTVMUB
 3FWFKPOPMJWSPPVOPTSFTVNPTPFYFSDDJP
 &YQMJDPBPQSPGFTTPSBNJOIBEWJEB QBSBRVFNFBKVEF
 5BMWF[PNFVQSPGFTTPSNFBDPOTFMIFBDPOWFSTBSDPNPTDPMFHBT

%&4"'*04 t $JODJBTEB/BUVSF[B t oBOP t 4BOUJMMBOB$POTUODJB

375

PARTE

Tcnicas e mtodos de estudo

3FGMFDUJSTPCSFBQSQSJB
BQSFOEJ[BHFN
 &NRVFDPOTJTUFBSFGMFYP?
3FGMFDUJSQSPQPSDJPOB
t BQSFOEJ[BHFNBDUJWB
t NPUJWBPJOUSOTFDB
t BVUPOPNJB
t BVUPDPOIFDJNFOUP
t BVUPFTUJNB

/BBQSFOEJ[BHFN DPNPTFEFVNBMPOHBWJBHFNTFUSBUBTTF DPOWN


QBSBSEFWF[FNRVBOEPQBSBDPOTVMUBSPNBQBEFPOEFWJFNPT POEF
OPTFODPOUSBNPT QBSBPOEFOPTEJSJHJNPT
/FNBTDSJBOBTOFNPTBEPMFTDFOUFTTFOUFNBOFDFTTJEBEFFTQPOUOFB
EFSFGMFDUJSTPCSFBTBQSFOEJ[BHFOTDPOTFHVJEBT$POUVEP JORVFTUJPOWFM
RVFPTTVDFTTPTQSPEV[FNVNBTBUJTGBPOUJNBRVFPTGB[TFOUJSFNTFCFN
DPOTJHPNFTNPTFRVFPTJODJUBBFNQSFFOEFSOPWPTPCKFDUJWPT1PSUBOUP 
WBMFBQFOBNPTUSBSMIFTPRVFWPBQSFOEFOEP QBSBRVFTFTJOUBNSFBMJ[B
EPTFNPUJWBEPTDPNBTVBWJEBFTDPMBS
&TUOBTNPTEPTBEVMUPTDVMUJWBSFFTUJNVMBSBTBUJUVEFTEFSFGMFYPFQSP
QPSDJPOBSMIFTNFDBOJTNPTEFBVUPBWBMJBP QBSBRVFPfeedbackTFDPOWFSUB
FNCFOFGDJPQSQSJP

 1PSRVFSB[PSFGMFDUJNPTTPCSFBBQSFOEJ[BHFN

t "OUFTEFUFSNJOBSVNBVOJEBEFEJEDUJDB
t "OUFTEFVNBQSPWBEFBWBMJBP
t %FQPJTEFVNBQSPWBEFBWBMJBP
"SFBMJEBEFJOUFSQSFUWFM
6NBEJGJDVMEBEFOP
VNPCTUDVMPJOTVQFSWFM
VNBEJGJDVMEBEF
TJNQMFTNFOUFVNPCKFDUJWP
RVFBJOEBOPGPJBMDBOBEP

t "PFODFSSBSVNBVOJEBEFEJEDUJDB
t %FQPJTEFVNBQSPWBEFBWBMJBP
t "PFODFSSBSVNCMPDPEFUFNBT
t "PUFSNJOBSVNUSJNFTUSFPVVNDVSTP

34241 321

"SFGMFYPTPCSFBTBRVJTJFTDPOTFHVJEBTBENJUFPSJFOUBFTEJGFSFOUFT
FNDBEBNPNFOUPEPQSPDFTTPEFBQSFOEJ[BHFN
3FGMFDUJNPTQBSB
EFUFDUBSBTOPTTBT
EJGJDVMEBEFT

3FGMFDUJNPTQBSB
SFDPOIFDFSPRVF
BQSFOEFNPT

 &TUSBUHJBTEFUFDUBSBTQSQSJBTEJGJDVMEBEFT
/BBVMB
3FGPSDFQPTJUJWBNFOUFPT
BMVOPTRVFTPDBQB[FTEF
JEFOUJGJDBSBTTVBTEJGJDVMEBEFT
&TTFTBMVOPTDPOUBNDPNVN
SFDVSTPFTUSBUHJDPEPRVBM
QPEFNSFUJSBSVNBBMUB
SFOEJCJMJEBEF

$PNBKVEB VNBMVOPEFRVBMRVFSJEBEFQPEFJEFOUJGJDBSBRVJMPRVFBJOEB
OPTBCF BRVJMPFNRVFTFTFOUFDPOGVTP BRVJMPDPNRVFTFENBMy
2VBMRVFSJOTUSVNFOUPWMJEP QPSRVFPJNQPSUBOUFRVFPBMVOP
t UPNFDPOTDJODJBEFRVFBJOEBOPFGFDUVPVBBQSFOEJ[BHFN
t TFTJUVFOPQPOUPEFQBSUJEBQBSBBCPSEBSBRVFTUPTPVDPNBKVEB
$PNPBQSPWFJUBPEPDFOUFBSFGMFYP
2VBOEPVNBMVOPSFGMFDUFQBSBEFUFDUBSBTTVBTQSQSJBTEJGJDVMEBEFT
t QPTTWFMDPSSJHJSFSSPTEFDPOUFEPFEFQSPDFEJNFOUP
t QPTTWFMFNQSFFOEFSUBSFGBTEFSFGPSPPVEFSFDVQFSBP
1PSRVFSB[PTFDPSSJHFOBBVMB
"TDPSSFDFTDPMFDUJWBTQPEFNUPSOBSTFSFFYQMJDBFT NBTDPNBWBO
UBHFNEFUFSFNMVHBSRVBOEPPBMVOPKFOGSFOUPVBEJGJDVMEBEFDPNQSPWB
RVFDPNFUFVVNFSSP OPTPVCFFYFDVUBSVNQSPDFEJNFOUP FOUFOEFV

376

%&4"'*04 t $JODJBTEB/BUVSF[B t oBOP t 4BOUJMMBOB$POTUODJB

PARTE

9
Tcnicas e mtodos de estudo

NBMVNBFYQMJDBP FUD"MNEJTTP EPBPQPSUVOJEBEFEFWFSJGJDBSWSJBT


TPMVFTQPTTWFJTQBSBVNBNFTNBRVFTUP"MHVNBTTVHFTUFTQBSBGB[FS
EBDPSSFDPVNBTJUVBPEFBQSFOEJ[BHFNNVMUJEJSFDDJPOBM DPOTJHP
NFTNP FOUSFJHVBJT QSPGFTTPSBMVOP
QBTTBNQFMBTTFHVJOUFTBDFT

/PVNFYBNF
5FOUFOPUPSOBSDBEB
DPSSFDPVNBQSPWB
EFBWBMJBP$BTPPTBMVOPT
UFOIBNNFEPEFTF
FOHBOBSFNOBTUBSFGBTEJSJBT 
SFDPSSFSPBPFOHBOP
PVDQJB

t $SJFVNBNCJFOUFEFTFHVSBOBFDPOGJBOB6NBDPSSFDPOVODB
EFWFSUPSOBSTFVNBPDBTJPFNRVFVNBMVOPTFTJOUBFNFWJEODJB OFN
QPSQBSUFEPTDPMFHBTOFNQPSQBSUFEPEPDFOUF
t %VSBOUFBDPSSFDP FTUJNVMFPTBMVOPTBEJ[FSFNWP[BMUBPOEF
TVSHJVBEJGJDVMEBEF0JNQPSUBOUFEBDPSSFDPOPRVBOUPTFSSPTGF[
VNBMVOP NBTEJTUJOHVJSPTFSSPTQPVDPJNQPSUBOUFTEBTEJGJDVMEBEFTRVF
OFDFTTSJPBCPSEBSFTPMVDJPOBS
t 3FBMJ[FBDPSSFDPRVBOEPPUSBCBMIPFTUJWFSGFJUP/PGB[TFOUJEP
DPSSJHJSPRVFOPTFGF[VNFYFSDDJPEFJYBEPFNCSBODPVNBPQPSUV
OJEBEFQFSEJEBFOPTFSFDVQFSBDPQJBOEPVNSFTVMUBEP
t $POWFOBPTBMVOPTBDPNQMFUBSFNTFNQSFPTFYFSDDJPT JODMVTJWB
NFOUFBRVFMFTRVFOPDPNQSFFOEFNPVRVFOPTBCFNSFTPMWFS
1BSBFMFTQBSFDFSVNBDPOUSBEJP NBTFYQMJRVFMIFTRVFBTTVBTNFOUFT
DPNQSFFOEFNNFMIPSVNBFYQMJDBPDBTPUFOIBNEFQBSBEPBOUFSJPS
NFOUFDPNBEJGJDVMEBEFRVFTFFTGPSDFNQPSFTUBCFMFDFSVNBFTUSBUHJB
FRVFBQPTUFNOVNBTPMVP BJOEBRVFBDBCFQPSOPTFSBDPSSFDUB
t "TTFHVSFTFEFRVFGB[FNQFSHVOUBT&OTJOFMIFTBOPDPSSJHJSFN
VNFYFSDDJPBUDPNQSFFOEFSFNPOEFFTUBWBPFSSP
1PSRVDPNFOUBSVNFYBNFDPSSJHJEP
6NBQSPWBPSBMFVNBQSPWBFTDSJUBOPUNPCSJHBUPSJBNFOUFEFTFS
PGJOBMEFVNQSPDFTTPQPEFNUPSOBSTFVNJOTUSVNFOUPEFEFUFDP
EFEJGJDVMEBEFTRVFQFSNJUBUPNBSNFEJEBT
0NBJTSFDPNFOEWFMRVF BTTJNRVFPBMVOPUJWFSSFBMJ[BEPVNBQSPWB 
BSFDFCBKDPSSJHJEBPNBJTDFEPQPTTWFMFTFEFJYFBMHVNUFNQPQBSB
DPNFOUBSPTSFTVMUBEPTFUPEBTBTDPSSFDFTRVFPQSPGFTTPSQPTTBUFS
BTTJOBMBEP4FSNBJTFOSJRVFDFEPSTFFTUBDPOWFSTBGPSBCFSUBBUPEPT 
QPSRVFBNBJPSJBEPTDPNFOUSJPTRVFTVSHJSFNTFSPUFJTUBNCNQBSB
PVUSPTDPNQBOIFJSPT"MHVNBTTVHFTUFTEJEDUJDBTTPBTTFHVJOUFT
"KVEFPTBEJTUJOHVJSFOUSFEJGJDVMEBEFTEFDPOUFEPFEJGJDVMEBEFT
EFQSPDFEJNFOUP
t 1BTTFSFWJTUBTFTUSBUHJBTCTJDBT
 -FTUFEFTEFPQSJODQJPUPEBTBTQFSHVOUBTQBSBUFSFTVNBJEFJBHFSBM
 4FMFDDJPOBTUFQSJNFJSPBTRVFUFQBSFDJBNNBJTTJNQMFT
 3FMFTUFUPEBTBTSFTQPTUBTBOUFTEFQBTTBSTFHVJOUF
 3FWJTUFUVEPBOUFTEFFOUSFHBSPFYBNF
t *OUFSFTTFTFQFMBHFTUPEPUFNQP
 %FJUFUFNQPQBSBGB[FSFTUVEPDPNUSBORVJMJEBEF
 0MIBTUFQBSBPSFMHJPQBSBDBMDVMBSPUFNQPRVFBJOEBUJOIBT
 2VBOEPGJDBTUFQSFTPOVNBQFSHVOUB PRVFGJ[FTUF
t &YJKBVNBBOMJTFEPTSFTVMUBEPT
 &TQFSBWBTFTUFSFTVMUBEP
 0RVFQPEFTNFMIPSBS
 0RVFQSFDJTBTEFNFMIPSBS

%&4"'*04 t $JODJBTEB/BUVSF[B t oBOP t 4BOUJMMBOB$POTUODJB

377

PARTE

Tcnicas e mtodos de estudo

9
1PSRVFTFEFWFPCTFSWBSVNDBEFSOP
4FPCTFSWBSEFGPSNBQFSJEJDBPTDBEFSOPTEPTTFVTBMVOPT FTUFTFTUBSP
BCFOFGJDJBSEVQMBNFOUF
t 1PSVNMBEP TFOUFNTFJODMVEPTOVNBSPUJOBEFDPOUSPMPRVFMIFTE
TFHVSBOBTPDPOTUBOUFTOBFYFDVPEBTTVBTUBSFGBTFTDSJUBTFPTFV
QSPGFTTPSJOUFSFTTBTFQPSJTTPFSFDPOIFDFPFNDBEBSFWJTP4FOUFNTF
SFDPNQFOTBEPTQPSTFSFNSFTQPOTWFJT
t 1PSPVUSPMBEP BTBOPUBFTRVFGJDBNBQTDBEBPCTFSWBPGB[FNDPNRVF
TFBQFSDFCBNEFEJGJDVMEBEFTRVFFMFTNFTNPTOPUJOIBNEFUFDUBEP
 "MHVOTFYFSDDJPTEFWFSCPTFTUPNBMSFWPT
 1PSRVFSB[POPBTTJOBMBTPRVFDPSSJHFTOBBVMB 1SFDJTPEFTBCFS
TFFTUTFOHBOBEP
 $VJEBEP RVFTWF[FTOPDPSSJHFTCFNPTFYFSDDJPT
 $VJEBNBJTEBBQSFTFOUBPEPUFVDBEFSOPEJSJP FUD

 &TUSBUHJBTSFDPOIFDFSPRVFTFBQSFOEFV
2VBOEPVNBMVOPQSBQBSBSFGMFDUJSFQBSBSFDPOIFDFSPRVFBQSFOEFV
t 3FDBQJUVMBBTBQSFOEJ[BHFOTQBSBMIFTEBSTFOUJEP
t 5PNBDPOTDJODJBEPTBWBOPT
t 7FSJGJDBPYJUPEBTTVBTFTUSBUHJBTQFTTPBJTF JODMVTJWBNFOUF NFMIPSB
0RVFNFEFNBTRVBMJGJDBFTBDBENJDBT
/VNSFMBUSJPEFBWBMJBPSFGMFDUFNTFPTSFTVMUBEPTEPSFOEJNFOUPFTDPMBS
"DFJUBOEP DPNPOPQPEFTFSEFPVUSBGPSNB PTSFRVFSJNFOUPTRVFBT
JOTUODJBTFEVDBUJWBTMFHJTMBNTPCSFBBWBMJBP PDFSUPRVFBJOUFSQSFUBP
WBSJBTFHVOEPBQFSTQFDUJWBBEPQUBEB
t 1BSBPTEPDFOUFT HVJBEPTQFMBOPSNBUJWBMFHBM FTTFTSFTVMUBEPTQSPWN
EBDPOKVOPEFPCKFDUJWPTBMDBOBEPT DPODFQUVBJT EFQSPDFEJNFOUP
FEFBUJUVEF
NBJTBTDPNQFUODJBT UVEPJTTPEFQVSBEPQFMPTDSJUSJPT
EFBUFOPEJWFSTJEBEF
A sua capacidade profissional permite-lhes distinguir resultados pontuais
de referncias globais de avaliao.
t 1BSBPTQBJT FTTFTSFTVMUBEPTTPBTPNBEBTDBQBDJEBEFTEPTFVGJMIP
NBJTPFTGPSPRVFFTUFSFBMJ[PV
A partir das qualificaes manifestam atitudes de aprovao, de desaprovao
ou de indiferena; projectam uma imagem de reforo positivo ou de determinismo fatalista; transmitem uma anlise realista da situao ou mascaram
a realidade; etc.
t 1BSBPBMVOP BTRVBMJGJDBFTUPSOBNTFBJNBHFNRVFQSPKFDUBNEFTJ
NFTNPTFTP QPSTVBWF[ PSFGMFYPRVFBSFBMJEBEFMIFTEFWPMWF
Podem utilizar-se como um instrumento muito potente de reflexo entre o adulto
e o estudante.
1PSJTTP TFKBRVBMGPSBDPSSFOUFQFEBHHJDBOBRVBMTFJOTDSFWFVNEPDFOUF 
FTFKBRVBMGPSBDPODFQPRVFBGBNMJBUJWFSEPBDUPQFEBHHJDP PDFSUP
RVFQBSBPWFSEBEFJSPQSPUBHPOJTUBEBBQSFOEJ[BHFNPVTFKB QBSB
PBMVOP BTRVBMJGJDBFTBDBENJDBTEFWFSJBNGVODJPOBSDPNPNBJTVN
SFDVSTPQBSBSFDPOIFDFSPRVFWBJBQSFOEFOEPFQBSBSFGMFDUJSTPCSFBTTVBT
BUJUVEFTFPTTFVTICJUPT

378

%&4"'*04 t $JODJBTEB/BUVSF[B t oBOP t 4BOUJMMBOB$POTUODJB

PARTE

"QSFTFOUBPEFUSBCBMIPT

Tcnicas e mtodos de estudo

1FTRVJTBSJOGPSNBP
 &NRVFDPOTJTUFBQFTRVJTBEFJOGPSNBP 
1FTRVJTBSJOGPSNBPVNBUBSFGBQMBOJGJDBEBRVFUFNVNPCKFDUJWP"OUFT
EFJOJDJBSBQFTRVJTBEFJOGPSNBP OFDFTTSJP
1. 4BCFSCFNPRVFTFQSPDVSB

0RVFQSPDVSP

2. 1POEFSBSRVBMBGPOUFNBJTJEOFB

0OEFQSPDVSBS

3. "QMJDBSBFTUSBUHJBNBJTFGJDB[

$PNPQSPDVSBS

 1PSRVFSB[PQSPDVSBNPTJOGPSNBFT 
t 4PMVDJPOBSBTBDUJWJEBEFTDPODSFUBTQSPQPTUBT
t 4 PMVDJPOBSEWJEBTFBERVJSJSDPOIFDJNFOUPTTPCSFPTRVBJTGB[FNQFS
HVOUBT TFKBEFGPSNBFTQPOUOFBPVQPSPCSJHBP
"MNEJTTP OPUFSDFJSPDJDMPEP&OTJOP#TJDP PTBMVOPTBQSPGVOEBNBQFT
RVJTBEFJOGPSNBFTQBSB
t QSFQBSBSFFMBCPSBSUSBCBMIPTFTDSJUPT
t QSFQBSBSFBQSFTFOUBSFYQPTJFTPSBJT

 &TUSBUHJBTFTDPMIFSCPBTGPOUFTEFJOGPSNBP
0TBMVOPTEP&OTJOP#TJDPBJOEBOPEJTQFNEFQMFOBDBQBDJEBEFQBSB
EJTUJOHVJSJOGPSNBPEFPQJOJP5BNCNOPQPEFNEJTUJOHVJSEFGPSNB
BVUOPNBBTJOGPSNBFTWFSEBEFJSBTFDPOGJSNBEBTEBTRVFOPPTP
1BSBFTDPMIFSDPSSFDUBNFOUFBTGPOUFTEFJOGPSNBP  OFDFTTSJPUFS
FNDPOUBUSTWBSJWFJT
*OGPSNBP
7FSBDJEBEF
3FBMJEBEF

0QJOJPFJOUFSQSFUBP
*NQSFDJTP JOUFOPUFOEFODJPTBPVSFDSFBPTVCKFDUJWB
'JDP
/VNMJWSPEFUFYUPFODPOUSBNPTBJOGPSNBP
CFNEJGFSFODJBEBEFUVEPPRVFOPP

/VNEPDVNFOUSJPUFMFWJTJWP TPCSFUVEPTFUJWFSPBWBMEFVNB
FNQSFTBEFQSFTUHJP DPTUVNBNPTFODPOUSBSWFSBDJEBEF

/VNSPNBODFFODPOUSBNPTGJDP BJOEBRVF
QPTTBTFSVNBGJDPWFSPTNJM

%&4"'*04 t $JODJBTEB/BUVSF[B t oBOP t 4BOUJMMBOB$POTUODJB

379

PARTE

Tcnicas e mtodos de estudo

9
5PEBTBTGPOUFTTPGJWFJT
$BEBWF[RVFPTBMVOPTFBMVOBTUNEFSFBMJ[BSVNUSBCBMIPNPOPHSGJDP 
SFDPNFOEWFMRVFMFWFNBDBCPVNBTFTTPDPMFDUJWBQBSBEFUFSNJOBSRVF
GPOUFTEFJOGPSNBPTPBTNBJTBEFRVBEBT
"MHVNBTGPOUFTEFJOGPSNBPPGFSFDFN a priori VNBMUPHSBVEFGJBCJMJEBEF
BSFTQFJUPEPTTFVTDPOUFEPT

&NUFMFWJTP
/FNUVEPSFBM OFNUVEP
DFSUP

t -JWSPTFFODJDMPQEJBT HBSBOUJEPTQFMPOPNFEPTBVUPSFTFEBFEJUPSB
t $%FPVUSBTQVCMJDBFTEJHJUBJT FEJUBEBTQPSFNQSFTBTEFSFDPOIFDJEP
QSFTUHJP
t %PDVNFOUSJPTUFMFWJTJWPT
t 3FWJTUBTFTQFDJBMJ[BEBT
t ' PMIFUPTEJWVMHBUJWPTFEJUBEPTQPSFOUJEBEFTSFDPOIFDJEBTFBENJOJTUSBFT
QCMJDBT1HJOBTEB*OUFSOFUDPNPBWBMEFJOTUJUVJFTFEVDBUJWBTEF
QSFTUHJP
t &OUSFWJTUBTFNEJSFDUPPVHSBWBEBT DPNQFSJUPT BVUPSFT JOWFTUJHBEPSFT 
QFSTPOBMJEBEFTy
"VUJMJ[BPEFPVUSBTGPOUFTEFJOGPSNBPSFRVFSBBKVEBEFVNBEVMUPRVF
PSJFOUFPTBMVOPTFPTBDPOTFMIFRVBOUPBTFSFNQFSUJOFOUFTQBSBPUJQP
EFJOGPSNBPRVFQSPDVSBN
t *NQSFOTBFTDSJUBFEJHJUBM
t 1SPHSBNBTJOGPSNBUJWPTEFSEJPFUFMFWJTP
t 1SPHSBNBTEFUFMFWJTPRVFPGFSFDFNFOUSFWJTUBT UFSUMJBTFDPNFOUSJPT
EFOPUDJBT
t 1HJOBTEB*OUFSOFU CMPHVFT HFTUPSFTEFDPOUFEPT

/B*OUFSOFU
1PEFNPTFODPOUSBS
JOGPSNBPRVFOPFTUFKB
DPOGJSNBEBFOPTBCFS
RVFNFTUOBPSJHFN
EBTVBQVCMJDBP

& GJOBMNFOUF FYJTUFNBMHVOTGPSNBUPTRVFDPOWNRVFTUJPOBSBOUFTEF


EFJYBSRVFPTBMVOPTEFTUFOWFMPTVUJMJ[FNDPNPGPOUFTEFJOGPSNBP
t "TGPUPDQJBTRVFDBSFBNEFJEFOUJGJDBPEBGPOUF
t "TQHJOBTEB*OUFSOFU PTCMPHVFTFPTHFTUPSFTEFDPOUFEPTRVFOP
FTUFKBNTVGJDJFOUFNFOUFJEFOUJGJDBEPT
t "TQHJOBTEB*OUFSOFUFNRVFPTVUJMJ[BEPSFTTPRVFNJOUSPEV[FTQPO
UBOFBNFOUFBJOGPSNBP
t 0TQSPHSBNBTEFUFMFWJTPEFRVBMRVFSUJQP RVFPTQBJTPVEPDFOUFT
DPOTJEFSFNUFOEFODJPTPT JOBQSPQSJBEPTPVQPVDPFEVDBUJWPT
1PEFNPCUFSTFJOGPSNBFTBQBSUJSEFVNGJMNF
6NGJMNFEFGJDPQPEFUPSOBSTFVNBCPBGPOUFEFJOGPSNBPQBSBUSBCB
MIBSBTQFDUPT DPNPPTJOEJDBEPTFNTFHVJEB
t "BNCJFOUBPBVNBQPDBFBVNMVHBSGPSNBEFWJEB SPVQB DVMUVSB 
DPTUVNFT UFDOPMPHJBy
t 0TGFJUPTIJTUSJDPTSFMFWBOUFT QFMPNFOPTFNMJOIBTHFSBJTPRVFPDPSSFV 
RVBOEPFPOEF
t "CJPHSBGJBEFHSBOEFTQFSTPOBHFOTIJTUSJDBTRVFNFSB PRVFGF[ DPNP
WJWFV
t "PCSBEFHSBOEFTBSUJTUBT TFKBRVBMGPSBTVBSFBQJOUVSB EBOB NTJDB 
MJUFSBUVSBy

380

%&4"'*04 t $JODJBTEB/BUVSF[B t oBOP t 4BOUJMMBOB$POTUODJB

PARTE

9
Tcnicas e mtodos de estudo

t "THSBOEFTPCSBTEBMJUFSBUVSB0TBMVOPTQPEFNNFSHVMIBSOBIJTUSJB
EFVNHSBOEFBDPOUFDJNFOUP BJOEBRVFOPUFOIBNVNOWFMTVGJDJFOUF
QBSBFOGSFOUBSBTVBMFJUVSBEJSFDUB
t "TGJHVSBTFBTIJTUSJBTEBTEJGFSFOUFTDVMUVSBTNJUPMHJDBTGBNJMJBSJ[BSTF
DPNBTHSBOEFTQFSTPOBHFOTEBNJUPMPHJBHSFHB EBNJUPMPHJBMBUJOB
PVEBNJUPMPHJBEPTQPWPTEP/PSUFEB&VSPQB
t *OGPSNBFTDJFOUGJDBT BWBOPTUFDOPMHJDPT GFONFOPTEB/BUVSF[B 
FUD
t 0TDPOUFEPTHFPHSGJDPTPOEFFTUPTJUVBEPTFTTFTMVHBSFT EFPOEF
FQBSBPOEFWJBKBNPTQSPUBHPOJTUBTy
t "EFTDSJPEFTJUVBFTFDPONJDBTFTPDJBJT
t "DPMPDBPEFQSPCMFNBTDPMFDUJWPT EFGPSNBBQSPNPWFSBSFGMFYPUJDB
EFTJHVBMEBEFT JOKVTUJBT DPOGMJUPTCMJDPT QSPCMFNBTFDPMHJDPTy
"QFTBSEFUVEP BOUFTEFVUJMJ[BSVNGJMNFDPNPSFDVSTPEJEDUJDP DPOWN
BTTFHVSBSTFEPSJHPSEPTTFVTDPOUFEPT
0RVFUSB[FNBTJOGPSNBFTHSGJDBT
"JOEBRVFBDUVBMNFOUFJNQFSFNPTGPSNBUPTEFJOGPSNBPWJTVBM DPOUJOVB
BTFSOFDFTTSJPSFDPSSFSMJOHVBHFNWFSCBMQBSBQSPDFTTBSUBOUPBPCTFSWB
PDPNPBBOMJTFEBJOGPSNBPWJTVBM
2VBOEPOVNBNFTNBGPOUFBQBSFDFJOGPSNBPFTDSJUBFWJTVBM SFDPNFO
EWFMSFGMFDUJSTPCSFFTUBMUJNBBOBMJTBSRVFJOGPSNBPUSB[FWFSCBMJ[MB
"RVJFTUPBMHVOTFYFNQMPTDPNRVFEFQBSBNEJBSJBNFOUFPTBMVOPTEP
&OTJOP#TJDPRVBOEPUNTVBGSFOUFVNNBOVBMPVVNMJWSPJOGPSNBUJWP
HFSBMFRVFBQSPWFJUBNFOUPQPEFNGB[FSEFMFT
%VSBOUFBMFJUVSBOBBVMB
*OTJTUBRVFPTBMVOPT
PCTFSWFNDVJEBEPTBNFOUF
BTJNBHFOTFBTDPNFOUFN
%FTUBGPSNBIBCJUVBNTF
BWFSCBMJ[BSBTPCTFSWBFT
EJSFDUBT

6NBJMVTUSBPOVNUFYUPMJUFSSJP
QPTTWFMRVFSFGMJDUBPBNCJFOUFEBIJTUSJBRVBOEPOPSFMBUPOPTFEJ[
FYQMJDJUBNFOUF UBMWF[QPSRVFTFKBVNGSBHNFOUPEFVNBPCSBNBJPS POEF
FRVBOEPUFNMVHBSBIJTUSJB
6NBGPUPHSBGJBOVNUFNBTPCSFQPMUJDB
.VJUPQSPWBWFMNFOUFVNBEBTQFSTPOBMJEBEFTRVFQSPUBHPOJ[BPRVF
TFFTUBFYQMJDBS1PSFYFNQMP RVFNPQSFTJEFOUFEPHPWFSOP
6NRVBESPPVVNBGPUPHSBGJBKVOUPEFVNUFYUPEF)JTUSJB
QPTTWFMRVFSFGMJDUBVNBTJUVBPDPODSFUBPVVNDPTUVNF1PSFYFNQMP 
DSJBOBTBUSBCBMIBSFNNJOBTEVSBOUFBSFWPMVPJOEVTUSJBM
6NFEJGDJPPVVNPCKFDUP
1PEFUSBUBSTFEFVNFMFNFOUPNVJUPTJHOJGJDBUJWPEFVNBDJWJMJ[BP RVF
BKVEBBGJYBSBJOGPSNBP1PSFYFNQMP VNBQJSNJEFPVVNTBSDGBHP
EP&HJQUPBOUJHP
6NHSGJDPOVNBJOGPSNBPNBUFNUJDB
1PEFTFSVNBJOGPSNBPBVUOPNB KVOUPEPUFYUP1PSFYFNQMP BDIVWB
RVFDBJVOVNBSFHJPEVSBOUFVNBOP

%&4"'*04 t $JODJBTEB/BUVSF[B t oBOP t 4BOUJMMBOB$POTUODJB

381

PARTE

Tcnicas e mtodos de estudo

9
6NEFTFOIPFTRVFNUJDPKVOUPBVNUFYUPTPCSFQMBOUBT
0NBJTQSPWWFMRVFSFDPMIBBJOGPSNBPRVFBQBSFDFEFTDSJUBOPUFYUP
RVFPBDPNQBOIBQPTTWFMRVFUBNCNDPOUFOIBWPDBCVMSJPDIBWF
0OEFDPNFBSBDPOTVMUB
3FWFSUPEPPOEJDF$POTVMUBSBQFOBTBTQHJOBT
OFDFTTSJBT

/VNMJWSP

/VNNPUPS
EFCVTDB
EB*OUFSOFU

*OUSPEV[JSPUFNBPVBMHVNBQBMBWSBDIBWF
&TDPMIFSBTQSPQPTUBTPQPSUVOBTFEFTDBSUBS
BTRVFOPJOUFSFTTBN

/VNBQHJOB
EB*OUFSOFU

4FMFDDJPOBSBTPQFTEBQHJOBEFJODJP
$POIFDFSPTNFOVTTVDFTTJWPT

/VNBFODJDMPQEJB
EJHJUBM

*OUSPEV[JSPUFNBPVBMHVNBQBMBWSBDIBWF
4FHVJSBTMJHBFTRVFWPBQBSFDFOEP

 &TUSBUHJBTTFMFDDJPOBSFPSHBOJ[BSBJOGPSNBP
5SBORVJMJ[BSPTBMVOPT
4VHFSJSMIFTRVFFTDPMIBN
TPNFOUFEVBTPVUSTGPOUFT
EFJOGPSNBP NBTOVODB
VNT
.FTNPBTTJN BUBSFGB
FYJHJSMIFTVNFTGPSP
DPOTJEFSWFM

"EJGJDVMEBEFEFTFMFDDJPOBSBJOGPSNBPSFTJEJBFNWFODFSBEWJEB
FEFDJEJSRVFJOGPSNBFTJOUFSFTTBNFBTRVFTFWPEFTDBSUBS
%FUPEBBJOGPSNBPFODPOUSBEBy

'JDPDPNPRV

%FTDBSUPPRV

1BSBRVFPTBMVOPTQPTTBNMFWBSBDBCPFTUBTFMFDP QPEFNOFDFTTJUBS
TPCSFUVEPOPTQSJNFJSPTUSBCBMIPTEFVNBTFTTPDPMFDUJWBOBRVBM
SFDFCBNBKVEB1SRVFTUFTRVFQFSNJUBNDFOUSBSPUFNB
46(&45&41"3""+6%"3
04"-6/04

382

&9&.1-0%&$0.0"10/5"3"*/'03."0

4PCSFRVFUFNB
QFTRVJTBSBNJOGPSNBP

4PCSFTFSFTNPOTUSVPTPT

&TUBBQSPQPTUBEFUSBCBMIP
RVFSFDFCFSBN

&NRVBOUBTQHJOBT
EB*OUFSOFUFODPOUSBSBN
JOGPSNBP

/PMJWSPMonstros e Bruxas OBFODJDMPQEJBMundos


e Culturas OB8JLJQEJBy
5FOIPVNMJWSPTPCSFPTIPNFOTMPCPy
5FOIPVNMJWSPTPCSFESBHFTy

"OPUFUPEPTOPRVBESP

%FDJEJSBNDPODFOUSBSTF
FNRV

7PVGB[FSVNUSBCBMIPTPCSFNPOTUSPTNBSJOIPT
&VWPVGB[FSTPCSFPTIPNFOTMPCP
&VWPVGB[FSVNUSBCBMIPTPCSFNPOTUSPTFN3PNB
FOB(SDJB

%JHBBDBEBVNRVFBQPOUF
PUUVMPEPTFVUSBCBMIP
Os monstros marinhos;
Os homens-lobo

&NRVFQHJOBTEB*OUFSOFU
FODPOUSBSBNJOGPSNBP
TPCSFFTTFUFNBDPODSFUP

/B8JLJQEJBFOPMJWSPNo Fundo do Mar


/PMJWSPMistrios do Homem-Lobo

2VFDBEBVNBOPUFBQFOBT
BTGPOUFTRVFMIFTFSWJSPQBSB
PTFVUSBCBMIP

%&4"'*04 t $JODJBTEB/BUVSF[B t oBOP t 4BOUJMMBOB$POTUODJB

PARTE

9
Tcnicas e mtodos de estudo

$PNPTFPSHBOJ[BBJOGPSNBP
1BSBSFBMJ[BSVNUSBCBMIPEFQFTRVJTB OFDFTTSJPPSHBOJ[BSBJOGPSNBP
EFRVFTFEJTQF FQBSBJTTPJNQSFTDJOEWFMFMBCPSBSVNHVJP

123

0HVJP

t %FMJNJUBPDPOUFEPEPUSBCBMIP
t .BSDBBTQBSUFTRVFWPDPNQPSPUSBCBMIP
t $POTUSJBFTUSVUVSBEPUSBCBMIP

"KVEBBTFMFDDJPOBS
"KVEBBPSEFOBS
"KVEBBPSHBOJ[BS

2VBOEPTFFMBCPSBPQMBOP
2VBOEPTFUFNFYQFSJODJBBGB[FSUSBCBMIPT QPTTWFMFMBCPSBSPQSJNFJSP
QMBOPMPHPRVFTFDPOIFBPUFNB NBTQBSBBMVOPTRVFFTUPBDPNFBS
DPOWFOJFOUFFTUBCFMFDFSPTFHVJOUFQSPDFTTP
Receber o pedido

 1FEFNNFQBSBGB[FSVNUSBCBMIP

Seleccionar as fontes
de informao

 0CTFSWPPOEFQPTTPFODPOUSBSJOGPSNBP
FFTDPMIPBTEVBTPVUSTGPOUFTRVFNF
QBSFDFNNFMIPSFT

Elaborar um plano

 &TDSFWPPUUVMPEBTTFDFTRVFPNFV
USBCBMIPWBJUFS&UBNCNQFOTPTFBMHVNB
EFTTBTTFDFTUFSTVCTFDFT

Seleccionar
a informao

 1FTRVJTPFBOPUPBJOGPSNBPDPODSFUB 
EFBDPSEPDPNPQMBOP

Aperfeioar o plano

 4FFORVBOUPGBPPUSBCBMIPWFKPRVFNF
GBMUBNTFDFTPVRVFNFMIPSPSEFOMBT
EF PVUSB GPSNB  WPV NVEBOEP P NFV
QMBOP

$PNPTFBQSFOEFBGB[FSVNQMBOP
0TBMVOPT BJOEBTFNFYQFSJODJB OFDFTTJUBNEFBKVEBQBSBTFIBCJUVBSFN
BGB[FSHVJFTEFUSBCBMIP1PSJTTP
t 1FSNJUBJEFOUJGJDBFTBMHPTJNQMJTUBT NBTFGJDB[FT
 5FNBEPUSBCBMIP5UVMP
 (VJPEPUSBCBMIPOEJDF
 4FDFT0RVFRVFSPTBCFS

"TMVMBT
1. 0RVFTP
2. 0OEFWJWFN
3. $PNPWJWFN
 B
 0RVFDPNFN
 C
 $PNPTFSFMBDJPOBN
 D
 $PNPTFSFQSPEV[FN
4. 2VFMFOEBTTFDPOUBN
TPCSFFMBT

t 'BBBHFTUPEPTUFSNPTTFDP HSBOEFTTFDFT
FTVCTFDP EJWJTFT
EBTHSBOEFTTFDFT

t 0QSJNFJSPQMBOPTPNFOUFDPNQPTUPQPSHSBOEFTTFDFT&TUBTEFWFN
TFSOVNFSBEBTFFTDSJUBTFNNBJTDVMBT
t 'PSNVMFBTHSBOEFTTFDFTDPNPSBFTJOUFSSPHBUJWBTQBSBRVFQBSFBN
JOEJDBFTEFUSBCBMIP&WJUFPTTJOUBHNBTOPNJOBJT QPSRVFFYJHFNVNB
NBJPSBCTUSBDP
t &TUBCFMFBTVCTFDFTOVNTFHVOEPNPNFOUPFTTFGPSFNJNQSFTDJO
EWFJT&TUBTEFWFNTFSBTTJOBMBEBTDPNMFUSBTFFTDSJUBTFNNJOTDVMBT

%&4"'*04 t $JODJBTEB/BUVSF[B t oBOP t 4BOUJMMBOB$POTUODJB

383

PARTE

Tcnicas e mtodos de estudo

&MBCPSBSUSBCBMIPTFTDSJUPT
 &NRVFDPOTJTUFVNUSBCBMIPEFQFTRVJTB 
0TUSBCBMIPTNPOPHSGJDPT
GPNFOUBN
t BDVSJPTJEBEFQPSBQSFOEFS
t BBVUPOPNJBQFTTPBM
t BCVTDBEFSFDVSTPT

/VNUSBCBMIPEFQFTRVJTB PBMVOPEPDVNFOUBTFTPCSFVNUFNBFQSFQBSB
VNdossierFTDSJUP
/BQSUJDBEJSJBQPEFNTVSHJSEJGJDVMEBEFT"MHVOTBMVOPTSFTJTUFNBQSPQPTUBT
EFNBTJBEPMJWSFTFPVUSPTTPCSFUVEPPTRVFFTUPNFOPTDPOTDJFOUFTEPT
TFVTQSPDFTTPTEFBQSFOEJ[BHFNDPOTJEFSBNRVFBWBMPSJ[BPEPTTFVT
USBCBMIPTEFQFOEFEBTVCKFDUJWJEBEFEPQSPGFTTPSNBJTEPRVFEPTFVFTGPSP
OFDFTTSJPFMJNJOBSBTSFTJTUODJBTFNBNCPTPTDBTPT
$POWNUFSFNDPOUBRVF QBSBPTBMVOPT FOGSFOUBSVNUSBCBMIPEFQFTRVJTB
UPSOBPTGSFRVFOUFNFOUFJOTFHVSP
t BUBSFGBEVSB
t EFWFNQSPDVSBSJOGPSNBPOVNFYUFOTPDBNQPPOEFQBSFDFOPIBWFS
MJNJUFT
t EFWFNGB[FSPQFTFUPNBSEFDJTFTEVSBOUFUPEBTBTGBTFTEPQSP
DFTTP
t O
 PGJOBMEPDBNJOIP FOUSFHBSPVNUSBCBMIPFTFOUJSPRVFPRVFFTU
GFJUPFTUGFJUPFRVFOPUNQPTTJCJMJEBEFEFWPMUBSBUST

 1PSRVFSB[PTFQFEFQBSBGB[FSFNUSBCBMIPT
FTDSJUPT 
0TEPDFOUFTQFEFNBPTTFVTBMVOPTQBSBGB[FSFNUSBCBMIPTFTDSJUPTQBSB
RVFUSFJOFN
t "QMBOJGJDBPEFQSPDFTTPT
t "QFTRVJTB TFMFDPFPSHBOJ[BPEFJOGPSNBP
t "SFEBDPEFEJTDVSTPTJOGPSNBUJWPTFYUFOTPT
0BMVOPEFWFDPOIFDFSEFBOUFNPBTGBTFTQPSRVFWBJQBTTBSFEJTUSJCVMBT
OVNDBMFOESJP
Data
do pedido

 &MBCPSBSVNQMBOP
 1SPDVSBSJOGPSNBP
FPSHBOJ[MB
 &MBCPSBSVNSBTDVOIP

$PQJBS SFTVNJS FYQMJDBS

 3FEJHJSPUSBCBMIPGJOBM

3FJOUFSQSFUBS QFSTPOBMJ[BS
3FEJHJSEFGJOJUJWBNFOUF
FEFGPSNBQFSTPOBMJ[BEB
$PSSJHJS
*ODPSQPSBSFMFNFOUPT
HSGJDPT

Data
de entrega

384

%&4"'*04 t $JODJBTEB/BUVSF[B t oBOP t 4BOUJMMBOB$POTUODJB

&ODBEFSOBSPVFEJUBS

PARTE

9
Tcnicas e mtodos de estudo

 &TUSBUHJBTFMBCPSBSPQMBOP
0TBMVOPT EFTEFPTQSJNFJSPTOWFJT QPEFNBQSFOEFSBFMBCPSBSTJNQMFT
HVJFTEFUSBCBMIP
"FMBCPSBPEFHVJFTQPEFUPSOBSTFVNBBDUJWJEBEFQPSTJT BURVF
BERVJSBNTVGJDJFOUFEFTUSF[B
#BTUBFTDSFWFSVNBQSPQPTUBOPRVBESP QPSFYFNQMPjBFTGFSPHSGJDBxF FN
TFHVJEB DPMPDBSMIFTBTFHVJOUFQFSHVOUBj0RVFHPTUBSBNPTEFTBCFSTPCSF
BFTGFSPHSGJDB x
%FQPJT QPEFNBOPUBSTFOPRVBESPUPEBTBTQFSHVOUBTRVFTVSKBNEFGPSNB
FTQPOUOFB QBSBRVFBQBSFBVNNPTBJDPEFQPOUPTBUSBUBS BJOEBRVF
EFTPSEFOBEPT
2VFNBJOWFOUPV
  

0RVFVNBFTGFSPHSGJDB

0TOPTTPTBWTVUJMJ[BWBNBFTGFSPHSGJDB

&PTOPTTPTQBJT


$PNPNVEPVBWJEBEFTEFRVFTFJOWFOUPVBFTGFSPHSGJDB
"&4'&30(3'*$"

$PNPGVODJPOBVNBFTGFSPHSGJDB
  

0OEFTFGBCSJDPVBQSJNFJSBFTGFSPHSGJDB


  

$PNPTFFTDSFWJBBOUFTEFFYJTUJSFTGFSPHSGJDB


%FTEFRVBOEPFYJTUFNFTGFSPHSGJDBT

$PNPGVODJPOBNBTFTGFSPHSGJDBT

$IFHBEPFTUFNPNFOUP PTBMVOPTQPEFSPDPNBKVEBPSEFOBSBT
RVFTUFT BHSVQBSBTBQFSGFJPBEBTFEFTDBSUBSBTSFQFUJUJWBT6NBQPTTWFM
PSEFNTFSJBPTFHVJOUF
"FTGFSPHSGJDB
t 0RVFVNBFTGFSPHSGJDB
t $PNPGVODJPOBVNBFTGFSPHSGJDB
t 2VFNBJOWFOUPV RVBOEPFPOEF
t $PNPTFFTDSFWJBBOUFTEBFTGFSPHSGJDB
t $PNPNVEPVBWJEBEFTEFRVFTFJOWFOUPVBFTGFSPHSGJDB
0SFTVMUBEPVNBGPSNVMBPDMBSBFTJNQMFT NBTUPSJHPSPTBDPNPPQMBOP
RVFQPEFSJBQSFQBSBSVNBMVOPEP&OTJOP4FDVOESJP
"FTGFSPHSGJDB
t %FTDSJP
t 'VODJPOBNFOUP
t *OWFOP
t "OUFDFEFOUFT
t 3FQFSDVTTFT

%&4"'*04 t $JODJBTEB/BUVSF[B t oBOP t 4BOUJMMBOB$POTUODJB

385

PARTE

Tcnicas e mtodos de estudo

9
 &TUSBUHJBTFMBCPSBSVNSBTDVOIP
0BMVOPFMBCPSBPSBTDVOIPDPNBJOGPSNBPTFMFDDJPOBEBFPSHBOJ[BEB 
RVBMWBJEBOEPVNBGPSNBQSQSJB
0SBTDVOIPUFSEFTFSVNUSBCBMIPQFTTPBM NBTRVFUFOIBJOGPSNBFT
DFSUBT&TTFEJGDJMFRVJMCSJPDPOTFHVFTFGB[FOEPBMHVNBTSFDPNFOEBFT
TJNQMFT
026&53"/4.*5*.04"0"-6/0

t 3FTVNFTFBJOGPSNBPRVF
BQBSFDFNVJUPFYUFOTB

t 3FFTDSFWFNTFBTJOGPSNBFTRVF
QPEFNTFSSFTVNJEBT

t 4TFDPQJBNBTUBCFMBT
PTEFTFOIPT BTMJTUBTEFQBMBWSBT
PTEBEPTDPODSFUPTy

t 4TFDPQJBRVBOEPTFRVFSDJUBS
FYBDUBNFOUFPFODPOUSBEP

$0.0&91-*$"3
-FJPJOGPSNBPRVFPDVQBEVBT
QHJOBTFSFTVNPBFNQPVDBTMJOIBT
$PNQSFFOEPPRVFRVFSEJ[FS
FSFEJKPPDPNBTNJOIBTQSQSJBT
QBMBWSBT

$PQJPVNHSGJDPPVVNFTRVFNB
FJOEJDPEFPOEFPDPQJFJ

$PQJPVNQBSHSBGPPVVNGSBHNFOUP
NVJUPCSFWF FTDSFWPPFOUSFBTQBT
FJOEJDPEFRVFNGPJDPQJBEP

t /PTFDPQJBBRVJMPRVFTFNPTUSBS "TNJOIBTPQJOJFTFBTNJOIBT
DPNPVNBPQJOJPQFTTPBM

DPODMVTFTTPUPUBMNFOUFNJOIBT

#PBTQSUJDBT

$PNPSFMBDJPOBSPQMBOPDPNPSBTDVOIP

0JNQPSUBOUFRVF
PSFTVMUBEPTFKBVNUSBCBMIP
CFNEPDVNFOUBEP 
NBTOVODBDPQJBEP
"WFSEBEFJSBPSJHJOBMJEBEF
FTUOBSFEBDPQFSTPOBMJ[BEB
FOBPQJOJPQFTTPBMPVOBT
DPODMVTFT

0TUUVMPTEBTTFDFTFEBTTVCTFDFTNPTUSBNDPNPFTUPSHBOJ[BEP
PUSBCBMIP FFTTBBCBTFEPQMBOP0QMBOPBKVEBOPTBJSDPOTUSVJOEPP
SBTDVOIPF QPSTVBWF[ BPSFEJHJSPSBTDVOIP QPTTWFMRVFTVSKBBOFDFT
TJEBEFEFNPEJGJDBSPQMBOPTVCEJWJEJSBTTFDFT USPDBSBPSEFNEFBMHVNBT
QBSUFT FUD
%VSBOUFUPEBBGBTFEFSBTDVOIP PTUUVMPTEFWFNFTUBSDPSSFDUBNFOUFJOEJ
DBEPT5PEPTBTTFDFTDPNBNFTNBJNQPSUODJBEFWFNTVSHJSEBNFTNB
GPSNB1PSFYFNQMP
(VJPEFUSBCBMIPj"NJOIBFTUVGBx
1. $0.0"$0/4536
   0TNBUFSJBJT
   1BTTPBQBTTP
2. 026&$6-5*7&*
   0RVFTFNFFJ
   %JSJPEPTDVMUJWPT
3. 026&%&4$0#3*

386

%&4"'*04 t $JODJBTEB/BUVSF[B t oBOP t 4BOUJMMBOB$POTUODJB

PARTE

9
Tcnicas e mtodos de estudo

 &TUSBUHJBTSFEJHJSPUSBCBMIPGJOBM
"PSFEJHJSPUSBCBMIPGJOBM IRVFUFSFNDPOUBPTTFHVJOUFTBTQFDUPT
t 4FHVJSGJFMNFOUFPQMBOP
t .BSDBSDPSSFDUBNFOUFPTUUVMPTEFDBEBTFDPFTVCTFDP
t *OUFSDBMBSJMVTUSBFT HSGJDPT y
t &YQSFTTBSTFDPNTJNQMJDJEBEFFDMBSF[B
4FPBMVOPMJEPVDPNJOGPSNBFTOPUFYUVBJT EFDJEJSPRVFGB[FSDPN
FTTFTDPOUFEPT
t 4FGPSFNHSGJDPTPVEFTFOIPT EFWFSDPQJMPT
t 4FGPSFNJNBHFOTQBSBJOTFSJS EFWFSDPMMBTPVEJHJUBMJ[MBT
t 4FGPSFNJOGPSNBFTSFEJHJEBT EFWFSFTDSFWMBTDPNBTTVBTQSQSJBT
QBMBWSBT
0RVFTFSFWBOUFTEFEBSPUSBCBMIPQPSUFSNJOBEP
0SHBOJ[FDPNPTBMVOPTVNBTFTTPQBSBRVFSFWFKBNPTTFVTUSBCBMIPT 
BOUFTEFDPNQPSFNPdossier$BEBRVBMUFSPTFVUSBCBMIPTVBGSFOUF
$0.0&91-*$"3
1. 3FWJTPEPNFV
USBCBMIP&TUUVEP

7FSJGJDPRVFFTUPUPEBTBTTFDFT
FTVCTFDFT

2. 3FWJTP
"PSHBOJ[BP

7FSJGJDPRVFDBEBTFDPFDBEBTVCTFDPFTUP
BTTJOBMBEBTTFHVOEPBTVBDBUFHPSJB

3. 3FWJTP
&YQSFTTPFPSUPHSBGJB

7FSJGJDPRVFBSFEBDPFTUDPSSFDUBFYQSFTTP 
TJOBJTEFQPOUVBP FSSBUBT7FSJGJDPTFOPI
FSSPTEFPSUPHSBGJB

6NBWF[PSEFOBEP

/VNFSBSBTQHJOBT

&MBCPSBSPOEJDF

$PNPTFDPNQFPdossier?
*OEFQFOEFOUFNFOUFEFPUSBCBMIPTFBQSFTFOUBSFNQBQFMPVOVNTVQPSUF
JOGPSNUJDP FYJTUFNBMHVNBTDPOTUBOUFT

1HJOBEFSPTUP

t 5UVMPEPUSBCBMIP DPNJMVTUSBPPVOP

t %BEPTEPBVUPSPVBVUPSFT
t 0VUSPTEBEPTRVFUJWFSJOEJDBEPPEPDFOUF
t 0UUVMPEFDBEBTFDPFPONFSPEFQHJOBFNRVF

OEJDF

DPNFBDBEBVN

t 1PEFFTUBSOPQSJODQJPPVOPGJN

%FTFOWPMWJNFOUP

t $BUFHPSJBTEPTUUVMPTCFNBTTJOBMBEBT
t 5UVMPTFONFSPTEFQHJOBTEFBDPSEP
DPNPOEJDF

t "QSFTFOUBPMJNQF[B NBSHFOT FTQBPT PSUPHSBGJBy


#JCMJPHSBGJB

t $JUBSUPEBTBTGPOUFTVUJMJ[BEBT
t 4JUVMBOPGJOBMEPEJTDVSTP

%&4"'*04 t $JODJBTEB/BUVSF[B t oBOP t 4BOUJMMBOB$POTUODJB

387

PARTE

Tcnicas e mtodos de estudo

"QSFTFOUBSFYQPTJFTPSBJT
 &NRVFDPOTJTUFVNBFYQPTJPPSBM 
"FYQPTJPPSBMGBWPSFDF
t PBVUPDPOUSPMP
t BBVUPFTUJNB
t BGMVJEF[WFSCBM
t BNFNSJB

&YQPSVNUFNBPSBMNFOUFFYJHFRVFBQFTTPBTFEPDVNFOUFFRVFPSHBOJ[F
PEJTDVSTPFNUPSOPEFVNQMBOP
0SB PFTGPSPFPUSBCBMIPQSWJPTGJDBNTVCPSEJOBEPTBPSFTVMUBEPGJOBM
BFYQPTJPQFSBOUFPQCMJDP&OFTTFNPNFOUPEBFYQPTJP PTBTQFDUPT
GPSNBJTDPNPBQPTUVSBFBEJDPTPEFDJTJWPTJNQSFTDJOEWFM
t NBOUFSVNBQPTUVSBEJSFJUB PNBJTOBUVSBMQPTTWFM
t NPWFSBTNPTEFGPSNBDPOUSPMBEB TFNFYBHFSPT
t QSPOVODJBSDPSSFDUBNFOUFBTQBMBWSBT
t DPOUSPMBSPWPMVNFEBWP[GBMBSBMUP NBTTFNHSJUBS
t BKVTUBSBFOUPBPBPEJTDVSTPFNBOUFSPSJUNP

 2VBJTTPPTPCKFDUJWPTEBTFYQPTJFTPSBJT 
"TFYQPTJFTPSBJTUNGJOTEJTUJOUPT1PSFYFNQMP QBSBRVFPTBMVOPT
t TFIBCJUVFNBQMBOJGJDBSUSBCBMIPTDPNVNBDFSUBFOWFSHBEVSB
t DPOTJHBNNBOVTFBSGPOUFTEFEPDVNFOUBP
t BQMJRVFNBQSFOEJ[BHFOTBQBSUJSEFVNQPOUPEFWJTUBNVMUJEJTDJQMJOBS
t TFKBNDBQB[FTEFFYQPSDPOIFDJNFOUPTEFGPSNBPSHBOJ[BEBQFSBOUFVN
QCMJDP
5BMDPNPDPNBFMBCPSBPEFUSBCBMIPTFTDSJUPT QBSBQSFQBSBSVNBFYQP
TJPPSBMOFDFTTSJPRVFPBMVOPDPOIFBEFBOUFNPUPEBTBTGBTFTRVF
EFWFSMFWBSBDBCPFRVFQSFWFKBPTUFNQPTOFDFTTSJPT
Data
do pedido

Data
de entrega

 &MBCPSBSVNQMBOP
 1SPDVSBSJOGPSNBP
FPSHBOJ[MB

t $PNQMFUBSPQMBOPDPN
SFTVNPTFFTRVFNBT
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9
Tcnicas e mtodos de estudo

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9
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10
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10
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Ferramentas TIC

10

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10
Ferramentas TIC

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393

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10
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395

PARTE

Ferramentas TIC

10
/BSFEFFYJTUFNGSVOTDPNPTUFNBTNBJTEJWFSTPT
/PSNBMNFOUF QBSBVUJMJ[MP OFDFTTSJPSFHJTUBSTF 
JOEJDBOEPPOPNFPVQTFVEOJNP nickname
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QBMBWSBQBTTFEFBDFTTPFBDPOUBEFDPSSFJPFMFDUS
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DPMPDBSPTTFVTBSUJHPT BTTVBTFYQFSJODJBT PQJOJFT 
BDUJWJEBEFTGBWPSJUBT NTJDBT WEFPT FOUSFPVUSPT
"JOGPSNBPEPCMPHVFBQBSFDFDPNBEBUBOBRVBM
TFJOTFSJV EFGPSNBTFNFMIBOUFBVNEJSJP FQPEF
TFSBDUVBMJ[BEBQFMPTFVHFTUPSRVBOEPFTUFBTTJN
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RVFQPTTWFMFTUBCFMFDFSVNEJMPHPDPNPVUJMJ[BEPS
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GB[FNQBSUFEPsoftware
EFJOUFSDNCJPEFGJDIFJSPTOBSFEF
0TGJDIFJSPTFTUPEJTUSJCVEPTQPSUPEPTPTDPNQVUB
EPSFTEPTVUJMJ[BEPSFTMJHBEPTBFTUFTJTUFNBFFTUFT
QSPHSBNBTFODBSSFHBNTFEFSFDPMIFSVNQFEBPEF
GJDIFJSPEFDBEBVNEPTDPNQVUBEPSFTEJTQPOWFJTBU
DPOTFHVJSFNSFDPOTUSVJSPGJDIFJSPPVPsoftwareRVF
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396

%&4"'*04 t $JODJBTEB/BUVSF[B t oBOP t 4BOUJMMBOB$POTUODJB

PARTE

10

0RVFVNCMPHVF

Ferramentas TIC

6NCMPHVFPVweblogVNBQHJOBEB*OUFSOFURVF
OPTQFSNJUFQVCMJDBSDPOUFEPTFDPNFOUSJPTTPCSF
RVBMRVFSUFNBRVFOPTJOUFSFTTF&TUBTQHJOBTFTUP
QFOTBEBTQBSBRVFPTVUJMJ[BEPSFTRVFOPTFKBNQFSJ
UPTFNJOGPSNUJDBQPTTBNDPMPDBSOBSFEFBTTVBT
JEFJBT PTTFVTQSPKFDUPT BTTVBTGPUPHSBGJBT FUD FQBS
UJMIBSUVEPJTUPDPNUPEPTPTNFNCSPTEBSFEF
"NBJPSJBEPTCMPHVFTQFSNJUFRVFPTBSUJHPT HFSBM
NFOUFEFOPNJOBEPTFOUSBEBT postFNJOHMT
TFKBN
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6NBTWF[FTPTDPNFOUSJPTTPBGBWPSFPVUSBTDPOUSB
PQVCMJDBEP HFSBOEPQPSWF[FTVNBFTQDJFEFEFCBUF
PVGSVNTPCSFPDPOUFEPQVCMJDBEPOPCMPHVF
0TCMPHVFTEJGFSFODJBNTFEPSFTUPEBTQHJOBTEB
*OUFSOFUOBNFEJEBFNRVFDPTUVNBNNPTUSBSPTTFVT
DPOUFEPTEFGPSNBDSPOPMHJDB DPNPTFGPTTFVN
EJSJP(FSBMNFOUFBQBSFDFNQSJNFJSPPTDPOUFEPT
NBJTBDUVBJT PVTFKB PTMUJNPTBEJDJPOBEPTBPCMPHVF 
F EFQPJT WP TVSHJOEP BT SFTUBOUFT FOUSBEBT BU
TFDIFHBSBPDPOUFEPDPNRVFTFJOJDJPVPCMPHVF
&NDBEBFOUSBEBGJDBSSFHJTUBEBBEBUBOBRVBMTFJODMVJV
PEJUPDPOUFEPFBJOEBTFQPEFSBEJDJPOBSVNUUVMP
RVFJEFOUJGJRVFBJOGPSNBPRVFWBNPTJODMVJS
0TCMPHVFTDPTUVNBNTFSVOJQFTTPBJT BJOEBRVFUBNCN
FYJTUBNCMPHVFTEFHSVQPT RVFQPEFNTFSDSJBEPTF
NBOUJEPTQPSVNHSVQPEFBNJHPTPVQFTTPBTDPNBMHP
FNDPNVN"QFTTPBRVFDSJBPCMPHVFFJODMVJOFMFPT
DPOUFEPTDPOIFDJEBDPNPweblogger PVTJNQMFTNFOUF
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QPEFOEPDPOGJHVSMPTFHVOEPBTTVBTQSFGFSODJBT
1PEFNPTEJTUJOHVJSCMPHVFTEFUSTUJQPT
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TPPTFYJTUFOUFTFNNBJPSONFSPBDUVBMNFOUF
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NJUFNJODMVJSOPCMPHVFHBMFSJBTEFGPUPHSBGJBTRVF
QPEFNTFSWJTVBMJ[BEBTFNUPEBBSFEF
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RVBOUBTTFQPEFNDBSSFHBSEJBSJBNFOUF
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397

PARTE

Ferramentas TIC

10
"JOEBRVFBNBJPSJBEFTUFTWJEFPCMPHVFTFTUFKBNDPN
QPTUPTQPSWEFPTHSBDJPTPT DVSJPTPTPVJOUFSFTTBOUFT
RVFPCMPHVFSFODPOUSPVOB*OUFSOFU UBNCNIVN
HSBOEFONFSPEFCMPHVFTOPTRVBJTPTBQSFDJBEPSFT
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RVFTFKBNWJTVBMJ[BEPTQPSPVUSPTVUJMJ[BEPSFT

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EFGPSNBHSBUVJUBQPEFNPTDSJBSPOPTTPCMPHVF1BSB
FTUFBQBSUBEPFTDPMIFNPTP#MPHHFSEP(PPHMFQPS
TFSVNEPTNBJTVUJMJ[BEPTOBXFCFQFMBHSBOEFGBDJ
MJEBEFEFVUJMJ[BPOBIPSBEFDSJBSPOPTTPCMPHVF
FEFPNBOUFS
1BSBPDSJBS TQSFDJTBNPTEFEJTQPSEFVNBDPOUBEF
DPSSFJPFMFDUSOJDPFTFHVJSPTTFHVJOUFTQBTTPT
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OBCBSSBEFFOEFSFPTBQHJOBEF#MPHHFSFQSFNJS
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1BSBDSJBSVNCMPHVFOP#MPHHFS OFDFTTSJPFTUBS
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398

%&4"'*04 t $JODJBTEB/BUVSF[B t oBOP t 4BOUJMMBOB$POTUODJB

/BQHJOBRVFTFBCSFEFWFNPTJOUSPEV[JSEVBTWF[FT
POPTTPFOEFSFPEFDPSSFJPFMFDUSOJDP QBSBOPT
BTTFHVSBSNPTEFRVFOPDPNFUFNPTVNFSSPBP
FTDSFWFS&NTFHVJEBOPTQFEJEBVNBQBMBWSBQBTTF
&TUBQBMBWSBQBTTFTFSOFDFTTSJBQBSBNPEJGJDBSPT
DPOUFEPTPVBDPODFQPEPOPTTPCMPHVF

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RVFBQBSFDFNOBJNBHFNTVQFSJPSJTUPGB[TFQBSB
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FYFDVUBEPTOBSFEF

PARTE

10
1PSMUJNP EFWFSBNPTWJTVBMJ[BSBTDPOEJFTEP
TFSWJPFBTTJOBMBSBDBJYBEFDPOGJSNBPJOEJDBOEP
RVFBDFJUBNPTBTDPOEJFT

4FOPBDFJUBSNPTBTDPOEJFT OPQPEFSFNPT
DSJBSPCMPHVF1BSBTFHVJSDPNPQSPDFTTP DMJDBNPT
OBMJHBP$0/5*/6"3

Ferramentas TIC

 %FWFNPTFTDPMIFSVNUUVMPQBSBPOPTTPCMPHVF
DPOWFOJFOUFRVFPUUVMPTFKBBQFMBUJWPFSFQSF
TFOUBUJWPEPDPOUFEPRVFEFTFKBNPTQVCMJDBS


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PCMPHVFRVFFTUFKBEJTQPOWFM PVTFKB P63-
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DPNPRVBMRVBMRVFSVUJMJ
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VNHSBOEFONFSPEFVUJMJ[BEPSFTRVFTFBEJBOUB
SBNBOTDPOUVEP TFPFOEFSFPRVFTPMJDJUBNPT
FTUPDVQBEP P#MPHHFSTVHFSJSBMHVOTFOEFSFPT
MJWSFT

6NBWF[JOUSPEV[JEPPFOEFSFP BDPOTFMIWFM
DPNQSPWBSBTVBEJTQPOJCJMJEBEFBUSBWTEBMJHBP
FWFSJGJDBSBEJTQPOJCJMJEBEFRVFBQBSFDFTPCPRVB
ESPEFUFYUP

2VBOEPUJWFSNPTFODPOUSBEPVNFOEFSFPEJTQP
OWFMQBSBVUJMJ[BSNPTOPOPTTPCMPHVF EFWFSFNPT
UFSFNDPOUBRVFTFQPEFSBDFEFSBPNFTNPDPN
PTFHVJOUFFOEFSFP

PFOEFSFPEB*OUFSOFUDPNPRVBMTFBDFEFSBPOPTTPCMPHVF

IUUQOPNFCMPHTQPUDPN
4FMFDDJPOBNPTPRVBESPDPNPRVBMEFTFKBNPTNPTUSBSPTOPTTPT
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POEFPDBNQPjOPNFxEFWFSTFSTVCTUJUVEPQFMP
OPNFFTDPMIJEP

1 BSBQSPTTFHVJSDPNPQSPDFTTP DMJDBNPTOBMJHBP
$0/5*/6"3

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DJPOBSPRVBESPDPNPRVBMNPTUSBSFNPTPTDPO
UFEPTEPOPTTPCMPHVF0TRVBESPTSFQSFTFOUBN
BGPSNBDPNPTFSBQSFTFOUBEBBJOGPSNBPRVBOEP
GPSDPMPDBEBOB*OUFSOFU4FMFDDJPOBNPTPRVFOPT
QBSFDFSNBJTBUSBDUJWPFDMJDBNPTDPNPCPUPEP
MBEPFTRVFSEPEPSBUPFN$0/5*/6"3


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BDSJBPEPOPTTPCMPHVFFRVFOPTQFSNJUFDPNF
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1
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%&4"'*04 t $JODJBTEB/BUVSF[B t oBOP t 4BOUJMMBOB$POTUODJB

399

PARTE

Ferramentas TIC

10
5UVMPEBOPWBFOUSBEB

2  "QSJNFJSBFOUSBEB
6NBWF[DSJBEPPCMPHVF P#MPHHFSEOPTBPQP
EFDSJBSDPOUFEPTQBSBPNFTNP4FDMJDBSNPTOB
MJHBP$0.&"3"16#-*$"3EPQPOUPBOUFSJPS 
UFSFNPTOPOPTTPOBWFHBEPSVNBQHJOBEB*OUFSOFU
OBRVBMTFFODPOUSBTFMFDDJPOBEPPTFQBSBEPS$SJBP
EFFOUSBEBT4FHVJSFNPTFTUFTQBTTPT
 *OEJDBNPTPUUVMPRVFUFSBOPTTBQSJNFJSBFOUSBEB
QBSBJTTPJOUSPEV[JNPTOPRVBESPEFUFYUP5UVMP
RVFBQBSFDFOBQBSUFTVQFSJPS

$POUFEPEBFOUSBEBRVFFTUBNPTBDSJBS

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WBNPTEBSBFTUBFOUSBEB1BSBEBSGPSNBUPBPDPO
UFEP EJTQPNPTEFVNBCBSSBEFGFSSBNFOUBTRVF
OPTQFSNJUFBEJDJPOBSGPUPT WEFPT USPDBSPFTUJMP 
BDPS PUJQPEFMFUSBFPGPSNBUPEPUFYUP SFWFS
PSUPHSBGJDBNFOUFPUFYUPJOUSPEV[JEP FUD
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QSJNFJSBFOUSBEB UFNPTEVBTPQFT
t BQSJNFJSB 16#-*$"3&/53"%" RVFHVBSEBS
BFOUSBEBRVFJOUSPEV[JNPTFBBEJDJPOBSEJSFD
UBNFOUFBPOPTTPCMPHVF
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PDPOUFEPRVFJOUSPEV[JNPTNBTOPPNPTUSBS
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PDPOUFEPOPFTUDPNQMFUBNFOUFUFSNJOBEP 
PVTFKB RVBOEPBJOEBVNSBTDVOIP

0QFTEFDPOGJHVSBPEJTQPOWFJT

3  $POGJHVSBPEPCMPHVF
1BSBNPEJGJDBSBDPOGJHVSBPEPOPTTPCMPHVF DMJDBNPT
OBMJHBP$POGJHVSBPRVFBQBSFDFOPTTFQBSBEPSFT
EBQBSUFTVQFSJPSEBQHJOB/BOPWBQHJOBRVFBQB
SFDFQPEFNPTDPOGJHVSBSVNBHSBOEFRVBOUJEBEF
EFQBSNFUSPTBQFTBSEFTOPTSFGFSJSNPTBBMHVOT 
TFSJBJOUFSFTTBOUFSFWMPTFWFSPRVFQPEFNPTGB[FS
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QPEFNPTUSPDBSPUUVMPEPOPTTPCMPHVF BEFTDSJP
EPNFTNP TFRVFSFNPTRVFBQBSFBOBTMJTUBTEP
#MPHHFS TFEFTFKBNPTRVFPTNPUPSFTEFCVTDBQPTTBN
JODMVJSPOPTTPCMPHVFOBTVBCBTFEFEBEPTQBSBRVF
TFKBMPDBMJ[BEPOBSFEF FUD
6NB WF[ DPOGJHVSBEBT BT PQFT  EFWFNPT DMJDBS
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EBQHJOBPV DBTPDPOUSSJP QFSEFSFNPTBTBMUFSBFT
GFJUBT

400

%&4"'*04 t $JODJBTEB/BUVSF[B t oBOP t 4BOUJMMBOB$POTUODJB

PARTE

10
Ferramentas TIC

4FMFDDJPOBNPTPRVBESPDPNPRVBMEFTFKBNPTNPTUSBSPOPTTP
CMPHVF

4  0RVBESPEPOPTTPCMPHVF
/P#MPHHFS UVEPQFSTPOBMJ[WFMBPNYJNP/FTUB
TFDPWBNPTJODMVJSVNBTOPFTCTJDBTEPRVFTF
QPEFGB[FS NBTDPOWJEBNPTPMFJUPSBJSNBJTBMNFB
JOWFTUJHBSPVUSBTQPTTJCJMJEBEFTOPBQSFTFOUBEBTOFTUF
EPDVNFOUPCTJDPEFJOJDJBP
2VBOEP DMJDBNPT OB MJHBP 2VBESP  BQBSFDFS
PFTRVFNBEPNPEFMPEFRVBESPRVFTFMFDDJPONPT
4FFNBMHVNNPNFOUPEFTFKBSNPTUSPDBSEFRVBESP 
EJTQPNPTEFVNBMJHBP 4FMFDDJPOBSRVBESPOPWP RVF
OPTQFSNJUJSGB[MP"QBSFDFSPEFOPWPUPEPTPTRVBESPT
EJTQPOWFJTFCBTUBSTFMFDDJPOBSBRVFMFRVFEFTFKBNPT
VUJMJ[BSFDMJDBSOBMJHBP(6"3%"3 26"%30

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SFOUFTQBSUFTEPRVBESPRVFTFMFDDJPONPTQPEFSFNPT
NPEJGJDBSDBEBVNBEFMBTDMJDBOEPOBMJHBPDPSSFT
QPOEFOUF
1PSFYFNQMP TFDMJDBSNPTOBMJHBP&EJUBSOBTFDP
EF%BEPTQFTTPBJT BCSJSTFVNBOPWBQHJOBOB
RVBMQPEFNPTDPMPDBSFNPEJGJDBSEBEPTRVFBQBSFDF
SPTPCSFPBVUPSOPCMPHVF"MNEJTTP QPEFNPT
BDUJWBSPVEFTBDUJWBSBBQSFTFOUBPEFJOGPSNBFT
QFTTPBJT DPNPBOPTTBQPWPBP QSPWODJB FUD

$POGJHVSBSPGPSNBUP
EFGJDIFJSPEPTDPOUFEPT

$POGJHVSBSPTEBEPTQFTTPBJT

4FFEJUBSNPTBTFDP"SRVJWPEPCMPHVF QPEFSFNPT
JOEJDBSDPNPEFWFSPBSNB[FOBSTFPTDPOUFEPTOP
OPTTPCMPHVFRVBOEPQBTTBSVNDFSUPUFNQPNFOTBM
NFOUF TFNBOBMNFOUFPVEJBSJBNFOUF1PEFNPTFTDPMIFS
FOUSFUSTFTUJMPTEJGFSFOUFTB
FNGPSNBIJFSSRVJDB C

FNGPSNBEFMJTUB PVD
DPNPVNNFOVEFTEPCSWFM

%&4"'*04 t $JODJBTEB/BUVSF[B t oBOP t 4BOUJMMBOB$POTUODJB

401

PARTE

Ferramentas TIC

10
1SJNFJSP TFMFDDJPOBNPTP
FMFNFOUPRVFEFTFKBNPT
USPDBS

%FQPJT TFMFDDJPOBNPTBDPS
RVFEFTFKBNPTBQMJDBS

1PEFNPTUSPDBSBDSPOPMPHJBEBTFOUSBEBTFFTDPMIFS
RVFTFKBNBQSFTFOUBEBTFNQSJNFJSPMVHBSBTNBJT
BOUJHBT BJOEBRVFUBMOPTFKBPNBJTGSFRVFOUF
5BNCNQPEFNPTUSPDBSBBQSFTFOUBPEBTFOUSBEBT
EP CMPHVF  P DBCFBMIP  FUD 1PS MUJNP  UBNCN
JOUFSFTTBOUFWFSDPNPQPEFNPTNVEBSBTDPSFTEBT
TFDFTEPOPTTPCMPHVFTFDMJDBSNPTOBMJHBP
5JQPTEFMFUSBFDPSFTEBQBSUFTVQFSJPS BQBSFDFS
VNBQHJOBOBRVBMQPEFNPTJSTFMFDDJPOBOEPDBEB
FMFNFOUPEPCMPHVFFBUSJCVJSMIFBDPSRVFEFTFKBNPT
DMJDBOEPOBQBMFUBEFDPSFTBQSFTFOUBEB

1PEFNPTWFSPTSFTVMUBEPTEFGPSNBJNFEJBUBEFQPJT
EFDMJDBSOBDPS

&OUSBEBT

5UVMP

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4FUVEPUJWFSGVODJPOBEPDPSSFDUBNFOUF KUFNPT
EJTQPOWFMPOPTTPCMPHVF"HPSB EFWFSBNPTWFSBT
NFOTBHFOTEFe-mailEBDPOUBRVFJOEJDNPTOB
DSJBPEPCMPHVF QPJTP(PPHMFFOWJBOPTVNBNFO
TBHFNQBSBRVFBDUJWFNPTBOPTTBDPOUBBUSBWTEF
VNBMJHBP#BTUBSGB[FSDMJRVFTPCSFBNFTNBFP
(PPHMFNPTUSBSVNBNFOTBHFNEFBDUJWBPSFBMJ
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5  $PNPWFSPOPTTPCMPHVF
1BSBWFSPSFTVMUBEPGJOBMEPOPTTPCMPHVF EFWFNPT
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RVFFTDPMIFNPTQBSBDSJBSPCMPHVF
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JOJDJBMRVFQVCMJDNPTFDPNBTNPEJGJDBFTJODMV
EBTOBDPOGJHVSBPEPNFTNP
4F OBDPOGJHVSBP QFSNJUJNPTPFOWJPEFDPNFO
USJPTTOPTTBTFOUSBEBT OBQBSUFJOGFSJPSEFDBEB
VNBBQBSFDF
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402

%&4"'*04 t $JODJBTEB/BUVSF[B t oBOP t 4BOUJMMBOB$POTUODJB

4FGJ[FSNPTDMJRVFTPCSFVNBDFSUBMJHBP BCSJS
TFVNBOPWBQHJOBOBRVBMBQBSFDFSVNBSFB
EFUFYUPBQSFFODIFSDPNPUUVMP'BBPTFV
DPNFOUSJP

PARTE

10
Ferramentas TIC

&OUSBEBRVFPSJHJOBPTDPNFOUSJPT

6NBWF[SFEJHJEPPDPNFOUSJP EFWFSFNPTJOUSPEV[JS
BTMFUSBTEJTUPSDJEBTRVFBQBSFDFNOBJNBHFNFTF
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