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The Tragic Martyrdom of Imaam Husain

An Islamic Lifestyle Solutions Publication

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Published by Islamic Lifestyle Solutions
500 Ridge Rd, Overport, 4067, Durban, South Africa
(+27)31 207 7276
Printed in South Africa.
First Edition. October 2015 - 1100 Copies
Original Work Shaam-e-Karbala 1976
Author Hadhrath Moulana Muhammad Shafee Okarvi
Translation Islamic lifestyle Solutions
Typing Hedaya Publications
Typestting & Layout Shaykh Faheem

! ,

! #$ ) #$ +
Think not of those, who are slain in the way of Allah, as
dead. Nay, they are living. With their Lord they have
(Surah Aal-Imraan, 3:169)

About the Author ............................................................... 1
Publishers Note ................................................................. 4
Introduction...................................................................... 5
Martyrdom ( )................................................................ 9
Categories of Martyrdom.................................................. 10
The Definition of a Martyr ( )........................................ 11
The Holy Prophet

was poisoned............................. 13

Cause and Background leading to the Martyrdom ........... 25

Advice of Muhammad ibn Hanafiya

............................ 29

An Objection Answered.................................................... 30
Departure from Madinah ............................................. 32
Delegations and Letters from the People of Kufa ............. 34
Hadhrath Muslim ibn Aql

in Kufa ............................... 39

Yazeed is informed ........................................................... 39

Ibn Ziyads Arrival in Kufa ............................................... 42
Shark ibn Awar ............................................................... 44
Search for Hadhrath Muslim

and the Intelligence of

Spies.................................................................................. 47
Imaam Muslim

and Ibn Ziyad ...................................... 64

The Martyrdom of Imaam Muslim

The Martyrdom of Haani

............................... 65

.............................................. 66

The Sons of Imaam Muslim

.......................................... 67

The Departure of the Exalted Imaam Husain ibn Ali

Martyrdom of Hadhrath Qais

....................................... 86

Meeting Hadhrath Abdullah ibn Mutee

Zuhair ibn Qain Bajali

....................... 87

................................................... 88

News of Imaam Muslims

Imaam Husains

.... 76

Martyrdom ......................... 89

Speech ................................................ 91

Advice from Tirmh ibn Adi .......................................... 100

The Land of Karbala ....................................................... 104
Amr ibn Saad ................................................................. 106
An Important Lesson ...................................................... 109
Respite of One Night ...................................................... 120
Imaam Husains

Sermon to his Companions .............. 122

Reply of the Companions ............................................... 123

The 10th of Muharram, 61 A.H. ....................................... 127
The Insolence of Shimr ................................................... 129
An Important Lesson ...................................................... 135

Enters the Battle ................................................. 136


Address to the Yazeedis .................................. 138

The Battle Begins ............................................................ 139

Abdullah ibn Umair Kalbi

.......................................... 141

Miracle on the Battlefield of Karbala............................... 142

The Massacre of the Prophets
The Children of Aql

Family ........................ 158

are martyred ............................. 160

The Martyrdom of Hadhrath Alis

Children ............... 162

The Martyrdom of Imaam Hasans

Son ...................... 164

The Martyrdom of Hadhrath Qasim

........................... 164

The Martyrdom of Muhammad

and Aun

............... 169

The Martyrdom of the Flag-bearer, Hadhrath Abbas


...................................................................... 171

The Martyrdom of Ali Akbar

...................................... 175

The Martyrdom of Ali Asgar

...................................... 181

The Martyrdom of Imaam Husain

The Final Address of Imaam Husain

.............................. 184
.......................... 187

Events Post-Karbala ........................................................ 195

Burial of the Martyrs ....................................................... 214
Noor and Bright Birds Converge at the Blessed Head .... 214
The Prophets

Family before Ibn Ziyad ....................... 217

The Musjid of Kufa, the Announcement of Victory and the

Testimony of Ibn Afeef

............................................... 220

The Court of Yazeed ....................................................... 225

Mourning in the Home of Yazeed................................... 239
Yazeeds Kind Behaviour ................................................ 239
The Prophets

Family Returns to Madinah ................. 240

Number of Martyrs from the Prophets

Family and their

Companions.................................................................... 246
Number of Captives........................................................ 247
Number of Yazeedi Soldiers Killed ................................. 249
The Resting Place of the Blessed Head of Imaam Husain
........................................................................................ 250
Miracles Demonstrated by the Blessed Head .................. 252
Yazeeds Conduct after the Incident of Karbala .............. 254
Attack on the City of Makkah ......................................... 262
Muawiyah the Second .................................................... 266
The Ruin of the Murderers.............................................. 266
Amr ibn Saad ................................................................. 279
Khauli ibn Yazeed........................................................... 281
Shimr Zil-Joshn ............................................................... 281
Hakeem ibn Tufail At-Taaee .......................................... 284

Zaid ibn Raqaad.............................................................. 286

Amr ibn Sabh ................................................................. 287
Mukhtars Claim of Prophethood ................................... 291
The Merit of Ashura ....................................................... 295
Virtuous Deeds on the Day of Ashura ............................ 296
Crying in Memory of the Martyrdom ............................. 304
Customary Gatherings and Practices of Muharram and
Isaale-Thawaab .............................................................. 307
Patience and Panic .......................................................... 313
Benefits of Remembering the Martyrdom ....................... 315

About the Author

Born February 2 1930, Hadhrath Moulana Muhammad
Shafee Okarvi
was indeed one of the most prolific
orators of his generation. He was born in Khem Karan,
East Punjab, India and was the eldest son of seven siblings.

Hadhrath Moulana Shafee Okarvi married at a young

age and fathered eleven children, (five sons and six
daughters). In 1952, however, his two eldest sons, threeyear-old Muneer Ahmad and 14-month-old Tanveer
Ahmad, passed away within a week of each other. His
eldest son, Hadhrath Moulana Kaukab Noorani Okarvi,
continues to be torchbearer of his father's religious work
and is considered amongst the leading scholars of Pakistan.
In 1947, after migrating from India, he and his father built
Masjid Ghausiyah in Okara. In 1950, he began leading
Friday prayers and teaching the congregation at Jaame
Masjid Muhaajireen in Sahiwal and became the head of the
Department of Religion at Birla High School (renamed
Sutlej Cotton Mills High School) in Okara.
From 1952 to 1953 he contributed to the Tahreek-eTahaffuz-e-Khatm-e-Nubuwwat (Protection of the Finality
of Prophethood Movement). In 1954 he also established the
Jaami'ah Hanafiyah Ashraf-ul-Madaaris on Grand Trunk
Road in Okara and remained one of its mentors and

In 1955 he visited Karachi for the first time when he

lectured at the Jaame Masjid Aaram Bagh on the first
Laylat al-Qadr. The following year he became the lecturer
and Imam of Memon Masjid and he founded Jamaat Ahle
Sunnat and became its first chairman.
Hadhrath Moulana Shafee Okarvi preached in the Far
East, Middle East, India, Palestine, South Africa, United
Arab Emirites, Mauritius and many other countries.[10] He
sold 100,000 cassettes of his speeches in South Africa before
In 1962, he travelled to Baghdad, Syria, Karbala, Beirut,
Jeddah, Makkah and Madinahh. In 1976, he established in
South Africa, Anjuman Ahl-e-Sunnat Wa Jamaa'at. In 1974, he
formed the Jama'at-e-Ahle Sunnat in Durban, South Africa,
which attracted up to 10,000 members. He made the
journey to Mecca for Hajj, Ziyaarat and Umrah sixteen
Hadhrath Moulana Shafee Okarvi was arrested for his
participation against the Qadiani Movement. He remained
in Montgomery prison for 10 months. During this period of
imprisonment, his first two sons, Muneer Ahmad (3 years
old) and Tanveer Ahmad (1 1/4 years old), passed away
within a week of each other. Several influential people met
the Deputy Commissioner of Montgomery and made
recommendations for him. The Deputy Commissioner
visited the prison and privately told Okarvi:
"Due to the sudden death of your children, the conditions of your
family are not good. I have received many recommendations for

you. You sign the letter of apology. Your apology letter will be
kept hidden from the public. And just today you will be released."
Hadhrath Moulana Shafee Okarvi


"I have worked for the respect and honour of the Holy Prophet
and it is my belief that the holy Prophet Saiyyidinaa Muhammad
is the Last Prophet of Allaah
therefore; the question of
asking for apology does not even arise. The children have passed
away; even if my life is also taken away I will still remain
steadfast on my belief and will not ask for any apology

After several failed assassination attempts, Hadhrath

Moulana Shafee Okarvi forgave the culrpits publicly. On
20 April 1984, he delivered his last speech at the
congregation of Jum'ah Salaah at Jaame Masjid Gulzar-eHabeeb. That evening, he had suffered his third heart
attack and was admitted to the National Institute of
Cardiovascular Disease. After three days, on 24 April 1984
this giant of Ahlus Sunnah passed away at the age of
On 23 March 1985, President Zia-ul-Haqq awarded the
Sitaara-e-Imtiaaz to Okarvi due to his contributions to
religious services. He is believed to have presented over
18000 lectures on various subject matters during his
illustrious life.
May Allah
shower His choicest blessings upon
Hadhrath Moulana Shafee Okarvi for his sincere efforts
in the service of the deen of Islam.

Publishers Note
The book Karbala The Tragic Martrydom of Imaam
Husain is a translation of the famous book authored by
by the late Hadhrath Moulana Muhammad Shafee Okarvi
known as Shaam-e-Karbala, and was first published in
November 1978 in Urdu.
This translation is the property of the Islamic Lifestyle
Solutions and no part of this publication may be
reproduced in any manner whatsoever without written
permission of the publisher except in the case of brief
This translation consists of the majority of the original
work and certain sections / paragraphs have been
truncated at the discretion of the publisher.
In the case of any queries arising from the translation,
readers are requested to kindly contact the Islamic Lifestyle
Solutions for clarity.
Publications Department
Islamic Lifestyle Solutions
Durban, South Africa

Allah in whose name we begin, choicest of salutations
upon all his chosen Messengers , particularly upon the
final Messenger, the Beloved of Allah, the Mercy unto the
entire universe, Nabi Muhammad , his Noble household
and upon his illustrious Companions .
Historically, the Day of Aashura has been indicative of a
day hearling great favour for the Prophets
of Allah .
Even for this Ummah, Rasoolullah indicated to us that
the reason for our fasting is based on a celebratory event in
the form of the freedom of Nabi Moosa
and the Banu
Israel from the tyranny of Pharaoh. To this day, our fasting
on Aashura is based on the irrefutable fact that Rasoolullah
fasted on Aashura, as the following narration explains;
Narrated by Hadhrath Abdullah Ibn Abbas : The
Prophet came to Madinah and saw the Jews fasting on
the day of Aashura. He asked them about that (fast). They
replied, "This is a good day, the day on which Allah
rescued Bani Israel from their enemy. So, Moses
this day." The Prophet said, "We have more claim over
than you." So, the Prophet fasted on that day
and ordered (the Muslims) to fast (on that day Aashura).
Sahih Bukhari
Once the command for the fast of Ramadhaan was
revealed, the fast of Aashurah was no longer obligatory
and was deemed optional as the hadith records explain;

Narrated by Sayyidah Aishah : (The tribe of) Quraish

used to fast on the day of Aashura' in the Pre-lslamic
period, and then Allah's Apostle ordered (Muslims) to
fast on it till the fasting in the month of Ramadhaan was
prescribed; whereupon the Prophet said, "He who wants
to fast (on 'Aashura') may fast, and he who does not want
to fast may not fast." Sahih Bukhari
The above two ahaadeeth are indicative of why the
Ummah of Rasoolullah fast on Aashura. . Since that
for his Ummah to fast on
request of the the Prophet
Aashura, (regarding the freedom of Nabi Moosa
the isrealites, which remains intact as the reason for fasting
to this day in 1436 AH) we, the Ummah continue to do so
based upon his action and request. For the fifty or so odd
years leading upto the incidents at Karbala, this was the
very reason why all the Sahabas and Ahlul Bayt fasted on
the 10th of Muharram.
After the demise of the Beloved Messenger (11 A.H),
there is no event more tragic than the Martyrdom of Imaam
Husain at Karbala. It is indeed a stain in the history of
this Ummah, and a reminder of how swiftly we can turn
against our own brethren. The incidents which occurred at
Karbala however, are even more horrific when we realize
that the grandson of the Noble Messenger , was martyred
by the very people who recited the same kalimah brought
to them by his grandfather. The manner in which he and
his family were oppressed, cut-off from their water supply
in that desolate land, and martyred, is undoubtedly an

event which causes tears to flow from the eyes. The tragic
events at Karbala involving Imaam Husain , his family
and friends occurred in the month of Muharram around
60/61 AH. His actual martyrdom occurred on the 10th of
Muharram, which was already identified by Muslims as
the Day of Aashura.
The Sunni-Shia divide is indeed at the vanguard of
discussions in relation to the crisis of the Ummah in the 21st
century. The Ahlus Sunnah Wal Jamaah has been accused
by the Shia counterparts of forsaking the Ahlul Bayt. This is
a false claim and one which reeks with bias. The Ahlus
Sunnah Wal Jamaah undoubteldly love the Ahlul Bayt of
the Prophet immensely.
We do acknowledge certain groups who distance
themselves from the Ahlul Bayt to the point of declairing
the events of Karbala as insignificant. Quelling an
extremist view by adopting another extremist view is
illogical in the fight against extremism. We must never let
ourselves become distant from the Ahlul Bayt just because
some other sect claims the Ahlul bayt for themselves. At
the same juncture, in our love for them, we must never
become blind to the principles of Shariah, nor allow
ourselves to become haters of the illustrious companions of
Rasoolullah .
The book, albeit written decades ago, acts as proof of the
love of the Ahlul Bayt from the the Ahlus Sunnah.
Hadhrath Moulana Shafee Okarvi left no stone unturned

in illustrating the tragic events at Karbala and conclusively

proved that the Ahlul Bayt were indeed oppressed during
those days.
From the definition of Martyrdom, to the events pre and
post-Karbala, Hadhrath Moulana Shafee Okarvi
referenced all of this with much detail, allowing the reader
the ability to envisage the events to great effect.
It is necessary for the reader to be well versed with the
socio-historic terminology during that era, and in
particular, the usage of the word Shia. In some instances,
Hadhrath Moulana Shafee Okarvi
utilized the word in
reference to the current sect of the same name, and in other
instances he utilized it to match the context of the narrative
to mean, Supporters or Lovers of Sayyiduna Ali .
The hope and desire of the Islamic Lifestyle Solutions in
publishing this work is to revive the love for the Ahlul Bayt
of Rasoolullah and to recognize the martyrdom of Imaam
Husain for the tragic event which it was, and for it to be
etched in the hearts of the approaching generations of the
Ahlus Sunnah Wal Jamaah.
Shaykh Faheem
Head of Publication & Education Depts
Islamic Lifestyle Solutions
South Africa

Martyrdom ()

states in the Holy Quran,

And he who obeys Allah and His Messenger will get the
company of those whove been blessed by Allah , such as the
Prophets , the truthful, the martyrs and the righteous, and
what good companions they are!
Surah Nis (4), Verse 69
Two points are emergent:
and His
1. Those who are obedient and follow Allah
will attain the companionship of the
Prophets , the truthful (), the martyrs (), and
the pious ().
2. The qualities of the above four groups, i.e.:
prophethood, righteousness, martyrdom and piety are
favors of Allah Almighty .
The Holy Prophets being, comprehensively possessed
supremacy in every favor and excellence granted to any
creation. In fact, whoever attained any favor or excellence
was endowed only through his means. Whatever amount

of excellence and splendor found amongst the Prophets ,

the truthful, the martyrs and the saints ( ) is a reflection
of Rasoolullahs

excellence and splendor.

This is because Muhammad Mustapha

is the means
( )of all blessings and benedictions for every existence of
creation. Just as how the root is the reason for an entire tree
(including its branches and fruits) having existence and
attractiveness, so too is the Holy Prophets being is the
means of every category of favor for the entire creation.
The favor of martyrdom too was encompassed
exceptionally by Rasoolullahs blessed self.

Categories of Martyrdom
There are two types of martyrdom,
1. Open martyrdom ()
2. Concealed martyrdom ()
Open martyrdom is when a Muslim acquiescently gives his
life or is martyred while fighting the enemies of Allah
and His Messenger . It occurs when a Muslim fights in
the path of Allah and for the upliftment of His deen.


Concealed martyrdom is the sudden occurrence of death

through poisoning, a plague, being burnt, a woman
passing away due to childbirth, etc.

The Definition of a Martyr ()

Imaam Fakhruddin Raazi


The word martyr ( )on the scale of fuail has the
meaning of an active participant. A martyr is a person who
attests to the truthfulness of Allahs
deen either by
speech and proof or by martyrdom by the sword. The
person whos martyred fighting in the path of Allah
called a shaheed (witness) because in sacrificing his life,
he bears a testimony to the truth of Allahs
Tafseer Kabeer
By this definition, we have to accept that the favour of
martyrdom which was possessed by the Holy Prophets
being. Has there ever been anyone who provided proofs
and miracles testifying to the truthfulness of Islam more
than Rasoolullah ? Who does not know that for the
upliftment and testimony of this true deen, the Holy
Messenger endured 13 continuous years of intolerable
oppression in Makkah? He was verbally abused and pelted

with stones in the streets of Makkah and Taif (to name just
one form of oppression). It was for this reason that he said,
No prophet ever experienced such difficulties and
troubles that I endured in the path of Allah .
The Prophet even left his home and birth-city; and in
Madinah, by participating in several battles, he even
testified to the truthfulness of Islam by the sword!
sustained injuries in these battles and his
blessed tooth was also martyred in one of them. In all
aspects, he encompassed the quality of martyrdom. The
only difference is that the extraction of his blessed soul ()
did not in the battlefield because Allah

promised him,

And Allah will save your life from the people.
Surah Mida (5), Verse 67
Hence, had the Holy Prophet been martyred in battle
by a non-Muslim and his soul taken away, the nonMuslims wouldve gained a chance to belie the promise of
Allah and the Holy Quran. Thus it ascertained that the
Prophets being; encompassed open martyrdom.


The Holy Prophet

was poisoned

In the Battle of Khaibar, a Jewish woman named Zainub

bint Hrith sent a poisoned piece of fried meat as a gift to
the Prophet . He ate a little of it before the meat itself
informed him that it was poisoned. Immediately, the Holy
stopped eating it, while his Companion,
Hadhrath Bishr ibn Bar (who also partook in it), met his
demise almost instantly.
Rasoolullah summoned the woman and asked her what
incited her to do this. She replied,

I wanted to test you to see whether you were a prophet or
someone desiring kingship. If You are a prophet, you will
not be harmed, but if you desire kingship, Id save people
from you. Tabqaat Ibn Saad
The woman was executed, however, in the castigation
( )of Hadhrath Bishrs martyrdom.
Allaamah Zarqaani


And indeed its established that our Beloved Prophet
attained a demise of martyrdom. This is because, on the
day of Khaibar, he ate such a poisonous piece of meat that
it could cause death almost immediately. Effectively, Bishr

ibn Bar was martyred instantly due to the effect of the

remainined alive was a
poison, but Rasoolullah
Prophetic miracle (). The poison used to be a discomfort
to him and his demise occurred due to its effect. Zarqaani
Imaam Jalaaluddin Suyuti


Bukhari and Baihaqi report from Sayyidah Aishah : She
states that the Holy Prophet used to say in the sickness
of his demise, I ate poisonous meat on the day of Khaibar
and always felt its harm. Now the time has come for life to
leave my veins due to the effect of that very poison.
Anbul-Azkiya bi Haytil-Ambiya
We may conclude that just as how open martyrdom was
encompassed by Rasoolullahs being, so was concealed
martyrdom an attribute of his as well. The Prophet was
given deadly poison but it too did not martyr him because
of Allahs promise. The ineffectiveness of poison is also
from amongst his miracles.
It is evidential that the reality of both the types of
martyrdom were possessed by the Holy Prophet . What
remains is to see where their manifestations occurred
The Prophet

said in a Hadith,


Indeed Hasan and Husain
the world. Mishkaat

are two flowers of mine in

The merit and beauty of a flower is actually directly

related to its source. Subsequently, the excellence and
splendour of these two flowers (Imaam Hasan
Imaam Husain ) has been attained by them from their
sourceMuhammad Mustapha . Its for this reason that
Hadhrath Ali said,

Hasan is the resemblance of the Holy Prophet between the
chest to the head, and Husain is the resemblance of the Holy
Prophet from the chest to the lowest part i.e Feet. Tirmizhi
Just as how these two princes are the reflections of the
prophetic splendour and beauty, so too are their reflections
of the prophetic excellence. In other words, just as how the
prophetic beauty was distributed between them, so was the
prophetic grandeur distributed between them as well.
Therefore, the elder prince, Imaam Hasan , attained
concealed martyrdom while the younger prince, Imaam
Husain , attained open martyrdom.
Its now established that the Hasnain (Imaam Hasan and
Husain ) are the manifestation of both the Holy
Messengers beauty and excellence. The elder prince was
blessed with concealed ( )martyrdomwhich is why the

Prophet did not inform anybody of it (and Imaam Hasan

himself did not disclose who poisoned him). Imaam
Hasan said, I leave the person who poisoned me in the
hands of Allah , the One Who metes out vengeance
The younger prince attained open (, declarative)
martyrdom, which is why Rasoolullah

said [regarding

Ive been informed by Jibraeel
that this son of mine, Husain
, will be martyred after me in the land of Taff. Jibraeel
brought this sand (of that land) to me and told me that its where
hell be buried. Sawiqul-Muhriqa,Sirru-al-Shahaadatain and
Hadhrath Ummul-Fadl bint Hrith narrates, One day,
I came to the Holy Prophet with Husain and placed
the child in his lap. I saw tears fall from the Holy Prophets
eyes, and he said,

came and told me that soon my Ummah will martyr
this son of mine, and he even brought me some sand of that piece
of earth. Khasisul-Kubra, Sawiqul-Muhriqa and AlMustadrak
Sayyidah Umme Salamah

reports that Rasoolullah


An angel, who hadnt previously came to me, came to my home
and said, This son of yours, Husain , will be killed. If you
wish, I can show you the soil of the land where hell be
martyred? The angel then took out some red sand. AlBidaayah wan-Nihaayah, Khasisul-Kubra and SawiqulMuhriqa
Hadhrath Anas
states, The angel appointed over
rainfall sought Allahs permission to attend the court of
the Holy Prophet and was granted it. When he came to
see the Messenger , he saw that Husain was also there.
The child climbed the blessed shoulders and Rasoolullah
embraced him.

The angel asked Rasoolullah , Do you love this child? and he
answered, Yes, I do. The angel then said, Indeed your Ummah
will kill him, and if you wish, I can show you the place where
hell be martyred. The angel then clapped his hand and showed
the Holy Prophet red sand. Umme Salma took the sand and
tied it in a section within her clothes. The narrator of this
will be
Hadith continues, We used to hear that Husain
martyred at Karbala. Khasisul-Kubra,Al-Bidaayah wanNihaayah and Sawiqul-Muhriqa
Sayyidah Umme Salamah

also states,


One day, the Holy Prophet was reclining and sleeping when he
suddenly awoke looking troubled and grieved. He had in his
hands red sand. I submitted, O Rasoolullah , what sand is
this? He explained, Jibraeel
told me that this Husain
will be martyred in the land of Iraq, and this is the sand of that
earth. Khasisul-Kubra and Sirrush-Shahaadatain
She also said, One day, both Hasan
and Husain
were playing in my home in the presence of the Holy
Prophet . Jibraeel
descended and said,

O Muhammad , indeed your Ummah will martyr this son of
yours, Husain , after your demise. Jibraeel
also gave him a
little sand of that earth. The Prophet smelled the sand and said,
It has the scent of grief and misery. He then brought Husain
to his chest, cried and said, O Umme Salma ! When this sand
turns red, know that this son of mine has been martyred.
Sayyidah Umme Salma kept that sand in a bottle and used to
examine it daily. Shed also say, The day this sand turns into
blood will be a severe day. Tahzeebut-Tahzeeb,KhasisulKubra, Sawiqul-Muhriqa and Sirru-al-Shahaadatain

Hadhrath Anas ibn Hrith

states, I heard the Holy
Messenger say,

Indeed this son of mine, Husain , will be killed in the
land called Karbala. Whoever from amongst you will be
present at that time and place should help him. So,
Hadhrath Anas went to Karbala and was martyred with
Husain . Khasisul-Kubra, Al-Bidaayah wan-Nihaayah,
Dalaailun-Nubuwwah and Sirrush-Shahaadatain
Hadhrath Abdullah ibn Abbas states,

The majority of the Ahle-Bayt (family of the Holy Prophet
) and us had no doubt that Husain would be martyred
in the land of Taff (Karbala). Al-Mustadrak,KhasisulKubra and Sirrush-Shahaadatain
Hadhrath Yahya Hadrami
Siffeen, I accompanied Ali .

narrates, In the journey of

When he reached a place called Nainw, he proclaimed,
O Abu Abdullah ! Have patience on the banks of the
Euphrates. I asked him, Whats this proclamation? and
said that he was told by
he answered, Rasoolullah
that Husain will be martyred on the banks of
the Euphrates, and he (Jibraeel ) showed him a handful

of sand from that place. Khasisul-Kubra, Al-Bidaayah

wan-Nihaayah, Sawiqul-Muhriqa, Sirrush-Shahaadatain and
Hadhrath Asbagh ibn Bagh states,

In the company of Ali , we came to the area that would
be the burial place of Husain . Looking at the land, Ali
pointed [to it] and said, This is where his camels will rest,
this is where his camels will be offloaded, and this is where
his blood will flow. Many young descendants of
will be slain in this open field, and the
Heavens and the Earth will cry for them. Khasisul-Kubra
and Sirrush-Shahaadatain
Abu Abdullah Dabbi
narrates, When Ali ibn
Hurthum returned from Siffeen, we went to meet him.
He said to us, While we were returning with AmrulMumineen Ali , we performed Fajr Salaah with him in
the land of Karbala.

He took a handful of sand from this place, smelled it and
said, Ah, ah! A group of people will be martyred on this
earth. Theyll enter Jannah without any reckoning.
Tahzeebut-Tahzeeb and Al-Bidaayah wan-Nihaayah


These narrations establish that the Holy Prophet

proclaimed the martyrdom of Imaam Husain , and that
many of the Sahaabah and Ahle-Bayt (family members of
the Holy Prophet ) knew that hed be martyred. They also
knew that Karbala would be the place it would occur in.
However, no narration supports anyone making dua for
this sad incident not to take place. The Holy Prophet ,
Hadhrath Ali , Sayyidah Faathimah , Imaam Hasan
and even [the martyr himself] Imaam Husain
did not
supplicate for this. They were perfect individuals (),
and the supplication of such people changes even
inescapable fate () . The Holy Prophet
said in a

Make dua excessively. Indeed dua removes inescapable fate.
So, why did not anyone make dua for this? Simple! They
were content with the fate appointed and knew that this
incident is a test from Allah . Allah tests His servants
as one of His practices,

Alif, Laam, Meem. Are the people proud of this, thinking that
theyll be left alone for saying, We believe, and will not be
tested? And undoubtedly We tested those before them. So, Allah
will certainly know those who are true from those who are
Surah Ankabt (29), Verses 1-3

Do you imagine that you will enter Paradise while the incidents
like that of your forerunners did not come unto you? Affliction
and adversity reached them, and they were badly shaken (as with
an earthquake) until the messenger and the believers with him
said, When will come the help of Allah ? Now surely
Allahs help is close.
Surah Baqarah (2), Verse 214

Do you suppose that you will enter Paradise yet Allah
not tested your warriors or the steadfast?
Surah Ale-Imran (3), Verse 142


And surely We will test you with something of fear, hunger, loss
of wealth, lives and crops; but give glad-tidings to the steadfast.
Those who say when a misfortune strikes them, We are
belongings of Allah and we are to return to Him alone. These
are the people on whom are blessings from their Lord and mercy,
such are the rightly guided.
Surah Baqarah (2), Verses 155-7
These verses prove that mere lip-service of claiming faith
(Imaan) and of being a Muslim arent sufficient means of

salvation. Rather, a person will be tested and measured by

various trials and tribulations.
Indeed the truthful and false are both measured, and
everybody is tested according to his or her intensity of
deen and faith. The more steadfast a persons Imaan, the
more difficult his test. This is why the Holy Prophet said,
The Prophets
undergo the most severe testing, after
whom are the virtuous (), then stage-by-stage those
who have a likeness with them.
The beloved servants of Allah

( ) are in fact

mesmerised lovers (). What can be said of them?! Their

physical existence is unique, as they experience great relish
path. The
in undergoing difficulties in their Beloveds
more they are debased in Allahs
path, the more
greatness they acquire in His sight. This is extracted from
the following Hadith, The odour from a fasting persons
mouth is more beloved to Allah
than the fragrance of
musk. The odour seems foul, yet in reality its exalted!
So, those who undergo degradation in and for Allahs
path attain much honour in His sight. Hadhrath Anas
narrates that on the day of Uhud, Rasoolullah passed by
his uncle, Hadhrath Hamza , and saw that he was

So he said, If it was not for the grief of Safiya j, Id leave
him in this condition for the animals and birds to consume

him, so that Allah

resurrects him on the Day of
Judgment from their bellies. He then wrapped Hadhrath
Hamza in a sheet and buried him. Al-Mustadrak
The Holy Messenger desired to leave his beloved uncle
to be eaten by birds and animals (i.e. undergo this form of
degradation) so that hed reach the station of grandeur in
the sight of Allah , yet he forsook this desire due to the
grief of Sayyidah Safiya j.
With regards to Imaam Husain , the Holy Prophet
and his family (Ahle-Bayt) were content with Allahs
decree and planningwishing for this test to occur with all
its difficulties. The Ahle-Bayt desired to face every
adversity of this test, which is why, when Zahr ibn Qais (a
soldier of Yazeeds army in the battle of Karbala) came to
Yazeed with the glad-tidings of victory, he also said the

Their bodies are naked, their clothes drenched in blood and
their faces stained with dirt. The heat melts their bodies
and winds throw dust onto them. Birds of prey who eat
corpses are their visitors, and they are strewn over a
course, strong field. Ibn-Atheer
The family of Rasoolullah
seemingly underwent
dishonour, but in the sight of Allah , in undergoing these
hardships, they attained lofty ranks of excellence.

Cause and Background leading to the Martyrdom

Whenever something is inevitable, cause and reason for
its occurrence is created. The cause and background behind
the martyrdom of Imaam Husain is as follows.
In Rajab 60 A.H, Hadhrath Ameer Muawiyah
away, and Yazeedon whom allegiance ( )was taken in
his lifetimebecame his successor. After ascending the
throne of succession, Yazeeds biggest issue was the
allegiance of Imaam Husain , Hadhrath Abdullah ibn
Zubair and Hadhrath Abdullah ibn Umar , since they
did not accept him to be the rightful successor. Yazeed also
feared one of them making a claim for the Caliphate. If any
of them did, the entire area of Hijz (present-day Saudi
Arabia) would rebel against him, and should Imaam
Husain specifically make a claim for the Caliphate, there
was a major concern of rebellion from Iraq. Based on this,
the biggest concern of Yazeed was the retention and
safeguarding of his rule and governance. So, he deemed it
necessary for these personalities to pledge allegiance to him
and sent to Waleed ibn Aqba (the governor of Madinah)
news of his fathers demise and commanded him to attain
pledges of allegiance from the abovementioned
personalities, saying,

Secure allegiance from Husain , Abdullah ibn Umar
and Abdullah ibn Zubair , and do not release them under


any circumstances if they do not give their hands. IbnAtheer

The people of Madinah did not know yet of Hadhrath
Ameer Muawiyahs
demise. Waleed was unnerved by
this command of Yazeed because he knew he couldnt fulfil
it and knew what would be its outcome if he tried. So, he
called his deputy, Marwaan ibn Hikm, and sought his
counsel in this matter.
Marwaan was a heartless man and said, My advice is to
immediately summon all three and order them to pledge
allegiance. If they do so, its good, but if they do not, slay
their necks! If you do not do this, then after learning of
Ameer Muawiyahs
death, each of them will go to a
separate area and claim the Caliphate and then controlling
them will be difficult. However, I know Ibn Umar and I do
not expect him to do so. He would not want bloodshed and
fighting, but would take the Caliphate if it was handed to
After receiving this advice, Waleed called the three
personalities, but this was during a time when he would
never meet with people or have any public audience. At
and Hadhrath Abdullah ibn
that time, Imaam Husain
Zubair were both in Musjidun-Nabawi. The messenger
arrived and delivered the governors message to them.
They replied, You may return. Were coming.


Ibn Zubair then asked Imaam Husain , Why do you

think the governor called us at a time when he does not
meet anyone? He replied, I think Ameer Muawiyah
has passed away and before he announces his demise, he
wants to take our allegiance to Yazeed.
I think the same. What do you want to do now? asked
Ibn Zubair
I will go with a few young men of my family, because in
the case of refusal, things may turn bad. replied Imaam
Husain .
Hence, accompanied by the young men, Imaam Husain
proceeded to the house of Waleed and stationed them
outside, requesting them to come in if they are called, or
rush in if his voice becomes raised. Otherwise, they were
not to leave guard until he came out.
The Prophets grandson then entered the house, made
salaam and sat down. Waleed informed him of Hadhrath
Ameer Muawiyahs
passing and requested him to
pledge allegiance to Yazeed. After offering his condolences
(), Imaam Husain
said, A person like me cannot
pledge allegiance in secret. That would be inappropriate,
but if you publicly announce to the general masses to
pledge allegiance, myself included, it would be a different
matter. Waleed was a peace-loving person and replied,
Okay, you may leave. Imaam Husain then stood up,
but an enraged Marwaan said to the governor, If you let
him go now without getting his allegiance, you will not be

able to control him except after much bloodshed. Imprison

him, and if he pledges, thats good, otherwise, kill him!
replied, Ibn Zarqa! Will
Hearing this, Imaam Husain
you kill me or do this to me?! By Allah , You are a liar
and a corrupt person. He then left.
Marwaan then said to Waleed, You did not listen to me
By Allah , you will not be able to control him now. This
was a good opportunity for you to kill him!
Waleed said How unfortunate are you?! You are advising
me to ruin my Deen! Must I kill the grandson of the Holy
Prophet just because he refused pledging allegiance to
Yazeed?! Even if the wealth and riches of the entire world
was presented to me, I would not stain my hands with his
pure blood. Oath on Allah ! On the Day of Qiyaamah, the
person who shall be questioned about Husains
(i.e. murder) will definitely be lacking in goodness in the
sight of Allah .
Hearing this, Marwaan surrendered, You have said the
truth, though he meant this only outwardly, truly
disliking the statements of Waleed.
After returning from the governor, Imaam Husain was
cast in a dilemma. He abhorred at heart allegiance with
Yazeed because he was unworthy of being the Khalifa.
Even his appointment to the position was against the
method chosen by the Four Righteous Khalifas and
occurred contrary to Islamic Law. Rather, his appointment
was understood by Imaam Husain
to be the first

individualistic governance (in the style of CaIsar of Rome

or Kisra of Persia). So, he strongly opposed it, but on the
other hand, the circumstances of the time did not allow
him to publicly speak out against it.
Elsewhere, Hadhrath Abdullah ibn Zubair evaded the
messengers of Waleed through various deviations and did
not go to him. He left Madinah for Makkah the next day.
The soldiers of Waleed searched for him the entire day but
couldnt find him. In the evening, Waleed sent messengers
to Imaam Husain , but he said that he couldnt go with
them (the messengers) back to the governor and that they
should wait until morning. Waleed accepted this, and on
that very night, Imaam Husain , with his family, relatives
and close friends, prepared to leave Madinah. Ibn-Atheer
and Tabri

Advice of Muhammad ibn Hanafiya

Hadhrath Muhammad ibn Hanafiya
said to Imaam
Husain , Brother, there is no-one more beloved to me
than you, and You are the most worthy in the entire
creation of my good conduct and supplications. So, my
advice to you is to be distant from Yazeeds allegiance and
keep away from any particular city. Remain in the rural
desert areas, and by sending your messengers to people,
invite them to pledge allegiance to you. If they accept, be
thankful to Allah , if they agree upon another person, it
still will not cause Allah
to diminish your virtue,
qualities and excellence. I fear in these circumstances that if

you go to a particular city or group of people, disparity will

be created amongst them. One group will be with you and
another against you, this disagreement will turn into
fighting and you will be the first target of their spears. In
this case, the blood of a revered person whos the most
excellent of the Ummah in lineage and honour will become
worthless, and his family will be disregarded.
asked, Dear brother, where should I
Imaam Husain
go? Hadhrath Muhammad advised, Go to Makkah. If
you gain satisfaction there, a way forward will definitely be
found, and if you do not, head towards the mountains and
desert areas and move from one place to another. Keep an
eye on the condition of people and you will reach a result,
because an opinion reaches correctness when conditions
are seen.
The Imaam finally said, Youve shown kindness and
goodness to me, and I have hope that your advice will be
correct and beneficial, Insha-Allah . Ibn-Atheer and

An Objection Answered
The author of The Khilfat of Muawiyah and Yazeed [
] writes that according to Hadhrath Muhammad ibn

, the dissension ( )of Imaam Husain


the attainment of power and the Caliphate was a political


issue not permissible according to Islamic Law and

unwarranted in the circumstances. Pg. 79
In response to this, if the dissension of Imaam Husain
was not permissible according to Hadhrath Muhammad
ibn Hanafiya , why did he advise him to distance himself
from Yazeed and invite people to pledge allegiance to him?
He should have rather said in clear words, According to
Islamic Law, this dissension is not permissible for you
under any circumstance, and you do not have the right of
rebellion against a just and righteous Khalifa.
Hadhrath Muhammad ibn Hanafiyas advice to Imaam
mentioned above (i.e. remain far from Yazeed,
stay in the deserts and mountains, etc.) is clear proof that
according to him, Imaam Husains stance against Yazeed
was not impermissible according to Islamic Law. Rather, in
his opinion, the method Imaam Husain
elected was
contrary to advantage and was unbeneficial. With regards
as to why Hadhrath Muhammad ibn Hanafiya himself
pledged allegiance to Yazeed, this was to be saved from
mischief (), the way other Sahaabah did. It was not
because of the Khalifa being correct or because he
deemed the character of Yazeed to be admirable.
This proves that, like some of the Sahaabah, Hadhrath
Muhammad ibn Hanafiya
did not truly regard
dissension against Yazeed to be impermissible or bad.
Rather, based on external circumstances, he deemed it
ineffective and disadvantageous. So the claim of the writer

of The Khilfat of Muawiyah and Yazeed (that Muhammad ibn

Hanafiya deemed the dissension of Imaam Husain to
be impermissible according to Islamic Law) is incorrect and
contrary to historical facts.
There is no doubt that the advice of Hadhrath
Muhammad ibn Hanfiya
was based on wisdom,
foresightedness and prudence. The people of intelligence
act upon such wisdom and admonish others to also act
upon it. Acting on this kind of prudence on certain
occasions is also not incorrect.

Departure from Madinah

Can anyone understand the emotion Imaam Husain
must have undergone when he presented himself before
the Raudhah of his beloved grandfather, Muhammad
Mustapha , at the time of leaving Madinah? Which
? The light and coolness of Alis
Faathimahs eyes, the brother of Hasan , and whom the
Beloved Prophet of Allah
used to carry on his blessed
shoulders, embrace lovingly, and for whom he would
prolong his sajda in the court of Allah . Today, this very
sought his grandfathers permission to leave
Madinah forever. Such a sorrowful sight it must have been!
Together with his family and friends, Imaam Husain
left Madinah for Makkah in the month of Shabaan, 60 A.H.
He recited this verse of the Holy Quran while leaving,

Then he left the city, fearing and in wait of what will happen
now. He said, My Lord! Grant me deliverance from the group of
Surah Qasas (28), Verse 21
Meeting Abdullah ibn Mutee
While leaving, Imaam Husain met Hadhrath Abdullah
ibn Mutee . Seeing the Imaam leaving with his family,
Hadhrath Abdullah asked him, May I be sacrificed on
you! Where are you going? Imaam Husain
Right now I am going to Makkah. When I get there, I will
perform istikhrah to Allah
to know where to go
May Allah keep you in safety and sacrifice us on you.
When you reach Makkah, do not think of going to Kufa
because it is an unfortunate city. Its the very city in which
your father was martyred, and where your brother Hasan
was deserted, made the target of spears and was close to
losing his life. You should stay in Makkah and not leave it.
You are the leader of the Arabs, and the people of Hijz do
not regard anyone equal to you. People will come to you
from everywhere. May my uncles be sacrificed on you! You
must never leave the Haram of the Kaba. Oath on Allah !
If You are killed, then after you we will be made slaves.
When Imaam Husain
following verse,

entered Makkah, he recited the


And when he turned towards the Midian, he said, There is hope
that my Lord will make me tread the straight path.
Surah Qasas (28), Verse 22
When news of Imaam Husain reaching Makkah spread,
droves of people arrived to meet and visit him. Hadhrath
Abdullah ibn Zubair was already in Makkah at this time,
and he too arrived to meet the Prophets grandson. The
people were elated with his arrival and that of the AhleBayt (household of the Holy Messenger ). Once again,
they were granted the opportunity to set their eyes on the
individual who resembled Rasoolullah and gain from his
rays of Noor.

Delegations and Letters from the People of Kufa

The city of Kufa was the centre and hub of Hadhrath Alis
shias (supporters) and lovers, since during his Caliphate, he
transferred the Principal Governing City ( )from
Madinah to Kufa. So, all of his supporters and lovers
settled there. In the time of Hadhrath Ameer Muawiyah ,
people of Kufa had already written letters to Imaam
Husain requesting him to come and stay there as well.
When they learnt of Hadhrath Ameer Muawiyahs
demise and the refusal of Imaam Husain , Hadhrath
Abdullah ibn Zubair and Hadhrath Abdullah ibn Umar
to pledge allegiance to Yazeed, they gathered in the
home of Sulaiman ibn Sard Khaza.


Muhammad ibn Bishr narrates,

All of the shias (supporters of Hadhrath Ali ) assembled
in the home of Sulaiman ibn Sard, and after mentioning the
demise of Muawiyah , all offered thanks to Allah .
Thereafter, Sulaiman ibn Sard addressed them, saying,
is over. Husain
has refused to pledge
allegiance to Yazeed and has gone to Makkah. You are
Husains and his fathers supporters. So, if you can help
him and fight against his enemies, write to him; but if you
fear your cowardice and weakness, do not deceive him.
All said, No, we will not deceive him, but will fight
against his enemies and sacrifice our lives for him.
Sulaiman then directed them to write letters, and they did
so. Tabri
A famous Shia (the current Shia sect) book, Jilul-Uyn by
Mulla Bqir Majlisi Asfahni, states, When these reports
reached the people of Kufa, the shias [supporters of
Hadhrath Ali ] in that city congregated in the home of
Sulaiman ibn Sard Khaza. They praised Allah
began to speak about the passing of Muawiyah and the
allegiance of Yazeed. Sulaiman said, Now that Muawiyah
has died and Husain has rejected pledging allegiance to
Yazeed and has gone to Makkah, if you, who are the

supporters of Husain and his father, know that you will be

able to help him with wealth and life, write to him and
request him to come here; but if You are lazy in helping
him and know that you will not be able to fulfil your
promise to him, do not deceive him and cast him into
ruin. The shias said, When he brightens this city with
Noor [with his arrival], well go to him and sincerely
pledge allegiance to him. Well help him to the best of our
ability and try to protect him from enemies.
This proves that those who called Imaam Husain
Kufa were actually shias. So, the sending of letters
commenced, and according to Mulla Bqir Majlisi, 12,000
letters of Shia believers reached Imaam Husain . The
summary of these letters was, You (Imaam Husain )
should come to Kufa as soon as possible. The seat of the
Caliphate is empty in wait for you. So too are the wealth
and lives of the believing supporters ready for you. We
anxiously await your arrival and wish to see you. Besides
you, we have no leader and Imaam. There is an army for
your help here. Numan ibn Bashr sits as the governor of
Kufa in the governors house. We do not go there to
perform Jumua or the two Eid Salaahs. When you arrive,
we will remove him from the city. Jilul-Uyn
After the last letter arrived, Imaam Husain wrote back
to them, saying, Allah
in whose name we being, the
Most Compassionate, the Most Merciful. This letter is from
Husain ibn Ali to the people of Kufa, the shia, mumin
Muslims. Many messengers and letters of yours have

reached me, including those you sent with Haani and

Saeed. All of your letters reached me, and I have been told
of their content. You have all written to me saying, You
must come as soon as possible to us. We have no Imaam.
should guide us towards truth through your
blessings. Know that I am personally sending my
trustworthy cousin, Muslim ibn Aql to you. If Muslim
writes to me what you have written, I will quickly come,
Insha-Allah . I swear on my life that an Imaam is he who
justly enforces the command of Allah
amongst people,
does not transgress Islamic Law, and keeps people firm on
the deen of truth. Jilul-Uyn
When Imaam Husain received these letters, messages,
requests, delegations, outpourings of love, promises of
sacrifice and wishes for him to go to Kufa from the people
of that city, he decided to first send his cousin, Hadhrath
Muslim ibn Aql , there to verify and judge the situation
beforehand. So, he handed him a letter, saying, Go to
Kufa, see for yourself what the true condition is, and
inform me of it. If they are favourable, I will also come,
but if they are not, you should return from there.
Khalifae-AlaHadhrath Sadrul-Afaadil Hadhrath Maulana
Sayed Muhammad Naeemuddin Muradabdi , states,
Even though news of Imaam Husains martyrdom was
common and the treachery of the people of Kufa was
already experienced, when Yazeed became the king, his
kingship and rule was a danger for the deen. It is for this
reason that pledging allegiance to him was not permissible,

yet through various strategies, Yazeed desired their

pledges. Based on these circumstances, then, the rejection
of allegiance to Yazeed by the people of Kufa and their
request for Imaam Husain to take theirs necessitated the
Prophets grandson to accept their request.
When a nation is not content with pledging allegiance to a
sinner ( )and tyrant ( )and requests a worthy
individual to accept their pledges, if he does not accept
their request, it would mean that he wishes to hand over
the deen of Islam to such a person. At that time, if Imaam
Husain did not accept the request of the people of Kufa,
what answer would he have given in the court of Allah
if the people of Kufa protested, O Allah , we tirelessly
requested Husain but he did not accede our request for
allegiance. So, out of helplessness from Yazeeds
oppression, we pledged allegiance to him instead. Had
Husain extended his hand towards us for allegiance, we
would have sacrificed our lives for him. This was the issue
to answer their call,
which compelled Imaam Husain
even though some senior Sahaabah (Hadhrath Ibn Abbas
, Ibn Umar , Jabir, Abu Saeed, Abu Wqid Laithi ,
etc.) did not agree with this stance of the Prophets
grandson. On the one hand was the apprehension of the
Sahaabah, and on the other were the requests of the people
of Kufa. So, Hadhrath Muslim was sent first to judge the
situation in Kufa and report back. If they displayed
treachery, a valid, lawfully-Islamic reason not to go would
become evident, and if they showed loyalty, the concern of
the Sahaabah would be eased. Sawneh Karbala

Hadhrath Muslim ibn Aql

in Kufa

Hadhrath Muslim ibn Aql went to Kufa with his two

minor sons, Muhammad and Ibrahim . The people of
the city anxiously awaited his arrival and demonstrated
much love and enthusiasm when he did arrive. He stayed
at the home of Mukhtar ibn Abu Ubaida Thaqafi and,
according to some, the home of Ibn Ausaj. The supporters
of the Prophets household (Ahle-Bayt) very passionately
and made
pledged allegiance with Hadhrath Muslim
major promises to sacrifice wealth and life and not forsake
the Imaam. Seeing the exuberance and love of the people of
Kufa, Hadhrath Muslim
sent a message to Imaam
Husain informing him of the situation and saying that
18,000 people already pledged allegiance with him. He
advised Imaam Husain to definitely come to Kufa so that
the Muslims become safe from the scourge of Yazeeds
takeover and pledge allegiance to a worthy and just
leaderall for the deen of truth to be aided.

Yazeed is informed
Seeing the arrival of Hadhrath Muslim ibn Aql , the
passion of the people pledging allegiance to him, and the
daily increase of their enthusiasm, the supporters of
Yazeed (Abdullah ibn Muslim and Ammarah ibn Waleed)
sent a message to him, saying, Muslim ibn Aql has come
to Kufa on behalf of Husain, and thousands have already
pledged allegiance to him. The governor of Kufa, Numan
ibn Bashr, has not done anything specific against them or

emplaced any plan of action to stop them. So, if you wish

for your rule to remain, attend to this development
immediately and take a forceful stance. Otherwise, Iraq
will be lost.
When Yazeed received this information, he became
enraged and consulted with his close friends about it. They
suggested that a harsh person who has no care for anyone
be immediately appointed, putting forward the name of
Ubaidullah ibn Ziyad. So, Yazeed removed Hadhrath
Numan ibn Bashr as governor and replaced him with
Ibn Ziyad, who was the governor of Basra at the time. He
ordered him to immediately proceed to Kufa, arrest
Hadhrath Muslim
and banish him. Should Hadhrath
Muslim show insolence, he was to be killed. Ibn Ziyad
was also ordered to threaten and scare the people who
pledged allegiance (in this way stopping their support of
Hadhrath Muslim ) and kill them too if they disobeyed.
Lastly, should Imaam Husain arrive in Kufa, he was to
be ordered to pledge allegiance to Yazeed. If he did, then so
be it, but if he refused, he too should be killed!
Ibn Ziyad received this command while he was in Basra.
Incidentally, on that very day, a messenger from Imaam
Husain arrived with a letter of his to the people of Basra
(since they were also inclined towards him). In it, Imaam
Husain wrote,


Ive sent my messenger with this letter to you. I invite you
towards the Book of Allah and the Sunnah of His Beloved ,
because the Sunnah has been erased with the [evil] innovations
raised. If you people listen to what I say and accept it, I will lead
you on the path of salvation. Was-Salaamu Alaikum wa
The nobles and eminent of Basra ( )read this letter and
concealed it. However, Munzir ibn Jrd became fearful
and thought that this messenger may be a spy of Ibn Ziyad
sent to them as a test, so he took the messenger to Ibn
Ziyad and showed him the letter. At once, Ibn Ziyad
arrested and killed the messenger of Imaam Husain and
proceeded to the centre of Basra, delivering a fierce
warning, The leader of the faithful (Yazeed) has granted
me governance of both Kufa and Basra. This is why I am
going to Kufa, and in my absence, my brother, Uthman ibn
Ziyad, will be my deputy. You people must refrain from
rebellion or, by Allah , I will not spare the person or his
friends and supporters who involve themselves in such a
thing. I will apprehend him for even the slightest
involvement in treason and send all to the valley of death
until you people stop and return to the correct path and the
opposition ends. Remember, I am the son of Ziyad and I
am just like my father. Ibn Atheer and Tabri


Ibn Ziyads Arrival in Kufa

Ibn Ziyad then took 500 people (besides his family
members) and headed to Kufa. Some of them rested along
the way, but the governor continuously moved onward.
When he reached Qdisiyah, he left his soldiers there and
deceitfully wore Hijzi clothes, thereafter proceeding to
Kufa on camel with just 20 of his men between Maghrib
and Esha. Through this deception, he intended to enter
Kufa discreetly (since its residents were both incited and
confident against Yazeed) and make the people think that
Imaam Husain
had arrived. In this manner, Ibn Ziyad
could accomplish three things: enter Kufa in safety,
ascertain the emotions of the people, and see who is at the
forefront of things.
Meanwhile, the people of Kufa were waiting anxiously for
arrival. Seeing some individuals
Imaam Husains
coming towards them on the Hijzi road wearing Hijzi
clothing (and coming at night), they were fooled and
thought that the Prophets
grandson was finally with
them. Proclamations of Takbeer and welcome resounded,
and they began to follow the rider and camel until a large
procession of people was formed. Ibn Ziyad was fuming at
this time yet he nevertheless continued quietly, clearly
seeing that the people were in favour of Imaam Husain .
When the procession passed by the governors house,
hearing the proclamations and seeing the vast crowd,
Hadhrath Numan ibn Bashr
(the governor himself)

understood that Imaam Husain

had arrived. So, he
closed the door of his house, ascended the roof and
proclaimed, O son of Rasoolullah , leave this place! By
Allah , I will neither relinquish my trust to you nor will I
fight you.
Hearing this, Ibn Ziyad neared the house and shouted,
Open the door! May you be cut off from goodness! There
was a man behind Ibn Ziyad who recognized his voice. He
moved back and said to the crowd, by Allah , this is the
son of Marjna (Ibn Ziyad). The governor then opened the
door for Ibn Ziyad and he proceeded within (while the
crowd that had formed dispersed despondently). In the
morning, Ibn Ziyad delivered the following speech before a
crowd he had gathered, saying, The leader of the faithful,
Yazeed, has appointed me as the governor of Kufa. He
ordered me to be just to the oppressed, kind to the obedient
but severe on the disobedient. I will ensure that I follow
this command of his by being kind to the compliant, but
my whip and sword is reserved for dissenters. You should
celebrate your goodness and have mercy on yourselves.
After this, Ibn Ziyad apprehended the nobles of Kufa and
said to them, Give me written guarantees that neither you
nor your tribesmen will grant protection to any rebel or
take part in any rebel movement. If anyone has given
protection to any dissident, he will present him. The one
who gives this in writing and strictly acts upon it will be
released, but for the person who does not, his wealth and


life will be a fair target for us. We will kill him, hang him
by his door, and not even spare his relatives.
This coming of Ibn Ziyad and his threats now plunged the
people of Kufa into fear, and their thoughts began to
change. Under these circumstances, Hadhrath Muslim
did not deem it suitable for him to stay with Mukhtar. So at
night, he left the residence and proceeded to the home of
Haani ibn Urwah Muzjahi, a celebrated citizen amongst the
supporters of the Ahle-Bayt. Haani became awkward with
and said to him, It
the coming of Hadhrath Muslim
would have been better if you did not come here.
Hadhrath Muslim
replied, I am a traveller from the
family of the Holy Prophet . Grant me protection.
Had you not already entered my home, I would have
told you to go away, but it is against my sense of honour
now to do this. He then hid Hadhrath Muslim
in a
private apartment in his house.

Shark ibn Awar

Shark ibn Awar Salami, a noted lover of the Prophets
household and an eminent, respected and wealthy chief of
Basra, was also the guest of Haani in his house. He had
come to Kufa from Basra with Ibn Ziyad and was held in
high esteem by him and other leaders. While staying in the
home of Haani, Shark became ill and was therefore sent a
message by Ibn Ziyad that the governor would come to
visit him in the evening. Shark asked Hadhrath Muslim ,
If I create a situation for you to kill Ibn Ziyad, would you

do it? He said that he would. Shark then said, That

wretch is coming to visit me in the evening. You should
take a sword and sit quietly, waiting for my signal. When I
say, Bring me water, take the governor by surprise and
kill him. In this way, you will gain control over the
governing of Kufa, and if I recover from my sickness, I will
go to Basra and make all arrangements for you.
In the evening, Ibn Ziyad came to the house of Haani with
his closest bodyguard. He went to the bed of Shark and
enquired about his health while the bodyguard stood next
to him. Shark said in a loud voice, Bring me water, bring
me water. On the third cry, he said, Its sad that people
keep me away from water. Give me water to drinkeven if
it means me losing my life. Hadhrath Muslim , however,
did not come out, and Shark was regretful that he let such
a golden opportunity go, so he began to recite the couplet,

What keeps you in making salaam to Salma? Give me to
drink, even if it means me losing my life.
The bodyguard became suspicious and gestured Ibn
Ziyad to leave. When the governor got up, Shark said to
him, Leader, I want to offer you my advice. Ibn Ziyad
replied, I will come another time. The bodyguard then
rushed Ibn Ziyad out of the house and said, by Allah ,
this was a plot to kill you!
How can it be? I respect Shark and this was the home of
Haani, whos indebted to my father for his benevolence.


Whatever I am saying is the complete truth. Soon you

will know.
After Ibn Ziyad left, Hadhrath Muslim ibn Aql
emerged and was asked by Shark, What stopped you
from killing him? He replied, Firstly, my host Haani did
not want Ibn Ziyad to be killed in his home, and secondly,
the Holy Prophet said that it does not befit the status of a
believer to kill anyone by deception.
Allahu Akbar! Marvel at these pure personalities justness
and obedience to Islamic Law and the Sunnah! They did
not conduct themselves contrary to the Sunnah even before
their hardened enemies! Otherwise, this would have been a
good opportunity to terminate a sworn enemy. In some
books, the following appears, [At that juncture,] Hadhrath
Muslim explained, I heard someone say,

O Muslim
! Do not emerge until the decree of
predestination reaches its time.
Three days later, Shark passed away and Ibn Ziyad
performed his Janaazah Salaah. When he came to know
afterwards that it was Shark who told Hadhrath Muslim
ibn Aql to kill him, he exclaimed, By Allah ! Now I
will never perform the Janaazah of any Iraqi, and had my
fathers grave not been there, I would even dig up the
grave of Shark.


Search for Hadhrath Muslim

and the Intelligence of

While Hadhrath Muslim continued hiding in the house
of Haani, his supporters would secretly come to meet with
him. Even at this time, the pledges of allegiance persisted
(with some narrations saying that as much as 40,000 people
had by now promised to side with Imaam Husain ).
Ibn Ziyad was greatly perplexed in trying to find out who
was providing shelter to Hadhrath Muslim
(surprisingly, he never once suspected that it was Haani).
So, he appointed a slave of his by the name of Maqal to
gain information on the matter and said that he should
start asking around in the musjids (since many different
people attended them). He also gave him 3,000 dirhams.
This slave immediately proceeded to the central musjid
and sat down. There he saw a man who continuously
performed Salaah (Muslim ibn Ausaj Asadi).
When Muslim ibn Ausaj completed his Salaah, the slave
of Ibn Ziyad approached him and said, I am a Syrian slave
whos a lover of the Prophets family, and I have with
me 3,000 dirhams. I heard that someone from the Ahle-Bayt
has come here and is taking pledges of allegiance for
Imaam Husain
from the people. So, I want to present
him with this amount of money so that he may use it for
good work, but I do not know where he is. Hadhrath
Muslim ibn Ausaj asked him, There are other people
in the musjid. Why are you telling me this?

The radiance of your face tells me that you are from his
friends. That is why I asked you. For the sake of the
Almighty, do not let me lose this honour. Give me his
In short, Muslim ibn Ausaj fell for this deceptive speech
and concluded that this slave was truly the supporter of the
Ahle-Bayt. The next day, he took Maqal to where
was staying and himself
Hadhrath Muslim ibn Aql
certified the slaves admiration for the Prophets family.
The slave presented the 3,000 dirhams to Hadhrath Muslim
and pledged allegiance to him. After this encounter, he
would be the first to arrive every day and the last to leave,
displaying much respect to himthough he was actually
informing Ibn Ziyad of whatever he saw or heard there.
One of the bits of information was that Hadhrath Muslim
gave the 3,000 dirhams to Abu Thammah to purchase
arms with it.
Haani ibn Urwah was a distinguished and respected
citizen of Kufa and he had interaction with Ibn Ziyad prior
to this. Before the coming of Hadhrath Muslim ibn Aql ,
he used to visit the governor, but since Hadhrath Muslim
began staying with him, he stopped going to Ibn Ziyad
and feigned having a sickness as an excuse.
In the governors house, however, Ibn Ziyad was aware of
the entire situation. On day, Muhammad ibn Ashath and
Asma ibn Khrijah came to Ibn Ziyad and were asked
about the condition of Haani. They replied that he was sick.

Ibn Ziyad said, I have come to know that he is well and

spends the entire day at the door of his home. Go to him
and say, Obedience and meeting are both necessary. Do
not forsake them.
The two then proceeded to Haani and said, Ibn Ziyad
has been informed that you are well, that you spend the
entire day at the door of your home, and that you do not
leave to meet with him. Due to this, some ill-feeling has
been created about you, so you should come with us
immediately so that the air is cleared and the doubt
removed. Haani went into his house, informed Hadhrath
Muslim about this development, got ready and left with
the two of them. When he entered the governors house, he
greeted Ibn Ziyad but received no reply. This unusual
conduct surprised Haani, who then felt fear in his heart
and stood there in this condition for some time.
Ibn Ziyad asked, Haani, how is it that you have hidden
Muslim ibn Aql in your home, and plots against the leader
of the faithful Yazeed are hatched in it daily? How is it that
arms are bought and pledges for war are being taken?
Haani replied that all of this was totally wrong. Ibn Ziyad
immediately summoned his slave Maqal, and when he
arrived, the governor asked Haani, Do you recognize
him? Seeing Maqal, Haani was shocked and now
understood that, under the pretence of love and respect,
this wretch was spying! Due to this eyewitness, there was
now no possibility of denying anything, so Haani
confirmed and explained, by Allah , neither did I call

Muslim nor did he inform me that he was coming to my

home. When he suddenly pitched up at my door and asked
me for my protection, I was ashamed to chase away a
member of the Prophets family from my home. Now, I
sincerely promiseand you can ask for any guarantee you
wish to grant me respitethat I may go to my home,
remove him from it and allow him to go to wherever he
wishes. After that, I will return to you. Ibn Ziyad shouted,
By Allah ! You will not move from where you are
without promising me that you will hand over Muslim to
Oath on Allah , I will never hand over a guest who I
have granted protection to for you to kill!
The governor insisted that he would have to hand over
Hadhrath Muslim to him yet Haani kept on refusing.
When the matter became heated, Muslim ibn Amr Bhili
stood up and said, May Allah
grant the governor
goodness. Allow me to speak to Haani.
When Ibn Ziyad permitted this, Muslim ibn Amr took
Haani aside (where they both werent visible to the
He explained to Haani, Hand over Muslim ibn Aql to
Ibn Ziyad and do not cast yourself and your tribesmen into
destruction by refusing to do so. The governor will not kill
or harm him.
Haani replied that doing so is a severe disgrace for him,
but Bhili said that there was no dishonour for him if he
did. Haani then said, I myself am strong and spirited, and

my supporters and helpers are plentiful by Allah , if I

was weak and none were my helpers, I would not hand
over my guest, who Ive granted protection to, to the
Bhili continuously forced him and promised many things
but Haani refused outright. Ibn Ziyad saw this, became
anxious and requested Bhili to bring Haani to him.
When Haani returned before the governor, Ibn Ziyad
commanded, Hand over Muslim to me or I will slay your
head! Nevertheless, Haani replied, In that case, sharp
swords will confront you. (Haani had certainty that his
tribesmen would come in his aid).
Hearing this, Ibn Ziyad began to repeatedly strike the face
of Haani (breaking his nose and the bone beneath his
eyebrows). Haani, whose clothes were now drenched in
blood, placed his hand on a nearby soldiers scabbard
(intending to take his sword) but the soldier quickly pulled
it away. Seeing this, Ibn Ziyad remarked, Youve now
made even your blood permissible for us, and he ordered
for Haani to be locked in a room with a guard posted at
it. Asma ibn Khrijah stood up and shouted to Ibn Ziyad,
Deceiver! Leave him! You ordered us to bring him to you,
and when we did, you broke his face, spilled his blood, and
even talk of killing him. Ibn Ziyad commanded, Catch
and hit him too! The soldiers then proceeded to severely
injure Asma and incarcerated him too. In reply to this,
Muhammad ibn Ashath submitted, I am content and
happy with whatever the governor does.

A rumour then began to spread in the city that Haani was

killed. Hearing this, thousands of Haanis tribesmen
shouting, Revenge! Revenge! proceeded to the
governors house. There, the leader of the tribe, Umar ibn
Hajjj, proclaimed, I am Umar ibn Hajjj and these are the
riders of the Muzjah tribe. We have never deviated from
obedience or strayed away from the association. In spite of
this, our leader has been killed. We will avenge his killing.
All of the tribesmen then began proclaiming Revenge!
again. Seeing this delicate situation, Ibn Ziyad became
afraid and said to Qaadi Shuraih , Go and see Haani for
yourself, then announce to the tribesmen that he is alive
and that the rumour is false.
Qaadi Shuraih went in to see Haani (who was at that
time listening to the uproar and riot of his people). Haani
said to him, This is the disturbance of my tribesmen. Tell
them of my condition by saying, I could be freed if only
ten men came in. My blood flows even until now.
When Qaadi Shuraih emerged from the cell, Ibn Ziyad
assigned a close spy of his (Hameed ibn Bakr Ahmari) to
stay behind him. He also told Qaadi Shuraih
to only
mention that Haani was alive. Qaadi Shuraih states, by
Allah , if the spy was not with me, I would have relayed
Haanis message to his people. Anyway, he approached
the riot and announced that Haani was alive and that the
rumour they heard was wrong. Hearing this, the tribesmen
replied, Thanks to Allah
that he was not killed, and
then dispersed.

Meanwhile, Hadhrath Muslim ibn Aql sent Abdullah

ibn Haazim to the governors house to see what had
happened with Haani. Abdullah bin Haazim left and, after
gaining some information, returned to inform Hadhrath
that Ibn Ziyad severely injured Haani
repeatedly striking him, and that he is now imprisoned.
The womenfolk of Haanis tribe began to wail and lament.
Hadhrath Muslim then instructed Abdullah, O Helper
of the Ummah gather your helpers.
As soon as Abdullah ibn Haazim made the proclamation,
4000 people in the homes nearby (the lovers of the
family) immediately emerged. Within
moments, this proclamation resounded throughout the city
of Kufa, and all those who pledged allegiance with
Hadhrath Muslim gathered together.
With a group of 18,000 people, Hadhrath Muslim then
proceeded to blockade the governors house. Others also
joined, and the number of people supporting this
eventually reached 40,000! All began to defame and
verbally abuse Ibn Ziyad and his father.
At this time, Ibn Ziyad had only 50 people with him: 30
police officials and 20 noblemen of Kufawith no other
source of strength or defence besides them. So, a nervous
Ibn Ziyad closed the doors to his house.
Had Hadhrath Muslim ordered an attack at this point,
the governors house would have surely and easily been
taken, there would have been no way out for Ibn Ziyad and

his cronies to save their lives, and this very strong army of
people could have proceeded onwards and eradicated the
control of Yazeed. Hadhrath Muslim , however, did not
order such an attack.
Even though the malice, hatred and enmity of Yazeed and
Ibn Ziyad was completely apparent [in him], Hadhrath
refused to forego caution and rather chose to
await a harmonious solution and truce to this matter and
avoid any bloodshed amongst Muslims. However, his
caution and waiting proved very beneficial for the enemy.
Ibn Ziyad took advantage of this opportunity and said to
the noblemen of Kufa who were with him, You should go
up to the roof of this house and speak to your tribesmen.
Exploit their greed with gifts and place fear in them with
regards to rebellion. Tell them that armies have left Shaam
(Syria, then the capital of Yazeed) and will be arriving
soon. Also, tell them that they can decide their fate from
Separate them from Muslim by any means. So, Katheer
ibn Shihaab Haarithi, Muhammad ibn Ashath, Qaqaa ibn
Shour Az-Zahli, Shabath ibn Rab Tameemi, Hajaar ibn
Jubr Al-Ajli, Shimr ibn Zil-Joshn Dabaabi, etc. stood on the
governors house and cried out, People! Return to your
homes. Do not spread mischief or cast yourselves into
destruction. The armies of the leader of the faithful Yazeed
has left. How will you be able to challenge them? The
governor Ibn Ziyad made a promise with Allah
punish you severely and be harsh if you do not leave

immediately and do not forsake readiness for war. He will

kill your children, seize your wealth and confiscate your
properties. If you show obedience (to him), however, he
will shower you with honour and gifts. So, have mercy on
yourselves and on us too by returning to your homes.
This speech of the nobles worked, and the crowd
promptly deserted the area. People even called their family
and friends and told them to abandon the support of
Hadhrath Muslim . This occurred so swiftly that, by
Maghrib Salaah, only 30 supporters of Hadhrath Muslim
remained! When Hadhrath Muslim
saw this treachery,
he was deeply saddened. After the Salaah, he proceeded to
the Kunda area, and by the time he reached it, even the 30
who stood with him was lessened to zero. Hadhrath
was now alone. Can you imagine his
helplessness when every door was being slammed in his
face? In such a populous city, there was nowhere he could
safely spend the night.
Ah, but there were many people who claimed to be lovers
family (Ahle-Bayt) and supporters
of the Prophets
(Shias) of Hadhrath Ali , who had sent thousands of
letters and delegations and demonstrated much love and
enthusiasm in calling for Imaam Husain . Major promises
of sacrificing wealth and life were made by them when
they made their pledges. They pledged not to leave the
Prophets grandson, but on this day they abandoned him
after hearing a threatening tone and in the greed of this


worlds wealth. They even closed the doors on the deputy

and brother of Imaam Husain , Hadhrath Muslim .
Where could Hadhrath Muslim go now? This anxiety of
his was coupled with the fact that he had already written to
Imaam Husain and adamantly requested him to come to
Kufa. Hadhrath Muslim
knew that the Prophets
grandson trusted him and would not decline his request.
He would surely come to Kufa with his family and
friendsbut what adversities would they experience under
the treachery of the Kufs?
Grieved and lost in these thoughts, Hadhrath Muslim
asked for water from a woman called Tauaa who was
sitting at the doorstep of her home, waiting for her son.
She brought some water and gave him to drink. When she
emerged out of her house again after leaving the vessel, she
saw Hadhrath Muslim still there sitting by her door and
asked him, Servant of Allah , have you not drunk the
water? He replied that he did.
So, go to your home now.
Hadhrath Muslim
remained silent while the woman
repeated herself thrice. She then said, Its not appropriate
for you to sit by my doorstep at night. I beg you to go.
I have no home or accommodation in this city. I am a
traveller and in much affliction. Can you help me in this
condition of mine? I could repay your kindness one day, or
else Allah and His Messenger will reward you for it.


She asked about the kind of help he needed and was told,
I am Muslim ibn Aql. The people of Kufa have been
treacherous to me. Theyve deceived and forsaken me. You
are now witnessing the state I am in. There isnt a place
where I can see the night out.
Tauaa asked in surprise, Are you Muslim ibn Aql ?!
Hadhrath Muslim confirmed that he was. This virtuous
woman then called him into the house and spread a mat in
a room for him to sit on. She also brought food for him, but
he did not eat it. Hadhrath Muslim then supplicated for
After a while, the son Tauaa was awaiting arrived. When
he saw his mother going in and out of the room, he asked
about this but she did not disclose anything. When the son
persisted, Tauaa informed him on condition that he kept it
a secret. Unfortunately, this young man was an alcoholic
and an unscrupulous person.
When Ibn Ziyad learnt that all the people of Kufa had
deserted Hadhrath Muslim and that no-one stood with
him now, he announced, There is no safety for the person
who has given shelter to Muslim, and whoever apprehends
him and brings him to me will be rewarded. After this, he
ordered Haseen ibn Nameer, the chief of the police, to
blockade the city, put up pickets on the streets and search
every home, warning that Hadhrath Muslim
must not
leave Kufa by any road. Should he do so and Haseen fails


to apprehend and bring him to the governor, he would not

be spared.
The public proclamation of Ibn Ziyad made the old
womans son happy, and the greed of acquiring a reward
became so set in his heart that the night seemed like years
to him. On the break of dawn, he left home and proceeded
to Abdur-Rahman ibn Muhammad ibn Ashath. As
previously mentioned, his father (Muhammad ibn Ashath)
was in the governors house, and so his son took him to a
corner and told him everything. The father then informed
Ibn Ziyad of Hadhrath Muslims whereabouts.
Immediately, Ibn Ziyad ordered Muhammad ibn Ashath
to go and arrest Hadhrath Muslim and bring him to his
court. He also sent Amr ibn Ubaidullah ibn Abbas Salami
with him, and gave in his command 70 or 80 tribesmen of
the Banu Qais. When this group arrived at the old ladys
house and surrounded it, some proceeded inside with
swords to arrest Hadhrath Muslim . He confronted them
and managed to remove them from the house. The soldiers
again stormed the residence, attacking severely, yet
Hadhrath Muslim continued fighting and moving them
out until many were injured by him. While this occurred,
Bakseer ibn Hamrn Ahmari struck the face of Hadhrath
Muslim so severely that his upper and lower lips were
cut and his two front teeth broke. Hadhrath Muslim then
struck and cut the head of Bakseer in reply. The second
strike was aimed at his shoulder, and it was executed so
powerfully that it reached Bakseers chest!

When the army saw the intensity of Hadhrath Muslims

courage and bravery, some ran out of the house to be saved
from his bloody sword while others ascended the roof and
began to throw stones and lit-sticks at him. Seeing this
cowardice in their attacks, Hadhrath Muslim
from the house and, with his sword in hand, began fighting
them outside.
Muhammad ibn Ashath noticed the bravery of Hadhrath
and the weakness of his supporters, so he
stepped forward and deceived him by saying, For how
long will you defend yourself? Do not unnecessarily throw
yourself into ruin. There is safety for you. Neither have we
come to fight you nor do we want swords to shed blood.
The only reason we came is to take you to Ibn Ziyad so that
this problem is resolved through discussion.
Hadhrath Muslim , however, continued his advance
while reciting the following couplets,

I have sworn not to kill anyone except the free,
Even though I find death to be undesired.

One day, every person will have to face hardship and affliction,
And be mixed with heat and coolness, sweetness and bitterness.


When the bright rays of the sun have been rejected, how can
there be steadfastness?
I fear that I will be told lies and deceived.
Ibn Ashath insisted, You will not be lied to or deceived!
No-one will attack or kill you! These are all your brothers.
By now, Hadhrath Muslim had sustained many injuries
and did not have the strength to fight any further. So, he
stood leaning on the wall of the house and said, My
intention is also not to fight. I did not even fight when I had
40,000 people on my side surrounding the governors
house. I waited for a resolution through talks so that there
is no bloodshed.
Muhammad ibn Ashath then came close to him and said,
There is safety for you. A surprised Hadhrath Muslim
asked, Is there? Muhammad ibn Ashath and all of his
cronies answered, There is safety for you, except Amr ibn
Ubaidullah Salami, who did not agree.
In this state, Hadhrath Muslim was put on a mule. His
sword was also taken away from him, and when this
happened, he became pessimistic about his life and
remarked with tears in his eyes, This is the first deceit.
Muhammad ibn Ashath again assured Hadhrath Muslim
that there was safety for him and that there was no cause
for concern. Hadhrath Muslim , however, replied, What
safety is there now? Hope and only hope remains. By


taking my sword away, you have made me powerless. He

also cried and recited,

Indeed to Allah

do we belong and indeed to Him we

will return.

Seeing him crying, Amr ibn Ubaidullah taunted, Those

who confront their enemy in claiming power and
succession should not cry after facing adversity. Hadhrath
explained, I am not crying for myself. I am
crying for my familyHusain
and his childrenwho
are coming here. What hardship will they face?!
He also said to Muhammad ibn Ashath, I see that you
will soon be powerless to fulfil your guarantee of safety.
Still, at least extend me the courtesy of sending news of my
condition and my message to Husain . Say to him, The
people of Kufa have been treacherous and deceptive to me.
These are the very people your respected father desired
deliverance from. They are liars. Do not ever come to them.
Return with your family instead. Ibn Ashath swore an
oath on Allah to definitely do so. (He did keep his word.
This will be discussed later.)
He then brought Hadhrath Muslim
to the governors
house and left him at the door. After proceeding inside,
Muhammad ibn Ashath informed Ibn Ziyad of all that
transpired and said, I have given security to Muslim .
Ibn Ziyad retorted, Who are you to give security?! I only


sent you to arrest him, not to promise that! An astonished

Muhammad ibn Ashath looked on.
Outside, Hadhrath Muslim
was very thirsty. Seeing a
jug of water by the door, he said, Give me water to drink.
Muslim ibn Amr Bhili remarked, See how sweet and cool
the water is, but oath on Allah , we will not give you
even a drop of it. The boiling liquid of Jahannam is now
your fate. Hadhrath Muslim
asked him who he was,
and the man replied, I am the one who recognized the
right whereas you have abandoned the truth, the one who
demonstrated goodness to the Muslim Ummah and the
leader while you have been disobedient and rebellious
forbid!). I am Muslim ibn Amr Bhili. Hearing
this, Hadhrath Muslim
replied, May Allah
your mother to cry. What a tyrant and hard-hearted person
you are. Son of Bhili! You are more worthy of the fire of
Jahannam and its boiling liquid!
Ammarah ibn Aqb, however, took pity on Hadhrath
Muslims condition and sent his slave Qais to give him
water. When the slave gave Hadhrath Muslim a bowl of
water and he brought it close to him to drink, blood from
his mouth fell into it, and within seconds the bowl was
filled with it. When Qais brought a second bowl to him, the
same thing occurred. On the third time, before Hadhrath
Muslim could even drink out of it, two loose teeth of his
fell into the bowl, after which he said, Alhamdulillah, now
the water of the world is not destined for me.


In this condition of thirst and with his clothes drenched in

was then brought before the
blood, Hadhrath Muslim
governor. Contrary to the law, he did not greet Ibn Ziyad
when he saw him. A soldier asked, Do not you greet the
governor? Hadhrath Muslim replied, My greeting of
peace is not for the governor if he intends to kill me, but if
he does not have such an intention, there will be many
greetings of peace on him. A furious Ibn Ziyad exclaimed,
I will definitely kill you! Imaam Muslim asked him to
confirm what he just said, and Ibn Ziyad did.
Imaam Muslim then said, If that is the case, give me a
chance to speak my final words ( )to a member of my
family. The governor allowed this, and, addressing Amr
ibn Saad, Imaam Muslim
said, There is closeness in
family ties between us (), so I wish to speak to you in
private, yet Ibn Saad refused. Nevertheless, Ibn Ziyad
said to Ibn Saad, You should not have refused listening to
the son of your uncle. So, Ibn Saad woke up and went
to a corner of the room. There,
with Imaam Muslim
Imaam Muslim
said to him, I borrowed 700 dirhams
from a certain person of Kufa and spent it on my needs.
Return this amount to him and bury me after my killing.
Also, send someone to Husain to stop him from coming
Ibn Saad later informed the governor about these wishes.
He replied, Regarding the advice about the loan, you have
the choice to do as you please. With regards to Husain, if
he does not come here, we will not go after him, but if he

does, we will not spare him. Regarding the corpse,

however, your view will not be entertained. The corpse of a
person who has shown us so much disobedience is
unworthy of any rebate. Another narration states that it
was said, After the killing, we have no business with the
corpse. You can do whatever you want with it.

Imaam Muslim

and Ibn Ziyad

Thereafter, Ibn Ziyad addressed Imaam Muslim

saying, People were united. You came and caused
sedition. You propelled them to rebel against us.
This is absolutely not the case! I did not come here for
whatever you said. The people here say that your father
killed their elders and virtuous people, caused bloodshed
and ruled them like CaIsar and Kisra. So, they called us
hereand we came to deliver justice and fairness and
and the
invite towards practicing on the Book of Allah
Sunnah of Rasoolullah .
Hearing this, Ibn Ziyad became enraged and shouted, O
Sinner! [Allah forbid!] How can you claim such a thing?!
While you were busy drinking alcohol in Madinah, you did
not think then to deliver justice to people?
I used to drink?! By Allah , He knows welland even
you know for certainthat you are lying and making false
accusations. I am definitely not like what you claim. The
person who sheds the blood of sinless Muslims is more
worthy of being called a drunkard. He kills those people
whose killing Allah
has prohibited merely out of

personal enmity and malice, and regards this oppression as

The governor replied, May Allah
strike me down if I
do not set your killing as a precedent of execution in
Islam! To this, Imaam Muslim answered, Indeed there
is no one more sinister than you to initiate such innovations
and evil in Islam. Yes, you must kill me in a harsh manner,
mutilate me severely and spare no wickedness, because
this will cause you to be more worthy of punishment! This
caused the governor to be
candour of Imaam Muslim
beside himself. He began to swear and abuse Imaam
Muslim and even his father Hadhrath Aql , Hadhrath
and Imaam Husain ! Imaam Muslim , on the
other hand, remained silent and did not speak to him after

The Martyrdom of Imaam Muslim

Ibn Ziyad then ordered the executioners to take Imaam
to the roof of the mansion and kill him in a
horrific manner. He also ordered his head and body to be
thrown to the ground so severely that it would cause his
bones to break. When Ibn Ashath was asked to take part in
the execution, he remained silent. While the executioners
were taking Imaam Muslim to the top of the mansion,
his lips were moist with the remembrance ( )of Allah
and Durood on Rasoolullah . He was also saying, O
Allah , indeed only You are the judge between these

people and usthese people who lied, deceived, forsook

then turned in the
and killed us. Imaam Muslim
direction towards Makkah Sharif.
With continuous strikes of the sword, the executioner
martyred Imaam Muslim
and threw his severed head
and body to the ground.

The Martyrdom of Haani

Following the execution of Imaam Muslim , Ibn Ashath
spoke to Ibn Ziyad about Hadhrath Haani
and said,
You know the standing of Haani in this city, along with
his tribe who are aware that two of my friends and I
brought him to you. I beg you to forgive him, for the sake
of Allah . Otherwise, I fear enmity and revenge being
sought from his tribe. Ibn Ziyad promised forgiveness
initially, but after the incident of Imaam Muslim , his
intention changed and he ordered for Haani
to be
decapitated. This was carried out by his Turkish slave.

The governor then sent the severed heads of Imaam
Muslim and Hadhrath Haani to Yazeed and informed
him of all that occurred. The martyrdom of Imaam Muslim
took place in Zul-Hijjah, 60 A.H.


The Sons of Imaam Muslim

During the blockade of the governors house and,
according to some, while he was sheltered in the house of
Tauaa, Imaam Muslim
sent his two sons to Qaadi
and instructed him, Send them by any safe
method to Madinah. After Imaam Muslim
martyred, Qaadi Shuraih
called the two children and
passed his hands over their heads with tears in his eyes.
Seeing this, they asked, Uncle, have we become orphans?
Qaadi Shuraih
gathered himself and said, Beloved
children, your respected father has been martyred.
Hearing this, the children also began to cry profusely.
These flowers of the Prophets
family faced two
hardships at this time, separation from their father and fear
for their lives.
Qaadi Shuraih now focused his attention on saving the
lives of these two children. So, he called his son Asad and
said to him, I heard that a caravan is leaving for Madinah
from the Iraqi gate today. Take these two children there
and place them in the care of a sympathetic (i.e. faithful)
lover of the Ahle-Bayt. Inform him of their plight and stress
that he safely return them to Madinah. Asad took the two
boys to the Iraqi gate and enquired about the caravan. He
was told that it had already left. He then rode with the
children to catch up with it. After a while, when the dust of
the caravan could be seen in the distance, Asad said to
them, That is the dust of the caravan. You must now move

quickly and join them. I am going back. He then returned

to Kufa while the two children quickly moved forward. A
short while later, both the dust and the caravan were
nowhere to be seen.
In this state of utter helplessness, the two children hugged
each other and took the names of their parents, crying
Ibn Ziyad came to know that Imaam Muslim had come
to Kufa with his two sons (Muhammad and Ibrahim )
and that they were in someones house in the city. So, he
announced, Whoever brings the two children of Muslim
to me will be generously rewarded, and those who hide
them or help them leave Kufa will be worthy of severe
retribution. Following this announcement, a few soldiers
who possessed the greed of wealth went out in search of
the boys. After some tracking, they managed to find them
and handed them over to the chief police officer. He took
them to Ibn Ziyad, who ordered that they be kept in jail
until a decision from Yazeed regarding them was received.
Mashkr, the warden of the jail, was a pious man and
lover of the Ahle-Bayt. When he saw the predicament and
helplessness of these oppressed orphans, his passion of
Imaan was stirred. He wholeheartedly intended to save
their lives even if it meant him staking his own. So, in the
darkness of the night, he took the two children to his
house, fed them, and led them to the road leading to
Qdsiyyah, giving his ring to them as a sign and saying,

This road leads straight to Qdsiyyah. When you reach it,

ask for the address of the police officer, who is my brother.
Show him this ring, tell him about your situation and ask
him to help you reach Madinah. He will safely return you
to the city.
The two afflicted children proceeded, but alas, the orders
of destiny which are already emplaced cannot be changed
so easily by the planning of servants. They travelled the
entire night yet Qdsiyyah did not come. In the light of the
next day, while walking, they came across a well and a
tree, so they decided to sit in its shade, all the while
terrified that someone may apprehend and take them to
Ibn Ziyad. At this time, a slave-girl approached the well for
water. Seeing the boys sitting the way they were and
noticing the splendour and beauty of nobility they
possessed, she neared them and asked why they were
sitting there, hiding.
They replied, What can we tell you about who we are? We
are oppressed, lost and destitute who also happen to be
travellers. She then asked who their father was, and when
the boys heard the word father, their eyes began to turn
moist. From this, the girl concluded, I think you are the
children of Muslim ibn Aql . As soon as they heard
their fathers name, tears flowed down the boys cheeks.
Reassuring them, the girl said, Do not worry. I am the
slave of a woman who shows true love and support for the
Ahle-Bayt. Have no concern and come with me. I will take
you to her.

The boys proceeded with the girl, who brought them to

the woman she spoke of. After she was informed of the
entire situation by her slave-girl, the woman became
overjoyed and, in this happiness, freed her. She also
showered the boys with much love and shed tears after
hearing their plight, consoling them and saying to the girl,
Do not disclose this to my husband, Haarith.
At the governors house, Ibn Ziyad was informed that
Mashkr had freed the two children. Still, he called for him
and asked him what he had done with them. Mashkr
replied, I freed them to attain the pleasure of Allah .
Hearing this, Ibn Ziyad asked, Did not you fear me?
He who fears Allah fears no one else.
The governor then wished to know what Mashkr had
attained for freeing them. He replied, Tyrant! By making
their father a martyr, you will attain nothing! But by
freeing those innocent children who are orphans and
afflicted by the hardship of imprisonment, I have hope of
intercession (). I have hope that Rasoolullah , the
Intercessor of Sinners, will intercede for me while you will
be bereft of this blessing.
The governor angrily replied, I will punish you for this
shortly, yet Mashkr maintained, Even if I had
thousands of lives, each one would be sacrificed for them!
Ibn Ziyad then ordered the executioner to whip Mashkr
until he passed away from it and to thereafter sever his
head from his body. On the executioners first strike,

Mashkr said, Bismillahir-Rahmanir-Raheem, on the

second, O Allah , grant me patience, on the third, O
Allah , forgive me, on the fourth, O Allah , I am
receiving this punishment in the love of the Holy Prophets
children, and on the fifth, O Allah , take me to
and his Ahle-Bayt. Thereafter he became
silent and the executioner completed his task.
Elsewhere, the virtuous woman was in the service of the
children wholeheartedly the entire day. At night, after
making them sleep in a separate room, her husband
Haarith arrived. He looked very tired and was asked by his
wife where he had been the entire day to return so late.
Haarith replied, In the morning I went to the governor of
Kufa, Ibn Ziyad. There I learnt that Mashkr, the warden of
the prison, freed the children of Muslim ibn Aql . The
governor announced that he who captures the children or
provides information about them to him will be rewarded
handsomely. So, many peopleincluding myselfbegan
to search for them. I searched everywhere until even the
horse could not bear the travellinghence my exhaustion.
The woman said to him, Servant of the Almighty , fear
Allah ! What do you want with the children of the Holy
Prophet ?!
Be quiet! What do you know?! Ibn Ziyad promised much
wealth and riches to the person who brings the children to
him or provides information about them.


How unfortunate are those who search for these orphans

to hand them over to enemies, all to attain the wealth of the
world. They are exchanging their deen for the dunya.
What do you have to do with all this? Just bring me
His wife then brought him his supper, after which he ate
and fell off to sleep.
After half the night had passed, the elder brother
(Muhammad ) had a dream which made him wake up
and say to his younger brother, Brother, now is not the
time to sleep. Wake up and get ready, as our time is also
near. I just saw a dream in which our father, the Holy
Prophet , Hadhrath Ali
and Sayyidah Faathimah
were walking in Jannah together with Imaam Hasan .
Suddenly, looking towards us, Rasoolullah said to our
father, Muslim , come and leave these two children
amongst the oppressors. Our father looked towards us
and submitted, O Rasoolullah , they too will arrive
soon. Hearing this, Ibrahim embraced his elder brother
and began to cry.
At this point, the patience of Muhammad
was also
tested, and he too began crying. The sound of this woke up
Haarith. He asked his wife, Who is in the house crying
like that? The woman became afraid and did not reply. So,
Haarith himself woke up, lit a lamp and proceeded to the
room where the sound of crying was coming from.
Entering it, he saw two children hugging each other, crying
and saying, Father, father. Haarith asked them who they

were. Thinking that the house was solely occupied by

family, they clearly
supporters of the Prophets
answered, We are the sons of Muslim ibn Aql .
Haarith remarked, How extraordinary! I spent the entire
day in search of you two while you were right here in my
house! Hearing this and seeing the expression on the face
of this tyrant, the children grew anxious and terrified. The
woman fell to the feet of her husband and humbly
requested, Have pity for these orphans!
Haarith threatened, Beware! If you desire your lifes
goodness, stay quiet! The poor woman could do nothing
else and remained silent. In the morning, with his sword in
hand, the wretched Haarith took the two children with him
and went away. When his wife saw this, she couldnt
contain herself and ran after him barefoot, sincerely
appealing, Fear Allah
and have mercy on these
This tyrant was unaffected by her submissions and rushed
to beat her. The poor woman had no other option but to
stop in her tracks. A house-slave of Haarith, who was also
the foster brother of his son, came to know of this
development and ran to join his master. Haarith said to
him, There is a possibility of someone snatching these
children away from us on the way to the governors house
and effectively taking our reward. So, take this sword and
kill these two children. The slave asked, How can I kill
these innocent children? After Haarith insisted but was
still answered in the negative, he said, I do not have the

strength to kill them. How will I show my face to the Holy

on the Day of Qiyaamah if I killed innocent
children of his family? He then threatened, If you do not
kill them, I will kill you! The slave daringly challenged, I
will kill you before you kill me! Haarith was a skilled
soldier. So, he suddenly leapt forward and pulled the
slaves hair. The slave grasped his beard in retaliation, and
both began to fight intensely until the slave was severely
At this time, Haariths wife and son reached the area. His
son said to him, Father! This slave is my foster brother! Do
not you have any shame hitting him? Haarith did not
reply. Instead, he delivered a swift and severe blow and
martyred the slave. The son continued, Father! I have not
seen anyone more cruel and unjust than you!
Control your tongue. Take this sword and kill these
By Allah , neither will I do this nor will I allow you to
do it!
Haariths wife requested, Do not take the burden of these
orphans killing. If you do not want to free them, at least
spare their lives. Take them alive to Ibn Ziyad. Your motive
will bear fruit through this.
Haarith replied, I fear that when the people of Kufa see
them, they will snatch them away from me by making a
commotion and all of my effort will be wasted.
Haarith eventually took the sword in his hand and
stepped forward to slay the heads of the boys. Having lost

no hope in him until even now, Haariths wife ran in front

of him and told him to fear Allah and the punishment of
the Hereafter, yet he merely struck her and brought her to
the ground, injured. Seeing his bruised mother on the
ground and in pain, the son then rushed and grabbed his
fathers hand, saying, Come to your senses! What has
happened to you?! Haarith struck him too and caused him
to die from it. Seeing her son losing his life before her, the
woman could bear no more and also passed away.
Haarith finally turned towards the two children. They
said to him, If you fear us being snatched away from you
on the way to Ibn Ziyad and losing your reward, why do
not you cut our hair and sell us as slaves? He replied, I
will not spare you now, and lifted his sword. Seeing this,
the smaller brother stepped in front and said, Kill me
Haarith eventually martyred these two innocent children
of the Ahle-Bayt, decapitated them and threw their bodies
into the river. After this, he placed their heads in a nosebag and proceeded to Ibn Ziyad, entering the governors
house at midday. When Ibn Ziyad was shown the bag, he
asked, What is this? Haarith proudly explained, In the
hope of reward, I have brought the slain heads of your
Who are these enemies?
The sons of Muslim ibn Aql.
An infuriated Ibn Ziyad shouted, On whose order did
you kill them?! Wretch! I wrote to Yazeed explaining that if

he commands, I will send Muslims sons to him alive! If he

gives that order, what will I do now?! Why did you not
bring them alive to me first?!
After hearing Haariths explanation, the governor
continued, If your fear was that they would be snatched
from you, why did not you keep them in a safe place and
inform me? I would have made arrangements to have them
brought here. Why did you kill them without my order?!
He then looked towards the court and ordered a person
named Maqaatil to slay Haariths neck. This was swiftly
doneand Haarith lost both the world and the Hereafter.

The Departure of the Exalted Imaam Husain ibn Ali

In the previous pages, it was mentioned that after the
letters and delegations of the people of Kufa reached
Imaam Husain , he sent Imaam Muslim
to ascertain
the condition and situation of the area. Seeing the love and
wrote back to
support of the Kufis, Imaam Muslim
Imaam Husain
explaining that thousands of people
pledged their allegiance on his hand and that all of the
residents of the city anxiously awaited his arrival. So, he
should come to Kufa immediately.
After receiving this information, Imaam Husain firmly
intended leaving for Kufa, having not heard of the loss of
support for the Ahle-Bayt that was now occurring in the
region. When the people of Makkah came to know of his
departure, they showed their dislike for this since they

knew the treachery and deceit of the Kufis and their

and Imaam
previous treatment towards Hadhrath Ali
Hasan . So, they tried to stop the Imaam from going.
Hadhrath Umar ibn Abdur-Rahman Makhzumi was the
first to approach him.
He said, I learnt that you are going to Kufa, so I came to
you merely for goodness. With your permission, may I say
something? Imaam Husain replied, Definitely. You are
a sincere and loyal supporter. Hadhrath Umar
submitted, You intend going to a city whose leaders and
servants are present within and who have control over its
treasury () . You know that the public are slaves to
dirhams and dinars. So, I fear that the very people who
called you and promised to help you will end up fighting
you and leaving your side, all in the greed of wealth. So,
you should not go there. Imaam Husain
Hadhrath Umar ibn Abdur-Rahman
for his sincere
counsel and supplicated for him. Ibn Atheer and Tabri
After him, Hadhrath Abdullah ibn Abbas
came and
asked, Brother, people are saying that you are going to
Kufa. Is this true?
Insha-Allah , I will leave in a day or two.
For the sake of Allah , do not do so. If the people of
Kufa executed their present governor, drove their enemies
out of the city and had complete control of their situation,
your going would be correct, but if they have called you
while their governors amongst them, while his role is
enforced and while his officers are collecting tax, you

should know that they have called you merely for fight. I
fear that those who called you will deceive and belie you,
forsake you and even fight against you with the power of
the timeproving to be your biggest enemy.

Imaam Husain

replied, I wish for goodness from Allah

will see what happens.
Ibn Atheer and Tabri


Following Hadhrath Abdullah ibn Abbas , Hadhrath

Abdullah ibn Zubair came and asked Imaam Husain
what he intended doing. Imaam Husain explained, I am
thinking of going to Kufa because the nobles of that city
and my supporters (shias) have called me there, and I wish
for goodness from Allah . For Imaam Husain not to
doubt or think negatively about him, Ibn Zubair replied,
If you remain in Hijaz and try to attain caliphate, we will
all pledge allegiance with you, support you completely and
be loyal to you.
I heard my father say that there will be a ram in Makkah
who will let the sanctity of the city be desecrated. I do not
want to be that ram. In short, Ibn Zubair insisted that
the Imaam remain in Makkah while he (Ibn Zubair )
completed the Imaams tasks, but Imaam Husain
explained, I want to be killed out of the Haram rather than
within it. He refused to stay under all persuasion. After
Hadhrath Ibn Zubair left, Imaam Husain said, There


is nothing more desirable for Ibn Zubair

in the world
than me leaving Hijaz and clearing the path for him. Ibid
On that evening or at dawn the next day, Hadhrath Ibn
Abbas approached Imaam Husain and said, I wish to
be patient but I can not because I fear your destruction in
this journey. The people of Iraq are treacherous. Do not go
near them. Instead, stay in this city. You are the leader of
the people of Hijaz. If the Iraqis are sincere in their claim of
support and love, and truly wish you to go there, you
should write to them instructing them to first chase their
governor and enemies away from the city, then go to them.
But if you do not want to remain here and feel that it is
necessary for you to leave, go to Yemen. It is a wide and
expansive land with many mountains and forts. Supporters
of your father are there too. While there in solitude, keep
sending your messages to people. I hope that you wiill
attain success in your intention with peace and security in
this manner.
Imaam Husain replied, by Allah , I am certain that
you are a well-wisher and one who cares for me, but I have
already made a strong intention of leaving.
If going is unavoidable, do not take women and children
with you. I do not wish for you to be martyred in front of
them the way Hadhrath Uthman
was. Hadhrath Ibn
Abbas also said, You have made Ibn Zubair happy
by clearing the path for him. With your presence, no one
turns towards him. Oath on Allah the Autonomous, if I

thought you would listen to me if I held you back by

grabbing your collar until the people gathered to watch
this, I would do so.
too were not successful
The attempts of Ibn Abbas
because the predestination of Allah
was set, and
whatever He desired would be what would occur. So, Ibn
Abbas left the Imaam after this attempt.
After him, Hadhrath Abu Bakr ibn Haarith
came to
Imaam Husain and said, Your father [Hadhrath Ali ]
was the Khalifa. Muslims had a general acceptance for him
and used to accept his verdicts. Besides Syria, all Islamic
states supported him, yet in spite of this power and control,
when he went against Muawiyah , people forsook him in
greed of the world. They did not just forsake himthey
became his severe opponents, and the decree of Allah
came to pass. After your father, the conduct of the Iraqis
with your brother is also not unknown to you. With all of
this experience, You are going to the enemies of your father
and brother with aspiration that they will support you?
Know well that Iraq will forsake you too in the greed of
wealth. These material dogs will almost immediately leave
your side and join your enemies. These people who claim
to be your supporters and lovers will prove to be your
enemies. Marjuz-Zahab by Masdi
This forceful conversation of Abu Bakr ibn Haarith still
could not deter the resolve of Imaam Husain . He replied,
Yes, the desire of Allah
will be done. Other close

friends too tried to stop him, but all proved to be

unsuccessful. So, the caravan of the Prophets family left
Makkah in Zul-Hijjah of 60 A.H.

When Muhammad (ibn Hanafiyah) was informed of his
brother Husains leaving towards Karbala, he cried so much
that the wudhu bowl in front of him became full of tears.
Amr ibn Saeed ibn As, the governor of Makkah emplaced
by Yazeed, sent his brother Yahya ibn Saeed with a few
riders to stop and retain the caravan of Imaam Husain .
When Yahya tried to block it, the two parties broke out into
a fight. Yahya said to Imaam Husain , Do not you fear
?! You are separating yourself from the
congregation and causing division in the Ummah! Imaam
Husain replied,

To me are my actions and to you yours. I am independent of
your action and you are of mine.
At a place called Safah, Imaam Husain
met the
celebrated Arab poet, Farzq. He asked him about the
condition of Iraq, and the poet replied, You asked an
informed person about its condition. O Shaikh! Their hearts
are with you, but their swords are with the Banu Umayya.

The Divine decree has been revealed from the Heavens,

and Allah does whatever He wishes.
Imaam Husain said, Youve spoken the truth.

Decree is in Allahs
control. He does whatever He
wishes, and every day of Our Lord is a new glory. If the
Heavenly decree is according to our preference, we will be
thankful to Him for His blessings, and it is He Who will be
the Helper in offering this thanks. If the decree is contrary
to our preference, then perhaps the secret of the one whose
object is truth and piety be extended. Ibn Atheer, Tabri
and Al-Bidaayah
After conversing with Farzq, the caravan of the Imaam
moved onwards. While proceeding, Imaam Husains
nephews, Hadhrath Aun and Hadhrath Muhammad ,
who were bringing the letter of their father, Hadhrath
Abdullah ibn Jafar , to him, saw the Imaam on the road
and gave it to him.
The letter said, For the sake of Allah , I request you to
immediately return as soon as you read this because I fear
for your destruction and the ruin of your family at the
place you are going. Allah forbid, if you are killed, the
Noor of Islam will be extinguished and darkness will
engulf the world. You are the guide for the people of
salvation and the hope of the people of Imaan. Do not

hasten your departure. I am also on my way behind this

letter. Tabri
After he had sent this letter with his sons, Hadhrath
Abdullah ibn Jafar
went to the governor of Makkah,
Amr ibn Saeed, and instructed, Write a letter to Husain
in which you promise to give him safety and that you will
be good and kind to him. Write it and tell him to come
back. The governor replied, You write the letter and I
will endorse it with my seal.
So, Hadhrath Abdullah
wrote the letter on behalf of
Amr. It read, From Amr ibn Saeed to Husain ibn Ali . I
supplicate to Allah
that He keeps you away from this
intention [i.e. leaving] in which you will have to face
destruction. May Allah show you the path on which lies
your goodness. I came to know that you are going to Iraq
and I pray that Allah
saves you from dissension and
discordsince I fear for your destruction in dissension. I
am sending Abdullah ibn Jafar and my brother Yahya ibn
Saeed to you. Please return with them.
I assure you protection and will be kind and considerate
towards you. Allah is a witness to this.
The governor then stamped the letter, after which
Hadhrath Abdullah
and Yahya proceeded with it to
Imaam Husain . Still, when the Imaam read it, he refused
to go back. Hadhrath Abdullah enquired, What is the
matter? Why do you insist on going there?


He replied,

Indeed I saw the Holy Prophet in a dream instructing
me. I will definitely fulfil his command whether it is for or
against my favour. When he was asked what the dream
was about, he said, I have not told anyone about the
dream nor will I relate it ever until I meet my Lord.
Tabri,Ibn Atheer and Al-Bidaayah
Imaam Husain
then wrote the following to Amr ibn

How can he who invites towards Allah and does good
be from those who oppose Allah and His Messenger ?
Indeed I am a Muslim and you called me towards
protection and goodness. Listen closely, the best protection
is Allahs , and on the Day of Judgment, Allah will not
grant protection to he who did not fear Him in this world.
We pray to Allah that He bestow upon us His fear in this
world so that we are worthy of His protection on the Day
of Judgment. If by this letter you truly intended goodness
and kindness, may Allah
grant you its reward in this
world and in the Hereafter. Was-Salaam. Tabri


The friends of Imaam Husain lovingly appealed to him

to not go to Kufa since the people there were treacherous
and their claim of love and support had no practical
weight. From this counsel, it can be understood that these
friends of the Imaam did not disagree with the mission and
objective. Rather, they feared the treachery of the people of
Kufa. Allah forbid, if the Imaam was martyred through
their betrayal, the Noor of Islam would dim and darkness
would engulf the world. O Muslims! Indeed Imaam Husain
was a true lover of the Holy Prophet . He deemed it his
duty to carry out the command of his beloved grandfather,
Muhammad Mustapha , irrespective of what happened.
How unfortunate is it that today, the foolish who are
bereft of the secrets of love level accusations and objections
against Imaam li-Maqaam Husain ibn Ali out of their
wickedness and misfortune?! What do they know about the
esteemed, honourable station and example of Imaam
Husain ? Look at his teachings, steadfastness, truth and
sincerity! Indeed, he set an example for his future
generations to stand up against falsehood and admonish
truth before even tyrants and opponents.
Imaam Husain practically demonstrated how to keep the
flag of truth high even if it meant encountering calamities
and hardships. He taught us that sacrificing for the truth of
Allah is a great quality. Whatever is encountered in this
sacrifice (e.g. loss of life, thirst, etc.) is not dishonour but in
reality a great distinction and virtue of the highest degree.
It brings respect in both worlds. This is why we see the

names of Imaam Husain

and the martyrs of Karbala
revered both in this world and in the Hereafter.
By now, Ibn Ziyad had received information that the
caravan of Imaam Husain
had left for Kufa and was
quickly approaching it. He made arrangements to intercept
them by dispatching the chief of police, Haseen ibn Numair
Tameemi, with a legion of soldiers. When Haseen reached
Qdsiyyah, he spread his army out, blockaded the roads
and sent ahead a few riders to spy and inform him of the
Imaams movementsdoing this so that there would be no
further communication between Imaam Husain and the
people of Kufa.

Martyrdom of Hadhrath Qais

When Imaam Husain reached Hjir, he gave a letter to
his trusted companion, Qais ibn Mushir Saidwi , and
sent him to Kufa. In the letter, he informed the Kufis of his
coming and admonished them to strive in fulfilling their
objective. However, by this time, the roads had already
been blockaded, so when Qais
neared Qdsiyyah, he
was arrested and sent to Ibn Ziyad by Haseen. Ibn Ziyad
ordered him to go to the roof of the governors house and
swear Husain ibn Ali by saying, [The Imaam is] a liar
and the son of a liar, (Allah
forbid!). Qais accepted
going to the roof, and when he was finally on top, he
praised Allah and said, People, Husain ibn Ali is the
beloved of Faathimah , who is the daughter of the
Messenger , who is the most excellent of Allahs

creation. I am Husains messenger, and he has reached

Hjir. Accept his invitation. Qais then began to swear
Ibn Ziyad and his father and supplicated for blessings for
Hadhrath Ali
. This enraged the governor, so he
commanded that Qais be dropped from a high building
(which would cause his body to be broken into pieces). The
command was seen to and Hadhrath Qais was dropped.
When he hit the floor, he still had some life in him. Seeing
this, Abdul-Malik ibn Umair stepped forward and slew his
neck. Alas, a true lover of Imaam Husain sacrificed his
life on him.
A similar incident occurred when Hadhrath Abdullah ibn
Baqtar was sent too with a letter by Imaam Husain to
Imaam Muslim .

Meeting Hadhrath Abdullah ibn Mutee

Imaam Husain
continued moving forward with his
caravan until, after passing Batne-Zir-Rumma, they
reached a well where they met Hadhrath Abdullah ibn
Mutee . When he saw the Imaam, he quickly advanced to
meet him, made salaam and asked him what made him
come there. Imaam Husain related the situation to him
and told him why he had come to the region. Hearing this,
Abdullah ibn Mutee said, O son of Rasoolullah , I offer
you the comfort of the sanctity of Islam, the holiness of the
Quraish and the sacredness of the Arabs! Do not go to
Kufa! You will definitely be martyred there.
Imaam Husain replied,

No hardship will come except that which Allah ordained for
Akhbarut-Tiwaal and Ibn Atheer

Zuhair ibn Qain Bajali

After meeting Abdullah ibn Mutee , Imaam Husain
stopped at a place called Zard. A tent was seen nearby,
and when he enquired as to who it belonged to, he was
told, Zuhair ibn Qain Bajali , who was going to Kufa
after performing Hajj. Imaam Husain called for Zuhair
, and even though he thought that the summoning was
distasteful, Zuhair
left to see him nonetheless. After
meeting the Imaam and seeing the procession of the AhleBayt, Zuhair
recalled something which changed his
mind and caused his face to shine with radiance.
At once, he dismantled his tent and put it up next to the
Imaams camp. He even divorced his wife, told her to
return to her brother, then addressed his companions,
saying, Whoever wants to return may do so, and whoever
wants to join me may do so. All were surprised with this
statement and asked him what the matter was. Zuhair
explained, Listen, after we fought at Baltajar, we were
pleased with the amount of war booty we gained. At that
time, Hadhrath Salmaan Farsi was with us and he said,


(A day will come) when you will find the leader of the young
from Muhammads household (i.e. Imaam Husain ) and you
will fight with him (against his enemies). You will attain
immense joy in doing so, more than the happiness you are
experiencing from this war booty. So, I hand you in the control of
Allah .
Ibn Atheer, Vol. 4, Pg. 17 and Tabri, Vol. 6, Pg. 225
Zuhair effectively remained with Imaam Husain and,
after being martyred at Karbala, truly did receive
everlasting happiness (through martyrdom).

News of Imaam Muslims


Until now, Imaam Husain

was still unaware of the
condition of Kufa, but when he reached Thalabiyyah, he
was told of the martyrdoms of Imaam Muslim
Haani ibn Urwah . Abdullah ibn Sulaim and Muzri ibn
Mashamal Asadi narrate, Both of us had gone for Hajj,
and after completing it, we wished more than anything to
quickly see what had happened regarding Imaam Husain
. So, we rode fast and met with his caravan in Zard.
When we came to him, we saw a man from the people of
Kufa approach him. Imaam Husain too saw the man and
stopped (leading the man to change his direction).
We decided amongst ourselves to go to this man and ask
about the people of Kufa. When we reached him, he
returned our greeting, and we asked him who he was and
what his name was. He answered that he was from the

Asad tribe and his name was Bukhair ibn Mathab. We let
him know that we were also Asadi. After the introduction,
we asked him about the situation in Kufa and he replied, I
had not left Kufa when Muslim and Haani were killed. I
saw that they were bound by their legs and dragged in the
marketplace. After hearing this, we both returned to
caravan. In the evening, when the
Imaam Husains
Imaam pitched camp at Thalabiyyah, we related to him
what had occurred, and upon hearing this sorrowful
development, he continuously recited,
do we belong and indeed to Him we
Indeed to Allah
will return. We said to him, For the sake of Allah !
Please return, because there is no supporter and helper for
you in Kufa. We fear the very people who called you
becoming your enemies. The Banu Aql then passionately
remarked, by Allah ! We will not leave the land of Kufa
without taking revenge for the blood of our brother,
Muslim , or be killed like him. Hearing this, Imaam
Husain replied,

There is no joy in being alive after them.
Some companions of the Imaam also said, By Allah ,
you are not like Muslim ibn Aql . Where is Muslim
and where is your esteem? After seeing you in Kufa, people
will join you. Tabri
The caravan then proceeded from this area. Whichever
rural village it passed, crowds of people came out to meet

and join Imaam Husain , and it was in Zubla that he

was told of Abdullah ibn Baqtars martyrdom.

Imaam Husains


After Imaam Husain

received all of this distressing
news, he gathered his companions and said, We received
news of the killing of Muslim ibn Aqeel , Haani ibn
and Abdullah ibn Baqtar . Our supporters
(shias) have deserted us. So, whoever from amongst you
wishes to return, he is welcome to do so, and there is no
grievance on our part for doing so.
Imaam Husain said this so that those who joined him
for other reasons would not misunderstand the situation or
think that they were forced to accompany him. On the
contrary, they were free to go wherever and whenever they
wished. The Imaam also said this so that those who were
completely in agreement with his intentions and were
ready to sacrifice their lives in the path of truth remain
with him. After his speech, those who joined Imaam
Husain while travelling dispersed (because they did not
join with the intention of fighting but instead thought that
he had gained control over Kufa).
After leaving Zubla, the caravan reached Batne-Aqba.
Here, a member of the Banu Ikramah met Imaam Husain
and asked him where he was headed. After the Imaam told
him, the tribesman submitted, For the sake of Allah ,
please return! Oath on Allah , you will have to face

spears and swords. If those who called you had cleared the
path for you and were prepared to fight at your side and
sacrifice their lives, then your going there would be correct.
But, based on your account of the situation, you going
there is not appropriate at all.
Imaam Husain replied,

O servant of Allah , what you are saying is not obscured to
me, but no command of Allah can ever be subdued.
Tabri and Ibn Atheer
After Batne-Aqba, the group reached Sharf, then ZiHashm in the morning (where they pitched camp at the
foot of the mountain). Hurr ibn Yazeed Tameemi, who was
sent by the administration of Yazeed with 1,000 armed
riders to arrest Imaam Husain , arrived in this region and
also pitched camp facing the Imaams caravan. At the time
of Zuhr Salaah, Imaam Husain ordered the Azhaan to be
given, and after it, he stood before Hurrs legion, praised
Allah and said the following,
O people, I seek pardon from Allah and you. I have not come
to you by myself. Rather, your messages and deputations came to
me saying, We have no leader. Come to us, and it is possible
will place us on the path of salvation through your
blessings. So, I came. Being steadfast on your promise and
statements, pledge an agreement with me through which I gain
complete satisfaction. If you do this, I will proceed to your city,


and if not and my coming is distasteful for you, I will return to

where I came from.
After these words, there was silence and no one answered.
Imaam Husain then instructed the muazzhin to give the
iqmah and asked Hurr, Will you perform the Salaah with
me or separately? He answered, Why separately? We
will all perform Salaah behind you. Imaam Husain then
led the Salaah and went to his camp afterwards. Hurr too
proceeded to it. At Asr time, Imaam Husain
instructed the camp to get ready and gestured for the
Azhaan to be given. All again performed Salaah behind
him. After the Salaah, he delivered the following speech,

People, if you fear Allah
and recognize the right of the people
of truth, this will be a means of Allahs
pleasure. We, the
Ahle-Bayt of prophethood, are more worthy of the Caliphate than
those who claim it and rule over you with oppression and
tyranny whereas they have no right to rule at all. If you dislike
us, do not recognize our right, and if (today) your opinion is
contrary to what your letters and delegations have conveyed to
me, I will leave you.
Hurr exclaimed, By Allah ! We have no knowledge of
the letters and delegations you speak of. Imaam Husain
then ordered Aqba ibn Samn to bring the two bags of
letters sent to him from the people of Kufa, after which he

emptied their contents before everyone. Seeing the letters,

Hurr said, We are not from those who wrote to you. We
received instruction not to leave you until you are brought
to Ibn Ziyad in Kufa. The Imaam replied, Your death is
closer than this. He then ordered his companions to
mount their rides and return, yet Hurr obstructed them.
The Imaam asked, May your mother cry because of you!
What do you want?!
By Allah , if any other Arab besides you had said this
about my mother, irrespective of who he was, I would
return the same words to his mother, but by Allah , I will
mention your mother only in the best possible manner.
Tell me, what is it you want?
Hurr answered that he wished to take him to Ibn Ziyad.
Imaam Husain replied, Oath on Allah , I too will not
leave you.
A heated conversation then occurred between the two of
them until Hurr said, I have not been told to fight with
you, only not to leave you wherever I find you until you
reach Kufa. So, choose a road that does not make you reach
either Kufa or Madinah. During this time, I will write to
Ibn Ziyad, and you should do the same, either to him or
will create a solution to this
Yazeed. Perhaps Allah
situation by which I too am saved against you.
In agreement, Imaam Husain turned to the left of the
Azeeb and Qdsiyyah road and proceeded onwards. Hurr
continued with him. Tabri and Ibn Atheer
When the two parties reached Baid, Imaam Husain
once again delivered a passionate speech to both Hurrs

group and his own companions. After praising Allah


, he

People, indeed the Messenger of Allah said, Whoever sees a
tyrant king permitting that which Allah prohibited, breaking
Allahs pledge, acting contrary to the Sunnah of the Prophet
and ruling over people with sin and oppression, if he does not
try to change this condition by speech and action according to his
has the right to send him to the oppressive
capacity, Allah
kings destination (i.e. Jahannam). Know that these people have
chosen the obedience of Shaitaan and have forsaken Allah .
They have spread mischief (fitna) in the land, abandoned the rules
of Islamic Law, specified war booty for themselves alone,
prohibited the permissible acts of Allah
and allowed the
prohibited ones.
I have more right than anyone else to change them. Indeed your
messengers and letters that promised pledges of allegiance to me
had reached me. The letters also said that you will not hand me
over to enemies or forsake me. So, if you remain steadfast on your

promise of allegiance, you will attain salvation. Listen, I am

Husain , the son of Ali , and Faathimah , the daughter of
the Messenger of Allah . My life is with you and my family is
yours. My being is an example for you. If you do not do this, if
you break your promise and distance my allegiance from
yourselves, then oath on my existence, this sort of behaviour is
not something new from you. Rather, you already did this to my
father, my brother, and my cousin Muslim . He who falls for
your deception is truly disillusioned. Indeed, you are unfortunate
and have ruined your share of goodness. He who demonstrates
treachery will be burdened with his untruthfulness himself, and
soon Allah
will make me independent of you, Was-Salaamu
Alaikum. Tabri, Ibn Atheer and Ibn-Khaldoon
After this, Hurr said to him, For the sake of Allah , I
remind you of your own life. I testify that if you launch an
attack or are attacked, in both cases you will definitely be
Are you petrifying me about death? Has your
wretchedness reached such a height that you would kill
me? I do not know what to say to you, but I will repeat
what a Sahaabi from the Aus tribe said to his cousin, (this
Companion wanted to help the Holy Prophet . When his
cousin met him and said, Where are you going? You will
be killed! he replied)

Soon I will complete my objective, and death is not a reason for
shame and determent for a young manprovided his intention is
virtuous and he fights [jihad] as a Muslim.

And by his life he helps the virtuous servants, opposes those who
are to be destroyed, and separates himself from the criminals.

If I live, I will have no remorse, and if I die, I will have no grief;
but you leading your life with dishonour and shame are sufficient
for you.
Ibn Atheer
Hurr heard these verses and began to walk separately
from the Imaam. Subhanallah! Marvel at the steadfastness
of Imaam Husain and his passion to combat mischief! He
set an example for us allespecially those who are from
familyto always
the descendants of the Prophets
uplift the flag of Islam and truth.
The caravan of the Ahle-Bayt then reached AzbulHajnt. There, Imaam Husain saw four riders under the
leadership of Tirmh ibn Adi coming towards him with
news of Kufa. As they were approaching, they recited the
following verses,

My camel, do not be afraid of my rebuke. Travel fast and reach
before morning.


With your best riders, travel the best you can and stop by the

Who is honoured in lineage, esteemed in rank and greatness,
and open-hearted in generosity. Allah brought him for good
work, and may He keep him in safety until this living world
Hearing these words, Imaam Husain


by Allah indeed I have hope that whatever Allah has
wished for us, it is only goodnessbe it our death or in gaining
Hurr then stepped forward and said to the Imaam, These
are not your companions but they have come from Kufa. I
will not let them meet you. Rather, I will have them either
arrested or sent back.
Imaam Husain replied, I will not let that happen. They
are my helpers, and I will protect them the way I protect
my own life. You said to me that until Ibn Ziyads letter
comes to you, you will not oppose or stand in my path.
That is correct, but have these people come with you?
Even if they did not, they are equal to those who have. If
you obstruct them in any way, I will wage war against
Hearing this, Hurr moved away.

Imaam Husain asked the riders about the condition of

Kufa. From amongst them, Majm ibn Abdullah Azmiri
said, The nobles and eminent citizens of Kufa have joined
the administration after accepting major amounts in bribes.
They are now united and incited against you. With regards
to the general public, their hearts are inclined towards you,
but tomorrow, they too will take up swords to fight against
Imaam Husain asked them about his messenger, Qais
ibn Mushir Saidwi , and they replied, Haseen ibn
Numair arrested him and sent him to Ibn Ziyad, who
ordered him to curse you and your father, but he sent
salutations to you and your father and cursed Ibn Ziyad
and his father instead. He informed people of your arrival
and announced that you should be helped and supported.
On this, Ibn Ziyad ordered that he be thrown from the roof
of the government house, and he was.
Hearing this saddening news, tears began to fall from the
eyes of Imaam Husain , and he recited the following

One of them sacrificed his life and one is waiting, and they have
not changed.
Surah Ahzab (33), Verse 23
He also made the following dua,

O Allah , grant them and us the blessing of Jannah, gather
them and us in the meeting-place of Your mercy, and bestow
upon us a great share from the treasure of Your reward.

Advice from Tirmh ibn Adi

Tirmh ibn Adi submitted to Imaam Husain , The
situation has become very delicate and you only have a few
people with youwho did not even come for war. The
army of Hurr, a thousand in number and well-armed, is
sufficient to combat them. In fact, more than sufficient. Also,
as I was leaving Kufa, I saw a huge army outside the city,
the like of which my eye has not seen before. I asked
someone where this army was preparing to go and he said,
To fight Husain. So, for the sake of Allah , if possible,
do not take one step in that direction. If you wish to go to a
place where Allah
will keep you in His protection and
where you can ultimately decide what you wish to do,
come with me. I will take you to our high mountain, jh.
By Allah ! Because of this mountain, we were saved
from the kings of Ghisn and Hameer, Numan ibn Munzir,
and every black and red nations attack. By Allah ! No
one was able to gain our obedience. I will take you there
before going to the Salmi residents of the jh mountain
informing them of your claim. Oath on Allah , within a
period of ten days, foot-soldiers and riders of the Tey tribe
will come to you in droves. You can stay with us for as
long as you wish, and if you intend going to war, I take on
the responsibility of gathering 20,000 tribesmen of the Tey
tribe for your help. They will demonstrate their bravery
and swordsmanship and will not let any enemy come near
you as long as one of them is alive.


Imaam Husain replied, May Allah reward you and

your tribe. Actually, there was something already said
between them and us. Due to this, we can not go back, and
I do not know what will happen to us now.
protect you from the
Tirmh then said, May Allah
mischief of man and jinn. I brought food provisions for my
family from Kufa. Insha-Allah , I will deliver it to them
and return to you to become your helper.
If you wish to do so, then do so quickly. May Allah be
merciful to you.
So, Tirmh went to his family and, as per his promise, left
them to rejoin with Imaam Husain . While he was
returning, however, he heard of the Imaams martyrdom.
So, he went back home.
After passing Azbul-Hajnt, the caravan stopped at the
fort of the Banu Maqaatil. It was midnight when Imaam
instructed his companions to fill their water
containers and move on. While travelling, he fell asleep but
suddenly woke up startled and said, Indeed
to Allah
do we belong and indeed to Him we will
return, three times. The Imaams
son, Imaam ZainulAbideen , heard this and asked him why he said it.
Imaam Husain answered, I fell asleep and saw a dream.
In it, I saw a rider saying, People are travelling and death
is approaching them. I understood that this was news of
our demise.
May Allah
protect you from difficult times. Are we
not on truth?

Oath on Him towards Whom the servants will return, we

are on truth.
If we die while being steadfast on truth, there is no
concern for such a death.
grant you the reward a son can receive
May Allah
from a father.
It was said,

If the world is a grand and esteemed object, surely the reward
from Allah is more and greater than it.

If the creation of physical bodies was for death, a young man
dying in Allahs path is better and excellent.
At the time of dawn, Imaam Husains
stopped somewhere, performed Salaah, and then left (with
Hurr still in tow). The caravan eventually reached Nainw.
Here, Imaam Hussain saw a rider armed with weapons
and with a heavy bow on his shoulders coming towards
him. The rider came, greeted Hurr and handed him Ibn
Ziyads letter. It read,

When my messenger comes to you with my letter,
(immediately) be harsh on Husain and do not let him camp
anywhere except where there is no defensive protection

nor water. I have instructed my messenger to keep a

watchful eye on you and not leave you until I am informed
that you have carried out my command. Was-Salaam.
Tabri and Ibn Atheer
Hurr read out this letter to Imaam Husain
and his
companions and harshly commanded them to camp at
such a place where there was no water or habituation. They
said, Leave us. We will go to Nainw, Ghadriyyah or
Shafiyyah, yet he replied, Oath on Allah , I can not do
this, because this person (the messenger of Ibn Ziyad) was
appointed to check on me.
Upon this, Zuhair ibn Qain said to Imaam Husain ,
O son of the Holy Prophet , we can easily fight them
now, while the time to come will be severe indeed. There
will be more armies than this to face, and we will not be
able to go up against them. Imaam Husain replied that
he will not initiate any fighting. Zuhair then suggested,
If this is the case, why do not you stay at the village that is
in front of us? It is a bit safe and is next to the Euphrates. If
these people stop us from going there, we will fight them
and fighting them will be easier than going up against
those who will arrive later.
Imaam Husain asked what the villages name was and
was told that it was Aqr. He then said, I seek Allahs
protection from Aqr.


The Land of Karbala

In short, on Thursday the 2nd of Muharram, 61 A.H.,
Imaam Husain , together with his companions and
family, pitched camp in that very field. Hurr also pitched
his camp facing the Imaams. Although he had reverence
for the Prophets
family (Ahle-Bayt) in his heart and
even performed Salaah behind Imaam Husain , Hurr was
compelled by the command of Ibn Ziyad. He knew that if
he showed the slightest bit of kindness to this party, he
would not be spared by the governor. So, he carried out his
Some books narrate that Hurr secretly met Imaam Husain
and said to him (out of respect for the Ahle-Bayt), An
extensive amount of Ibn Ziyads soldiers are coming, so it
is wise that you leave here at night. I will not follow you
and will bear whatever comes to me.
travelled the entire night
Due to this, Imaam Husain
with his companions but at dawn found himself in the very
place he left from! Sadatul-Kaunain
Noticing the desert and depressing environment, Imaam
Husain asked what the place was called. As soon as the
people said, Karbala, he replied,

This is a place of karb and bala (i.e. affliction and
hardship). This is where our provisions will be


dismounted, the sitting-place of our camels, and the killingfield of our supporters and helpers. Noorul-Absaar
Hearing this sorrowful statement of his father, Hadhrath
Ali Akbar asked him, Why are you saying this?
He replied, When your grandfather, Hadhrath Ali ,
was returning from the battle of Siffeen and arrived here,
he said, In this desert, my beloved son Husain will be
mercilessly martyred. He then asked me what I was going
to do at that time and I answered that I would be patient.
To this, he said, yes, only be patient, because
there is an infinite amount of reward for those who
are patient (Surah Zumar (39), Verse 10). RaudhahthushShuhad
As the tents were being pegged to the ground, fresh blood
emerged from the earth. Sayyidah Zainub , the sister of
Imaam Husain , saw this and said, Brother, this is earth
of blood, and it causes my heart to be restless. He replied,
Be content with the pleasure of Allah
and camp here.
This is the area for the martyrs and the promised place.
Patience is necessary in every condition.
While the caravan of the Prophets
grandson pitched
camp at Karbala, the Yazeedi government was busy in
preparing to unleash terror on these august personalities.
So, on the second day, Amr ibn Saad, with an army of
4,000 soldiers from Kufa, reached Karbala to confront
Imaam Husain !

Amr ibn Saad

Amr ibn Saad was the son of the esteemed Companion
and Conqueror of Iran, Hadhrath Saad ibn Abi Waqqas
(a personality amongst the ten Companions promised
Jannah). Although Ibn Saad hailed from an eminent line,
the greed of material, worldly wealth destroyed him. The
following is how he got involved in the incident of Karbala:
Around this time, the Kurds (Dailmis) had reached and
attacked Dastabt, so Ibn Ziyad made Ibn Saad the
governor of Rai (present day Tehran, capital of Iran) and,
together with an army of 4,000 soldiers, appointed him to
crush the Kurdish rebellion. Ibn Saad left with this army of
4,000 and reached a placed called Hamm Ayan when Ibn
Ziyad required someone to go up against Imaam Husain
. So, he recalled Ibn Saad and instructed him on his
return, First fight Husain, then gain the power of your
governorship and remove other problems. Ibn Saad
have mercy on you. Please excuse
replied, May Allah
me from this, yet Ibn Ziyad threatened, Yes, you can be
excused, on condition that you forsake governorship from
Rai and return my decree. Ibn Saad asked if he could
have a day to think about it, and he was granted
permission to do so.
He sought counsel from his friends on the matter and all
stopped him from fighting Imaam Husain . Even when
Hamza ibn Mughirah ibn Shub, the nephew of Ibn Saad,
came to know about this, he approached him and said,

Beloved uncle, for the sake of Allah , do not commit
wickedness in the sight of your Lord by going up against
Husain , and do not be responsible for breaking family
ties. By Allah , it is better for you to be distant from all
the wealth and power of this world than to meet Allah
with your hands red with the blood of Husain .
Ibn Saad replied, Insha-Allah , I will act according to
this advice. He spent the entire night contemplating his
situation and recited these stanzas,

Should I cast aside the governorship of Rai whereas it is desired,
or should I return cursed with the killing of Husain?

The punishment of killing him is the Hell-fire from which there
is no covering. But, there is coolness of the eyes in the governing
of Rai.
Ibn Atheer
Abdullah ibn Yasr Johani narrates, When Ibn Saad
received instruction to go and fight Husain , I went up to

him and he said, The Amr has commanded me to fight

has worked
Husain and I refused. I replied, Allah
goodness through you, and may He grant you virtuous
salvation. Do not obey the command and do not go up
against him. After I said this, I left, but someone then
informed me that Ibn Saad was inviting people to fight
Husain . I went to Ibn Saad again, but this time, when he
saw me, he turned his face away. I understood that he had
now decided to fight Husain , so I returned home.
Ibn Saad came to Ibn Ziyad and said, You decreed the
government of Rai for me and people have become aware
of this. Promulgate your decree and send so-and-so
noblemen of Kufa with me to fight against Husain . The
governor retorted, I am not obligated to send who you
choose. If you are ready to go with your army, say so, or
return my decree for the gorvrnance of Rai.
Ibn Saad replied, Fine, I will go to fight him. Ibn
So, with an army of 4,000 soldiers, Ibn Saad arrived in
Karbala to fight Imaam Husain on the 3rd of Muharram,
61 A.H.


An Important Lesson
When the evil of greed becomes set within a person, he
becomes bereft of admirable qualities like patience, trust in
and forbearance. After this, repulsive and
loathsome emotions take over his heart to the extent that he
does not even differentiate between Halaal and Haraam.
Rather, sometimes greed blinds a person to usurp the right
and unjustly ruin the lives of the innocent. Its for this
reason that the Holy Prophet said,

Save yourselves from greed because it destroyed those before
you. It is this very greed that enticed them to bloodshed and
making Haraam into Halaal.
Muslim, Baabu Tahrimiz-Zulm
In another narration, he said,

The destruction two hungry wolves cause when let loose in an
area dense with sheep is nowhere near the amount of ruin the
greed of wealth and status causes to the deen and faith (Imaan) of
a person.
Tirmizhi, Abwbuz-Zuhd
When Ibn Saad reached Karbala, he ordered Arzah bin
Qais Ahmasi to go to Imaam Husain , ask him why he
had come there, and what he desired. Arzah ibn Qais,
however, was amongst those who wrote letters to Imaam

Husain calling him to Kufa. So, he felt embarrassed to go

to him and refused Ibn Saads command. All other
noblemen from the army who were asked by Ibn Saad to
approach the Prophets grandson also refused to do so,
saying, How can we go whereas we are the people who
invited him here?
This proves that those who made grand claims of love and
support were the very people that joined the Yazeedi
government and came out to fight against Imaam Husain
. They did so because they accepted major bribes, and
their names have already been mentioned in previous
So, no one was prepared to go to Imaam Husain . When
Katheer ibn Abdullah ibn Shab, a daring and valiant
person, saw this, he said, I will go to Husain , and by
Allah , if you tell me to, I can even surprisingly attack
him and finish him. Ibn Saad replied, I am not asking
you to attack him suddenly and kill him. What I am asking
you to do is go to him and ask him why he came here and
what his intentions are. Katheer then left for the Imaam.
saw Katheer
When Abu Shammah Saaidi
and said,
approaching, he rushed to Imaam Husain
Abu Abdullah ! May Allah be kind to you. The most
wicked and bloodthirsty person of this world is coming to
you. He then stepped forward and said to Katheer, Can
you put your sword aside and then meet the Imaam?
Katheer replied, Oath on Allah , this cannot occur. I

came as a messenger. If you listen to it, good; if not, I will

Fine, if you do not keep your sword aside, I will put my
hand on its cover while you deliver the message.
Oath on Allah , this too cannot occur! You cannot keep
your hand on it!
Alright, give me the message and I will relate it to the
Imaam. I will not let you near him in this manner (i.e. with
a sword) because you are an evil person.
This type of impudent conversation occurred between
them, after which Katheer returned to the camp without
delivering the message, telling Ibn Saad what had
occurred. Tabri
Ibn Saad then selected Qura ibn Qais Hanzali to deliver
the message. Seeing him coming, Imaam Husain asked
his companions if they recognized him, and Habb ibn
answered, Yes, I know him. Hes from the
Hanzalah tribe and from Tameem. He is also my nephew,
and I regard him to be of good honour. It is surprising that
he too has come here with the enemies.
At that moment, Qura arrived, greeted Imaam Husain
and delivered Ibn Saads message to him. When he was
done, Imaam Husain replied, People of your city, Kufa,
wrote letters and called me here. If my coming here is
unpleasant to them, I will go back.
then asked his nephew, Will you return and
join those tyrants? Help those through whose family

members Allah
bestowed you and me the honour of
Imaan instead. Qura replied, I will definitely relate the
reply of this message to the one who sent me and whom I
am with. After that, I will decide what to do. Tabri
After informing Ibn Saad of Imaam Husains message,
Qura said, I have hope that Allah
will save me from
fighting with Husain. Ibn Saad then wrote down the
Imaams reply and sent it to Ibn Ziyad. Tabri
Ibn Saad thought that through this appeasing message,
conciliation could probably be reached and he could be
saved from this oppression. Misfortune, however, became
his destiny. Ibn Ziyad read the report of Ibn Saad and said,

Now when our claws have clutched him, he wants to leave,
whereas now there is no place of retreat.
He then wrote the following to Ibn Saad, Your letter
reached me, and I understood whatever you wrote. You
must tell Husain and all of his companions to pledge
[allegiance] to Yazeed. If they do, we will carry out
whatever we deem appropriate.
When Ibn Saad received this letter, he said, I understand
now that Ibn Ziyad is not inclined towards safety and


After this, another letter from the governor arrived,

commanding the following,

Become a barrier between Husains camp and the Euphrates,
effectively blockading them from water. Through this, they will
not be able to drink even a sipthe same fate of the virtuous,
pure and oppressed Leader of the Faithful, Uthman ibn Affan.
Ibn Saad then appointed Amr ibn Hajaaj as an officer of a
battalion of 500 riders to wait at the Euphrates and block
Imaam Husain from the river. Due to this, the Prophets
family were unable to attain even a drop from it.
Abdullah ibn Abi Haseen then shouted out, Husain!
Look at this water like the moving clouds of the sky. By
Allah ! You will not get even a single drop from it, and
you will die thirsty in this way. (Allah Forbid!) Hearing
this, Imaam Husain replied,

O Allah

! Take his life while he is in a deplorable state of

thirst and do not ever forgive him.

The wretch Abdullah ibn Abi Haseen then fell ill. Hamd
ibn Muslim narrates, I went to visit him while he was sick,
and by Allah ! His condition was that he used to drink
water and vomit it out, over and over again. His thirst

could not be satiated no matter how much he drank, and

he eventually died in this state. Tabri and Ibn Atheer
At one point, Imaam Husain sent his brother, Hadhrath
Abbas ibn Ali , with 20 riders and 30 people on foot to
bring water for the camp. Together with his companions,
Amr ibn Hajaaj tried to obstruct them but was met with
combat. Hadhrath Abbas
was successful in this
encounter and returned with water. Tabri and Ibn Atheer
Also, through Umar ibn Qurz ibn Kaab Ansri, Imaam
sent the following message to Ibn Saad,
Tonight I wish to meet with you, but with men on both
sides. Ibn Saad accepted this and both came at night with
20 riders each. After instructing their men to remain far
from them, Imaam Husain and Ibn Saad then spoke to
one another for a lengthy period (with no one hearing their
conversation) and later returned to their riders.
There are two narrations regarding what was said
between them. One states that Imaam Husain
Lets leave our armies here and go to Yazeed, yet Ibn
Saad replied, In doing this, I fear my home demolished
and my property and holdings confiscated.
I will build a better home for you and give you greater
Ibn Saad, however, was not prepared to accept this at any


The second narration states that Imaam Husain

Ibn Saad the following three options, and he was to accept
any one of them,
1. Let Imaam Husain

return to where he came

2. Take him to Yazeed for him to give his hand in

Yazeeds. After that, the matter will be resolved
between them.
3. Take him to any border area of the Islamic empire
where he will remain with the border people.
The first narration can be thought of as correct to an
extent, but the second is not credible in both a narrative
and acquainted ( )point of view.
From a narrative point, al-Majlid ibn Saeed Hamdni is
one of its narrators, and according to the Commentators of
Hadith (), he is dismissed from the standing of
credibility. Allaamah Hafiz Zahabi and Imaam Ibn Hajar
Asqalni have both critiqued him and classified him as
unreliable. Refer to Mznul-Itidl and Tahzbut-Tahzb
With regards to the acquainted point of view, Ibn Ziyads
command was that if Imaam Husain pledges allegiance,
he would not be faced with opposition. So, if Imaam
Husain was prepared to give his hand in Yazeeds, why

did not Ibn Ziyad and Ibn Saad accept it and why did the
martyrdom of the Prophets family occur?
In fact, a completely different narration by Uqba ibn
Samn states, I accompanied Husain from Madinah to
Makkah and from Makkah to Iraq. I was not away from
him even until his martyrdom. I heard his every lecture
and conversation, and by Allah , never once did he say,
I will give my hand in the hand of Yazeed. Rather, he
always said, Let me go. The earth of Allah is wide and
expansive. Leave me to go somewhere until I see what
people decide. Tabri and Ibn Atheer
Although Ibn Saad came to fight with Imaam Husain
out of worldly wealth and prestige, at heart he did not wish
to be connected to such a major crime. So, he tried to find a
way to prevent fighting from occurring and partook in
three to four meetings with the Prophets grandson.
It is also possible that he added this option [that Imaam
Husain was willing to give his hand in Yazeeds] on his
own to prevent a battle taking place. This is because when
there is severe disagreement between two groups and there
is fear of swords being drawn, to lie is permissible for the
sake of reconciliation. The Holy Prophet said, Speaking
lies is not permissible except in three instances: a man
saying something to make his wife content, in war, and to
reconcile people. Tirmizhi Abwbu-Birr was-Sil
Therefore, Ibn Saad wrote to Ibn Ziyad, stating,

Allah has extinguished the flames of the fire, created a

situation of agreement, and solved the matter of the Ummah,
because Husain has said three things to me,
Let me return to where I came from, send me to any border you
wish, or take me to Yazeed and I will give my hand in his hand.
After that, [leave] whatever is to be decided between us.
When this letter reached Ibn Ziyad, he too intended to
accept one of the abovementioned three, but at that time,
Shimr ibn Zil-Joshn was with the governor. The wretch
stood up and said, Are you accepting these conditions of
Husain whereas he is in your grasp?! By Allah! If he leaves
here without your obedience, it will be a means of his
power and dominion and your weakness and subjugation.
Do not ever give him this chance. There is only your
dishonour in this. Rather, Husain and his companions
should all bow their heads in obedience to your command.
Then if you punish them, it is your right, and if you forgive
them, it is also within your power. By Allah ! I have come
to know that Husain and Ibn Saad spend the entire night
with their armies sitting and chatting.
Ibn Ziyad replied, You have given an excellent
suggestion. Take my letter and give it to Ibn Saad. In the
letter, Ibn Ziyad wrote,
I did not send you to keep giving Husain respite and
desiring his security by interceding for him. If Husain and
his companions bow their heads in obedience on my

command, send them to me like other obedient

constituents. If they do not comply, attack them
immediately and kill them, slay their necks and run horses
over their corpses, because they are worthy of such
conduct. If you act according to my instructions, you wll
receive the reward an obedient individual should receive,
and if you do not want to carry them out, hand over my
army to Shimr and move away from it. I already briefed
Shimr, and he will complete my commands. Tabri and
Ibn Atheer
Abdullah ibn Abil-Mahl ibn Kharm was also present
when Ibn Ziyad gave Shimr this letter. His paternal-aunt,
Ummul-Baneen bint Kharm, was the wife of Hadhrath Ali
and had given birth to Hadhrath Abbas, Abdullah, Jafar
and Uthman . Abdullah requested, May Allah
goodness to the governor. My nephews are with Husain. If
you deem it appropriate, can a proclamation of safety for
them be written? Ibn Ziyad did so. Abdullah then sent
this document to his nephews with his slave, Kuzmn. The
slave went and said, Your uncle sends you this guarantee
of safety, yet a courageous youngster replied, Present our
salaam to him and tell him we have no need for your
protection [is what is
peoples protection. Allahs
sought] and it is better than the safety of Ibn Ziyad. Tabri
and Ibn Atheer
Meanwhile, Shimr brought Ibn Ziyads letter to Ibn Saad.
When Ibn Saad read it, he became annoyed and said to
Shimr, May Allah destroy you! What have you brought

me?! By Allah ! My suspicion is that you are the one who

stopped Ibn Ziyad from accepting what I had written to
him! Sadly, you have ruined this issue which I had hope of
being settled. By Allah ! Husain will never bow before
Ibn Ziyad. He has with him a self-respecting heart.
Hearing this, Shimr replied, Fine. Tell me, what will you
do now? Will you act upon the instruction of the governor
and kill the enemies or not? If you will not, hand over the
army to me.
This was another chance for Ibn Saad to be saved from
this offense (by handing over the army to Shimr), but he
still desired the seat and power of Rai. Alas, the
misfortunate Ibn Saad was now ready to trample the
flowers of Sayyidah Faathimah Zahra
into blood and
dust. He said, I will fulfil the command of the governor.
Shimr then stood before the army of Imaam Husain and
asked, Where are the sons of my sister? This was heard
by Hadhrath Abbas
and his brothers, who then
approached Shimr and asked him what the matter was. He
said, Sons of my sister! There is protection for you. A
youngster with a keen sense of honour answered ever more
harshly than the first, May Allahs curse be upon you
and your protection! You give us protection but there is no
protection for the son of Rasoolullah ?! Tabri, Ibn
Hadhrath Muhammad ibn Umar ibn Hasan



We were with Husain at the shores of Karbalas two
rivers. Imaam Husain saw Shimr ibn Zil-Joshn and said,
Allah and His Messenger are true. The Prophet
said, I see a spotted dog putting his mouth in the blood of
my family. (Shimr was mabrs, i.e. one with leucoderma).
Ibn Askir, Sirrush-Shahdatain, Pg. 28

Respite of One Night

On Thursday the 9th of Muharram, 61 A.H., with his
sword next to him, Imaam Husain was sitting by his tent
resting when Ibn Saad suddenly proclaimed to his army,
Soldiers of Allah ! Prepare to attack the enemy and
mount your horses! This caused an uproar in the army of
Yazeed. Hearing the commotion, the sister of Imaam
Husain , Sayyidah Zainub , came closer to him and
awoke him. The Imaam lifted his head and said,

I just saw the Holy Prophet in a dream. In it, he said to me,
You are coming to meet us.
Sayyidah Zainub
heard this and cried out, What
calamity! Her brother, however, pacified her and said,
No, my beloved sister. There is no calamity for you. May
Allah have mercy on you. Have patience and be quiet.

then said to Imaam Husain ,

Hadhrath Abbas
Beloved brother, they [Ibn Saads people] are
approaching you. When he stood up to go to them,
Hadhrath Abbas insisted, No. You will not go to them, I
Imaam Husain said, You go, and may I be sacrificed on
you. Ask them what they want and their intention of
coming here.
So, with 20 riders including Zuhair ibn Qain and Habb
ibn Muzahir , Hadhrath Abbas approached the army
and asked them why they had come. They presented the
declaration of Ibn Ziyad, saying, Either bow your heads in
obedience on his command or prepare to fight and be
killed. Hadhrath Abbas replied, Wait. Do not be hasty.
Let me inform the son of Rasoolullah of your intention.
When Imaam Husain
was given this information, he
said, Ask them if they will grant us one nights respite so
that we can perform Salaah diligently, make dua and ask
for forgiveness. Allah knows well how beloved Salaah,
recitation [of the Holy Quran], dua and supplicating for
forgiveness are to me. Give respite for one night so that I
may also advise my family. Hadhrath Abbas then went
up to the Yazeedi army and said, Leave us for one night to
consider the matter. We will inform you of whatever is our
decision in the morning. The army accepted this.


Imaam Husains

Sermon to his Companions

Imaam Husain
then gathered his followers and
companions. His son, Imaam Zainul-Abideen , narrates,
Although I was sick, I went and sat close to my father to
listen. He addressed his helpers in the following manner,

I praise Allah entirely in happiness and in affliction. O
Allah ! I praise You and give thanks that You honoured
us with relation to prophethood, bestowed us with ears
and eyes that hear and see, granted us a heart, taught us
the Holy Quran, gave us the understanding of the deen,
and made us Your grateful servants. I do not consider any
other persons companions more loyal and excellent than
mine, and I do not regard other family-members more
honourable and kind to relatives than mine. My dua is that
Allah grants you all an excellent reward from this. Listen
carefullyI have certainty that tomorrow will be the day
we face them. I happily permit all of you to leave in the
darkness of the night with no grievance on my part. Take a
camel each, and whoever leaves should take with them a

family-member of mine. May Allah reward you all. After

this, go to your respective towns and villages until Allah
eases this hardship. Indeed these people seek to slaughter
me, and when they do, they will not want to kill anyone
else. Ibn Atheer and Tabri

Reply of the Companions

Hearing this, Imaam Husains
brothers, sons and
nephews all said in unison, Should we go back to remain
alive after you?! May Allah not bring such a day upon
The Imaam then said to the children of Muslim ibn Aql
, The martyrdom of Muslim is sufficient for you. So, I
allow you to go. The loyal brothers responded, What
answer will we give to people? Shall we say to them that
we abandoned our leader, master and honourable cousin in
the clutches of enemies? Shall we say that we did not join
him in firing arrows and fighting with spears and swords?
Oath on Allah ! This we could never do. We will sacrifice
our lives, wealth and familyeverythingon you and join
you in fighting your enemies. Whatever will be your fate
will be ours too. May Allah not give [us] life after you.
Hadhrath Muslim ibn Ausaj stood up and said, If we
desert you, what answer will we give Allah when asked
about fulfilling your rights? By Allah ! I will not leave
your side until I pierce and slice the chests of the enemies
with my spear and sword! Allah is my witness that even

if I do not have weapons, I will fight them by throwing

stones at them and sacrifice myself on you in this manner.
Ibn Atheer
Hadhrath Saad ibn Abdullah Hanfi stood up and said,
by Allah , I will not leave your side until it is seen by
Allah how I protected the family of Rasoolullah after
his demise. By Allah ! Even if I knew that I will be killed
by being burnt alive 70 times over with my ashes strewn all
over every time, still too would I not leave your side! In
this instance, I face being killed only once, and being killed
in this brings with it perpetual honour and respect. Why
should I not attain this? Tabri
Hadhrath Zuhair ibn Qain stood up and said, By Allah
! I wish to be killed then made alive a thousand times so
that, through this, Allah
may save you and the
youngsters of your family.
In short, every companion of Imaam Husain
demonstrated his sacrifice and affection, and by acting on
the teachings of the Holy Prophet , attained the honour of
both worlds. Hadhrath Anas ibn Haarith states,

I heard the Holy Prophet say, This son of mine will be
killed in the land called Karbala. Whoever of you will be
there should help him.


For this reason, Hadhrath Anas ibn Haarith

went to
Karbala and was also martyred with Imaam Husain .
Sirrush-Shahaadatain, Al-Bidaayah wan-Nihaayah and
Imaam Zainul-Abideen
narrates, On Thursday
evening, I was sitting and my aunt Zainub was nursing
me. At that time, Hawai, the freed-slave of Abu Zarr
Ghiffari , was sitting by my father inspecting his sword.
He [Imaam Husain ] was reciting these couplets,

O inconstant time, how unfortunate that you are never loyal to
any friend with every passing day?

How many esteemed and honoured people have you killed, while
this wicked time shows no contentment?

Surely everyones return is to Allah the Exalted, and every
living being will walk this path.

How near the promise of my passing has come? So I glorify my
Lord Who has no equal.
My father repeatedly recited these verses, and I then
understood his intent and knew that calamity had befallen

us. Tears uncontrollably filled my eyes but I demonstrated

patience and forbearance. However, my aunt, who had also
heard the verses, and by seeing swords being sharpened,
ascertained the severity of the situation, became
overwhelmed by it and began to cry loudly by my father,
saying, How I wish that death had already come to me
today! My mother Faathimah , father Ali and brother
have all passed away. O beloved brother! You
were supposed to be these deceaseds successor and our
protector and guardian. Seeing his sister in this state of
sorrow and restlessness, Imaam Husain said, Be careful
Shaitaan does not end your patience, respect and
May my parents be sacrificed on you, dear brother. I
wish to sacrifice my life in place of yours.
This statement was unbearable for Imaam Husain and
so he began to shed tears. Seeing her brother cry, Sayyidah
began crying more vocally, yet the Imaam
and seek
admonished her, Beloved sister, fear Allah
tranquillity and patience from Him. Know that all people
of the world will die and the inmates of the Heavens will
also cease to exist on the Day of Judgment. Everything is
temporary except Allah . My father, mother and brother
were more excellent than me. The being of the Holy
Prophet is an example for me and them, as well as for
every Muslim. You must attain patience from that very
He then gave others, similar advice to her before saying,
I ask you to fulfil a promise of mine. Listen, do not tear

your clothes, slap your face or shout and lament on my

passing. After this, Imaam Husain exited his tent and
instructed for the preparation of his companions necessary
Their tents were brought close to one another and the
tent-ropes were also joined. At the back of the camp, a
trench was dug with branches and filled with sticks (to be
lit at the time of fighting and to prevent the enemies from
attacking from this direction). Thereafter, all of the
companions performed Salaah behind Imaam Husain
and sought the forgiveness of Allah the entire night.

The 10th of Muharram, 61 A.H.

The night of shura (the 10th of Muharram) had ended,
and the dawn brought with it hardship and sorrow. The
Azhaan was given from the camp of Imaam Husain , and
the beloved grandson of the Holy Prophet then led his
companions and family-members in Fajr Salaah. This was
the last Salaah of the martyrs of Karbala, and only Allah
knows the emotion with which they performed it. After the
Salaah, Imaam Husain made dua for everyone to remain
steadfast and patient. The sun rose on the day of the AhleBayts bloodshed and the subsequent sorrow of mankind,
jinns, and even angels. 72 loyal men from Imaam Husains
camp prepared to battle a 22,000-strong army of Yazeed.
Imaam Husains orders were as follows,


Hadhrath Zuhair ibn Qain

right-wing of the army.

was in charge of the

Hadhrath Habb ibn Muzahir

charge of the left.

was made in

Hadhrath Abbas , the brother of Imaam Husain

, was made the flag-bearer.
The sticks in the trench were to be lit.
On the Yazeedi side, Ibn Saad commanded the following,
Amr ibn Hajaaj Zubaidi was to be appointed over
the right-wing.
Shimr ibn Zil-Joshn was to be appointed over the
Azrah ibn Qais Ahmasi was made in charge of
horseback soldiers.
Shabat ibn Rabee Yarboo was appointed over the
soldiers on foot.
The slave of Ibn Saad, Zuwaida, was to be the


Imaam Husain
mounted a camel, asked for a Quran
and kept it in front of him. He then lifted both his hands
and made the following dua,
O Allah ! You are my trust in every difficulty and my
refuge in every adversity. In all afflictions, my only support and
solace is You. There are many who, when afflicted with
hardships, become overwhelmed, are deserted by their friends and
make their enemies pleased. However, in all of my hardships, I
turned towards You and spoke my heart. I wished to turn to no
one but You. After this, You removed these hardships from me
and saved me from them. Indeed, You are the Giver of every
blessing, Controller of all goodness, and the ultimate object of
every desire and yearning.

The Insolence of Shimr

When the Yazeedis saw the fire lit in the trench to protect
the back of the camp, the cursed Shimr rode his horse to
the forefront and shouted, Husain! You prepared the fire
in the world for you before Qiyaamah? (Allah forbid).
The Imaam replied, You are more worthy of burning in
it. Hadhrath Muslim ibn Ausaj
then said, O son of
Rasoolullah , may I be sacrificed on you! If you
command, I can end this wretch with an arrow. He is
within reach and my aim will not faulter, yet the Imaam
replied, No. Fighting must not be initiated by us. Imaam
Husain then went to the Yazeedi army and said loudly,


People, do not be hasty! Listen to me and let me fulfil the

right of admonishment, after that the choice is yours. If you
accept my reasoning, deem my speech to be the truth and
are just to me, you will be extremely fortunate, and there
will be no way for you to oppose me. If you do not accept
my excuse and are unjust to me,

you and your partners should all confer and agree on a
certain procedure so that the decision is not obscured to
any one of you. Whatever you want to do to me, do so and
do not give me any credit. My Helper is Allah Who has
revealed the Book, and He is the Helper of the virtuous.
When the womenfolk of Imaam Husains camp heard
this, the sound of their crying became audible. Imaam
Husain sent his brother and son, Hadhrath Abbas and
Hadhrath Ali Akbar respectively, to pacify and quieten
them, saying, Oath on my existence, they will have to cry
more than this. The two then quieted them, and when
they stopped, Imaam Husain praised Allah and sent
Durood and Salaam upon Rasoolullah , the Prophets ,
and the angels. The eloquence of the language he used at
this instance cannot be explained. The narrator states,

Oath on Allah , I have not heard a more eloquent speech than
it, neither before nor after, from anyone.


Imaam Husain then said,

People, look at my lineage and reflect on who I am, then
ponder over your beings, rebuke them and think whether
killing and dishonouring me is permissible for you. Am I
not the grandson of your Prophet and the son of his close
cousin (Hadhrath Ali ) who brought Imaan on Allah
and His Messenger
exceptionally? Is the leader of
martyrs, Hamza , not the uncle of my father? And is the
martyr Dhul-Janhain Jafar Tayyr
(the Possessor of
Two Wings) not my uncle? Has the famous Hadith about
my brother and I not reached you, that we are the leaders
of Jannahs youth and the coolness of the Ahle-Sunnahs
eyes? If you certify what I say, then undoubtedly whatever
I am saying to you is the truth, because from the time I
came to know that Allahs anger descends on the liars, I
have not intentionally spoken a lie. If you do not certify me
and think that I am a liar, then even now there are some
present amongst you who, if asked, will inform you [of it].
Ask the Sahaabah of Rasoolullah Jabir ibn Abdullah
Ansri , Abu Saeed Khudri , Sahl ibn Saad and Zaid
ibn Arqam they will verify it because they heard the

himself narrate this Hadith. Now tell me, is
there nothing from all of this which will stop you from
spilling my blood and dishonouring me? Ibn Ahteer,Tabri
and Al-Bidaayah wan-Nihaayah
During this speech, the cursed Shimr verbally abused the
Imaam, yet Hadhrath Habb ibn Muzahir
faultless reply, saying, Allah

gave a

sealed your heart. That is

why you can not understand what the Imaam is saying.

After this exchange, Imaam Husain



If you doubt what I say (that I am the leader of the youth of
Jannah), then is there any doubt that I am the grandson of
your Prophet ? By Allah

there is no grandson of the

besides me on the face of the Earth! Tell me,

why are you thirsty for my blood? Have I killed or injured

anyone that you wish to avenge? Have I taken the wealth
of someone for which you seek compensation?
The Yazeedis had no answer for any of this. Imaam
Husain then shouted out to certain people, Shabath ibn
Rab! Hajd ibn Jabr! Qais ibn Ashath! Zaid ibn Harith!

Did you not write to me and call me here? They replied,

We did not write any letter. Imaam Husain then swore
that they did and said, O people! Since I am disliked by
you, leave me to proceed to a place of safety. Ibn Atheer
and Tabri
Hearing this, Qais ibn Ashath remarked, If you submit
to the command of your cousin (Ibn Ziyad), you will not be
The Imaam replied, You are the brother of Muhammad
ibn Ashath. Do you want the Banu Hashim to demand
revenge from you for killings besides that of Muslim ibn
Aql ? Oath on Allah , neither will I give my hand in
the hand of a disgraced person like Ibn Ziyad nor will I
pledge allegiance like a slave.

O servants of Allah ! I seek the protection of your Lord
and mine from you stoning me. I seek the protection of
your Lord and mine from every conceited, proud egotist
who does not have Imaan on the Day of Reckoning!
Saying this, Imaam Husain
made the animal he was
riding sit and dismounted it. The Kufis then rushed
towards him. Seeing this, an armed Zuhair ibn Qais got
on his horse and moved forward, passionately proclaiming,
People of Kufa! Fear the punishment of Allah ! It is
necessary on a Muslim to warn his Muslim brother. We are
brothers until now and are followers of a single religion
and deen! We have right to warn you for as long as swords

are not drawn between us. When that happens, our bond
with you will breakyou will be separate from us and we
will be separate from you. Listen, indeed Allah
tested us with the children of our Prophet Muhammad
so that He may see how we behave with them. I invite you
to assist the children of the Messenger and forsake the
egotist and son of the egotist, Ibn Ziyad.
Hearing this, the Kufis began to swear Zuhair ibn Qais
and praise Ibn Ziyad. They even supplicated for him,

By Allah , we will not move even a space back until we kill
your companion [Imaam Husain ] and his followers or hand
them over as prisoners into the control of Ibn Ziyad, the
Hadhrath Zuhair


Servants of Allah ,

Indeed the children of Faathimah are more worthy of love and

being helped than the children of Ibn Samiyyah. Even if you do
not help them, for Allah s sake, do not kill them. Leave their
case to them and their cousin Yazeed. Oath on my life, Yazeed
can be happy with your obedience without you having to kill
Husain .


Shimr then fired an arrow towards Zuhair

and said,
Enough! Be quiet! May Allah silence your mouth! You
have irritated us with your lunatic ravings! Hadhrath
Zuhair replied, Ibn Bawwl! I am not addressing you
specifically. You are an animal, and by Allah , I believe
that you do not have the ability to comprehend even two
verses of the Holy Quran. So congratulations to you for
attaining dishonour and a severe punishment on the Day of
Allah will now kill you and your companion!
Are you trying to scare me with death? Oath on Allah !
I regard giving my life with Husain
to be better than
living with you for eternity. Hadhrath Zuhair
loudly proclaimed to the army of Yazeed, Do not be
deceived by these heartless tyrants and ruin your deen!
Indeed those who spill the blood of Muhammads
children and family and kill their helpers will be bereft of
his intercession.
called Hadhrath Zuhair
After this, Imaam Husain

An Important Lesson
When misfortune becomes the destiny of a nation, their
eyes become veiled and their hearts become sealed. Their
ability to see and understand what the truth is then ends.
Allah states,


And who is more unjust than he who, when he is reminded of
the signs of his Lord, turns his face away from them and forgets
what his hands have sent forward? We have put covers on their
hearts that they may not understand the Quran and in their ears
heaviness. And if you call them towards guidance, then too they
will never find the way. And your Lord is the Forgiver, full of
mercy. If He seized them for what they did, He would have
hastened torment for them. But for them there is an appointed
time against which they will not find any refuge.
Surah Kahf (18), Verses 57-8
The condition of the Kufis/Yazeedis was exactly as above.
So, no warning could have any effect on them. Due to their
actions, they were worthy of punishment immediately, but
out of His planning, Allah granted them respite since He
has appointed a time for everything.


Enters the Battle

When Zuhair ibn Qais returned to the camp, Amr ibn

Saad advanced towards the Prophets
family to
commence battle. Hurr asked him, Are you going to fight
Yes, and by Allah ! I will fight and butcher them.
Have you not accepted any one of their proposals?


Oath on Allah ! If this matter was up to me, I would

definitely do so; but alas, your governor will not accept.
The veils of darkness which obscured the eyes of Hurr
were then removed and he began to see the glory of truth.
Seeing him tremble in this realization, Muhjir ibn As, a
member of his brethren, said to him, By Allah , I have
not seen you like this in any battle before whereas,
according to me, you are the bravest from the people of
Kufa. Why are you overcome like this? Hurr explained,
Oath on Allah ! On one side of me is Jahannam while on
another is Jannah, and I am between them. I am troubled in
choosing where to go.
eventually submitted, by Allah , I will go
towards Jannah even if I am cut into pieces or burned
alive! He then fortunately spurred his horse to leave the
Yazeedi camp and join Imaam Husain .
When he reached the Imaam, he said, Son of Rasoolullah
, may my life be sacrificed on you. I am the very person
who did not let you return and followed you the entire
way. I am responsible for making you helplessly set up
camp in this place. Oath on Allah though, I did not think
that these peoples misconduct would reach such a level
and that they would reject your conditions. I expected them
to accept at least one and effectively make a truce. By Allah
, if I knew that they were going to treat you like this, I
would have never been with them or become guilty of the
disrespect I have committed. I now repent for my
behaviour, ask for pardon in the court of Allah , and

sacrifice my life on you. Tell me, will this repentance of

mine be accepted?
Imaam Husain replied, Yes. Allah will accept your
tauba and forgive you. What is your name?
Hurr ibn Yazeed .
In-sha-Allah , you will be hurr (free) in this world and
in the Hereafter. Come off your horse.
I will come off it only when I sacrifice my life on you
fighting these tyrants.
Then do as you wish. May Allah have mercy on you.


Address to the Yazeedis

After joining the companions of Imaam Husain , Hurr

said to the Kufis and Yazeedis, Why you do not accept
one of the three proposals of Husain
so that Allah
may save you from fighting with them? They replied,
Speak to our leader, Ibn Saad.
Ibn Saad then himself said, I wished for this, but sadly it
can not come to be.
then said, O Kufis, may you be ruined and
destroyed by Allah ! You called Husain , and when he
arrived, you forsook him and handed him over to enemies!
You said that you would sacrifice your lives on him, yet
now you desire to attack and kill him! You blocked him
and stopped his family from going to live in safety and
peace anywhere on Allahs
expansive Earth. At this
moment, they are like prisoners. You also blockaded them
from the Euphrates, the very river which Jews, Christians

and fire-worshippers drink from. Even the swine and dogs

of this field turn to drink from it! Water is hoped for by
Husain and the Prophets family! What mischief you
have demonstrated with the children of Muhammad
after his demise! If you do not repent at this very moment
and change your intentions, on the Day of Judgment, Allah
will also make you yearn in thirst!
The enemies then began to rain arrows on Hurr , who
escaped their fire and returned to stand before Imaam
Husain .

The Battle Begins

After Hurrs return, Ibn Saad moved forward with his
flag-bearer, fired an arrow towards Imaam Husain and
began shouting, Be witness, I was the first to fire an
arrow. Then, with war-cries, others too began to fire
arrows. The battle had startedand soldiers from both
sides stepped forward to begin demonstrating their
bravery and prowess.
Yasr and Saalim, the freed slaves of Ziyad ibn Abu
Sufyaan and Ibn Ziyad respectively, were the first to
emerge from the enemys ranks and call out people for
combat. In reply, Habb ibn Muzahir
and Bareer ibn
stepped forward, but Imaam Husain
stopped them. Abdullah ibn Umair Kalbi saw this and
asked if he could fight the two slaves instead. The Imaam
allowed this.

When Hadhrath Abdullah

stepped forward, the two
asked him who he was. He informed them and also
disclosed his family background. They then said, with
Yasr standing in front and Saalim behind, We do not
know you. Either Zuhair ibn Qain or Habb ibn Muzahir
should come forward to fight us. Hadhrath Abdullah
answered, O son of a promiscuous woman, are you
hesitant in fighting me?
With just one strike, he then slew Yasr. Seeing this,
Saalim leapt forward and attacked. Hadhrath Abdullah
blocked his sword with his left hand (which caused his
fingers to be chopped off). With his right hand, he then
managed to strike Saalim with his swordseverely enough
to slay him too. After this, he recited the following

If you people do not know me, I am the son of the Kalb tribe.
This is my family heritage, and my home, being in the Aleem
tribe, is sufficient for me.

Indeed I am a strong swordsman, and at the time of hardship or
affliction, I do not become helpless or lose spirit.

O mother of Wahb! I am the guarantor for your statement that I
will bravely attack the enemies with sword and spear; an attack of
a servant who has Imaan on the Lord.

Hearing this, Umme-Wahb , the wife of Abdullah ,

grabbed a tent-pole, stepped forward and said, May my
parents be sacrificed on you! Keep fighting for the children
of Rasoolullah . Hadhrath Abdullah wished that she
return to the womens tent, but she refused and said, I will
not leave you. I will sacrifice my life with you. Hearing
this, Imaam Husain said to her, On behalf of the AhleBayt, may Allah reward both of you! O virtuous woman,
return, because fighting is not compulsory on women. On
this instruction, Umme-Wahb returned.

Abdullah ibn Umair Kalbi

Abdullah ibn Umair
was from the Banu Aleem tribe
and had recently come to Kufa, staying in a home near the
well of Jd with the Hamdn tribe. His wife, Umme-Wahb
, was also with him. She was a member of the Ibn Fsit
tribe. At a place called Nukhaila, Abdullah saw a wellarmed army and asked people where they were marching
to. Someone answered, They are going to fight against
Husain , the son of the Prophets daughter Faathimah
. Abdullah states, by Allah ! I wished to gain an
opportunity to fight polytheists, but when I heard the
intention of this army, I was certain that fighting those who
take up arms against their Prophets grandchildren is not
less than fighting polytheists.
He then went to his wife, discreetly explained the entire
situation to her and informed her of his intention. She
replied, Your intention is admirable, and may Allah

complete this good wish and desire of yours. Come, take

me along with you. Hadhrath Abdullah
quickly by night with his wife to join the army of Imaam
Husain . It was his fortune that he also gained the
distinction of being the first from the group to come out
and slay individuals from the opposition [Yasr and
After killing these two, Amr ibn Hajaaj (in charge of the
right-wing of Yazeeds army) proceeded towards Imaam
with his troops. The Imaams loyal supporters
stood steadfast against their firing of arrows and
eventually managed to turn away their horses.

Miracle on the Battlefield of Karbala

An insolent, rude Kufi from Yazeeds army, Ibn Hauza,
loudly asked twice, Is Husain present? No one answered
him. On the third instance, Imaam Husains
asked Ibn Hauza what his intention was. He said, Husain!
Glad-tidings of Jahannam are for you! (Allah forbid). In
response, Imaam Husain said, You are a liar! I will not
enter Jahannam. Rather, I will be present in the court of the
Compassionate Lord and the Messenger
who is an
intercessor. He then asked who this impudent person was
and his followers replied that it was Ibn Hauza. On this,
the Prophets grandson lifted his hands and supplicated,
O Allah , throw him into fire. Immediately, Ibn
Hauzas horse became startled and started running
towards the trench that was lit behind the Husaini camp.

He tried to jump over it but fell to the side of his horse as

his leg got caught in the animals saddle. While his body
hanged from there, the horse continued to run in
bewilderment, repeatedly tramping Ibn Hauzas head,
thigh, ankle and leg. He was then thrown into the fire and
was killed by it.
Masrq ibn Wil Hadrami, who was amongst the riders
at the forefront of the battalion, recalls, I was at the front
of the battalion so that I could successfully slay the head of
and gain distinction in the sight of Ibn Ziyad.
When I saw the result of Husains supplication for Ibn
Hauza, my intention changed and I separated myself
completely from the Yazeedi army. When his brother,
Abdul-Jabbar, asked him why he was leaving, Masrq
explained, I saw something from this family that caused
me to never fight against them. This was also a link in the
chain of proof. By this miracle, Imaam Husain said, If
you doubt my acceptance, use your eyes and see. I open
my mouth to make dua and it immediately occurs. Now
think of the detriment of fighting against a person whose
duas are accepted in this manner. You still have time!
Refrain from your evil plan, yet these unfortunate
peoplewho became blind and deaf out of the greed of
this worldtook no heed.
After this, Yazeed ibn Maqal stepped forward from the
enemy camp and was met with Bareer ibn Hadheer from
the Husainis. Yazeed spat, Bareer, you have seen what
has done with you. Hadhrath Bareer replied,

Oath on Allah , He has shown me goodness and given

you the opposite of it.
You are a liar, even though you never spoke a lie before
this! Let me inform you that today you are from the
Come. Let us first supplicate against one another ()
and ask Allah
to curse the liar and destroy the one
astray. Then we can fight. By doing so, the person astray
will be ousted.
So, both supplicated that Allah curse the liar and that
the one on truth kill the one astray. They then drew swords
and began to fight. Yazeed struck Bareer first but it did
not cause any injury. When Bareer retaliated, he struck
Yazeed with his sword so severely that it cut through his
helmet and sliced his head! Yazeed fell to the ground with
his sword still in hand. When Bareer began to remove it,
Radi ibn Munqiz Abadi attacked him, and the two then
wrestled for a while until Bareer
managed to subdue
Radi and sat on his chest. Radi screamed, Help me!
Hearing this, Kaab ibn Jabir lodged a spear into the back
of Bareer . As Bareer got up from Radis chest, Kaab
attacked him again and martyred him.
When Kaab returned home, his sister, Nawr bint Jabir,
said to him, You helped the enemies of Husain , the son
of the Prophets
daughter Faathimah , and killed
Bareer , the leader of the Quranic reciters, so by Allah ,
I will never speak to you.


After Hadhrath Bareer , Hadhrath Umar ibn Qurz

Ansri stepped forward reciting the following couplets,

Indeed the riders of the Ansr know that I am fighting to protect
that personality whose protection and aid is necessary.
Hadhrath Umar ibn Qurz
fought bravely but he too
was eventually martyred. Ali ibn Qurz, his brother, was
with the army of Ibn Saad. Seeing Hadhrath Umar
messed in blood and dirt, he shouted out, Husain! Liar
and the son of a liar! You led my brother astray! You
deceived and killed him. (Allah forbid). Imaam Husain
answered, Allah did not lead your brother astray. He
granted him salvation and made you astray!
May Allah
exterminate me if I do not kill you. Ali
then moved to attack the Imaam but was stopped by
Hadhrath Naf ibn Hilaal Murdi , who struck him with a
spear so severely that he fell on his back and was unable to
get up. His friends then stepped forward and saved him by
picking him up and taking him away.
After this, Hurr ibn Yazeed emerged again from Imaam
Husains camp and was met with Yazeed ibn Sufyaan.
With one blow, Hurr killed Yazeed. Mazhim ibn Harith
then came forward to fight Naf ibn Hilaal and was also
Until now, all confrontations were one-on-one, and no one
who came forward from the Kufi army returned alive.

Noticing this, Amr ibn Hajaaj shouted out, Stupid Kufis!

Do not you realize who you are fighting?! They all deem
death more beloved than life, so do not fight them
individually. They are only a handful of peopleyou can
finish them off by stoning them! Hold firmly to obedience
and the majority and have no hesitance or doubt about
killing the Imaam who has opposed the leader [Yazeed]
and forsaken the deen. Imaam Husain replied to this,
Whatever you are saying will be known to you after death
regarding who forsook the deen and who will become the
fuel of Jahannam.
Amr ibn Saad preferred the opinion of Amr ibn Hajaaj
and also strictly prohibited individual combat. Amr ibn
Hajaaj, who was appointed over the right-wing of Yazeeds
army, then launched a general offense on the right-wing of
Imaam Husains group. Fighting occurred between these
two divisions for a little while, at which time Hadhrath
Asadi , a supporter from Imaam Husains army, was
martyred by Muslim ibn Abdullah Dabbi and AbdurRahman Bajali. During his final breaths, Imaam Husain
quickly proceeded to him and said, May Allah
merciful on you. He then recited,

Then there are some of them who have fulfilled their vows and
some who are still waiting, and they are not changed in the
Surah Ahzb (33), Verse 23


Habb ibn Muzhir

then came close to him and said,
Congratulations for attaining Jannah. He quietly replied,
May Allah congratulate you with goodness.
I know that I will soon join you. Otherwise, I would have
definitely asked you to order me and I would have
completed it.
Hadhrath Asadi
gestured towards Imaam Husain
and said, My only command is that you sacrifice your life
on him.
By Allah , I will definitely do so.
With this, his soul left his body.
Shimr Zil-Joshn, who was appointed over the left-wing of
the Yazeedi army, then attacked the left-wing of Imaam
Husains group. Through this, the Yazeedis surrounded
the Imaams supporters from all sides. The fighting that
ensued was severe. Although the riders of Imaam Husain
numbered only 32, they demonstrated unrivalled
courage and bravery, repelling the enemy army wherever
they went as the Yazeedi army broke apart. Azrah ibn Qais,
who was in charge of the Yazeedi riders, saw that they
were being driven back, so he sent Abdur-Rahman ibn
Haseen to Ibn Saad with the following message, You are
seeing how these few riders are driving back ours. Because
of this, commotion has set within them and they are
worried about saving their lives. Immediately send some
foot-soldiers and archers. On his behest, Ibn Saad ordered
Shabath ibn Rab to go but he refused. This was the very
Shabath ibn Rab who, during the governorship of Musab
ibn Zuhair, used to say, Allah
will not grant blessings

and salvation to the people of Kufa. Is it not surprising that

we continuously fought Abu Sufyans family for five years
in the companionship of Hadhrath Ali ibn Abu Talib and
his son Hasan? In other words, we were the supporters
(shias) of Hadhrath Ali
but then turned to become
Hadhrath Alis
and Imaam Husains
Imaam Husain
who is the most excellent of people
walking the Earth. We become supporters of Muawiyahs
family and the offspring of Samiyyah yet fought with them
[i.e. Imaam Husain ]. Alas, we have strayed. Alas, we
have strayed. Ibn Atheer
Ibn Saad then called for Haseen ibn Nameer Tameemi
and dispatched him with riders clad in armour and 500
archers. They neared the ranks of Imaam Husain
began to fire arrows. Within a short while, they injured all
the horses and rendered them unusable, yet this did not
lessen the steadfastness of Imaam Husains supporters,
who dismounted their horses and fought bravely on foot
for a long time with the Kufis.
Ayub ibn Mashrah Khaiwni used to say, By Allah, my
arrow struck the horse of Hurr ibn Yazeed, pierced its
throat and caused it to fall down. Like a lion, Hurr jumped
off its back and entered the battlefield, drawing his sword
and saying the following,

If you have injured and rendered my horse useless, so what? I
am Hurr, braver and more respected than a lion.

Ayub ibn Mashrah also narrates, I did not see anyone

fight like Hurr with a sword. Those who witnessed battles
said that there was not a more brutal battle fought than
between the Husainis and Yazeedis at Karbala.
had set up camp by joining the tents
Imaam Husain
together, allowing the Kufis to attack from one direction
and no other. Ibn Saad noticed this and ordered the tents
to be dismantled so that they could attack from all sides.
When the Kufis approached the Imaams camp to fulfil this
command, a few supporters of Imaam Husain
the tents and began to destroy the Kufis with swords and
by firing arrows. Seeing this loss of his soldiers, Ibn Saad
ordered for the tents to be burned. When Imaam Husain
saw the tents on fire, he said, Let them burn the tents. This
too will stop them from attacking from all sides. This
proved to be true.
The tent of Imaam Husain was separate from the others
(which contained the women and children). The cursed
Shimr said, Bring me fire! I will burn down this tent and
whoever is in it! When the womenfolk heard this, they
emerged from it screaming.
Seeing this, Imaam Husain shouted out to Shimr, Son
of Zil-Joshn! You wish to burn my family?! May Allah
burn you in the fire of Jahannam! From Shimrs friends,
Hamd ibn Muslim and Shabath ibn Rab stopped him and,
appealing to his self-respect, said, A brave person like you

doing this to women is not becoming and is shameful. Oath

on Allah, you killing only men is sufficient for your
governor to become pleased. Shimr then retracted from
his intention and decided to recede. While doing so, Zuhair
ibn Qain and ten others launched an attack on his friends
and him. They managed to kill Abu Uz Dabaabi and
moved him away from the camp.
It was during this time that Abdullah ibn Umar Kalbi
was martyred while fighting the Yazeedis. His wife came
up to his body, sat at his head and said (while clearing his
face of dust and grime), Congratulations on your entry
into Jannah. Seeing this, the wretched Shimr ordered his
slave, Rustom, to strike her head with a steel rod. Rustom
did so, and the wife of Abdullah
then too joined her
husband in martyrdom.
Prolonging the battle was highly unfavourable and a
cause of bewilderment to the Kufis (who wished it to be
over with Imaam Husain and his companions killed as
soon as possible). Imaam Husain
had only a few
supporters, and when any of them were martyred, a great
loss was felt. In contrast, the army of the Kufis was
expansive, and if any of their soldiers were killed, no
change occurred in their concentration. Noticing this, Abu
Thammah ibn Abdullah Saidi
said to Imaam Husain
, May my life be sacrificed on you. Our adversaries are
getting closer to you and I can not bear to see any harm
coming to you in my presence, so I want to present my life
before youbut I have not performed my Salaah yet, and I

wish to meet my Lord after performing it. Imaam Husain

lifted his hand and replied, You remembered Salaah at
such a time. May Allah
make you join those who
perform Salaah and remember Him (). Yes, you are right.
The time for Salaah has come. Tell these people to give us
time to perform it.
Your Salaah will not be accepted! shouted Haseen ibn
Habb ibn Muzahir answered, Donkey! Do you think
that the Salaah of Rasoolullahs
family woill not be
accepted while yours will?! Haseen then became enraged
and went after Habb . Seeing this, Habb
forward and struck the face of Haseens horse, causing it to
stumble and drop him from it. Haseens companions then
ran forward to save him, and Habb
recited the
following couplets of declamation (),

I am Habb , the son of Muzhir , the rider, the brave, and the
one who sets the field of battle alight with combat.

Although you may be greater to us in number, we exceed you in
loyalty, patience and steadfastness.

We are esteemed and dominant in proof, more virtuous than
you, and our justification is dominant over you.

fought severely, displaying his

For a while, Habb
swordsmanship and skill. He killed Badeel ibn Sareem, a
tribesman from the Banu Tameem, but his enemies were
excessive in number while he was just one soulfor how
long could he go up against them? A Tameemi tribesman
managed to attack him with a spear and bring him to the
ground. As he woke up, Haseen ibn Numair struck Habb
with a sword and brought him down again. The
Tameemi then seized the moment, rushed forward and
slayed Hadhrath Habbs neck.
This martyrdom of Habb
weakened the army of
Imaam Husain (who was severely saddened by the loss
and separation of such a loyal companion). He said, I will
take my account and the valuation of my supporters before
Allah .
Seeing the grief of his master Imaam Husain , Hurr ibn
Yazeed bravely moved forward to fight his enemies and
was joined by another courageous supporter of the Imaam
and his family, Zaheer ibn Qain . Both fought bravely,
displaying their prowess of combatbut for how long
could they too last against the hordes of Kufi soldiers? The
enemies eventually surrounded Hurr and attacked him,
making him too a martyr.
Abu Thammah Saidi also stepped forward and killed
his cousin (who was with the Kufi, Yazeedi army).


Imaam Husain
then performed Salaatul-Khauf, after
which the fighting on the plains of Karbala reached a new
height of severity. Hordes of enemies pushed forward and
neared him firing arrows, but Hanafi
(an ardent
supporter of the Imaam) stepped forward and stopped
them with his chest. In this manner, not a single arrow was
able to reach the Imaam, until they became unbearable for
him and Hanafi sacrificed his life at the feet of Imaam
Husain .
Zuhair ibn Qain
then stepped forward to fight the
army, reciting the following,

I am Zuhair , the son of Qain . By any sword, I will defend
Husain from these enemies.
Alas, he too was martyred after bravely fighting them.
It was now the turn of Naf ibn Hilaal Bajali . This
courageous supporter of Imaam Husain
killed twelve
Kufis and injured several others. The Kufis then banded
together to attack him and were able to cut off both his
arms before taking him to Ibn Saad. With blood flowing
from his face, Naf said, Besides injuring your army, I
killed twelve of your soldiers. Your people would not have
been able to capture me had they not cut off my arms. Ibn
Saad remarked, Naf
, you have been unjust to
Allah knows well what I have done.

Shimr then said to Ibn Saad, May Allah keep you in

safety. Kill him!
Ibn Saad replied, Shimr! You brought him, so you kill
As Shimr picked up the sword, Naf said, By Allah ,
if you were a Muslim, you would definitely be
apprehensive in going before Allah
with my blood on
your hands. Thanks be to Allah Who destined my death
at the hands of the most repugnant of creation.
Hadhrath Naf was then martyred by Shimr.
After this, the cursed Shimr, along with a major amount of
soldiers, moved towards Imaam Husain uttering words
of encouragement and strutting in pride and conceit. By
now, only a few supporters of the Imaam remained. Seeing
the large concentration of soldiers approaching them and
knowing that they would not be able to stand against them
for very long, they decided to sacrifice every life they had
before any harsh time could come to their master.
So, all proceeded to give their lives on the Noor of
and Abdur-Rahman ibn Urza
leadership. Abdullah
Ghiffari were the first to stand before the enemies. After
them, two young men (both from one mother), Saif ibn
and Malik ibn Abd , proceeded to the
battlefield with tears in their eyes. Seeing them cry, Imaam
Husain said to them, My nephews, why do you cry? By
Allah , after a little while, you will be happy and will be
the coolness of my eyes. They submitted, O Imaam, we
are sacrificed on you. We do not cry for our lives, but for

youbecause we see that the enemy has surrounded you

from all directions and we do not have the strength to
defend you.
O my sons, Allah grant you a greater reward than that
of the pious for your sympathy and sadness on my plight.
At this time, Hanzhalah ibn Asad Shami
stepped in
front of Imaam Husain
and proclaimed to the Kufis,
People! I fear punishment befalling you like the
punishment on the Day of Ahzb, the punishment
experienced by the nation of Sayyiduna Nuh , the Aad,
Thamd, and nations after them. Allah
does not wish
oppression for His servants. My people! I fear the Day of
Reckoning for you, the day in which you will be in a state
of confusion and there will be no one to save you from
wrathand indeed, He Who Allah
astray can not be guided by anyone. O my people! Do not
kill Husain lest Allah punish and destroy you. Liars
are always unsuccessful.
Imaam Husain replied, May Allah
be merciful on
you. These people have already obligated punishment on
themselves when they rejected my invitation of truth. Now
they have come to the battlefield to kill us and have already
slain your virtuous brothers. How then can they retract
from their wickedness? So, warning them is useless.
My I be sacrificed for you. Truly you have spoken the
truth. Now grant me permission to join my brothers.
Go to the everlasting world. Better it than this material
one and everything in it.

As-Salaamu Alaikum Aba Abdillah . May the Durood

and Salaam of Allah be upon you and your family, and
may the Almighty make us all meet in Jannah.
Ameen. Ameen, replied Imaam Husain
, and
Hadhrath Hanzalah then stepped forward to fight until
he was martyred after courageous combat.
After him, Saif and Malik said, Peace be upon you,
O son of Rasoolullah , and also proceeded to fight.
Imaam Husain responded to their greeting before they
too became shaheed.
Following them, bis ibn Abi Shabb
asked his freed
slave, Shauzib , what his intention was. He replied, My
intention is to sacrifice my life fighting for Husain, the son
of Rasoolullahs
daughter Faathimah , against his
I hoped for this from you! Come, let us greet Abu
Abdullah Husain
and seek his permission [to fight].
Today is the day to amass good deeds; and after today,
there will not be a chance like this to gain reward.
Shauzib then presented his salaam to Imaam Husain
and went to fight the enemy until he was martyred. After
also presenting his salaam, bis
submitted, Abu
Abdullah , oath on Allah ! There is no one more
beloved to me on the face of this Earth than you, but how
nice if I could save you from these enemies by sacrificing
my life. Famed for his bravery, he then drew his sword

and proceeded towards the Yazeedis. Rab ibn Tameem

noticed him and said to his companions, This is a lion of
strength. None of you should go up against him alone.
bis announced, Is there anyone to fight me? Yet no
one had the strength or courage to do so.
Seeing this, Ibn Saad ordered his army to stone him, and
they began to do so from all directions. Witnessing the
removed his chaincowardice of the Yazeedis, bis
armour and helmet and then hurled himself at them, which
unbelievably led to the Yazeedis running away in sheer
terror while bis
sliced through their ranks, killing
many in the process and bringing about an uproar. Still,
although he was brave and courageous, bis was only
one while the enemy was extensive in number. They
eventually surrounded him from all sides and martyred
him after repeated attacks.
was initially with Ibn
Abu Shath ibn Ziyad Kindi
Saads army, but when he saw that the Yazeedis refused
all the proposals of Imaam Husain , he joined the
family instead. A skilled archer, he came
before the Imaam and recited the following,

I am Yazeed and my father is Muhsir. I am a lion of bravery.
O Allah , I am the helper of Husain , have left Ibn Saad, and
have distanced myself from him.

He then continuously fired approximately a hundred

arrows towards the enemies (with only five missing their
mark)this too after already having slain five soldiers. He
too was martyred on the battlefield.
Similarly, Amr ibn Khalid ibn Harith , Saad , Majm
ibn Ubaidullah
all sacrificed themselves, one after the
other. Only Suwaid ibn Abil-Mut Khathami remained.
Likeness to the steadfastness, patience and courage the
supporters of Imaam Husain displayed is unfound. This
small contingent of people was subjected to a world of
afflictions, yet not one of them lost heart and ran away. They
truly did not regard their lives as beloved. Rather, they
sacrificed themselves at the feet of Imaam Husain
the Ahle-Bayt. Ibn Atheer and Tabri

The Massacre of the Prophets


After the companions and helpers of Imaam Husain , it

was the turn of the Ahle-Baytthe family of Rasoolullah
and children of Hadhrath Ali and Sayyidah Faathimah
to drink from the cup of martyrdom. The advent of
these Hashmi youths sent chills down the spines of their
enemies. They fought with such bravery that the parched
earth of Karbala became moist with the blood of the enemy.
However, the members of the Ahle-Bayt were few while
the Yazeedis were large in number. How long could they
have fought when water was closed for them for so long
and there was no individual combat? So, after sustaining
several injuries, they too were destined to become shaheed.

Ibn Saad himself admitted, If water was not closed and

combat was one-on-one, a single young individual of the
Ahle-Bayt would have been enough to destroy the entire
The Martyrdom of Abdullah ibn Muslim
One of the close family-members of Imaam Husain ,
Hadhrath Abdullah ibn Muslim ibn Aql , came to him
and submitted, Beloved uncle, give me permission. I wish
to sacrifice my life on the path of truth, and I am anxious
with desire to join my father and brothers. Tears filled the
eyes of Imaam Husain . He replied, Son, the pain of
separation from your father and brothers has not left my
heart. How can I give you permission? Why not you take
your mother and go wherever you can go, because these
people are thirsty for my blood.
Beloved uncle, what are you saying?! Are you asking me
to desert you? By Allah , I can never do this. Rather, I
will drink from the goblet of martyrdom before your eyes.
Seeing Abdullahs
passion for jihad and sacrifice,
Imaam Husains eyes once again filled with tears and he
said, Go. Sacrifice yourself on the path of truth.
This young Hashmi then entered the battlefield and called
out people for combat. Ibn Saad remarked, Who will go
up against this youngster? He then noticed Qudma ibn
Asad Fazri and said, Qudma! You can fight him.

So, Qudma, a skilled soldier and famed as a courageous

person, stepped up to fight Hadhrath Abdullah . Fighting
took place between them until Abdullah struck him so
hard that it cut through his body and brought him off his
horse. He then took the horse for himself (since his had
grown weak for having no water or fodder). With a spear
in his hand, he then called out for another challenger.
The son of Qudma, Salma, noticed the bravery of
and said to Ibn Saad, I have not
Hadhrath Abdullah
seen a more brave and valiant man than him.
No one had the courage to challenge Abdullah directly.
Like a hungry lion, he upset the ranks of the enemies and
killed and injured several of them until he was surrounded.
Jad Damashq struck him with a sword from behind and
cut the legs of the horse he was riding, yet even in this
continued fighting until
condition, Hadhrath Abdullah
Naufal ibn Mazhim Hamri stabbed him with a spear and
(according to some) Amr ibn Sabh Saidwi made him the
target of arrows. With this attack, the family member of
Hadhrath Aql entered Jannah.

The Children of Aql

are martyred

When Hadhrath Jafar ibn Aql saw his nephew messed

in blood and dust, he stepped forward with tearful eyes
and also sought permission from Imaam Husain
fight]. The Imaam
embraced him and granted him
permission. Hadhrath Jafar
then entered the battlefield

and began to fight with so much intensity that many

Yazeedis were sentenced to Jahannam, but the enemies
surrounded him too and began to rain down arrows upon
him. He was made shaheed by an arrow of Abdullah ibn
Azr Khathami.
Seeing his brother suffer, Hadhrath Abdur-Rahman ibn
Aql could not contain himself and, like a lion, rushed to
the battlefield and valiantly drenched the earth of Karbala
with the blood of the Yazeedis. He was martyred at the
hands of Uthman ibn Khalid Johani and Bishr ibn Saut
After the martyrdoms of these two brothers, Hadhrath
Abdullah ibn Aql
sought permission from Imaam
Husain and was told, If this is your objective and all of
you have intended to make me undergo the sorrow of you
losing your lives and letting me see this, I am ready to bear
it. Hadhrath Abdullah replied, We vowed that as long
as there is even one helper from us remaining, we will not
let even a toe-nail of Husain the trust of Rasoolullah
come into the clutches of the enemies.
So, in tears, Imaam Husain bid farewell to his cousin,
and Hadhrath Abdullah then entered the battlefield and
demonstrated true Hashmi valour. After spilling the blood
of the Yazeedis, he was martyred through the attacks of
Uthman ibn Asm Johani and Bishr ibn Saut Hamdni.


The Martyrdom of Hadhrath Alis


After the martyrdom of Hadhrath Aqls

familymembers, it was the turn of Hadhrath Alis
These were lions who had running in their veins the blood
of the Lion of Allah himself, Hadhrath Ali Murtad .
So, the namIsake of the first Khalifa of Islam (Hadhrath
Abu Bakr Siddique ), Hadhrath Abu Bakr ibn Ali came
to his brother Imaam Husain seeking permission to fight.
He was told, How unfortunate! One by one you are being
separated from me.
Respected brother, I have nothing but this life to present
or sacrifice on you. Please accept it and grant me
Unwillingly, Imaam Husain did so.
Hadhrath Abu Bakr ibn Ali
then began to fight and
quickly proved that he was the son of the Lion of Allah .
After sustaining several injuries, he was martyred by the
spear of Qadma Msali and, according to some, an arrow
of Abdullah ibn Aqb Anqari.
Following this, his brother and the namIsake of second
and righteous Khalifa of Islam, Hadhrath Umar ibn Ali
entered the battlefield with the permission of Imaam
Husain . After slaying several people, he too was
eventually brought down.
When Hadhrath Uthman ibn Ali saw the blood of his
brothers flowing on the plains of Karbala, he lost all

inclination towards the world, went to his brother Imaam

Husain and submitted, Allow me to wear the exquisite
garment of martyrdom the way you allowed it for my
brothers! The Imaam replied, Become my crown of
greatness and quench [your] thirst with the water of
Kauthar. I too will soon join you.
When Hadhrath Uthman
entered the battlefield, he
fought so bravely that the horsemen of the Yazeedis had to
abandon their rides and flee by foot! After sustaining many
injuries, he was martyred by Khauli ibn Yazeed.
Thereafter, the fourth brother of Imaam Husain ,
Hadhrath Jafar ibn Ali , came up to him and said, I am
the next to present sacrifice. Imaam Husain looked at
him and said, My beloved brother, the quality of bravery
shines bright from your forehead, but no one who fights
battalions of soldiers on his own returns, so it is best if you
go up against individual challengers.
The scarcity or excessiveness of numbers has no bearing
on he who is prepared to sacrifice his life. My desire is not
to return, but to sacrifice my life on you and join our
beloved father in the Holy Paradise.
Imaam Husain then embraced him and cried for a long
time. Besides Hadhrath Abbas , he was the last brother to
enter the battlefield, and after also demonstrating the
bravery of Hadhrath Ali , Hadhrath Jafar was finally


The Martyrdom of Imaam Hasans


After the martyrdom of the four brothers, Hadhrath

Abdullah ibn Hasan , the direct nephew of Imaam
Husain , came to his uncle and sought permission to fight
and sacrifice his life for truth. Imaam Husain embraced
him and had no option but to grant him permission.
Hadhrath Abdullah
then entered the battlefield and
caused turmoil with his sword within the ranks. Amr ibn
Saad saw this upheaval and ordered his soldiers to
surround and kill him. Bakhtari ibn Amr Shaami did so
along with five hundred soldiers on horseback. After
bravely defending himself, Hadhrath Abdullah

The Martyrdom of Hadhrath Qasim

Following the shahdat of Hadhrath Abdullah , a
fragrant rose from the garden of Rasoolullah , the
nineteen year-old son of Imaam Hasan with whom the
beloved daughter of Imaam Husain (Sayyidah Sakeenah )
was going to have a home with, Hadhrath Qasim ibn
Hasan , came to his beloved uncle and submitted, I too
want to present my life for the sake of truth and join my
father. Give me permission to do so.
O my son, for what should I give you permission? To be
the target of arrows or cut by swords? You are the
remembrance of my brother Hasan .


Hadhrath Qasim persisted, Beloved uncle, for Allahs

sake, give me permission to fight the enemies and do not
deprive me of the honour of sacrificing myself for you.
With tears in his eyes, Imaam Husain
kissed his
forehead, embraced him and bid farewell. Allah ! Allah
! Imaam Husain did not look towards the youthfulness
of his nephew or the future of his daughter. His only
concern was for the deen of Islam to not be trampled on. If
the protection of Islam meant sacrificing the lives of even
his familys youth, then so be it!
Hadhrath Qasim entered the battlefield and addressed
the Yazeedis, O enemies of the deen of Islam and
destroyers of the Prophets
family! I am Qasim ibn
Hasan ibn Ali , the bright lamp of the Ahle-Bayt and
fragrant flower from the garden of Faathimah Zahra .
Come, pierce me with your arrows, injure me with your
swords and open the path to Jannah for me. Who of you
will come to fight me?
Ibn Saad ordered a commander from his army called
Arzaq to kill this young man. Arzaq, however, replied,
How greatly you have honoured me before! I am that
brave soldier who can combat hundreds alone. Going to
fight this child is an insult!
This enraged Ibn Saad. You do not know who he is! He
is the grandson of Ali. He has been thirsty for three days
yet you wiill still see his courage and bravery. Just go and
face him.

I will not, but my four sons are here in this army. I will
choose one of them and send them, and he will be
sufficient in killing him.
So, Arzaq sent a son of his to fight Hadhrath Qasim .
Hadhrath Qasim
slew him in minutes and took his
valuable sword for himself. The second son of Arzaq saw
his brother messed in blood and dust and became enraged.
In this fit, he stepped forward to combat Hadhrath Qasim
in revenge and was also brought to the ground, dead.
The third son now became anger personified and stepped
forward to challenge Hadhrath Qasim , even going as far
as swearing him. Hadhrath Qasim
replied, Enemy of
Allah , I will not answer your swearing with swearing
because this does not befit me. I will make you join your
brothers in Jahannam instead.
was then so aggressive in his attack
Hadhrath Qasim
that he sliced him into two pieces! Seeing the end result of
his three sons, Arzaq began to flame with anger and was
proceeding to fight Hadhrath Qasim when his fourth son
stepped forward uttering profanities and saying, My
father! Wait, please. Let me take care of this boy. He then
swung his sword for Hadhrath Qasim like a hungry lion
but had it blocked. Hadhrath Qasim then swiftly cut off
his right hand (dropping his sword) and struck this person
so severely on the head that he died almost instantly.


With the killing of his fourth son, the expression on

Arzaqs face was surely something to see. All of his pride
and arrogance was reduced to dirt and he had now lost the
labour of his life. The world seemed blank now without
offspring. His self-respect, which had until now stopped
him from fighting Hadhrath Qasim (thinking him to be a
child), had now ended. He rushed forward to avenge his
sons and, with one strike, hoped to put an end to Hadhrath
Qasim yet he did not realize that the person he was
going up against had within him the blood of bravery.
Roaring like a lion and swinging his sword in the air,
Arzaq moved forward on horseback, saw the sword in
Hadhrath Qasims hand [which previously belonged to
his son] and said, by Allah ! I bought this sword for a
thousand dirhams and had it lined with poison for another
thousand. I will not let it remain in your hands. Rather, I
will use it to kill you. Hadhrath Qasim replied, Three
of your sons have already experienced this sword. You too
should prepare to experience it.
Thereafter, based on the principle War is
deceptive, Hadhrath Qasim
said to him, I regarded
you to be an experienced and intrepid warrior, but
unfortunately you are inexperienced. You do not even
know how to saddle up. As soon as Arzaq bent to inspect
his saddle, Hadhrath Qasim
struck him so powerfully
that he separated Arzaq into two pieces. He then jumped
from his horse onto Arzaqs and returned to Imaam
Husains camp holding the reins of both, saying to him,

Uncle, thirst! If I could only get a bowl of water, I could

destroy all of them! Imaam Husain replied, Son, soon
you will drink Kauthar from the Distributor of Kauthar (i.e.
Rasoolullah ), the water which, after drinking it, will
cause you never to experience thirst again. Your fathers
looking towards your path. Go. The time to join him is
near. Present my salaam to him. With these words,
Hadhrath Qasim returned to the battlefield.
Ibn Saad saw this youngster and said, This boy killed
our young men. Do not give him any room. Surround him
from all sides and finish him off. So, on his command, the
enemies surrounded Hadhrath Qasim and attacked him,
yet even in this condition, this member of the Prophets
family valiantly defended himself. After sustaining several
injuries, either Sheeth ibn Saad or Urwa ibn Nufail struck
the top of Hadhrath Qasims head with a sword.
Hadhrath Qasim exclaimed, Uncle! Hold me! and fell
to the ground. Hearing his call, Imaam Husain
towards him and saw that his body was severely wounded
with swords and spears. He then took Hadhrath Qasims
head on his lap and said, May those who killed you be
destroyed, Qasim . What answer will your killer give to
your grandfather on the Day of Qiyaamah? With his head
still resting on his uncles lap, Hadhrath Qasims
then left his blessed body.


Imaam Husain then lifted Hadhrath Qasims chest to

his, carried him away (with his feet dragging on the floor)
and placed him with the rest of the martyrs.
After this, the brothers of Hadhrath Qasim , Hadhrath
and Hadhrath Abu Bakr ibn Hasan , also
entered the battlefield of Karbala and were martyred by the

The Martyrdom of Muhammad

and Aun

Following the shahdat of Imaam Hasans

sons, the
turn came for Hadhrath Muhammad and Hadhrath Aun
, the sons of Hadhrath Abdullah ibn Jafar Tayyr and
the beloveds of Sayyidah Zainub . These Jannati flowers
of Sayyidah Faathimah
came to their uncle and said,
Give us permission to also give our lives. Imaam Husain
replied, No. I did not bring you with me so that I could
see you become the target of arrows and spears. Stay with
your mother.
This is the command of our mother herself. See! There
she is.
Imaam Husain looked at his sister and said to her, Do
not subject me to grief. How can my eyes bear to see these
children killed by spears?
She replied, Beloved brother, will you not accept this
insignificant gift from your sister? If you do not, what
answer will I give to our mother Faathimah Zahra when
she asks, Beloved daughter, what gift did you present
when lives were being sacrificed on the Holy Prophets

son? These are my two sons and both are sacrificed for
you. After saying this, she began to cry.
With tearful eyes, Imaam Husain looked at his sister;
his heart bleeding in sadness. He then embraced his
nephews and bid them farewell. Though it was time for a
mother to see her sons covered forever by dark clouds of
Yazeedi mischief and barbaric attacks, this mother adopted
patience, calmed her heart and pointed to the Heavens,
saying, O Allah ! Whatever is Your pleasure is ours
The two then entered the battlefield and fought fiercely
until they were eventually martyred. Hadhrath Aun was
made shaheed by Abdullah ibn Qatb Taa and Hadhrath
by Amir ibn Nahlash. Their bodies were
carried back to the camp by Imaam Husains supporters.
When they returned, Imaam Husain said to Sayyidah
, Beloved sister, your sacrifice has been
accepted. Come visit your martyrs.
When Sayyidah Zainub saw her children, she fell before
them and said, How I wish for your mother to be in your


The Martyrdom of the Flag-bearer, Hadhrath Abbas

The parting of any beloved family-member was
something extremely disheartening for Imaam Husain
so disheartening that whenever any of his relatives were
martyred at Karbala, he sat on the earth and either looked
towards the Heavens and counted the moments until his
own martyrdom or looked with sorrow towards the griefstricken womenfolk of his family. Only his son Ali Akbar
and the strength of his arms Abbas Alamdr remained.
The time for Imaam Husains sacrifice was near. For all
the oppression he had already faced and for what he was
going to, the Imaam could still be seen prostrating his head
in the court of the Almighty. After raising his head from
the sajda, Hadhrath Abbas
stood before him and said,
Until now I have done nothing but keep this flag of the
camp high. It is now my time to present more than this.
Your slave Abbas stands before you. Permit me to also
enter my name in the register of martyrs. Hearing this,
Imaam Husain (the epitome of patience) held the head of
his brother Hadhrath Abbas to his chest while tears of
love and grief formed in his eyes to run as pearls down his
illuminated face. After embracing him for some time, he
said, Complete the will of Allah and be content with it,
but O Beloved of the Distributor of Kauthar, the thirst of
children has wreaked havoc on the patience of their
martyrs. It is unbearable for them.


Hadhrath Abbas
then entered the tents and saw the
and Ali Asgar , saying,
effect of thirst on Sakeenah
These children are before the Euphrates yet they still
yearn for water. I will go to the river and fetch some to
quench their thirst. When Sayyidah Zainub heard this,
she cried out, Beloved brother, will you go up against the
steel wall of enemies at the banks of the Euphrates by
Even if they are clad in armour, can you not see that I
have a sword in my hand?
The bravery of this lion of the Prophets
family then
gave confidence to those unable to bear thirst and consoled
the hearts of the grief stricken. After this, he hung the water
skin-bag on his shoulder and proceeded to the river.
When the enemies blocked him, he proclaimed, People of
Kufa! People of Syria! Fear Allah
and honour the Holy
Prophet . How unfortunate! You called the son of
Rasoolullah yet became unfaithful to him. You joined the
enemies and blockaded him from water. You killed his
companions and made little children of the Prophets
family yearn for drops of water! The door of repentance is
still open for some of you. You still have time to repent and
refrain from oppression and killing the son of the Holy
Messenger !
Three from the Yazeedi campShimr Zil-Joshn, Shabath
ibn Rab and Hajr ibn Ahjrwent up to him and said,
Even if the entire Earth became water, we still would not
let you get a single drop.


This comment brought out the passion of Hadhrath Abbas

. He replied, This head [of mine] can be slain, but it will
never bow to a sinner or transgressor, and he then
attacked them with his sword.
The attack was a justified act of vengeance against the
enemies. Riders of horses ran away and cowardly soldiers
deserted their ranks while Hadhrath Abbas
sliced his
way towards the Euphrates! There was even a well-armed
battalion posted at the river. When he got to them, he
asked, Are you people Muslims or disbelievers?
They replied that they were Muslims.
He then asked, What conduct of a Muslim says that birds
and animals can quench their thirst with water from the
Euphrates while the sons, daughters and milk-drinking
infants of Rasoolullah ache for drops of water?! I have
even seen these people passing out due to thirst.
At this moment, a soldier conveying the command of Ibn
Saad (the leader of the Yazeedi army) arrived and said to
the battalion, Not even a drop of water must reach
Husains camp. The soldiers then clutched their spears,
yet Hadhrath Abbas charged forward anyway with his
horse until he finally reached the river. After taking a
handful of water (with the intention of drinking it), he
considered the thirst of the Prophets family back in the
camp, dropped the water and said, Abbas ! You did not
come to the Euphrates to quench your thirst! Until the baby
Ali Asgar and Sakeenahs thirst is quenched, drinking


water is not right for you. This lion of the Ahle-Bayt then
filled his water-bag and placed it over his left shoulder.
When he emerged from the river, there was commotion
everywhere. If this water-bag reached Imaam Husains
camp, the soldiers effort would have been all in vain. So,
cries of, Stop Abbas! Take the water-bag from him and let
it fall on the ground! could be heard. Hadhrath Abbas ,
however, strongly intended to make this bag reach the
camp, so he rode his horse as fast as the wind to the tents
but noticed several armies rushing towards the water!
They eventually surrounded him. Still, Hadhrath Abbas
managed to attack and cause an upheaval within the ranks.
Bodies fell and blood flowed. This lion of the Ahle-Bayt
proved in the plains of Karbala that his arms possessed the
strength of Hadhrath Ali and that he had Hadhrath Alis
blood flowing through his veins. While Hadhrath Abbas
was destroying them, a severe attack by a person named
Zarra separated his blessed left-arm from his shoulder.
Hadhrath Abbas immediately hung the water-bag on his
right-shoulder while using the same hand to hold the
sword and fight. His strength had decreased, however, and
he found it difficult to complete two tasks with just one
hand. In a defensive manner, he then charged with his
horse into the soldiers trying to find a path, but the service
of this warrior was near its end.
At that moment, Naufal ibn Arzaq struck his rightshoulder and separated his other hand from his body, but

Allah ! Allah ! Look at the resolve of Hadhrath Abbas

he then decided to hold the belt of the water-bag with
his mouth, yet unfortunately at this point, nothing could be
of benefit to him, because one of the enemies fired an arrow
towards the bag and pierced it. Without even hands,
Hadhrath Abbas
was then overwhelmed by the
cowardly Yazeedis. They surrounded him and made him
the recipient of severe attacks. A wretch struck his head
which caused him to stumble off the horse. As he fell off,
he proclaimed, Brother! Support me!
Imaam Husain heard this, rushed to the injured body of
Hadhrath Abbas and said, Now my support is broken.

The Martyrdom of Ali Akbar

After the martyrdom of seventy companions and familymembers, the time had come for the eighteen year-old son
of Imaam Husain , Hadhrath Ali Akbar , to sacrifice his
life for the truth of Islam. He came to his father and said,
Allow me to also present my life in the path of truth and
sacrifice it on you.
My son, what must I give you permission for? To be slain
by swords or attacked by spears? You are the resemblance
of my grandfather (i.e. Sayyiduna Rasoolullah ). How can
I see you messed in dust and blood? I will go instead of
you. They thirst for my blood, and only my blood can
quench them.
Shabih-e-Rasool (The resemblance of the Holy Prophet
) replied, I do not wish to remain alive after you. Do not

make me a prisoner of these evil people and leave. Rather,

make me join our beloved grandfathers, Muhammad
Mustapha and Ali Murtad .
Allahu Akbar ! What a trial Imaam Husain must have
faced at this time?! He replied, Beloved son, I already
made a promise to Allah
and His Messenger ,
otherwise, who would let someone like you get messed in
dirt? Go, Husain has made his heart strong. Let us see
how heavy the difficulty he will face is.
The son of Imaam Husain
then began proceeding
towards the wretches from whom no one had returned as
yet. At that time, Imaam Husain never blocked his eyes.
No! He kept them open to see the patience of this grandson
of Sayyiduna Ibrahim
and Muhammad Mustapha .
The Imaam himself even dressed Ali Akbar with armour
and placed him on the horse, saying, Present my salaam
to our grandfather. Hadhrath Ali Akbar bid farewell to
the grieved womenfolk of his family and father and
thereafter proceeded towards the battlefield. Can you
imagine the state of the Prophets family and grandson
at that time?!
When he got closer, he said to the army,

I am Ali Akbar , the son of Husain ibn Ali . We are the
family and close relatives of the Messenger .


Remember, I will make you accurate targets with a spear and, in
defence of my father, I will show the kind of swordsmanship
Hashmi Arabian youths display.
O evil people, if you are thirsty for the blood of
Rasoolullahs family, send any of your warriors to fight
me. If you want to see the courage of Ali , come [and]
face me. After seeing that no one had the courage to
respond or challenge him, Hadhrath Ali Akbar rode his
horse with lightning speed and attacked the Kufi army
throwing them into disorder. The strength of the warriors
was lost, the courage of the soldiers nullified, and the ranks
of Yazeed were in disarray. This was not the attack of Ali
Akbar on the Yazeedis. Rather, it was the vengeance of
Allah Himself that had fallen on them!
Still, due to fighting in severe heat, the prince of the
family experienced unbearable thirst. He
turned his horse towards his father, went up to him and
said, Father, thirst! If get a bowl of water to drink, I can
send all of these enemies to their death. Imaam Husain
could see the grief of his son, but where was the water to
give him? With much affection, he wiped the dust off Ali
face and said, The time for your thirst to be
quenched has come. You will drink Kauthar from the
Distributor of Kauthar, the relish of which can nott be
imagined or explained. After drinking it, you will
experience no thirst. Son! When I would become thirsty,

used to give his blessed tongue in my
mouth. Today, in this state of thirst, you suck on my
tongue so that you may gain some respite. Hadhrath Ali
then sucked on the tongue of Imaam Husain
and gained some relief in doing so. On his second farewell,
Imaam Husain placed his ring in his sons mouth, and
when he returned to the battlefield, Hadhrath Ali
challenged the army once more, asking, Is there anyone to
combat me?
Amr ibn Saad said to Tariq ibn Sheeth, How
embarrassing that he is one young man while we are
thousands in number, yet still no one has the courage to go
up against him. He is hungry, thirsty and tired from
fighting in severe heat but he still challenges us. Does no
one possess the courage to meet his challenge? If you
exterminate this youngster, I promise to make you the
governor of Mosul! Tariq replied, It must not be that I
ruin my Hereafter by killing the son of Rasoolullah while
you do not fulfil your promise. Ibn Saad then took an
oath that Tariq would be made the governor of Mosul.
In the greed of power, Tariq the unfortunate then stepped
up to the challenge. He came face-to-face with Hadhrath
Ali Akbar
and attacked Shabih-e-Rasool
resemblance of the Holy Prophet ) with a spear, yet
Hadhrath Ali
courageously defended himself and
quickly retaliated by driving a spear through Tariqs
chestcausing him to fall from his horse. Hadhrath Ali
Akbar then placed his leg on his corpse.

Umar ibn Tariq saw this and became enraged. He

but soon too joined the fate of his
attacked Ali Akbar
father. Another son of Tariq, Talha, was then sent to
Jahannam by Hadhrath Ali Akbar when he attacked him
seeking revenge for his father and brother.
This bravery of the Ahle-Bayts warrior amazed the
Yazeedi army. After this, Ibn Saad sent a famous warrior,
Misr ibn Ghlib, to challenge him. Misr attacked
Hadhrath Ali Akbar with spears, but with one strike of
the sword, the Ahle-Bayts pride sliced his head into two
piecesfurther weakening the determination of the
Ibn Saad then ordered Mahkam ibn Tufail Naufal to
attack Hadhrath Ali Akbar with a thousand riders. These
wretches surrounded him and began to fire arrows and use
was a
spears against him. Hadhrath Ali Akbar
challenging adversary and managed to slaughter many of
them in this while, but successive attacks from all sides and
injuries caused him to lose blood nevertheless. With this
loss of blood, Hadhrath Ali began to turn weak, and he
was eventually martyred by the enemies swords.
When Imaam Husain
saw his martyred son, he said,
May Allah
destroy those who killed you! How brave
can these people be when they step on the honour of Allah
and His Messenger ?! What is this world without my

Hamd ibn Muslim (from the Yazeedi army) narrates, I

saw an extremely beautiful woman from Husains camp
rush out and fall on the body of Ali Akbar. I asked people
who she was and was told that she was Zainub , the
daughter of the Messengers daughter Faathimah .
This paternal-aunt had nurtured her nephew with much
love. She was previously witnessing the martyrdom from
the camp, but when she saw her beloved nephew messed
in dust and blood, she could not bear her grief any longer
[and rushed out]. Imaam Husain
saw his devastated
sister, held her, and brought her back to the camp, saying
to the Ahle-Bayt, Today Allah wants to test the limits of
your patience. Be steadfast and attain His pleasure by
sacrificing everything.
The Imaam then went to the body of Ali Akbar
brought him back to the camp. After this, he turned to the
Heavens and said, My Lord! Today one of Your loyal
servants presented the greatest sacrifice in Your path and
fulfilled the Sunnah of Ibrahim . Accept it.
Can you imagine what the mother of Hadhrath Ali Akbar
experienced when she saw the body of her martyred


The Martyrdom of Ali Asgar

By now, the mujhids had all sacrificed their lives on the
grandson of Rasoolullah , while the army of Yazeed still
possessed thousands of archers, swordsmen and riders
ready and thirsty for the blood of Imaam Husain .
Whoever remained from the Imaams camp was by now
thirsty, hungry and overcome with grief and sorrow. Even
the bodies of their martyrs were being withered in the heat
of the sun. Still, with all of this (including the killing of his
family and relatives), Imaam Husain stood steadfast on
the truth and clearly demonstrated that he was the epitome
of patience. Indeed, in such circumstances, he truly proved
that he was the grandson of the Holy Prophet .
Salutations on the patience of Imaam Husain !
Until now, the fighters who sacrificed their lives on truth
had all attacked and killed Yazeedis before becoming
martyrs. Now came the martyrdom of an innocent milkdrinking six month-old infant who had not attacked
anyone. This baby was martyred so that the wickedness of
the Yazeedis could be understood by all. Instead of giving
this thirsty infant water to drink, the evil Yazeedis fired an
arrow through his throat.
The mother of this child, Sayyidah Rubb g, came to
Imaam Husain and said, The milk of my chest has dried
up and there is not even a single drop of water [with us].
Look at this child. I can not bear his crying and restlessness
for water. Take him and show him to those tyrants in the

hope that one of them will show pity on his state. Everyone
is compassionate to children. On her request, Imaam
Husain held his son Ali Asgar to his chest and stood
with him before the Yazeedi army, saying, Disloyal
nation, I am the grandson of your Prophet and this baby
is my child. If, according to your false thinking, I am a
criminal and wrong, this child has not committed any
crime. Look at what his condition is due to thirst. O
enemies! Do not give me a bowl of water. You probably
worry that I will drink from it too. With a couple of drops,
his dry throat can be relievedand doing so will not lessen
the expanse of the Euphrates. Even disbelievers have
mercy on children, yet you people call yourselves Muslims
but do not know who this child is?!
Unfortunately these words had no effect on the stonehearted tyrants. Such was the mercy of the Yazeedis that
instead of water, the unfortunate Hurmala ibn Khil Asadi
fired an arrow towards Hadhrath Ali Asgar that pierced
his neck (and even lodged itself in the shoulder of Imaam
Husain ). When the Imaam withdrew the arrow from
Hadhrath Ali Asgars neck, blood gushed out. He then
clasped the hot blood of his son, threw it towards the
Heavens and said, O Allah ! I make
You a witness over the actions of these people! My Lord!
The severe hardship of the path I am steadfast on is only
easy through Your mercy!


Ali Asgar then lost his life in the arms of his father, and
Imaam Husain kissed him. Allah ! Allah ! Can you
imagine with what heart he did so?!
The womenfolk of Imaam Husains camp thought that
the Yazeedis will have compassion on the plight of Ali
Asgar . When they saw his blood on the face of the
Prophets grandsonAllahu Akbar!
Salutations to the patience of the Holy Messengers


The king of Saints, Hadhrath Khwaja Nizmuddin Auliya

Mehbb Ilahi
reports from Qutbul-Aqtb, ShaikhulIslam wal-Muslimeen Baba Fareeduddin Masd Ganj
Shakr , In the night preceding the martyrdom of
Amrul-Mumineen Imaam Husain , a saint saw Sayyidah
Faathimah in a dream accompanied by the womenfolk of
the Prophets . She was sweeping the place where Imaam
Husain was going to be martyred and was wiping the
area with her sleeves. Someone asked her, What place is
this that you are cleaning using your sleeves? She replied,
This is the place where our son Husain
will give his
head and gain martyrdom. Raahatul-Qulb


The Martyrdom of Imaam Husain

The time for martyrdom had come for he who used to
climb the shoulders of Rasoolullah , the beloved of
Sayyidah Faathimah and Hadhrath Ali , the brother of
Imaam Hasan , the Leader of the youth of Jannah, the
coolness of the eyes of the Muslims, the solace of hearts
that are grief-stricken, the personification of patience and
contentment with the pleasure of Allah , the martyr of
Karbala, Imaam li-Maqaam Husain ibn Ali .
After the sacrifices of his supporters, companions,
relatives and family, Imaam Husain prepared to present
his own sacrifice to his Lord. He entered the tent of the
Ahle-Bayt and saw that his sick and thirsty son, ZainulAbideen , was so weak that he could not even stand. Still,
he [Imaam Zainul-Abideen ] had a spear in his hand and
intended to enter the battlefield. Imaam Husain
embraced him and said, Your time has not come yet. You
still have to take your mothers and sisters to our home.
Allah will spread my progeny through you. Be patient,
bear every hardship on the path of truth and hold on
forever to the law of our grandfather in every situation. If
you ever reach Madinah Munawwarah, present my salaam
to him. My son, you are the successor. Imaam Husain
then removed his turban and wrapped it around the head
of Imaam Zainul-Abideen
before laying him down to


He then went into his tent and spread out his belongings.
Here he put on an Egyptian jubba, wrapped the turban of
on his head,
his grandfather Muhammad Mustapha
placed the shield of the leader of martyrs Hadhrath Hamza
on his back, tied the belt of Imaam Hasan around his
waist, and took in his hand Zulfikr, the sword of his
father Hadhrath Ali . The Leader of the Martyrs and of
the youth of Jannah was now ready to sacrifice his life for
the deen of Allah .
After then entering the tent of the womenfolk, it could be
seen that they were displaying tremendous grief. Tears
formed and fell from their eyes. Sayyidah Sakeenah
asked her father, Where are you going? And in whose
control are you leaving us? If these animals showed no
compassion to the innocent Ali Asgar , what will they do
to us?
Allah is your Protector. I caution you to have patience
and be content with His planning.
Sakeenah clutched him and cried out, If you leave me,
who will I call father?! Who will show me a fathers
The Imaam picked her up and placed her in Sayyidah
lap, saying, Zainub , this is my beloved
daughter. Do not let her cry and let her feel that she is an
orphan, and do not allow her to come to my body.


Sayyidah Zainub replied, Sakeenah is not the only

one becoming an orphan today. We all are. I wish for death
to come to us rather than witnessing such an incident. My
brother, without you, what is life? Take us with you so that
we may fight with you and give our lives.
You are a daughter of those with patience. Do not utter
any complaint against the planning of the Almighty. This
world is a temporary place while the Hereafter is
The eyes of the Prophets family were now seeing the
splendour of Imaam Husain for the last time. This was
their final look at the Noor on his face. The Imaam then bid
them farewell for the last time and exited the tent.
As he prepared to enter the battlefield, he looked left and
right and found none of his loyal supporters to assist him
in mounting on his horse. Sayyidah Zainub saw this and
shouted, O rider of the shoulders of the Holy Prophet !
Do not worry. This granddaughter of Rasoolullah
present for you to step on and get on your horse.
After climbing on the animal, Imaam Husain began to
proceed to the battlefield. Alas, in the darkness of
falsehood, he shined bright with truth on the plains of


The Final Address of Imaam Husain

Imaam Husain moved closer to the Yazeedis and said,
The Prophet whose Kalima you recitesaid, My two
grandsons, Hasan and Husain , are the leaders of the
youth of Jannah. Who amongst you refutes this? O
shameless people, if you have Imaan on Allah
and His
Messenger , think: what answer will you give He Who is
the All-Knowing and All-Seeing? How will you be able to
show your face to Muhammadur-Rasoolullah ? O those
who have ruined the family of the Holy Prophet , reflect
on your fate if you have Imaan on Qiyaamah. You wrote
letters and sent messengers to me inviting me to lead you.
You said that if I do not come to you, you will complain to
the Almighty. I trusted you and came here. O deceitful
people, you were supposed to fulfil your promises, but
instead of honouring me, you made my supporters, my
family and me the target of severe oppression. You
uprooted the fragrant flowers of Sayyidah Faathimah
before my eyes. You messed the children of Rasoolullah
in blood and dust, and now you wish to kill me! You still
have time. Do not stain your hands with my blood. Tell me:
what do you say?
The army replied, Accept obedience to Yazeed or there
will be no route besides war. The Imaam knew that his
words would not have any effect on them because their
hearts were sealed. The only reason he said this was so that
they had have no excuse afterwards.


The grandson of Rasoolullah , the beloved of Sayyidah

Faathimah and the master of Muslims now stood alone
on the plains of Karbala against a strong, well-equipped
Yazeedi army. He bravely said to them, If you are thirsty
for my blood, send your warriors to extract it. I will show
Husaini bravery and strength.
Hearing this, experienced and strong warriors (who were
being saved for this moment) became eager to display their
skills, failing to realize that Imaam Husain , the son of the
Lion of Allah , Hadhrath Ali , was their opponent.
From amongst them, Tameem ibn Qahtabah strutted
forward in arrogance and pounced on the Imaam. With one
strike, however, his head was slain and his pride was
reduced to the dirt on the ground.
After him, Jabir ibn Qahir Qummi also very confidently
stepped forward, shouting out, The warriors of Syria and
Iraq profess my bravery! Who has the guts to face me?
When this conceited donkey came before Imaam Husain ,
he attacked the Imaam with his sword. Imaam Husain
blocked the attack and counter-attacked with Zulfikr, the
sword of Hadhrath Ali . With just one blow, he carved
into Jabirs shoulders. Jabir turned to run away but his path
was blocked by the Angel of Death. Imaam Husain then
attacked him again and sliced his head.
Witnessing all of this, Bakr ibn Suhail Yemeni became
disoriented with anger, so he went up to Amr ibn Saad
and said, Why did you send cowards who have no

swordsmanship towards Husain? Send any of my four

sons to fight him and see how they demonstrate their
fighting skills learnt from me. Amr ibn Saad gestured
towards the eldest son of Badr to fight the Imaam. As he
approached, Imaam Husain said to him, It would have
been better for your father to enter the battlefield so that he
would not witness your misfortune. Then, in one swift
strike, Zulfikr added another to Jahannam. Seeing the
corpse of his son lying on the ground in blood and dust
enraged Badr, who then forcefully entered the battlefield
and used a spear to attack Imaam Husain . This attack
was blocked with the shield of Hadhrath Hamza . When
the tip of Badrs spear touched it, it broke and fell to the
ground. In anger, Badr threw down the remainder of the
spear and grabbed his sword. Imaam Husain
said to
him, Bravery and showing-off are two different things.
Your fate is soon to be sealed. He then proclaimed the
takbeer and attacked Badr so powerfully with his sword
that he separated him into two pieces!
In this manner, famed, skilled and accomplished warriors,
fighters and swordsmen from Syria and Iraq all came up
against Imaam Husain , yet none of them survived to
return to the Yazeedi camp. The plains of Karbala truly
witnessed the valour of the Prophets
grandson as he
demonstrated his strength and courage on it.
Until now, Imaam Husain and the Yazeedis faced each
other only in one-on-one combat. Suddenly, thousands of
young soldiers rushed and surrounded him. Imaam

Husain said to them, Tyrants! If you deem spilling the

family necessary to attain the
blood of the Prophets
pleasure of Ibn Ziyad and Yazeed, then listen carefully: the
children of the Messenger have also deemed it necessary
to sacrifice everything for the pleasure of Allah , His
Messenger , and the protection of Islam!
Even in these circumstances, the Imaam demonstrated his
skill with a sword. In whichever direction his horse moved,
it cut through the enemies (who remained confounded and
perplexed with this individuals astonishing strength).
A soldier by the name of Abdullah ibn Ammar narrates,

By Allah , I never saw a grief-stricken person fight more
bravely than Husain , either before or after him, even
though his companions, family and children were killed
before his very eyes. His enemies ran from him the way
sheep run from wolves. Tabri
Imaam Husain
continued fighting and said, O those
who have gathered to kill me, oath on Allah ! There will
be no one after me who will cause Allahs
anger to
intensify. Allah
will honour me and disgrace you, and
until He punishes you severely, He will not be content.


Marvel at the strength of Imaam Husain , that even

though he was thirsty for three days and grief-stricken
beyond description, he displayed no fatigue or weakness
and proved that in his veins was the blood of Rasoolullah
and in his arms the strength of Hadhrath Ali . He also
showed that due to him being the rider on the shoulders of
the Messenger , there was now no better rider of horses
in the world than him, and that since Rasoolullah
granted him bravery, Imaam Husain himself became the
manifestation of the Prophets bravery!
Nevertheless, when Ibn Saad and his advisors saw that
Imaam Husain
was single-handedly destroying the
noted warriors of Kufa and Syria, they decided that instead
of single-combat, arrows should be fired at him from all
sides, and that after this downpour of arrows, he should be
made the target of spears. So, all archers began to fire
arrows from every direction. The horse of the Imaam
continued moving on but was so injured by this onslaught
that it eventually lost all of its strength. Thus, Imaam
was now forced to helplessly remain in one
place. The firing of arrows now concentrated on his
blessed body. One arrow from a wretch called Abul-Hank
pierced his blessed foreheadthe same forehead the Holy
used to kiss. When blood from the injury ran
down the face of Imaam Husain , he passed his hand
over it and said, O wretches! You did not even worry
about hurting the Holy Prophet ?! It was as if the prince
of Jannah had now taken on the garland of flowing blood
and injuries. The Holy Paradise was now awaiting the

arrival of the leader of its youth. The cool and sweet water
from the fountain of Kauthar was ready for the one who
was kept thirsty for three days. The souls of the Prophets
, Saints and Martyrs waited to finally welcome the
Leader of Martyrs and grandson of the Beloved of Allah .
Suddenly, Khauli ibn Yazeed Asbahi fired an arrow
towards Imaam Husains
blessed chest. The arrow
pierced the Imaam and reached his heart. Remaining on the
horse was now difficult for him, and its reins then fell from
his hands to the ground. The cursed Shimr then struck the
blessed neck with a sword while Sinn ibn Anas Nakh
stepped forward and thrust a spear into his body. In this
position of sajda, the fragrant rose of the garden of
Rasoolullah , the Prince of the World, Sayyiduna Imaam
Husain , reached the court of Allah .

Seeing this tyranny and oppression, Sayyidah Zainub
rushed from the tent and proclaimed in grief, My beloved
brother! My master, how I wish that the sky crash on the
Earth?! At that time, Ibn Saad was standing by the
Imaam. Sayydah Zainub
said to him, Amr ibn Saad!
Abu Abdullah has been killed and you are looking on?!
Even though he was blinded by the greed of status and
glory, Ibn Saad was still human. After hearing and seeing
Sayyidah Zainubs
condition, he began to cry
uncontrollably and turned his face away from her in
shame. Tabri

After this, the wretch Kholi ibn Yazeed stepped forward

to sever the head of Imaam Husain from his body but his
hands began to tremble and he stepped back. Hashl ibn
Yazeed (his brother) got off his horse, separated the blessed
head and gave it to him. Some say that it was Sinn ibn
Anas Nakh who separated the head from the body while
others say it was Shimr (a leper). The Holy Prophet said
in a Hadith, In a dream, I saw a black and white dog with
its mouth in the blood of my family. Hadhrath Imaam
Jafar Sdiq
said that this dream was interpreted
approximately 50 years later when Shimr Zil-Joshn, the
leper, spilled the blood of Imaam Husain . Hadhrath
Muhammad ibn Umar ibn Hasan
narrates, We were
present with Imaam Husain
at Karbala. When he saw
Shimr, he said, Allah and His Rasool are true. Indeed
the Holy Prophet said that a black and white dog places
its mouth in the blood of his Ahle-Bayt (family).
According to the narration of Allaamah Ibn Jauzi , there
were 33 spear wounds and 40 sword wounds on the body
of Imaam Husain . His clothing had 121 arrow-piercings.
The shameless murderers then removed all the clothing
from the Imaams blessed body, making him bare. The
following is what was taken and by whom,
Jubba - Qais ibn Muhammad ibn Ashath
Pants - Bahr ibn Kaab
Shoes - Aswab ibn Khalid

Turban - Amr ibn Yazeed

Sheet of covering - Yazeed ibn Shibl
Ring and Armour - Sinn ibn Anas Nakh
A tribesman of the Banu Nahshal took Imaam Husains
sword, but it later came into the possession of Habb ibn
Badeels family.
Even after such tyranny and horror, the hatred and
enmity of these stonehearted and bloodthirsty Syrians and
Kufis did not end. These wretches proceeded to walk their
horses over the body of the Holy Prophets
After this, they entered the camp of the Prophets family
(which contained modest womenfolk) and plundered their
belongings. Tabri
Witnessing this horrific and merciless killing and
oppression, the world clutched its heart, the Heavens and
the Earth shed tears of blood, and humans (and even
angels of Paradise) were cast into mourning.
Insolence and transgression against the Prophets family!
May the curse of Allah be upon the enemies of the Ahle-Bayt!
Maulana Hasan Raza Khan
A storm of oppression had concentrated in the barren
land of Karbala. The fragrance from the prophetic garden
diminished, the house of Ali was left without a lamp, the
flourishing garden of Sayyidah Faathimah
children became orphans, and noble womenfolk were

made widows and prisoners. This horrific event occurred

on Friday the 10th of Muharram, 61 A.H.
Imaam Husain
was exactly 56 years, 5 months and 5
days old at the time of his martyrdom. He fulfilled the
pledge made to his beloved grandfather, Muhammad
Mustapha . Imaam Husain sacrificed his family and his
own life for the purpose of remaining steadfast on the path
of truth. There can be no example to rival this.
A sterling example has been set until Qiyaamah!
The adherents of truth can never overlook this service of Husain

Events Post-Karbala
The blessed family of Rasoolullah
underwent such
gross atrocities at Karbala that the Heavens and the Earth
shed tears of blood for them. The world was plunged into
darkness when Imaam Husain was martyred. Respected
Commentators of Hadith and notable scholars like
Allaamah Ibn Hajar Asqalni , Imaam Baihaqi , Hafiz
Abu Nuaim , Allaamah Ibn Katheer , Allaamah ibn
Hajar Makki , Imaam Jalaaluddin Suyuti , Shah AbdulAziz Muhaddith Dehlwi , etc. have quoted narrations
proving this in their works. Hadhrath Busrah Azdiyyah


Blood rained from the sky when Imaam Husain was killed. In
the morning, our jugs and pitchers were filled with blood.
Sirrush-Shahaadatain and Sawaaiqul-Muhriqa with ref.
to Baihaqi and Abu Nuaim
Hadhrath Zuhri


Whichever stone was lifted in Baytul-Muqaddas on the day
Imaam Husain was martyred had fresh blood beneath it.
Tahzeebut-Tahzeeb, Sirrush-Shahaadatain and
Sayyidah Umme-Hibbang states,

From the day Imaam Husain was martyred, we experienced
three days of continuous darkness. Anyone who applied cosmetic
powder to their face was burnt, and fresh blood was found under
the stones of Baytul-Muqaddas.
Khalf ibn Khalifa reports from his father,

The sky turned black the day Imaam Husain was martyred
(due to a solar eclipse). Stars were visible during that day.
Tahzeebut-Tahzeeb and Sawaaiqul-Muhriqa

Another narration states,

The sky turned red on the killing of Imaam Husain and a
solar-eclipse was experienced. Stars were seen during the day and
people thought that Qiyaamah had come. Fresh blood was found
beneath every stone that was lifted in Syria.
Imaam Ibn Sreen


Indeed darkness was cast over the world, and thereafter redness
appeared on the sky.
A narration states,

Indeed blood rained from the Heavens and the redness from it
penetrated the very fibre of clothes.
Hadhrath Ali ibn Mahshar
grandmother said,

reports that his


I was a young girl when Imaam Husain was martyred. I still

remember that the sky cried over him for several days.
Sirrush-Shahaadatain with ref. to Baihaqi
Some historians say that the sky shed tears of blood for
seven days. Walls and buildings were shaded by the blood
and it penetrated the very fibre of clothes.
Imaam Suyuti


When Imaam Husain was martyred, the world was cast into
darkness for seven days, the colour of daylight projected on walls
was red, and stars fell against one another. His martyrdom
occurred on the day of Ashura, a day in which a solar-eclipse was
also experienced. The skys horizon remained red for 6
consecutive months, and although the redness faded eventually,
the redness of the horizon was still affected by it. The extent of
redness now prevalent on the horizon was unfound prior to this.
Taareekhul-Khulafa and Sawaaiqul-Muhriqa
Allaamah Ibn Jauzi says that the sky turning red and
blood raining down is indicative of Allahs
displeasure and anger. When anger is experienced, blood is
worked up and the face turns red. Of course Allah is free
from all physical forms and qualities, but He demonstrated
His wrath by turning the sky red and causing blood to rain

downmaking its effect continue even until the Day of

Judgment. This is why Allaamah Ibn Sreen states,

Indeed the redness that appears on the skys horizon was not
found prior to the killing of Imaam Husain .
Hadhrath Ibn Uyainah

reports from his grandfather,

At the time of Imaam Husains martyrdom, I noticed that
saffron turned to ashes and meat appeared as if it was devoured
by fire.
Tahzeebut-Tahzeeb and Sirrush-Shahaadatain
Jaml ibn Murrah narrates,

After killing Imaam Husain , the Yazeedi soldiers seized the
camels of the Husaini camp and slaughtered and cooked them.
The meat turned bitter like colocynth and none could consume it.
Tahzeebut-Tahzeeb, Baihaqi
and Sirrush-Shahaadatain
Hadhrath Ibn Abbas



Once, at midday, I saw the Holy Prophet in a dream. His hair
was ruffled and dusty and he had a glass bottle full of blood. I
said to him, May my parents be sacrificed on you! What is
this? He explained, This is the blood of Husain and his
companions which I have been collecting from the morning.
Hadhrath Ibn Abbas further states, I remember the date and
time that this dream occurred. When news of Husains
martyrdom reached me, [I came to know that] it was the very date
and time I had the dream.
Mishkaat and Tahzeebut-Tahzeeb
Hujjatul-Islam Imaam Ghazzali
records the following
narration in his book Ihyul-Ulmiddin in BaabulMunjaat, One day, Hadhrath Ibn Abbas awoke from
his sleep and said, Indeed to Allah do we
belong and indeed to Him we will return! By Allah ,
Husain has been killed! People were surprised to hear
this and asked him how he came to this conclusion. He
in a dream
explained, I saw the Holy Messenger
carrying a glass bottle full of blood. He said to me, O Ibn
Abbas , do you know what my Ummah has done after
me? They killed my son Husain . This is his and his
companions blood which I am taking to Allah
Twenty-four days after this dream, news of Imaam



martyrdom reached me. Al-Bidaayah wan-

Sayyidah Salma narrates,

I visited Ummul-Mumineen Umme-Salamah gand found
her crying. I asked her why [she was in this state] and she
said, I saw the Holy Prophet g in a dream. He was crying,
and his blessed head and beard allowed dust to settle on it.
I asked him why he was in this condition and he said, I
just witnessed the martyrdom of Husain . AlMustadrak, Mishkaat, Tahzeebut-Tahzeeb and Al-Bidaayah wanNihaayah
The non-Muslim prisoners apprehended in the Battle of
Badr were handcuffed and confined to a certain place.
Hadhrath Abbas , who had not embraced Islam yet, and
who was the paternal uncle of the Holy Prophet , was
amongst those prisoners. Due to the imprisonment and
separation from his family, he cried. The Prophet heard
his crying, and it grieved him so much that he could not
sleep at night. As soon as morning came, the Messenger
took ransom money (fidya) and set him free. Hadhrath
Abbas then embraced Islam. The point to ponder on is
that if the crying of the Holy Prophets uncle caused grief
to him to the extent that he could not even sleep, imagine
the grief caused to the Holy Messenger by the atrocities
meted out to his son, Imaam Husain !

When Wahshi , the murderer of the leader of Martyrs,

Amr Hamza , became a Muslim, the Holy Prophet
said to him, You must not present yourself directly in
front of me or show me your face openly because this
upsets me. Rasoolullah said this even though Hadhrath
accepted Islam, and indeed a Hadith states,
Islam erases all past sins and disbelief. If seeing someone
whose major and minor sins were erased and who was free
from disbelief could upset the Holy Prophet , think how
angry and distraught he must be with those who
mercilessly slaughtered his thirsty and hungry familymembers, rode horses over their bodies, forsook them
without kafn or burial, looted them, and disgraced their
womenfolk by parading them in the streets without a
The fact is that such an atrocity did not occur in any
household of a prophet from the time of Hadhrath Adam
until Hadhrath Isa . So, if the Heavens and the Earth
shed tears of blood, humans and jinns mourned the killing
at Karbala, and all the workings of the world were turned
upside-down, what is so surprising?
Ummul-Mumineen Sayyidah Umme-Salamah states,

I heard jinns cry over Husain . In their lamentation, they


O ignorant murderers of Husain , tidings of severe

punishment and torment are for you.
All the inmates of the Heavens curse
you, along with all the Prophets
and Messengers .
You are definitely cursed by
Sayyiduna Dawud
, Sayyiduna Musa
and the
recipient of the Bible (Sayyiduna Isa
). Al-Bidaayah
wan-Nihaayah and Sawaaiqul-Muhriqa
Other narrations related to her state that the following
was the lamentation of Jinns heard on the martyrdom of
Sayyiduna Imaam Husain ,
O eye, cry as much as you can. Who after me will
cry over martyrs? Death
hauled these poor, helpless people to the tyrants. Abu
Nuaim, Sirrush-Shahaadatain
Objection The book Ashiatul-Lamaat states that UmmulMumineen Sayyidah Umme-Salamah passed away in 59
A.H., and this is the correct opinion. The incident at
Karbala occurred in 61 A.H during Muharram. So, the
narrations in which Sayydiah Umme-Salamah
saw the
Holy Prophet in a dream and heard the lamentation of
jinns, etc. are all false because she was not even alive at that
Answer Ashiatul-Lamaat also states that 62 A.H. is
regarded by some as the year of her demise, and the author
himself (Shaikh Abdul-Haqq Muhaddith Dehlwi

verified this opinion in his other famous and trusted work,

Madaarijun-Nubuwwah. He said, But the second opinion
has been corroborated by this Hadith found in Tirmizhi that
Sayyidah Salma Ansariyyah states, I came to UmmulMumineen Umme-Salamah
and found her crying. I
enquired as to why she was in this state and she explained,
I just saw the Holy Prophet in a dream. Dust had settled
on his blessed head and beard and he was crying. I asked
him why he was so and he replied, I have been to the
place where Husain was just murdered. This Hadith is
clear in that Sayyidah Umme-Salamah was alive at the
time of Imaam Husains
martyrdom. It has also been
narrated that when she received news of his killing, she
cursed the Iraqis who were the ones responsible for such
heinous crimes. Madaarijun-Nubuwwah
Alhamdulillah, Hadhrath Shaikh Abdul-Haqq Muhaddith
himself corroborated that Ummul-Mumineen
Sayyidah Umme-Salamah gwas alive at the time of Imaam
Husains martyrdom.
Actually, the opinion that she passed away in 59 A.H. is
the view of Wqdi, which is incorrect. The true opinion
established from authentic narrations is that she passed
away in 63 A.H. Allaamah Ibn Katheer states,


Wqidi said that Sayyidah Umme-Salamah passed away

in 59 A.H. and that Hadhrath Abu Hurairah performed
her Janaazah Salaah. Ibn Abi Khaithama states that she
passed away during the reign of Yazeed ibn Muawiyah. I
say that the Ahadith which mention the martyrdom of
Imaam Husain
proves that she lived after his killing.
And Allah knows best. Al-Bidaayah wan-Nihaayah
Imaam Jalaaluddin Suyuti states,

Besides Imaam Husain and those martyred with him, the
following eminent personalities passed away during
Yazeeds rule: Ummul-Mumineen Sayyidah UmmeSalamah , who passed away in the year the incident
occurred. Taareekhul-Khulafa
The incident of Hurrah occurred in the year 63 A.H.
Shibli Numaani writes, In face of differing narrations, to
determine the year of demise is difficult. Still, it is a fact
that she (Umme-Salamah g) remained alive until the
incident of Hurrah. A narration in Muslim states that
Harith ibn Abdullah ibn Abi Rabia and Abdullah ibn
Safwan approached her and enquired about the army that
will sink in the earth. This enquiry was made when Yazeed
sent Muslim ibn Aqba with a Syrian army to Madinah,
after which the incident of Hurrah took place. The incident
occurred in 63 A.H. So, the narrations which mention her
demise before this are all incorrect. Seeratun-Nabi


The narration found in Muslim Sharif states,

Harith ibn Rabia, Abdullah ibn Safwan and I
(the narrator Ubaidullah ibn Qibtiyyah) went to UmmulMumineen Umme-Salamah g. Both of them asked her
about the army which will sink into the earth, and this
questioning occurred during the reign of Abdullah ibn
Zubair (when people protested against Yazeed and
pledged allegiance to him. Yazeed then sent an army to
Madinah for their destruction). Muslim Sharif
Hadhrath Habib ibn Thabit states, I heard jinns lament
over Imaam Husain and say,

The Holy Prophet kissed that forehead.
How bright was the luster on his blessed face?

His parents were the noblest of the Quraish.
His grandfather (i.e. Rasoolullah ) was more excellent than the
Abu Nuaim, Sirrush-Shahaadatain and Al-Bidaayah wanNihaayah
Hadhrath Ahmed ibn Muhammad Masqali
When Imaam Husain ibn Ali
heard an unseen voice say,



was martyred, my father

The nation of Thamud slaughtered the camel (of Sayyiduna

). As a result they were cut off from blessings.


indeed made the sanctity of the Prophet

than the esteem of Sayyiduna Salihs



It is truly surprising that they committed such tyranny but
were not mutilated like the killers of the camel. Yes, Allah
affords the oppressors a chance. Tahzeebut-Tahzeeb

When Imaam Husain was martyred, a crow came and

dipped its beak in his blood. It then flew to Madinah and to
the home of Sayyidah Faathimah Sughra , the daughter
of Imaam Husain . Sitting on the wall of her home, the
crow said to her, Indeed Husain has been killed.
Sayyidah Faathimah looked at the crow and said (while

A crow spoke and I asked, O crow, what news do you
It said, I bring news of Imaam .


I asked which Imaam , and the crow replied, He who

was bestowed with the distinction of truthfulness and

I asked, Husain

?! and it replied to me in


Yes, indeed Husain

lies on the perched earth of


I cry over Husain with grief that does not displease Allah
but is aspirant of reward.

Then its wings became so stiff that it did not have the
strength to answer.

I then cried due to the afflictions I faced after the blessed
personality. Noorul-Absaar


Allah ! Allah ! How bizarre is the difference in era?!

When Makkah was conquered, the Holy Prophet entered
it with immense glory accompanied by thousands of
Companions. The power of the enemies of Islam was
destroyed and there was no refuge for them except in the
forgiveness and mercy of the Mercy unto Creation,
Muhammad Mustapha . One of the fiercest enemies of
Islam was Abu Sufyan, whose atrocities against the Holy
and the Muslims made him infamous, but
when this notorious individual was brought before the
Holy Prophet , history is witness to the prophetic mercy
and kindness he received. Allahu Akbar! Abu Sufyan and
the plots against Islam were heinous, yet Rasoolullah

Whoever enters the home of Abu Sufyan is granted protection.
Allah ! Allah ! Not only did the Holy Messenger
spare Abu Sufyans life, he made his home (which used to
be the epicenter for conspiring against Muslims) the home
of security. In doing this, Rasoolullah demonstrated to
be the Mercy unto Creation. Still, it was the offspring of
this very Hadhrath Abu Sufyan
who oppressed the
family of the Prophet to such an extent that the Heavens
and the Earth, jinns and humans all cried tears of blood.
Hadhrath Shaikh Nasrullah ibn Yahya , who is a trusted
and authentic source, narrates, I saw Ali in a dream and
asked him, O Leader of the Faithful, you said in the

conquest of Makkah that whoever enters the home of Abu

would be guaranteed protection, yet it was the
descendants of Abu Sufyan who oppressed your Husain
at Karbala like no one else before. Hadhrath Ali
replied, Do you know the verses of poetry that were
recited by Ibn Saifi about that incident? I answered, No.
Hadhrath Ali then said, Go to him and listen to them. I
woke up surprised and went to the home of Ibn Saifi. After
relating my dream to him, he cried so much that babies
would be put to shame. After this, he said, Oath on Allah
! I wrote these verses last night and have not recited them
to anyone as yet. The verses are,

When we were powerful and strong, forgiving was our habit, but
when you gained power, you made rivers of blood flow.

You regarded the killing of prisoners as permissible, but when
we pass criminals, we mostly forgive them and let them be.

Indeed this difference between us is sufficient, and indeed a
vessel emits that which is found within.
Noorul-Absaar, Pg. 146
Hadhrath Aamir ibn Saad Bajali
states, After the
martyrdom of Imaam Husain , I saw the Holy Messenger
in a dream. He instructed me, Aamir, go to Baraa ibn
Aazib (a Companion), convey my Salaam to him and tell

him that those who martyred Husain are Jahannamis.

When I woke up, I proceeded to Hadhrath Baraa
related my dream to him. After hearing it, he said, Indeed
Allah and His Messenger have spoken the truth.
Allaamah Hafiz Ibn Hajar
records a narration of
Hadhrath Ali that the Messenger said,

The killer of Husain is in a casket of fire and experiences
punishment equal to half the amount of Jahannams inmates.
Noorul-Absaar and Isaafur-Raaghibeen
Allaamah Hafiz Ibn Hajar Asqalni
quotes Hadhrath
Salih Shahm , While in Halb (a place in Syria), I had a
dream in which I saw a black dog with its tongue out due
to thirst. I wanted to give it water but an unseen voice
warned, Beware! Do not give it water. This is the killer of
Husain and this is his punishment, that he will remain
thirsty like this until the Day of Qiyaamah. TasweedulQs fi Talkhs Musnadil-Firdaus
Returning to the incident of Karbala, Ibn Saad read
Salaatul-Janaazah over those killed from his army and
buried them but left the bodies of Imaam Husain and his
casualties without kafn or burial. The martyrs of the army
of Imaam Husain numbered 72 (20 of whom were bright
lamps of the Banu Hashim). The wretch Ibn Saad also
ordered that the heads of Imaam Husain and his fighters
be sent to Ibn Ziyad. So, 13 heads went to the Banu Kinda

whose chief was Qais ibn Ashath, 20 to the Banu

Hawaazin (who Shimr Zil-Joshn was with), 17 to the Banu
Tameem, 16 to the Banu Asad, and 7 to the Banu Mazhaj.
Ibn Atheer
Night fell, but this night was one of the most trying nights
for the remainder of the Prophets family, who were now
only a few womenfolk, some milk-drinking infants and the
sick Hadhrath Zainul-Abideen . Allah ! Allah ! What
must have been the condition of the Ahle-Bayt on this
night?! They just saw their relatives massacred before their
very eyes, their tents were burnt, their possessions looted,
and the bodies of their deceased relatives were scattered on
the plains of Karbala without kafn or burial. They had
endured all of this and still ended up themselves as
During the night, Sayyidah Zainub went to the bodies
of her relatives and expressed her emotion in the most
sorrowful state one can be in. When she came to her
brothers body (Imaam Husain ), she sat down and
crieda cryig which echoed the emotion of Karbalas
The scoundrels of Ibn Saads army even wanted to
completely extinguish the lamp of the Prophets lineage
by killing the sick Imaam Zainul-Abideen but Allah
placed mercy in the heart of a person named Hamd ibn
Muslim, who said, He is a young child that is sick. While
saying this, Ibn Saad himself came to them and said,

Beware, none of you should enter the camp of the AhleBayt and interfere with this sick boy. Those who looted and
plundered their possessions must return it to them. The
Yazeedi soldiers then stopped interfering with Imaam
(yet none of them returned the goods
that they stole). Tabri and Ibn Atheer
When the grieved members of the Ahle-Bayt proceeded to
Kufa in the morning as prisoners of the Yazeedi army, the
noble womenfolk of this illustrious family passed by the
bodies of their husbands, sons and brothers. At this
moment, Sayyidah Zainub cried and said,

O Muhammad ! O Muhammad ! The Durood and
Salaam of Allah and the Heavenly angels be upon you!
This is Husain , who is left in this desolate, barren piece
of land, [with] his body-parts separated and messed in dust
and blood. O Muhammad ! Your daughters are being
kept as prisoners, your children have been killed and the
winds blow dust on their bodies.

Hearing this plea of hers, friends (and even enemies) began
to cry. Tabri and Al-Bidaayah wan-Nihaayah


Burial of the Martyrs

When the army of Yazeed moved away from Karbala, the
Banu Asad, who used to live near the Euphrates, came and
buried the decapitated body of Imaam Husain
in one
area and the other 72 martyrs in another. This was done on
the second day after the martyrdom (some say the third).
Ibn Atheer and Tabri

Noor and Bright Birds Converge at the Blessed Head

The procession of the Prophets family arrived at Kufa
after the arrival of the heads of the martyrs.
The head of Imaam Husain
was with Khauli ibn
Yazeed, who reached Kufa at night. At that time, the door
of the governors house was closed, so he took the blessed
head with him home. This wretch covered the blessed head
under a large vessel, came to his wife (Nawaar) and said, I
brought the wealth of the entire world to you. Look there,
the head of Husain ibn Ali
is in your home. Nawaar
replied, May Allah punish you! People bring gold and
silver yet you bring the head of the Messengers son?! By
Allah ! I will never remain with you! Saying this, she left
her bedstead and sat before the blessed head. She narrates,

by Allah ! I saw a perpetual Noor coming from the
Heavens to the vessel in which the head was kept. It was


like a pillar that shined brightly. I also saw bright birds

focusing around it.

In the morning, Khauli ibn Yazeed took the blessed head to
Ibn Ziyad. Tabri, Ibn Atheer and Al-Bidaayah
The Blessed Head and Ibn Ziyad
Ibn Ziyads court was convened and general people were
given permission to attend. The head of Imaam Husain
was then placed on a tray before the wretch, who had a
stick in his hand and slowly began to hit the Imaams teeth
and lips. While hitting the head, he said, I have not seen
anyone as beautiful as this.
Witnessing such insolence and disrespect by the cursed
Ibn Ziyad, a senior Companion, Hadhrath Zaid ibn Arqam
, got up and said while crying, Ibn Marjnah! Move that
stick from those lips and teeth! Oath on Allah Who has
no equal, I indeed saw the Prophet of Allah kiss those
lips and mouth! He then began to cry profusely. The
governor replied, May Allah make you cry even more!
If you were not old and eccentric, I would have definitely
slain your neck! Tabri, Ibn Atheer and Al-Bidaayah wanNihaayah
Hadhrath Zaid
bravely replied, I will narrate
something which will anger you even further. Indeed I saw
the Holy Messenger while Imaam Hasan was seated
on his right thigh and Imaam Husain
on his left.

Rasoolullah was passing his hands over their heads and

, I entrust these two to the pious
said, O Allah
believers. O Unfortunate wretch! How have you treated
the trust of Rasoolullah ?! He then turned towards the
people and said, People of Kufa! May Allah
displeased with you! You killed the son of Rasoolullah
and accepted the rule of Ibn Marjnah (Ibn Ziyad) who will
murder the good people amongst you and let the wicked
be! Still crying, Hadhrath Zaid
then left. SawaaiqulMuhriqah
Hadhrath Anas ibn Malik
narrates, I was present
when the head of Husain was placed before Ibn Ziyad
on a tray. Ibn Ziyad began to speak about Husains
beauty and hit his nose with the stick in his hand.

further states, Indeed Husain
Hadhrath Anas
resembled the Holy Prophet a lot, and his hair was dyed
with wasma. Bukhari and Tirmizhi, Baabu-ManaaqibilHusain
It is reported that when the blessed head was placed
before the governor, the killer very proudly said,

Fill my camels with gold and silver because I killed an
eminent leader.

I killed someone who is the best of people in respect to
parents, lineage and honour.

Ibn Ziyad was annoyed with this and said, If he

possessed such excellence according to what you say, why
did you kill him?

Oath on Allah! The best compensation I can provide is to
make you join him.

He then slew the mans head. As-Sawaaiqul-Muhriqah and

The Prophets

Family before Ibn Ziyad

After the head of Imaam Husain was placed before the

governor, the surviving members of the Ahle-Bayt were
brought into his gathering. By now, Sayyidah Zainub
had changed her clothing and looked very simple in it.
There were a few womenfolk around her when Ibn Ziyad
asked, Who is this? Sayyidah Zainub did not answer,
even when she was asked this thrice. Then, a woman
surrounding her said, This is Zainub , the daughter of
. Hearing this, the cursed Ibn Ziyad

Praise be to Allah
and belied you!

Who ruined you, killed your family

The daughter of the Lion of Allah replied,

) (


Praise be to Allah Who made us respected by being the

children of Muhammad and purified us as is the right of
being purified, not as how you speak about us. Indeed
transgressors are the ones who are ruined and will be
The governor asked, Have you seen what Allah
done to your family?
saidMartyrdom was their destiny. This is
why they were martyred, but soon you will be before Allah
with them and they will seek justice for the injustice they
had to endure.
This crushing reply of Sayyidah Zainub
angered Ibn
Ziyad, who retorted, Allah cooled my anger through the
killing of an arrogant and disobedient member of your
family! These words made Sayyidah Zainub
uncontrollably. She said to him, Oath on my existence!
You killed my family members and ruined us! You cut our
branches and uprooted our roots! If your heart gains solace
by such actions, then indeed you have attained it! Tabri,
Ibn Atheer and Al-Bidaayah
At this time, Ibn Ziyads eye fell upon Imaam Zainuland he asked him what his name was. The
Imaam answered, My name is Ali ibn Husain .
When the governor heard this, he said, Did Allah not kill
Ali ibn Husain?


The Imaam remained silent. When he was asked why he

was not speaking, he replied, I had a brother named Ali
as well but people killed him.
No. No, it was Allah Who killed him.
The Imaam fell silent again. After the governor demanded
an answer from him, he recited the following verses,


takes away the souls (of beings) at the time of their

Surah Zumar (39), Verse 42

No soul can die except by the permission of Allah

Surah Ale-Imran (3), Verse 145

Hearing this, the governor shouted, Why do not you also

be amongst them?! Then, after ascertaining that Imaam
Zainul-Abideen was not a minor, he ordered for him to
be killed. The Imaam asked, Who will you entrust these
ladies of my family to?
Sayyidah Zainub
was overcome by the governors
merciless command and embraced Imaam Zain
sorrowfully asking Ibn Ziyad, Are you still greedy for our
blood?! Who have you spared?! Will you not leave this sole
support that we have?! For Allahs sake! Be content with
the adversities and sorrow that we have been made to
suffer! Ibn Ziyad, I ask you, for the sake of Allah ! If you
want to kill him, kill me too.

On the other hand, there was absolutely no fear in Imaam

Zain , and he said with composure, If you want to kill
me, then all I ask is that you consider our family-ties and
appoint a pious, decent man to lead these womenfolk back
to their homeland with honour and respect. These words
made the governor stare at this aunt and nephew for a long
while until mercy ultimately entered his heart. He said,
Let this boy remain with these women. Ibn Atheer, AlBidaayah and Tabri

The Musjid of Kufa, the Announcement of Victory and

the Testimony of Ibn Afeef
Announcements were later made for people to gather in
the Musjid. When they arrived, Ibn Ziyad stood on the
pulpit and said, Praise be to Allah Who helped the Leader
of the Faithful, Yazeed ibn Muawiyah, and his followers by
granting them victory and defeating and killing the liar and
son of a liar, Husain ibn Ali and his companions. (Allah
Hadhrath Abdullah ibn Afeef was a respected friend of
Hadhrath Ali . He was blind and used to spend his entire
day in the musjid performing Salaah and in the
remembrance of Allah
(). When Ibn Ziyad called
Hadhrath Ali and Imaam Husain liars, Hadhrath Ibn
Afeef stood up and said, Ibn Marjnah! You are a liar,
and your father was also a liar! You killed the children of
yet you talk like you are truthful?! An

irritated Ibn Ziyad commanded he be arrested. At that

time, the tribesmen of Hadhrath Ibn Afeef released him
from the arrest, but later on, Ibn Ziyad summoned him and
ordered that he be killed and his body hanged. Tabri, Ibn
Atheer and Al-Bidaayah
The governor then ordered that the Prophets family be
jailed and that the blessed head of Imaam Husain
paraded in the streets of Kufa on a spear.
Ibn Ziyad then sent the heads of the martyrs of Karbala
and the Prophets family to the court of Yazeed in Syria,
appointing a cursed group of wretches, i.e. Shimr Zil-Joshn,
Khauli ibn Yazeed, Zahr ibn Qais, etc. to take the blessed
family along with them. Ibn Marjnah, the evil and cursed
being that he was, shackled the hands, legs and neck of
Imaam Sajjd Zainul-Abideen
and made the noble
womenfolk of the Ahle-Bayt ride on the open backs of
camels during this long trip. He even commanded his
soldiers to parade the heads on spears along the way so
that people would understand that this was the result of
revolt against the power of the time. In other words, when
people saw this, they would become scared and stop
objecting to Yazeeds rule.
Along the way, the procession passed a monastery of the
People of the Book and stopped there to spend the night.
Shah Abdul-Aziz Muhaddith Dehlwi states, They (the
wretches appointed by Ibn Ziyad) began to drink wine
(), and a narration of Allaamah Ibn Katheer

They began to drink alcohol. Al-Bidaayah, SawaaiqulMuhriqah and Sirrush-Shahaadatain, Noorul-Absaar and
While they were immersed in this debauchery, a pen of
steel emerged and wrote the following in blood,

Do those who martyred Husain hope that his grandfather
(Muhammad Mustapha ) will intercede for them on the Day of
Some narrations state that this was written on the walls of
the church [before the arrival of the army]. When these
wretches saw the verse, they asked the monk of the
monastery who wrote it and from when it was written.

The monk replied, This verse was written 500 years before
the advent of your Prophet. Trkhul-Khams, SadatulKaunain, Haytul-Hayawaan
Allaamah Ibn Katheer narrates from Ibn Asakir ,

An army went to Roman lands for battle and saw this verse
in a church. They asked when it was written and who
wrote it and were told, This was written 300 years before
the coming of your Prophet. Al-Bidaayah wan-Nihaayah
Seeing the heads of martyrs on spears, womenfolk riding
on the open backs of camels, and children chained as
captives had a major effect on the monk of the monastery.

He enquired as to what the situation was, and after being

informed of it, he said, You are truly bad people. Does
anyone treat the children of their prophet the way you do?
He then made a proposal, If you let me keep the head of
your Prophets grandson for one night and permit me to
serve these womenfolk and children, I will give you 10,000
The materialistic scoundrels agreed to this proposal, and
so a clean and private room was presented by the monk to
the womenfolk to spend the night in it. He said to them, If
you require anything, call for me. Even though I am not a
Muslim, I have great respect for your family in my heart.
He also advised them to be patient and said, Many severe
hardships came to the pious on Gods path. They
demonstrated patience, and He compensated their patience
with the best of compensations. There is nothing besides
patience for you now. The womenfolk thanked him for
his sympathy and supplicated for his guidance.
After giving the amount promised, the monk took the
blessed head of Imaam Husain to his room and washed
off the dust and blood that had settled on the head, face,
locks of hair and beard. Then, after applying itr and
camphor to it, he placed it before him with much respect so
that he could witness it (). Allah became pleased with
this respect and conduct and opened His door of mercy for
him. The monk was suddenly overcome with emotion and
the veil covering his sight was lifted. He saw that there was
Noor from the blessed head of Imaam Husain right until

the sky! Witnessing this brightness and miracle, he

instantly read the Kalimah and became a Muslim! Allah
blessed him with the treasure of Imaan because he
sacrificed the wealth of this world and showed respect to
the blessed head of Imaam Husain , and those who
demonstrate respect do not remain unfortunate enough to
not bring Imaan. So, Allah
made him one with good
fortune and one with faith. He attained duas from the
household of the Holy Messenger
and their
supplications benefitted him and changed his destiny. In
fact, the monk left the monastery later on and became an
obedient, sincere servant of the Ahle-Bayt.
Another amazing thing that happened at this point of the
journey was that when the group of wretches opened the
moneybags containing what they had looted from Imaam
Husains camp to share amongst themselves, they found
all the dinars and dirhams (including the money taken
from the monk) changed into potsherds. The following
verses were included on either side of these pieces,

And never consider Allah unaware of the deeds of the unjust.
Surah Ibrahim (14), Verse 42

And now the unjust will know soon as to which side they will
Surah Shuar (26), Verse 227
Sawaaiqul-Muhriqah and Sadatul-Kaunain

Respected readers, this was a lesson to these wretches,

saying, You forsook the deen and oppressed the family of
for this mundane world. Remember, you
already forsook the deen, but the finite world for which
you forsook the deen will also not be attained by you! Both
your world and Hereafter are ruined!
History bears testimony that if Muslims preferred the
world over the deen, or forsook the deen and chose the
world, they never attained the world anyway and would
become worthy of punishment in both worlds, yet those
who abstained from this world and did not forsake their
Imaan and deen were blessed immensely in both worlds.

The Court of Yazeed

When the heads of the martyrs and the Prophets family
reached Damascus, what was Yazeeds conduct and
reaction to them? There are different narrations regarding
this, and after narrating them, I will present their summary.
First Narration When Zahr ibn Qais came to Yazeed, he
was asked what news he brought and said, Leader of the
faithful, I congratulate you, for Allah
has granted you
victory. Husain ibn Ali was with 18 of his family members
and 60 companions. We went to him and instructed him to
either be obedient or prepare for battle. He rejected
obedience to you, so we surrounded him from all
directions in the morning and attacked him. When our
swords reached their necks, they began to squirm and run

away, but there was no refuge for them. They hid from us
to save their lives the way a pigeon hides from an eagle.
Leader of the faithful! By Allah, we killed all his men in the
time it takes for a camel to be slaughtered. Now their
corpses lay naked, dust and sand messes their faces and
clothes, the heat of the sun disintegrates their bodies, the
wind blows dirt on them, and in a barren and desolate
piece of earth, scorpions and donkeys descend on their
bodies. It is said that when Yazeed heard this, he began to
shed tears and said, I would have been happy with your
obedience if you had not killed Husain. May Allah curse
Ibn Sammiyyah (Ibn Ziyad). Oath on Allah! If I were there,
I would have forgiven Husain. May Allah have mercy on
Husain! Zahr received no reward from Yazeed. Tabri,
Ibn Atheer and Al-Bidaayah
Second Narration Shimr Zil-Joshn and Mahfar ibn
Thalabah went to Yazeed with the blessed head of Imaam
Husain . When they neared the court, Mahfar stood at the
door and loudly proclaimed, We bring the head of the
most stupid and deplorable person to the leader of the
faithful. (Allah
forbid!) When Yazeed heard this, he
said, The mother of Mahfar has not given birth to a son
more stupid and deplorable than him. Indeed he is an
oppressor. The soldiers then entered the court, placed the
blessed head before Yazeed and related the entire
occurrence of Karbala. Yazeeds wife, Hind bint Abdullah
ibn Aamir, had also heard about what had happened, so
she draped herself in her sheet and entered the court,
asking, O leader of the faithful (i.e. Yazeed), is this the

head of Husain , the son of Faathimah bint Rasoolullah

Yes. Now you must cry over him and mourn the son of
daughter, who was a pure Quraishi by
genealogy. Just as how Ibn Ziyad made haste in killing
Imaam Husain , may Allah make haste in killing him
too She said.
Yazeed then called a meeting, permitting all to attend.
After the people arrived, he used a stick in his hand to hit
the blessed lips and teeth of Imaam Husain , saying, His
and my similitude is like how Haseen ibn Hamm said,

Our people rejected to be fair, so these swords brought justice
these swords in our right hands from which blood trickles.

They sliced the heads of those who were dominant over us, and
they were indeed disobedient and oppressors.
Hadhrath Abu Burzah Aslami
protested, Do you use
your stick to hit the lips of Husain
whereas I saw the Holy
kiss them?! Yazeed! Indeed on the Day of
Reckoning Ibn Ziyad will be your intercessor and Husains
the Holy Messenger . He then left the gathering.
After this, Yazeed addressed the blessed head, saying,
Husain, by Allah, if I were there with you, I would not
have killed you.
He then turned to the gathering. Do you know why this
became his fate? It is because he used to claim that his

father Ali, his mother Faathimah and his grandfather

were better than my father, mother and
grandfather. This is why he regarded himself more worthy
of the Caliphate than me. [As for] his claim that his father
was better than my father, indeed their discord awaited
Allahs judgmentand people know in whose favour
decision was given. About the claim regarding his mother
being better than my mother, oath on my existence, indeed
his mother was better than mine, and regarding his claim
that his grandfather, Rasoolullah , was better than mine, I
take an oath on my life that no Muslim who has Imaan on
Allah and the Hereafter can ever regard any of us to be
equal to Allahs Messenger. The hardship he [i.e. Imaam
] suffered, however, was due to his
He then recited the following verse,

Say (O Muhammad ), O Allah , You are the Master of all
sovereignties. You give sovereignty to whom You please and You
take away sovereignty from who You please.
Surah Ale-Imran (3), Verse 26
After this, the Ahle-Bayt, still held as prisoners, were
brought before him in this great audience of people. When
Imaam Husains
daughters (Sayyidah Sakhinag and
Faathimah ) saw their fathers head, their cries silenced
the court. Ibn Atheer
Third Narration Yazeed became happy when Imaam
Husains head was placed before him and called for an

assembly. Using the stick in his hand, he began to turn the

blessed head while reciting the following couplets of

How I wish that those Shaikhs of mine who were killed in Badr
were alive today! They would have seen that indeed revenge was
taken in double by killing their respected onescausing the
matter to be settled.
Sawaaiqul-Muhriqah and Al-Bidaayah wan-Nihaayah
Allaamah Ibn Hajar Makki Shafi

and Shabi


Yazeed recited two other verses that are indicative of his
infidelity ().
The verses are,

The Banu Hashim were fooling around with power, and neither
did any message come to them nor did they receive revelation. If I
did not take revenge from the children of Ahmed for what they
did, I would not be from the children of Utba.
Fourth Narration When the heads of Imaam Husain
and the other martyrs of Karbala were placed before
Yazeed, he recited the poetry of Haseen ibn Hamm

(mentioned in the second narration). Yahya ibn Hikam, the

brother of Marwn, was present in the court at that time
and recited the following,

The army killed in the land of Taff (Karbala) was more respected
in lineage than Ibn Ziyad, a slave and one with reprehensible
genealogy. The progeny of Sammiyah (the family of Ibn Ziyad)
has become more than even the number of pebbles, yet none
remain from the children of Mustapha .
Yazeed heard these verses and hit the reader on his chest,
ordering him to be silent. Tabri, Al-Bidaayah and Ibn Atheer
After this, Imaam Zainul-Abideen and the Ahle-Bayt, in
the unfortunate state that they were in, were brought
before Yazeed. Sayyidah Faathimah bint Husain , who
was elder than Sayyidah Sakeenah , asked him, Are the
daughters of Rasoolullah
prisoners? Imaam ZainulAbideen said,

if the Holy Prophet
saw us shackled and bound, he
would definitely remove the chains.

Yazeed replied, You have spoken the truth, and ordered
for them to be unshackled. He then addressed Imaam
Zainul-Abideen , saying, Your father (Imaam Husain )

cut his family-tie with me. He did not recognize my right

and fought with me about my kingdom. Have you
did to him? In reply to this,
witnessed what Allah
Imaam Zainul-Abideen recited the following verse,

No calamity reaches either in the earth nor in your own persons
except that it is recorded in the book before We bring it into
Surah Hadd (57), Verse 22
Yazeed gestured to his son Khalid to reply to this, but
when he saw that his son could not find an answer, Yazeed
himself said,

And whatever misfortune befalls you is due to what your hands
have earned, but He pardons much.
Surah Shr (42), Verse 30
While this was happening, a reprehensible Syrian pointed
to Sayyidah Faathimah bint Husain and said, O leader
of the faithful, give me this girl. Sayyidah Faathimah
heard this and became scared. She began to clench the
clothes of Sayyidah Zainub , who censored the Syrian,
saying, Misfortunate wretch! Neither you nor Yazeed can
get this girl (according to Islamic Law). Hearing this,
Yazeed angrily retorted, You are a liar! By Allah ! If I
wish, I can take that girl.

By Allah ! You can not have her! Allah has not given
you this right. Yes, if you leave our deen of Islam and
choose another religion, then you can have her (i.e. as long
as you call yourself a Muslim, you cannot take a female
Muslim as war-booty).
Yazeed was now beside himself with anger. Do you talk
like this to me?! It is your father and brother that left the
Sayyidah Zainub
said, You, your father and your
grandfather all gained salvation from the deen of Allah ,
(the deen of) my grandfather, my father and my brother!
Yazeed angrily retorted Enemy of Allah! You lie!
Sayyidah Zainub
said You have wealth and you are
being severe and abusive without right due to your
Hearing this, Yazeed was ashamed and remained silent.
Ibn Atheer, Tabri, Bidaayah and Tahzeebut-Tahzeeb
Fifth Narration When the head of Imaam Husain was
placed before Yazeed, he became happy, and the respect of
Ibn Ziyad grew in his eye. This is why he initially showed
him great honour and gave him much reward. Later,
however, Yazeed began to show remorse to Ibn Ziyad
because people were beginning to hate, swear and curse
him (Yazeed) for killing Imaam Husain . In turn, he
began to swear Ibn Ziyad, saying, Allahs
anger be
upon Ibn Marjnah! By killing Husain, he has sown hatred
and enmity for me in the hearts of Muslims. Now every
good and bad person has become my enemy due to the


killing of Husain . May Allah curse Ibn Ziyad and

descend His anger upon him! Ibn Atheer
Allaamah Ibn Katheer writes,

After Ibn Ziyad killed Husain and his companions and
their heads were brought to Yazeed, Yazeed was initially
happy with his killing, and Ibn Ziyads standing and
respect increased in his eye because of it, but he did not
remain happy for long and in fact became remorseful
thereafter. Al-Bidaayah wan-Nihaayah
He also said,

Indeed Yazeed cursed Ibn Ziyad because of his action. He
rebuked him because he feared what would happen when
the reality of the incident was revealed. Still, Yazeed did
not remove Ibn Ziyad, did not reprimand him afterwards
and did not send someone to censor him. Al-Bidaayah
Summary of the Narrations: Considering all of these
extracts, the summary of the occurrence is as follows:
Yazeed definitely cursed and maligned Ibn Ziyad and
expressed his regret at the killing of Imaam Husain , but
it was not because he regarded his killing as impermissible
or a great injustice. If Yazeed was truly regretful, he would
have charged Ibn Ziyad and the other killers and punished

them for their crime. Instead, he showered them with

reward and honour! Actually, Yazeeds regret was only
demonstrated because he knew, The killing of Husain and
the Ahle-Bayt is an ugly, dark stain that I will possess and
will never be removed, and due to this, the entire Muslim
world will curse me until Qiyaamah.
So, he expressed only superficial displeasure by cursing
the killers and demonstrating outward regret. Such
displeasure, cursing and regret should be understood as
political, not true. Ibn Ziyad himself said, Yazeed
commanded me to kill Husain. This claim is found in
previous pages of this book. Yazeeds harsh and abusive
language and tone while conversing with Imaam ZainulAbideen and Sayyidah Zainub along with the verses
he narrated in the second and third narration (proof of his
hatred at heart) are indeed sufficient as evidence against
Nevertheless, the impure Yazeed is not innocent of this
dreadful atrocity. On the contrary, he is equally responsible
for this occurrence. Remember too that the evil incident of
Hurrah after Karbala was a further nail in his coffin of
Objection Some use the references of Ibn Taimiyah
which claim that Yazeeds poking the blessed head of
Imaam Husain is totally false and a lie. They claim that
this was actually done by Ibn Ziyad but narrators
misunderstood this and related it to Yazeed.

Answer Allaamah Ibn Katheer , considered by the

objectors themselves as a very trusted scholar,
Commentator of the Quran and historian, and who is also
a student of Ibn Taimiyah, quoted three narrations about

When the blessed head of Imaam Husain
placed before Yazeed, he used the stick he had in
his hand to poke the teeth and said, He and I are
like how Haseen ibn Hamm said, Our swords
slice the heads of those who were dominant over
us, and they were indeed disobedient and
Hadhrath Abu Burzah Aslami (a Companion of
the Holy Prophet ) said,

by Allah ! Yazeed, you hit your stick against the
blessed lips I saw the Holy Prophet kiss! On the
Day of Reckoning, Ibn Ziyad will be your
intercessor while Husains
will be the Holy
Messenger . He then stood up and left the
gathering. Al-Bidayaah wan-Nihaayah


2. Ibn Katheer
further narrated this incident
through a second chain of narrators from Hadhrath
Jafar ,
3. Along with a third chain from Hadhrath Imaam
Hasan Al-Basri .
This narration is also found in Tarikh Tabri, Ibn Atheer and
Note that when Ibn Ziyad poked the blessed head with a
stick, Hadhrath Zaid ibn Arqam was present and it was
he who reprimanded the wretch. When Yazeed poked the
blessed head, he was rebuked by Hadhrath Abu Burzah
Aslami .
Allaamah Ibn Hajar Makki
records the following

When Yazeed disrespected the blessed head of Imaam

Husain , the ambassador of the Caesar of Rome was
present, and he said in astonishment, The imprint of the
hoof of Jesuss (Sayyiduna Isa ) donkey is protected by
us in a church on an island. Every year we take extravagant
gifts and visit it, and we respect it the way you respect your
Kabah. Indeed I say to you all, you are false and debased.
There was also a Jewish citizen present who said, Seventy

generations have passed between David (Sayyiduna

Dawud ) and I (i.e. he was from the prophets progeny)
but the Jews still respect and honour me. You, however,
mercilessly killed the grandson of your prophet!
Sawaaiqul-Muhriqah and Saadatul-Kaunain
After this meeting, Yazeed ordered that the heads of the
martyrs be paraded in Damascus for three days and kept
hanging at the entry-gates of the city. Minhl ibn Amr

Oath on Allah ! I was present in Damascus when the
head of Husain was put on a spear and paraded through
the city. I am witness to the following occurrence: someone
was reciting Surah Kahf before the blessed head, and when
he reached the verse,

Do you not know that the People of the Cave and Raqm are a
wonder from Our signs?
Surah Kahf (18), Verse 9
granted the blessed head speech and it
eloquently said, My killing and the parading of my head
is greater in wonder than the People of the Cave.
Sharhus-Sudr, Sirrush-Shahaadatain and Noorul-Absaar


The killing of Imaam Husain

is greater in wonder
indeed! Those who the People of the Cave feared (that
made them leave their homes and possessions and seek
refuge in a cave) were non-Muslims, yet those who
oppressed Imaam Husain , the Ahle-Bayt and their
companions were people who claimed to be Muslims and
believers. The People of the Cave were Friends of Allah
while the martyrs of Karbala were the beloved familymembers of Rasoolullah . The People of the Cave truly
did not experience the injustice they suffered. After a sleep
of many years, the People of the Cave woke up and spoke
(since they were alive), but Imaam Husains
head speaking after several days from the top of the spear
is indeed more amazing than that!
Allaamah Hafiz Abul-Khattab bin Wajhah
When Yazeed hung the blessed head of Imaam Husain
in Damascus, Hadhrath Khalid ibn Ghafraa , an eminent
member of the Tbieen, secluded himself entirely for a
month. After his seclusion, people asked him why he did
so and he replied, Do you not see what a troublesome
time we are in?
He then recited the following,

O son of the pure daughter of Muhammad , they have brought
your head messed with blood.


O grandson of Rasoolullah , by killing you it is as if they have

openly killed the Messenger .

These tyrants killed you while you were severely thirsty, not
even thinking that the Quran and its knowledge would be lost by
your killing.

By killing you, these wretches have been plunged into arrogance
and conceit whereas they have ended the treasure of Islam.
Al-Bidaayah wan-Nihaayah

Mourning in the Home of Yazeed

Yazeed had previously designated a separate house for
the Prophets
family to be kept in but he called its
womenfolk to his home instead and said to his womenfolk,
Be sympathetic to them. So, when the Prophets family
entered the home of Yazeed, every female in the house
came to meet them and mourn their sad condition, which
continued for three days in the house.

Yazeeds Kind Behaviour

By now, the Syrian and Kufi dogs had looted all the
belongings of the Ahle-Bayteven the sheets of covering
used by the womenfolk. Even though Ibn Saad
commanded them to return their possessions, none did.

Yazeed was aware of this and gave the womenfolk double

the possessions that were taken from them. These actions
of his were the reason why Sayyidah Sakeenah bint Husain

I have not seen someone disbelieve in Allah

kinder than

Yazeed would call upon Imaam Zainul-Abideen

partake in the morning and evening meals. Amr ibn
Husain , who was very young, was once also present for
a meal. Yazeed asked him, Will you wrestle with my son,
Khalid? The son of Imaam Husain replied, I will, but
not like this. Give me a knife and give him one too, then I
will fight with him. Yazeed then held him tightly and
said, Indeed disposition cannot change! Ibn Atheer and

The Prophets

Family Returns to Madinah

Before sending the Ahle-Bayt to Madinah, Yazeed called

Imaam Zainul-Abideen
and said to him, May Allah
curse Ibn Ziyad! By Allah, if I was present, I would have
accepted anything and everything Husain said, even if it
was to my detriment...but Allah
willed whatever you
witnessed. Still, if you require anything, write to me. He
also summoned Hadhrath Numan ibn Bashir
commanded, Return the Ahle-Bayt with complete safety


to Madinah. Take along provisions for the journey and a

detachment of honourable soldiers.
gladly accepted this task and very
Hadhrath Numan
respectfully led them to Madinah.
During the journey, the womenfolk of the Prophets
family were impressed with the honour and respect
accorded to them by him and wished to give him
something in return. So, Sayyidah Zainub and Sayyidah
Faathimah sent him the gold jewellery Yazeed had given
them in lieu of what was looted at Karbala and said, We
ask to be forgiven as we have nothing besides this. This is a
token of gratitude for your kind respect. Please accept it.
Hadhrath Numan
returned their jewellery and said,
Oath on Allah ! I have not done this for any worldly
gain. I did it to attain Divine pleasure and due to your tie
with the Messenger of Allah . Tabri and Ibn Atheer
writes, During the
Allaamah Abu Ishaq Isfarini
caravans journey from Damascus to Madinah, the AhleBayt said to Hadhrath Numan ibn Bashir , We have one
requestthat you take us to Madinah through Karbala for
us to see whether the bodies of our relatives lie on the earth
without kafn or if someone buried them. Hadhrath
Numan accepted their request. So, the caravan reached
Karbala on the 20th of Safar, 40 days after the martyrdom of
Imaam Husain . When the Prophets
family saw the
barren landthe place where they were desperate for even
a single-drop of water, where the garden of Sayyidah
was ruined, where the blooming roses of

Rasoolullahs garden were cut down by swords, spears

and arrows, where he who would ride on the back of the
Holy Prophet fell from his horse and was messed with
blood and dusttheir cries were the only thing that was
heard. Who can articulate or convey the emotion these
noble womenfolk of the Prophets
family expressed
when they came to the graves of their family-members and
the Leader of Martyrs, Imaam Husain ?! They spent a
night there in recitation and in the remembrance of Allah
(). When leaving the area, Sayyidah Zainub came to
and said, My beloved
the grave of Imaam Husain
brother, I am leaving Karbala. Noorul-Ain fi MashhadilHusain
As the caravan neared Madinah, Sayyidah UmmeKulthum recited some poetic verses which expressed the
emotion of losing the decendants of the Prophets family
and returning to the city of Rasoolullah
without his
beloved grandson, Imaam Husain .
By now, news of the occurrence at Karbala had already
reached Madinah. Its residents, including UmmulMumineen Umme-Salamah and Hadhrath Muhammad
ibn Hanfiyah , emerged from their homes when the
caravan arrived. Hadhrath Umme-Luqman ibn Aql ibn
Abu Talib
came out crying with the women of her
household and said,


People, what will you say when the Holy Messenger

asks you, What did you do whereas you are the last

He will ask, What did you do to my family and Ahle-Bayt
after me? You kept some as prisoners and messed others in
blood and dust!

Was the return of my admonition that you treat my family
badly? Al-Bidaayah, Tabri and Noorul-Absaar
The wife of Rasoolullah , Sayyidah Umme-Salamah
said, May Allah
curse those who treated the children
of Rasoolullah
in this manner, and may He fill their
homes and graves with fire! She even cried until she lost
The caravan of the Ahle-Bayt proceeded straight to the
Raudhah of Rasoolullah . Imaam Zainul-Abideen was
the personification of patience until this point, but as soon
as he saw the blessed grave of his most eminent
grandfather, Muhammad Mustapha , he said to him, My
beloved grandfather, accept the salaam of your grandson.
He then began to cry so emotionally that he caused the
entire city of Madinah to cry with him.
After this, Imaam Zainul-Abideen
began to relate the
plight of the Ahle-Bayt to Rasoolullah , saying, Your
Ummah mercilessly martyred your children and family.
We were kept hungry and thirsty, our camps were looted,

our possessions were taken, the coverings of your

granddaughters were removed, they were made prisoners,
made to sit on the bare backs of camels, and were
mockingly paraded through the streets of cities. Wretches
tried to kill me too so that your progeny would not remain.
I was shackled with chains around my neck, hands and
feet. The separated heads of our family-members were
hoisted on spears and paraded, we were brought before
Ibn Marjnah and Yazeed in their public courts like
criminals, and your family and children were grossly
disgraced. We lost everything, and we stand before you in
this sorrowful state.
When the Prophets family returned to their homes, the
womenfolk of the Banu Hashim lamented over their plight
so much that Abdul-Malik ibn Abul-Harith Salmi said,

By Allah , I did not hear more sorrowful cries than that of
the Banu Hashims womenfolk over Husain. Tabri
Some slaves and friends of Hadhrath Abdullah ibn Jafar
(the husband of Sayyidah Zainub ) came to him to
offer their condolences on the martyrdom of both of his
sons at Karbala. One of his former slaves, Abus-Sals,
remarked, Husain brought this grief to us. Hearing this,
Hadhrath Abdullah ibn Jafar picked up his shoe, threw it
at him and said, Wretch! How dare you say something like
that about Husain ?! By Allah ! If I was there, I would
have also given my life! I do not regard losing my sons as
grief. They courageously sacrificed their lives with their

uncle. Thanks to Allah

Who included us in the
martyrdom and grief of Husain . If I was unable to help
him there, at least my children did. Tabri and Ibn Atheer
Imaam Jafar Sdiq
states, After the incident of
Karbala, Imaam Zainul-Abideens days and nights were
spent in the following manner: He would fast day after day
and spend his nights entirely in the worship of Allah .
When food and drink was placed before him at the time of
breaking his fast, he would say, My father and brothers
were martyred while they were hungry and thirsty. It is
sad that they could not have had this food and drink. He
would then cry. The few morsels of food and sips of water
he did partake in were mixed with his tears. The memory
of Karbala and the thought of his father and brothers was
never forgotten by him. His eyes remained moist with tears
his entire life.
The truth is that no prophets children experienced the
grief endured by Imaam Husain
and Imaam ZainulAbideen , and their patience was a special Divine favour.
How else could patience be made over such a gruesome


Number of Martyrs from the Prophets

Family and

their Companions
There is a difference in opinion regarding the number of
Imaam Husains companions and family-members who
were martyred with him. Some say 70, 72, 79, 82, while
others say that it is an even greater number. The names of
the Ahle-Bayt amongst them are mentioned below,



The Leader of the Martyrs, Imaam Husain

Abul-Fadhl Hadhrath Abbas Alamdr
Hadhrath Abu Bakr (also known as Abdullah)
Hadhrath Umar
Hadhrath Uthman
Hadhrath Jafar ibn Ali ibn Abi Talib , the
stepbrother of Imaam Husain . Some have
included the name Muhammad ibn Ali.
Hadhrath Qasim
Hadhrath Abdullah
Hadhrath Abu Bakr
Hadhrath Umar ibn Hasan ibn Ali ibn Abi Talib
, the nephew of Imaam Husain . Some have
included the name Uthman ibn Hasan.
Hadhrath Muhammad
Hadhrath Aun ibn Abdullah ibn Jafar Tayyr
Hadhrath Abdullah
Hadhrath Abdur-Rahman
Hadhrath Jafar ibn Aql ibn Abi Talib
Hadhrath Imaam Muslim
and his two sons,
Muhammad and Ibrahim .

17. Hadhrath Abdullah ibn Muslim ibn Aql

18. Hadhrath Ali Akbar ibn Husain
19. Hadhrath Ali Asgar ibn Husain
Thousands of salutations be upon these martyrs of the
Ahle-Bayt whose sacrifices in life resulted in the elevation
of the deen.

Number of Captives
Imaam Zainul-Abideen
Hadhrath Umar ibn Husain ibn Ali , the son of Imaam
Husain . Some have included the name Amr ibn Hasan,
though this does not seem to be correct.
Hadhrath Muhammad ibn Umar ibn Ali ibn Abi Talib
(the nephew of Imaam Husain )
Sayyidah Zainub and Umme-Kulthum (the sisters of
Imaam Husain )
Sayyidah Faathimah
and Sakina bint Husain (the
daughters of Imaam Husain )
Sayyidah Shehr Banu bint Yazdjird ibn Shehr Yaar (the
wife of Imaam Husain . She was the grand daughter of
Kisra, the king of Persia).
(the wife of
Sayyidah Ribaab bin Imraul-Qais ibn Adi
Imaam Husain )
Imaam Husain
had much affection for his wife,
Sayyidah Ribaab , the mother of Sayyidah Sakeenah .
So, it is narrated by Sayyidah Sakeenah , Once, my uncle

Imaam Hasan became displeased with my father Husain

over something concerning my mother, so my father
(Imaam Husain ) said to him,

Oath on your life! Even the house in which Sakeenah
and Ribaab g occupy is beloved to me.

I love them both and I happily spend my wealth on them,
and the criticism of one who reprimands is not considered
criticism by me.
Sayyidah Ribaab was a very virtuous and pious lady.
After the martyrdom of Imaam Husain , some people
sent marriage proposals to her, yet she refused them,
saying, After becoming the daughter-in-law of the Holy
Prophet , I do not wish to be the daughter-in-law of
anyone else. Imaam Husains
killing caused her so
much grief that she recited the following verses in a eulogy
after his martyrdom,

Indeed Husain who was Noor from head to toe, and from
whom light was attainedwas killed in Karbala and lay without
kafn or burial.

O grandson of the Holy Prophet ! May Allah reward you
on our behalf and keep you far from the loss of the Scale of Deeds.


Indeed your personage for me was like a mountain wherein I
should seek safety and you should keep my company with
goodness, love and kindness.

Who now is the refuge of orphans and the mendicant? Who will
be the solace of every poor and destitute person?

Oath on Allah , after affinity with you in marriage, I will not
seek another until sand is thrown over me.
Some say that she remained at Karbala the entire year
before returning to Madinah, where she passed away in the
grief and separation of her husband, Imaam Husain .

Number of Yazeedi Soldiers Killed

Although Tabri and Ibn Atheer state that the Yazeedi
soldiers killed in Karbala number 88, this does not seem to
be correct, because Mukhtasar Tabri very authentically
states that hundreds of Yazeedi soldiers were killed. It took
just one attack to kill 80 soldiers! Likewise, the
brave children of Hadhrath Ali
and Imaam Husain
killed hundreds of Yazeedi scoundrels alone. (And Allah
knows best)


The Resting Place of the Blessed Head of Imaam Husain

There is a difference in opinion regarding the resting place

of the head of Imaam Husain . Allaamah Qurtubi and
Sirjul-Hind Shah Abdul-Aziz Muhaddith Dehlwi state
that Yazeed sent the prisoners of the Prophets
and the blessed head to Madinah. After reaching the
beloved city of Rasoolullah , the head was buried at the
side of either Sayyidah Faathimah Zahra or in the grave
of Imaam Hasan .
The Imaamiyah group claims that the prisoners of the
Ahle-Bayt returned to Karbala after 40 days and buried the
blessed head and body of Imaam Husain together.
Some are of the opinion that Yazeed commanded that the
head be paraded in cities. When it reached the city of
Asqaln, the governor of the locality took it from those
who were parading it and buried it. When Asqaln was
later dominated by European rulers, Tal ibn Razzk
(known as Salih), the deputy governor of Egypt, offered
30,000 dinars to acquire the head from them, and after
attaining it, brought it into Egypt on Sunday the 8th of
Jamaadul-Aakhir, 548 A.H. While transporting the blessed
head with his soldiers and servants, he remained barefoot.
Even though centuries had passed by then, the blood of the
blessed head was still fresh and it emitted a fragrance like


Salih built Mashhad Husain over the blessed head

(which he placed on a tray of green silk on a chair made
from ebony). He also weighed it and placed musk and
amber equal to its weight below and around it. This site is
famous even today. Shaikh Shahbuddin Ibn Atlabi Hanafi
states, I visited ( )the blessed head in the mashhad
but I was doubtful as to whether it was really there or not. I
suddenly fell asleep and had a dream in which a person
coming from the blessed head was going to the room of the
Holy Messenger . He came to the Prophet
and said,
Ahmed ibn Halbi
and Abdul-Wahab
have visited
your son Husains blessed head. Rasoolullah replied,

O Allah

, accept their visit and forgive them both.

Shaikh Shahbuddin
continues, From that day on, I
had certainty that Imaam Husains
head is there. He
also never forsook visiting it until his final breath.
Tabqtul-Auliya by Allaamah Sharni
Shaikh Abdul-Fatth ibn Abi Bakr ibn Ahmed ibn Shafi
states in his treatise, Noorul-Ain, KhatamulHuffz wal-Muhadditheen Shaikhul-Islam wal-Muslimeen
Najmuddin Gheeti
narrates that Shaikhul-Islam
Shamsuddin Luqqani , the Shaikhul-Shuykh of the
Malikis of his time, would always present himself for the
visiting of the blessed head of the mashhad and would
say, The head of Imaam Husain is here.


Hadhrath Shaikh Khall Abul-Hasan Tammarsi

also visit the blessed head and say,


Peace be upon you, O son of the Holy Prophet

reply was always heard,

. The

And peace be upon you, O Abul-Hasan . One day, he

made salaam but did not receive a reply. This surprised
him. The next day, he greeted the head and heard the reply
again, so he asked, O my master, why was I not honoured
by your salaam yesterday? The answer he received was,
Abul-Hasan , yesterday at that time I was in the court of
my respected grandfather, Rasoolullah
, and was
speaking to him.
Imaam Abdul-Wahab Sharni states, Eminent Sufiya
and Ahle-Kashf (those who attain inspiration) say that the
blessed head of Imaam Husain is found at this place.
Shaikh Karmuddin Khalwati
also said, I visited this
place by the permission of the Holy Messenger .

Miracles Demonstrated by the Blessed Head

Once, a few informants of Sultan Malik Nsir told him
that someone knew the location of money and gold in a
certain mansion but did not wish to disclose it. The Sultan
ordered this person to be tortured by worms. These worms,
which would eat the brains of the live humans they were
placed on, was a severe punishment unable to be endured

by any human. People undergoing it would have their

head eaten open and they would usually die within a few
minutes, but when the worms were placed on this
individual, instead of him dying, the worms did! People
enquired as to the reason for this and he explained, When
the blessed head of Imaam Husain was brought here to
Egypt, I placed it on my head with respect and adoration.
This is the blessing and miracle of that blessed head.
Khitat wal-saar by Maqrizi
One narration states that the blessed head in fact
remained in the treasury of Yazeed. When Sulaiman ibn
came into power and learnt of this, he
commanded that it be brought to him so that he could see
it. At that time, the bones on the blessed head were shining
like silver. Sulaiman fragranced it, covered it in a shroud
( )and buried it in the Muslim cemetery. TahzeebutTahzeeb
Due to this, Allaamah Ibn Hajar Haithami
Sulaiman ibn Abdul-Malik saw the Noble Messenger in
a dream being kind to him and giving him glad-tidings. In
the morning, he came to Imaam Hasan Basri
requested an interpretation. The Imaam said, Maybe
because you were good to the family of the Holy Prophet


Yes, I found the head of Husain

in the treasury of
Yazeed, so I shrouded it with five cloths, performed Salaah
over it with my friends and buried it.
This action of yours is the reason for Rasoolullahs
happiness with you. Sawaaiqul-Muhriqa
This humble writer (Allaamah Shafi Okarvi ) submits
that there are various narrations concerning the blessed
head of Imaam Husain
and various mausoleums built
for it in different places. It could be that these narrations
and mausoleums concern a few heads of the Prophets
family (since several were sent to Yazeed). Out of respect
and love, some have (erroneously) ascribed it to Imaam
Husain . Allah knows the truth of the matter.

Yazeeds Conduct after the Incident of Karbala

Yazeeds behaviour worsened after the martyrdom of
Imaam Husain . He did not do anything goodon the
contrary, his wretchedness, misfortune and callousness
reached a new peak, and history can not forget the
revolting atrocities perpetrated by him. During his rule,
wickedness was committed openly, along with fornication,
homosexuality, marriage with non-permissible women,
usury, alcoholism, etc. (just to name a few). This is why
people, especially the citizens of Hijaz, severely opposed
him and broke their allegiances with him. Hadhrath
Abdullah ibn Hanzalah Ghaseelul-Malaaikah states,


By Allah ! We broke our allegiance to Yazeed after
fearing being stoned from the Heavens (due to his sinful
ways). Indeed he was someone who married his mothers,
sisters and daughters, consumed alcohol and did not
perform Salaah. Tareekhul-Khulafa and SawaaiqulMuhriqah
The Ahle-Haramain (citizens of the Harams Makkah and
Madinah) also severely opposed Yazeed and broke their
allegiance ( )to him. In fact, this rebellion of theirs could
be the reason why people in other areas broke their
allegiances and rebelled against him (since the Haramain is
the heart and soul of the Muslim world). Yazeed was aware
of this and feared losing his power, so he sent Muslim ibn
Aqba with a 20,000-strong army to attack the two holy
cities. This cursed army committed sin in the Prophets
city that would embarrass even Abu Jahl. The residents of
Madinah (who are the neighbours of Rasoolullah ) had to
endure the heights of oppression and tyranny, and killing,
looting, rape and torture was the rule of the day.
The people of the two cities had been forced to accept the
allegiance ( )and slavery to Yazeed with the following
words, I accept slavery to Yazeed. If he wishes, he can sell
or free me. Whoever said, I pledge allegiance to be
obedient to and follow the command of Allah
and His
Messenger , was killed. For this reason, many fled from

the city, and those who did not were murdered.

Approximately 1,700 Muhjireen, Ansaar, Sahaabah and
senior Tbieen as well as 700 Huffz of the Holy Quran
were mercilessly slaughtered. The total number of martyrs
was approximately 10,000 people. The homes of those
killed were also looted and the wretches made the city of
Madinah a place of sin for three days. Even chaste women
were robbed of their chastity during this period. Hadhrath
Abu Saeed Khudri was a senior, respected Companion,
yet even he was not spared! They shaved his beard and
disgraced him. The army also tied their horses to the pillars
of Musjidun-Nabawi and no one attended it during this
period. Hadhrath Saeed ibn Musayyab
(a senior
amongst the Tbieen) would frequent the musjid only by
pretending to be insane. Still, the wretches wanted to kill
him too. He was once brought to Muslim ibn Aqba, who
ordered him to be killed. When he heard this command, he
began to commit the actions of insane people, after which
one of the soldiers said, He is mad, and he was then
It is this very Hadhrath Saeed ibn Musayyab
narrates, There was no one in Musjidun-Nabawi during
these days except me. The people of Syria came to the
musjid, saw me and said, What is this old, mad man
doing here? I used to hear the sound of the Azhaan,
Iqaamah and the congregation [ ]continuously from the
Raudhah at the times of Salaah, so I performed Salaah in
these three days following this congregation, and there was
none besides me in the musjid at that time.

A youngster was also apprehended by Yazeeds army. His

mother approached Muslim ibn Aqba and pleaded that her
son be spared. In turn, Muslim ordered that the boy be
brought to him. When he was, Muslim slew his neck and
gave the head to his mother, saying, Are you not thankful
that you are alive? You came very dramatically to take
your son!
When Muslim invited the people of Madinah to pledge
allegiance to Yazeed, some of them pledged allegiance
merely in fear of losing their lives and wealth. There was a
pious person from the Quraish tribe who said at the time of
allegiance, I have pledged allegiance to obedience towards
Allah , not sin. Muslim commanded that he be killed
(and he was). The mother of this individual, Umme-Yazeed
bint Abdullah ibn Rabia, took an oath, If I become
powerful enough, I will definitely burn this tyrant, dead or
So, after oppressing the residents of Madinah, Muslim
turned his attention towards Makkah to confront Hadhrath
and kill those who opposed
Abdullah ibn Zubair
Yazeeds rule there. Incidentally, on the way to the city,
paralysis struck him and led him to his death. As per the
command of Yazeed, Haseen ibn Nameer became the new
leader of the army, so he buried Muslim and continued
with his forces towards Makkah.
When the mother of the Quraishi learnt of Muslims
death, she came to his grave with a few men to exhume

and burn him (and consequently fulfil her vow). When

Muslims grave was opened, they saw a serpent crushing
his neck and sucking vigorously on his nose. The men
became afraid and said to the woman, Allah Himself is
punishing him for his sins by appointing this snake. Why
do you not let him be like this?
No. I will definitely fulfil my oath and satisfy my heart
by burning his body.
So be it, they replied reluctantly.
They then proceeded to remove Muslim from his leg side,
but when they opened that part of the grave, they found
another snake crushing his feet! Again they submitted to
the woman, Let him be. This punishment is enough for
him. The woman, however, did not budge. She made
wudhu, performed two rakaats Salaah and supplicated to
Allah , saying, O Allah ! You know well that my anger
with this person is solely for Your sake. Grant me the
ability to fulfil my vow by burning his body. After making
this dua, the woman took a stick and moved the snakes
away by hitting them with it. They then removed Muslims
body and burnt it.
This cursed Muslim ibn Aqba caused so much oppression
and waste in Madinah that he became known as musrif
(one who wastes) after his death.
Hadhrath Anas reports that the Holy Prophet



He who harms a believer has actually harmed me, and he

who harms me has harmed Allah . Sirjum-Muneer
Sharah Jaamiis-Sagheer
Amrul-Mumineen Hadhrath Ali
narrates that the
Holy Prophet said,

He who harms even one strand of my hair has actually
harmed me, and he who harms me has harmed Allah .
The narration of Abu Nuaim further states, The curse of
Allah is on that person.
Hadhrath Saad ibn Abi Waqqas states that the Noble
Messenger also said,

will destroy whoever intends doing something
bad to the people of Madinah the way salt is dissolved in
water. Muslim
Another narration states,

He who intends any evil with the people of Madinah will
be melted in the fire of Jahannam like lead. ibid
Hadhrath Jabir reports that the Holy Messenger said,

will make the one who frightens the people of
Madinah scared on the Day of Judgment. And in another


narration, May Allahs


anger and curse be upon him.

Hadhrath Ubaidah ibn Smit narrates that Rasoolullah

also said,

will make the one who frightens the people of
Madinah by oppression terrified, and His curseas well as
the curse of angels and peopleis upon him. On the Day of
Qiyaamah, neither his fardh nor optional acts of worship
will be accepted. Wafaul-Wafa and Jazbul-Quloob
Similarly, Hadhrath Abdullah ibn Umar states that the
Prophet said,

will harm the one who troubles the people of
Madinah, and His curseas well as the curse of angels and
humansis upon him. Neither his fardh nor nafl will be
accepted. Sirjum-Muneer
These Ahadith establish that the one who troubles a
Muslim actually troubles Allah
and His Messenger .
Regarding especially the people of Madinah, the one who
scares, harms or intends to do something bad to them will
be incinerated in the Hell-fire prepared by Allah . No
worship of his is accepted, and Allahs curseas well as
the curse of angels and humansis upon him. In the
previous pages, you read how appallingly Yazeed and his
cronies disrespected, harmed and caused difficulty to the

Prophets family and the people of Madinah. So, they are

indeed worthy of being cursed.

states in the Holy Quran,

Undoubtedly those who annoy Allah and His Messenger ,

Allahs curse is upon them in the world and in the Hereafter,
and Allah has kept prepared for them a degrading torment.
Surah Ahzb (33), Verse 57
Hadhrath Abdullah ibn Abbas states,

This verse was revealed about the Hypocrite Abdullah ibn
Ubay and his cronies when they accused Sayyidah Aishah
(of adultery). So, the Holy Prophet delivered a sermon
and said, Who will help me against someone who
troubled me (by levelling an accusation against my wife)?
After paying attention to the verse, it becomes clear that
by taunting the wife of the Holy Prophet , these
Munaafiqs troubled Allah
and His Messenger
became worthy of being cursed. Indeed Yazeed and his
forces committed much more heinous crimes than these
Hypocrites by oppressing the Prophets
Companions, Tbieen and the people of Madinah.


Attack on the City of Makkah

Youve already read that as soon as Yazeed came into
power, he ordered the governor of Madinah, Waleed ibn
Atba, to demand pledges of allegiance from Imaam Husain
, Hadhrath Abdullah ibn Umar
and Hadhrath
Abdullah ibn Zubair . Imaam Husain went to meet the
governor when he was summoned, but Hadhrath Abdullah
ibn Zubair did not and fled to Makkah at night. From the
time he entered the city until now, the Companion spent
his days in the protection and sanctity of the Haram
contently. When the people of Hijaz later became
dissatisfied with Yazeed due to his actions and conduct,
called them to unite
Hadhrath Abdullah ibn Zubair
against him and delivered an inspiring lecture, the
summary of which is as follows,
The people of Iraq, especially Kufa, are so treacherous
and evil that they invited the grandson of the Holy Prophet
[to their city] promising to help him and make him their
leader, yet they betrayed and abandoned him. They joined
the power of the time instead and even fought Husain
themselves! Husain
chose death over a lifetime of
dishonour (by pledging allegiance to Yazeed) and did not
bow his head in obedience even though armies surrounded
him. May Allah
have mercy on him and disgrace his
killers! How can we be satisfied with these people after
they treated Husain
the way they did? How can we
comply in following them? Absolutely not! Oath on Allah
! They killed someone who spent his days fasting, spent

nights in worship and someone who was worthier of them

in these matters (i.e. power). He was better than them in his
deen, excellence and rank. Oath on Allah ! Husain was
not one to mislead at the expense of the Quran. His grief in
the fear of Allah
was unique. He would not exchange
fasting for the consumption of alcohol, and his gatherings
did not speak of hunting dogs. Instead, it was of the
remembrance of Allah . Husain
spoke out against
Yazeed, and soon these people will enter the valley of Aee
in Jahannam. Ibn Atheer and Tabri
After this, people hastened towards Hadhrath Abdullah
ibn Zubair
and said, Announce that allegiance be
pledged to you. The Companion did so, and all the people
of Makkah and Madinah (except Hadhrath Ibn Abbas
and Hadhrath Muhammad ibn Hanfiyah ) then pledged
allegiance to him. After this, Hadhrath Abdullah ibn
overthrew the Yazeedi governors and
subordinates in Makkah and Madinah and brought an end
to their rule. When Yazeed came to know of this, he sent a
major army to attack the two cities, and you have already
read of the armys conduct in Madinah.
This cursed army now reached Makkah under the
leadership of Haseen ibn Nameer to attack the city of the
Kaaba. They besieged Makkah for 64 days and massacred
people during this period daily. Catapults were used by
them to such an extent that boulders even filled the
precincts of the Holy Kaaba! In fact, the catapults were
used against the Kaaba itself and caused it to catch alight.

The mantle ( )of the Kaaba and its walls were burned,
and while standing on the House of Allah
army recited the following,

, Yazeeds

These catapults are like healthy camels by which we stone the
walls of this musjid.
The pillars in the Haram were destroyed by this stoning
and even the walls were broken! Amr ibn Hauta Sudsi
recited the following, Just look at Umme-Farwa (i.e. the
catapults)! See how it targets people between Safa and
Marwa. Al-Bidaayah wan-Nihaayah, Tabri and Ibn Atheer
In short, Yazeeds wicked army demonstrated much
barbarianism in these attacks. For two months, the
residents of the Haram endured severe hardships and the
Kaaba remained uncovered for several days (with its root
burnt and its walls broken). These sad events occurred in
the beginning of Rabiul-Awwal 64 A.H., and it was at the
end of this month, while the Kaaba was being attacked,
that news of Yazeeds death was received. As soon as
received the news, he
Hadhrath Abdullah ibn Zubair
loudly addressed the army from Syria, saying, Your devil
has been destroyed! News of Yazeeds death caused the
Syrian army to lose heart in the battle and strengthened the
confidence of Hadhrath Abdullah ibn Zubair
and his
supporters. They therefore launched a successful offense
against the Syrian army which caused them to flee

Makkah, finally alleviating the people of the city from the

tyranny of this cursed army.
The reprehensible Yazeed ruled for approximately 3
years and died at either the age of 38 or 39 in a village
called Huwreen. Ibn Urwah penned the following on his

O Banu Umayyah, the body of your last monarch lies in

His death came to him at a time when pitchers and water-bags
full of alcohol were next to his pillow.

A female lamenting with a violin in her hand cried over the one
who was intoxicated with this alcohol. She would sometimes sit
and sometimes stand.
Tabri and Ibn Atheer
Yazeeds corpse was later taken from Huwreen to
Damascus, and either his son Khalid or Muawiyah
performed his Janaazah Salaah. He was buried in the
Baabus-Sagheer cemetery but his grave later became the
dumpsite of the city.


Muawiyah the Second

After Yazeeds death, people pledged allegiance to his son
Muawiyah. This young man was naturally merciful, had
good conduct and adhered rigidly to the deen. Muawiyah
the second distanced himself from the gross, heinous
actions of the Banu Umayyah and abhorred their evil ways.
So, he delivered a sermon to people, saying, I do not have
the strength to carry the responsibility of governance, and I
am also unworthy of it. I do not find any of you like
Hadhrath Umar ibn Khattab
that I could appoint as a
Khalifa over you, and I do not see people worthy of giving
counsel (Ahlush-Shra) to give this matter to. So, you
people know your affairs better. Choose whoever you wish
for you. After declining the position of leader, he returned
home and became sick. Forty days later, he passed away.
Some say that he was poisoned. Tabri and Ibn Atheer

The Ruin of the Murderers

Hadhrath Amir ibn Saad Bajali
narrates, After the
martyrdom of Imaam Husain , I saw the Holy Prophet
in a dream saying to me, Go to my Companion Baraa ibn
Aazib , convey my salaam and inform him that whoever
killed my son Husain is an inmate of Jahannam. So, I
went to Baraa ibn Aazib and related the dream to him.
He listened to me and said, Allahs
Messenger has
spoken the truth. Saadatul-Kaunain

Allaamah Hafiz Ibn Hajar

records a narration on the
authority of Hadhrath Ali that Rasoolullah said,

The killer of Husain will be in a coffin of fire, and hell
have half the punishment of the people of the world.
Noorul-Absaar and Isaafur-Rghibeen
Scholars ( )state that those who fought against Imaam
Husain , became murderers of the Ahle-Bayt or were
happy with their martyrdom, thus all suffered punishment
for their evil actions in this world, and the punishment of
the Hereafter is something they will have to face in
addition to it. Still, even in this world, as punishment for
their evil actions, some were killed mercilessly, some
became blind, some had their faces blackened, some
became lepers, and some were destroyed in severe, difficult
illness and hardships.
Hadhrath Abdullah ibn Abbas states,

sent revelation to Muhammad , saying, For
Yahya ibn Zakariahs
sake, I punished 70,000
individuals (due to their oppression against him), and for
your grandsons sake, I will punish 70,000 individuals and
a further 70,000. Tahzeebut-Tahzeeb, Al-Bidaayah wanNihaayah and Sawaaiqul-Muhriqah


Hadhrath Abu Shaikh relates, Once, in a gathering, a

few seated people said, Whoever helped in the killing of
Husain was definitely cast into adversity before death.

An old man stood up and boasted, I also helped his killers
but nothing happened to me. He then went to the lamp to
adjust its wick and caught alight! The man began to loudly
scream, Fire! Fire! but no one heard him. He even jumped
into the River Euphrates but the fire on him did not
extinguish and he ultimately perished from it. SawaaiqulMuhriqah
Another narration like the one above has been
documented by Hafiz Ibn Hajar Asqalni
and Sibt Ibn
Jauzi from Sudi.
Sibt Ibn Jauzi
relates from Waqdi, An old man who
was part of Yazeeds army but did not kill anyone became
blind. When asked about this, he explained, I saw the
Holy Messenger in a dream.

He was in an angered state, his sleeves were up and he
stood with a sword in his hand. A skin-mat was spread
before him and the bodies of ten killers of Imaam Husain
were lying on it. The Prophet cursed me and passed a
needle over my eyes messed with the blood of Husain. I


was blind from then on. Noorul-Absaar, Isaafur-Rghibeen

and Sawaaiqul-Muhriqah
The blackened face of a Yazeedi soldier (who had hung
the severed head of Imaam Husain
on the neck of his
horse) was seen by people. They asked him,

You were a handsome person with fine features and a good
complexion. What happened to you? He explained, From
the day I fixed the head of Husain
to the neck of my
horse, I have had two men come to me every night, grip me
and take me to a place with a lot of fire. This is why my
face turned black as you see it. The narrator of this
incident states that this person suffered a horrible death.
Sawaaiqul-Muhriqah, Noorul-Absaar and Isaafur-Rghibeen
Allaamah Ibn Hajar Haithami Makki states,

An old man saw the Holy Prophet in a dream with a tray
of blood and a group of people in front of him. Rasoolullah
was taking some of this blood and wiping it on their
eyes. I [the old man] was also presented before him and
submitted, I did not go up against him (Imaam Husain
), yet the Prophet replied, No, but you desired doing
so. He then gestured towards me with his finger and I was
blind from then on. Sawaaiqul-Muhriqah


Hadhrath Ahmed Abu Rijaa states, O people, do not

Ahle-Bayt (i.e.
be disrespectful to any of the Prophets

I had a neighbour from Balhajeen who came to us from
Kufa, saying, Have you not seen how Allah killed that
sinner, son of a sinner (i.e. Imaam Husain , son of
Hadhrath Ali )? (Allah
forbid!) As soon as he said
this, Allah made two stars (from the sky) strike his eyes,
causing him to lose his sight. Tahzeebut-Tahzeeb
narrates that Hadhrath Mansoor
Allaamah Baaziri
saw a person in Syria whose face resembled that of a pig.
He enquired about this and was told

that this person used to curse Hadhrath Ali
and his
family 1,000 times every day and 4,000 times on Fridays.
forbid!) One night, he had a lengthy dream in
which he saw Imaam Hasan complaining about him to
the Noble Messenger . In reply, the Prophet cursed the
man and spat on his facecausing him to look like a pig
and be a lesson for the people. Sawaaiqul-Muhriqah
During the Battle of Karbala, the Yazeedi army closed off
the water-supply to the Prophets family, leading them
to become restless due to their severe thirst. At that time, a

Yazeedi wretch gestured to Imaam Husain

and very
rudely said,

Look at him! This person thinks that he is lofty like a piece
of the sky, but he will not have a single drop of water until
he dies from thirst! Imaam Husain made the following
dua against this individual, O Allah ! Make him die with
thirst. Following this, the mans thirst was never
quenched even if he drank litres of water! He eventually
died in this state. Sawaaiqul-Muhriqah and Ibn Atheer
The criminal who fired an arrow into the throat of
Hadhrath Ali Asgar was plunged into a strange illness
which caused his stomach and face to become hot like they
were on fire and his back to become cold as ice. Cold water
and ice was passed over his stomach and face and fire was
lit below his back--all to no avail.

He would cry out, Thirst! Thirst! while water, milk and
sattu (a type of liquid nourishment) were all brought for
him. The man would drink these things even if several jugs
were given, yet he would still cry out, Thirst! Thirst! He
eventually died when his stomach burst from drinking all
these things. Sawaaiqul-Muhriqah
Hadhrath Abu Muhammad Sulaiman Amash Kufi Taba
narrates, I went to the Holy Kaba for Hajj, and while

making tawaaf, I saw a person grasping the ghilf crying

out, O Allah ! Forgive me, but I think you will not. I
was extremely surprised by this and thought, What sin so
grave did he commit that he does not even think he will be
forgiven? Still, I remained silent and continued making
tawaaf. During the next rotation, I heard the man repeat
the same (increasing my amazement). After completing the
tawaaf, I proceeded to him and said, You are in a place
where the most major of transgressions are forgiven, so if
you ask Allah for forgiveness and mercy, have hope in
Him, as He is the Most Compassionate and Most Merciful.
The man asked who I was and I introduced myself to him.
He then said to me, O Sulaiman, ask from Allah
have hope in Him. I too thought like you once, but not
now. After saying this, he held my hand, took me aside
and explained that his sin was major. I asked, Is it bigger
than the mountains, the Heavens, the Earth and the
Yes, it is a major sin. Let me tell you something
wondrous that I have witnessed. O Sulaiman, I am one of
those 70 people who brought the head of Husain ibn Ali to
Yazeed. He ordered for it to be hung outside the entrance
to the city, and when this was carried out, he commanded
that it be brought down, placed on a golden tray and kept
in his sleeping quarters. In the middle of the night,
Yazeeds wife woke up and saw a bright ray of Noor shine
from the blessed head until the sky. This made her very
scared, so she woke Yazeed up and said, Get up and see


the wondrous thing I see! After seeing it, Yazeed replied,

Keep quiet. I see it too.
In the morning, Yazeed ordered that the head be removed
from his sleeping quarters. So, it was moved to a special
tent with 70 people appointed to guard over it. I was one of
them. We slept late at night, but I later awoke and saw a
cloud hovering in the sky and heard the sound of a
mountain roaring and the flapping of wings coming out of
it. The cloud came close to the earth until it reached the
head. A man emerged from it wearing two magnificent
items of clothing from Jannah. With a mat and some chairs
in his hands, he spread the mat, placed the chairs on it and
proclaimed, O Adam , Father of Humanity, come! An
awe-inspiring, beautiful elder then came, stood at the
blessed head and said,

Peace be upon you, O friend of Allah . Peace be upon
you, O manifestation of the pious. You lived a blessed life
and were killed while in a foreign land until Allah made
you close to us. May He descend mercy upon you and may
there be no forgiveness for your killer. There is a place of
torment in Jahannam for him.
After this, he [Sayyiduna Adam ] moved to sit on one
of the chairs. A short while later, another cloud appeared
and joined the earth like the one before. I heard an unseen
voice proclaim, Nuh
, prophet of Allah , come! A
person possessing great magnificence and whose face

looked yellowish then came (dressed too in Heavenly

clothing). He said the same words uttered by Sayyiduna
and also sat on a chair. Sayyiduna Ibrahim ,
Sayyiduna Musa
and Sayyiduna Isa
all came in the
same manner. Then, a big cloud appeared, and the Holy
Messenger , Sayyidah Faathimah , Imaam Hasan and
angels all emerged from it. Rasoolullah first proceeded
to the blessed head, held it to his chest and cried. After this,
he gave it to Sayyidah Faathimah
(who did the same).
Sayyiduna Adam
then came to the Holy Messenger
and offered his condolences (), saying,

Peace be upon you, the pure son of impeccable manners
and habits! May Allah
grant you great reward and
patience for your son Husain .
After Sayyiduna Nuh
, Sayyiduna Ibrahim
offered similar condolences, the Holy
Sayyiduna Isa
Prophet said to them, Be witness, and indeed Allah
Himself is a sufficient Witness! Those of my Ummah who
killed my children after me have repaid me terribly. An
angel then came close to the Messenger and submitted,
O Abul-Qasim , this occurrence has devastated our
hearts. I am the one responsible for the sky of this world,
and Allah has commanded me to be obedient to you. If
you order me to do so, I can topple the sky on these
wretches and ruin them. Another angel approached the
Prophet and submitted, O Abul-Qasim , I am the one
responsible for the rivers and seas, and Allah
commanded me to be obedient to you. If you order me to

do so, I can make a storm destroy these people.

Rasoolullah replied, O angels, do not do such things.

Imaam Hasan
then said, Beloved grandfather, these
people sleeping are the ones who brought my brothers
head, and they have been appointed over it. The Prophet
ordered, Angels of my Lord! Kill them in compensation
for their killing of my son. (The narrator continues) by
Allah , only a few moments passed as I saw all my
companions killed. An angel then approached me to kill
me too but I cried out, Abul-Qasim ! Save me and have
mercy upon me! May Allah
have mercy on you!
Hearing this, Rasoolullah told the angels to let me be. He
then came close to me and asked, Are you one of those
seventy people who brought my sons head?!
He then hit my shoulder and caused me to fall to the
ground. After this, he cursed me, saying, May Allah not
be merciful to you and not forgive you! May He burn your
bones in the fire of Jahannam! This is why I have no hope
in Allahs
mercy. Hadhrath Amash heard this and
said, Wretch! Stay away from me. I do not wish for

punishment to descend upon me because of you. NoorulAbsaar

Allaamah Imaam Hafiz Ibn Hajar Asqalaani
from Hadhrath Salih Shahaam , I saw a dream while I
was in Halb wherein a black dog was sticking its tongue
out due to severe thirst. I intended to give it water when an
unseen voice proclaimed, Beware! Do not give this dog
water as he is the killer of Husain ibn Ali ! His
punishment is that he remains thirsty like this until
Qiyaamah. Tasdeedul-Qaus fi Talkheesi Musnadil-Firdaus
It is also reported,

One year, Kufa experienced a plague, and the children of
those who went to kill Imaam Husain became blind in it.
They numbered 1,500. Noorul-Absaar
Hadhrath Safyan ibn Uyainah states, I saw one of their
sons. He turned into an insane person. TahzeebutTahzeeb, Sirrush-Shahaadatain and Sawaaiqul-Muhriqah
In the previous pages, you read how the Kufis wrote
letters to Imaam Husain , calling him to their city with
promises of financial support and manpower, yet they
ultimately turned treacherousand it was this treachery
that led to the martyrdom of Imaam Muslim ibn Aql ,
Imaam Husain
and his family and companions. The
majority of Kufis were ashamed of this treachery and

wished that this stigma be removed from them at any cost,

so the remorseful among them pledged allegiance to
Hadhrath Sulaiman ibn Sard , saying that they will
avenge the killing of the Imaam.
Still, even though many people rallied around Hadhrath
Sulaiman ibn Sard initially, they decided to abandon him
afterwards! His sincere supporters, however, were few in
number but steadfast in their promise. They agreed to first
go to Syria, fight Ibn Ziyad, and deal with the others after
Thus, the group advanced to battle Ibn Ziyad. Along the
way, they presented themselves at the resting place ( )of
Imaam Husain where they demonstrated much grief and
requested penance for their actions. When they neared
Syria and Ibn Ziyad received news of their intentions, he
sent Haseen ibn Numair with a 12,000-strong army to fight
them. A battle ensued, and although Hadhrath Sulaimans
supporters were few in number, they killed thousands of
Syrians. Unfortuantely, Ibn Ziyad continued sending
reinforcements until Hadhrath Sulaiman
was killed by
Haseen ibn Numair. By then only a few supporters
remained. Certain of their defeat, the group chose to flee at
After that, Mukhtar ibn Ubaidah Thaqafi, desiring power
and glory, began a movement to avenge the killing of
Imaam Husain . He presented himself as the deputy of
Hadhrath Muhammad ibn Hanfiyah and announced, I

have been commanded to avenge the blood of Husain. So,

O people, support me. People did not trust Mukhtar and
contacted Hadhrath Muhammad ibn Hanfiyah to certify
his announcement. Although Hadhrath Muhammad did
not have any regard for Mukhtar, he nevertheless said, It
is obligatory on us to avenge the blood of Husain . This
satisfied the masses, who then rallied beneath Mukhtars
flag to form a formidable force. At the time, Abdullah ibn
Mutee was the governor of Kufa appointed by Hadhrath
Abdullah ibn Zubair . He tried hard to stop the uprising
and even fought them many times (but each time his army
was defeated). Eventually, Ibn Mutee barricaded the gate
of his fort, admitted defeat and sought safety (which was
given to him). He then left for Basraallowing Mukhtar to
gain complete control over various parts of Iraq such as
Kufa, Khurasaan and other nearby areas. Mukhtar
proclaimed his rule and governance and treated people
very courteously, all the while claiming, I am the deputy
of the Mahdi.
He also commanded (in summary), Inform me of every
person who was in the army of Ibn Saad, that went to fight
against Imaam Husain or was happy with his killing.
People forwarded names and he killed and hanged the
culprits (who were thousands in number).


Amr ibn Saad

One day, Mukhtar said to his followers, Tomorrow I will
kill someone whose killing will be rejoiced by all believers
and angels. Hatheem bin Aswad Nahfi was seated with
Mukhtar when he said this and understood this to be the
killing of Amr ibn Saad.
Indeed, Mukhtar Thaqafi later summoned Amr ibn Saad
to his court but Ibn Saad sent his son Hafs instead. When
Hafs arrived, he was asked by Mukhtar where his father
was and answered that he was at home.
Why is he home now, leaving the governing of Rai? Why
did he not stay at home the day Husain was killed?
Mukhtar then sent his special guard, Abu Umrah, to go
and kill Ibn Saad. Abu Umrah completed the order,
beheaded Ibn Saad and brought the head to Mukhtar after
hiding it in his jubba. Mukhtar then turned to the son of
Amr ibn Saad and said, Do you recognize this head?
Inna Lillahi wa inna ilaihi Rajioon. This is the head of my
father, and there is truly no joy in life now after him.
You have spoken the truth.
Mukhtar then ordered that the son too be killed (and he
was). After this, he proclaimed, This head (Ibn Saads) is
revenge for Husain , and this (Hafs head) is revenge for
Ali ibn Husain , even though they can not be equal. Oath
on Allah ! Even if I killed one-third of the Quraish, they
would not equal a finger of Husain .


He then sent the two heads to Hadhrath Muhammad ibn

Hanfiyah and wrote, I have killed all I could manage to
kill, and those who remain will no be able to escape Allahs
retribution. I will not cease hunting them down until I
remove their impure existence from the Earth. Tabri, Ibn
Atheer and Al-Bidaayah wan-Nihaayah
Imaam Ibn Sreen narrates,

One day, Hadhrath Ali
said to Amr ibn Saad, What
will be your condition when you will be in a place and
given the choice between Jannah and Jahannam?
Unfortunately you will choose the latter. Ibn Atheer
On the authority of Waqdi, Allaamah Ibn Katheer

One day, the servant of Hadhrath Saad ibn Waqqas

came to him with his ankles bleeding. The Companion
asked him who did it and he answered, Your son, Amr.
Hadhrath Saad then made dua, saying, O Allah , kill
him and cause his blood to flow. Indeed duas of Hadhrath
Saad ibn Abi Waqqas accepted accepted. Al-Bidaayah


Khauli ibn Yazeed

This is the wretch who martyred Imaam Husain
separated his blessed head from his body. Mukhtar sent
Muaaz ibn Haani, his special guard Abu Umrah and some
soldiers to arrest him. They arrived at his house and
surrounded it. When Khauli realized that they had come
for him, he hid in a corner of his house and told his wife to
feign ignorance of his whereabouts. Outside, Muaaz told
Abu Umrah to call out for Khauli. When he did, Khaulis
wife came out and was asked by Muaaz about her
husband. She replied, I do not know where he is, but
gestured to his hiding place while speaking to them.
Mukhtars men then proceeded inside and arrested him.
When Khauli was brought before Mukhtar, he commanded
that he be killed and burnt, and the order was carried out
Khaulis wife, Uyf bint Malik ibn Nihr, hailed from
Hadrmaut (Yemen). She became her husbands enemy
from the day he brought Imaam Husains head home.
Tabri, Ibn Atheer and Al-Bidaayah

Shimr Zil-Joshn
Muslim ibn Abdullah Dabbi narrates, I accompanied
Shimr Zil-Joshn on fast horses out of Kufa. Mukhtars slave
Zarbi followed us. Although we rode fast, he caught up to
us and attacked Shimr (who was able to defend himself
from the attacks). Shimr eventually struck him hard with

his sword, separating his waist into two pieces. When

Mukhtar came to know of this, he said, If Zarbi consulted
me, I would not have commanded him to attack Shimr in
this manner.
Shimr rode fast and came to a village called Kaltniyah
near a river between Kufa and Basra. There, he summoned
a worker to him and forced him to deliver a letter to
Musab ibn Zubair by hitting him. The title of the letter
was, From Shimr Zil-Joshn to Amr Musab ibn Zubair.
The worker took the letter and set out to deliver it. Along
the way was a big, populated village. There, he stopped to
meet a friend of his and began to complain to him about
Shimrs severity. Incidentally, the captain of Mukhtars
guards, Abu Umrah, was in that very village with some
soldiers to set up a station for war. At the precise moment
the worker and his friend were speaking about Shimr, a
soldier of Mukhtar named Abdur-Rahman ibn Ubaid
passed by. He saw Shimrs letter in the workers hand, read
the title and asked him where Shimr was. The worker
informed him, after which the soldier immediately gave the
news to Abu Umrah. At once, Abu Umrah set out to
Shimrs location.
Back in the village, Muslim ibn Abdullah narrates, I said
to Shimr, We should leave this place because I fear
staying. Shimr scolded me and said, I will not leave this
place for three days. I think you are afraid because of the
liar Mukhtar who caused you to become terrified. So, at
night, I heard the sound of horses hooves and woke up. I

was rubbing my eyes when soldiers came proclaiming the

takbeer and surrounded our location. Though we left our
horses, etc. and ran by foot, the soldiers [thought nothing
of us and] darted towards Shimr. Since he did not have
time to put on clothes or armour, he defended himself
wearing only an old sheet and with a spear in his hand.
After a short while, I heard the takbeer again and the
has killed the loathed
soldiers started rejoicing, Allah
wretch! Shimr was dead and his body was fed to the
dogs. Tabri, Ibn Atheer and Al-Bidaayah
Malik ibn Ayun Johani narrates, Abdullah ibn Dabbas,
who killed Muhammad ibn Ammar ibn Yasir, informed
Mukhtar of some of Husains killers. Amongst the names
mentioned were Abdullah ibn Aseed Johani, Malik ibn
Naseer Buddi and Haml ibn Malik Muhaaribi. They used
to live in Qdisiyah. Mukhtar sent one of his generals, Abu
Namr Malik ibn Amr Nahdi, to arrest them. The general
did so and brought them before Mukhtar, who saw them
and said,

O enemies of Allahs book, Allahs Messenger and the
Messengers family! Wheres Husain ibn Ali?! Give him his
right before me! O tyrants! You killed the one whom you
are commanded to send Durood upon in Salaah?! They
submitted, May Allah have mercy on you. We were
forcibly sent there and did not want to go of our own
accord. Please be kind to us and release us. Mukhtar

replied, Were you kind to your Prophets grandson?! Did

you release him?! Did you give him water to drink?!
Mukhtar then asked Malik Buddi, Did you remove
Husains hat? Abdullah ibn Kmil affirmed, Yes, he
removed it. Hearing this, Mukhtar ordered that Maliks
hands and feet be cut and that he be left in this painful
condition until he died. After the order was carried out,
Abdullah Johani was killed by Abdullah ibn Kmil while
Haml Muhaaribi was killed by Saar ibn Abu Saar. Tabri
and Ibn Atheer

Hakeem ibn Tufail At-Taaee

He was the wretch who stole the clothes and armour of
Hadhrath Abbas Alamdaar and fired arrows at Imaam
Husain . He used to say, I shot arrows at Husain that
struck his lower-garment. He was unaffected by any harm
caused by them.
Mukhtar sent Abdullah ibn Kamil to arrest Hakeem, and
he did. In response, Hakeems family went to Adi ibn
Haatim (who was well-respected by Mukhtar) and
requested that he attempt to release him. Adi accepted their
request and proceeded to Mukhtar. While on route to
Mukhtar with Hakeem, soldiers came to know of this and
said to Abdullah ibn Kamil, Mukhtar will accept Adis
intercession and this wretch (i.e. Hakeem) will be saved
even though you are well aware of his crimes. It is better
we do not take him to Mukhtar and kill him instead. Ibn

Kamil permitted this, and so, Hakeem was taken into a

house and stripped naked by the soldiers. Before they did
so, they said, You removed the clothing of the son of Ali
, so we should do the same to you.
Afterwards, they said, You fired arrows at Husain , so
we should also make you the target of arrows. They then
killed Hakeem by their promised method.
Meanwhile, Adi arrived in Mukhtars court and was
welcomed by him. When enquired as to the reason for his
visit, Adi explained, leading Mukhtar to snap, Abu
Zareef! Have you come to intercede for the killers of
He is been falsely accused.Said Adi
If this is true, we will release him.
As this conversation was taking place, Ibn Kaamil arrived
and informed them of Hakeems execution. An annoyed
Mukhtar turned and asked, Why did you kill him so
quickly without bringing him before me?! Look. Here is
Adi who came to intercede for him, and truly Adi is
worthy enough for his intercession to be accepted.
Ibn Kaamil explained, Your shia (helper) did not take
heed and I became helpless.
Adi then began to verbally abuse Ibn Kaamil, who
returned the curses but was nevertheless ordered by
Mukhtar to adopt silence. An enraged Adi then left. Tabri,
Ibn Atheer and Al-Bidaayah wan-Nihaayah


Abu Saeed Saifal narrates, Saar Al-Hanfi reported the

whereabouts of some killers of Husain to Mukhtar, who
then sent Abdullah ibn Kaamil to arrest them. Ziyad ibn
Malik, Imran ibn Khalid, Abdur-Rahman ibn Abi
Khashkaarah Bajali and Abdullah ibn Owais Khaalaani
were from those whom he had arrested and brought before
Mukhtar, then saying to them, [[]] O killers of the pious
and leader of Jannahs youth! Truly Allah
will take
compensation from you today!
Mukhtar ordered that they be publicly beheaded (in the
marketplace) and the instruction was fulfilled. Tabri and
Ibn Atheer

Zaid ibn Raqaad

This wretch fired arrows at Hadhrath Abdullah ibn
Muslim ibn Aqeel. One of them even sliced his forehead.
To save himself from this attack, Hadhrath Abdullah
placed his hand on his forehead but it too was pierced by
an arrow, which now pegged his hand to his forehead. At
that time, Hadhrath Abdullah said, O Allah ! Just as
how these enemies have killed us with dishonour, You too
take revenge for our killing by destroying them with
degradation. Zaid then fired an arrow that struck the
stomach of Hadhrath Abdullah and he became a martyr.
This dog narrates, I went to the youngster and very easily
removed the arrow that was lodged in his stomach, but the
arrow in his forehead was difficult to take. I did finally
manage to remove it, but the blade remained.

Mukhtar ordered Abdullah ibn Kaamil to apprehend this

wretch. With a regiment of soldiers, Abdullah left and
surrounded Zaids home. The fearless man that he was,
Zaid unsurprisingly emerged, sword in hand, to fight.
When the soldiers rushed towards him, Ibn Kaamil
ordered, Do not attack him with spears and swords! Fire
arrows and stone him to destruction! The command was
followed, and Zaid was brought to the ground. Ibn Kaamil
ordered his men to see if there was still life in Zaidand if
there was, to bring him to him. Indeed, Zaid was still alive,
so Ibn Kaamil had a fire prepared for him and placed him
in it. Tabri, Ibn Atheer, Al-Bidaayah wan-Nihaayah

Amr ibn Sabh

This wretch used to boast, I injured the companions of
Husain with my arrows. So, Mukhtar dispatched guards
to arrest him in the middle of the night. At the time, Amr
was fast asleep on the roof of his house with his sword
beneath his pillow. The guards sneaked up, apprehended
him and seized his sword. Amr said, May Allah ruin this
sword! It was so close to me but is far from me now.
When he was brought before Mukhtar, he ordered that
Amr be kept in jail until the morning.
The next day, a general audience was convened and Amr
was brought forward. He shouted, O disbelieving
transgressors! If I had my sword in my hand, you would
come to know that I am not a coward! It would be a matter
of pride for me if I was killed by someone other than you

people, because I regard you to be the worst of creation!

How nice it would have been if my sword was in my hand
and I fought against you for even a little while!
He then tried to punch Ibn Kmil (standing next to him)
in the face but Ibn Kmil managed to grab his hand. While
holding him, Ibn Kmil smiled and said to Mukhtar, This
person boasts that he injured the family of the Holy
Prophet with spears. What do you command regarding
him? Mukhtar ordered that Amr be stabbed with spears.
Thus, he was killed in this manner. Tabri and Ibn Atheer
Musa ibn Amir states,

Indeed Mukhtar commanded that the killers of Husain
be found and brought to him. He claimed that food and
drink was not pleasurable for him until he cleansed the
entire Earth of their existence. Tabri
Mukhtars passion for avenging the killing of the
family gained him a great amount of loyal
supporters. After meting out justice to Amr ibn Sabih,
Shimr, Khauli, etc, he turned his attention to Ibn Ziyad
(since the entire incident of Karbala was mainly his fault).
Ibn Ziyads existence itself troubled Mukhtar, so how could
he rest if Ibn Ziyad continued to live? So, he dispatched
Ibrahim ibn Malik with a great and experienced army to
fight him. The wretch came to know of this attack and
advanced with an army for battle himself. Fighting ensued
between the two at a riverside near the city of Mosul. After

fierce combat, it was Ibn Ziyads army who lostand they,

together with their leader Ibn Ziyad, ran away. Ibrahim
pursued them and ordered their killing, leading many
peopleincluding Ibn Ziyad himselfto be killed in this
pursuit. Ibrahim even severed his head and burnt his body.
In which grave is the throne? Wheres the crown?
O dust, tell me where the force of Ubaid (Ibn Ziyad) is!
When Ibn Ziyads head was brought to Kufa, Mukhtar
convened a general gathering and ordered that it be
brought forward. Incidentally, this was the day of Ashura
(10th Muharramthe day Imaam Husain was martyred).
Mukhtar addressed the Kufis, saying, Six years ago at this
very place, the head of Husain was brought before this
wretch. Today, his head is before me. Indeed I have not
faulted in avenging the killing of Husain.
The heads of Ibn Ziyad and his henchmen were then kept
at a certain place for people to see them. Once, the crowd
even saw a thin snake appear, look at the heads and enter
the mouth of Ibn Ziyad. It then exited through one of his
nostrils and re-entered his head through the other nostril,
doing this several times.
Hadhrath Ummarah ibn Umair states,


When the heads of Ubaidullah ibn Ziyad and his cronies
were brought to the courtyard of the musjid, they were
placed according to their notoriety. I came close and the
people around them were shouting, It has come! It has
come! A snake appeared, slithered around the heads and
entered the nostrils of Ibn Ziyads head! It remained there
for a few minutes, then exited and disappeared. Later,
people began to shout again, It has come! It has come!
The snake did this a few times. This Hadith is Hasan
Sahih. Tirmizhi, Baabul-Manaaqib
Hadhrath Mugheera states,

After the martyrdom of Imaam Husain , Marjaanah (the
mother of Ibn Ziyad) said to her son, Wretch! You killed
the grandson of the Holy Prophet ! Oath on Allah ! You
will never be able to see Jannah. Tahzeebut-Tahzeeb and
Ibn Atheer
At the time of Ibn Ziyads killing, Ibn Mafrag expressed
the following in poetry,
When death comes to a tyrant oppressive person, it tears apart
the coverings of his doors (i.e. it destroys him).


On the death of the wicked womans son, I say, Thank

goodness he died.
The earth does not accept these dead bodies when they are
buried. How can it accept such individuals?
Ibn Atheer
Umair ibn Habaab Salmi said in rebuking the army of Ibn

The army who indulged in the consumption of alcohol and
fornication can not be victorious against a powerful opponent.
Ibn Atheer
The truth is that Mukhtar Thaqafi truly did avenge the
killings of Karbalas martyrs. He hunted and killed
thousands of the Ahle-Bayts enemies and haters. In fact,
according to one narration, Shimr was his brother-in-law,
yet Mukhtar did not even spare him. Mukhtar also
commanded that Shimrs son, who was his nephew, be
killed. When this person presented the excuse that he was
not present in the Battle of Karbala, Mukhtar replied, Yes,
but you proudly announced to people that your father
killed Husain

Mukhtars Claim of Prophethood

Mukhtar rendered a tremendous effort in avenging the
killing of Imaam Husain , but unfortunately, he was

unable to retain this great reward. In later claiming that he

was a prophet, Mukhtar said, Jibraeel comes to me with
revelation and Allah enters ( )me. [Allah
The Holy Messenger informed us about this unfortunate
being long before his birth, Indeed a liar
and one who is to be destroyed will soon be born in the
Thaqeef tribe. Muslim; Tirmizhi, Baabu-M J-a fi Thaqeef
Kazzb wa Mubeer
The annotators of the Hadith are in agreement that liar
refers to Mukhtar and one who is to be destroyed refers to
Hajj ibn Yusuf. Hadhrath Abu Bakr ibn Shaiba
narrates that a person once said to Hadhrath Abdullah ibn
Umar , Mukhtar claims to receive revelation. He
replied, He speaks the truth, and thereafter recited the
following verse,

And indeed the devils inspire their friends.
Surah Anm (6), Verse 121
Once, Mukhtar wrote to Akhnaf ibn Qais, You are
leading your people towards the Hell-fire from where
returning is not possible.

It has come to my knowledge that you people belie me. If
you do, indeed the prophets before me were also belied,


and I am not better than them. Tabri and Al-Bidaayah

Isa ibn Dinr narrates, I asked Abu Jafar (Imaam
Muhammad Bqir)
about Mukhtar and he said, I
witnessed my father (Imaam Zainul-Abideen ) cursing
him while standing at the Kaba. A person asked, May
Allah sacrifice me on you! Do you curse the person who
killed for your sake?! My father replied,

undoubtedly he was a liar. He used to ascribe lies to Allah
and His Messenger . Ibn Saad
Imaam Jalaaluddin Suyuti states,

During the period of Abdullah ibn Zubairs Caliphate,
Mukhtar, who claimed prophethood, went up ( )against
him. Abdullah ibn Zubair prepared and sent an army in
67 A.H to fight him. The liar [Mukhtar] was defeated and
killed in it. Treekhul-Khulafaa
Some people are surprised upon hearing this and ask,
chose to avenge the
How can someone whom Allah
killing of the Prophets family be a liar and cursed?! How
can a cursed liar be fortunate enough to do such good?!
The reply to this is very simple. Such an occurrence is not
impossible according to Islamic Law and reasoning. Ibls

was a great scholar and worshipper yet he too was cursed.

Also, refer to the narration of Balam ibn Bahr, a
worshipper (whose supplications were accepted). He will
enter Jahannam in the form of a dog. There are several
other individuals who achieved great things even though
their fortune did not allow them to bask in its glory. In the
end, they were abhorred and ruined.
This insignificant writer (Allaamah Shafi Okarvi) submits
the following regarding the revenge of Imaam Husains
killing: Allah sent revelation to His Beloved , saying, I
killed 70,000 culprits involved in the killing of Sayyiduna
Yahya ibn Zakariah
and I will kill double that amount
for the killing of your grandson Husain . History is
witness that, to avenge the wrongful killing of Sayyiduna
Yahya , Allah
allowed the tyrant Bakht Nasar (who
claimed divinity) to carry out His wish. Likewise, to
avenge the killing of Imaam Husain , Allah
the liar Mukhtar Thaqafi to carry it out. Allah states,

And so We set the cruel one against the other in leiu of what
they did.
Surah Anm (6), Verse 129
In other words, tyrants are appointed over tyrants to
destroy them. An Arab poet once said,


There is no hand (i.e. power) which does not have Allahs

hand above it.
And there is no tyrant who does not have another oppressor over
him to cast him in hardship.

said in a Hadith,

Indeed Allah helps this deen even through one who is a

transgressor. Siraajum-Muneer Sharah Jaamis-Sagheer

The Merit of Ashura

Ashura is derived from the word Ashr ( )i.e. ten, and it
refers to the tenth day of Muharram. Some scholars are of
the opinion that the 10th of Muharram is called Ashura
because Allah blessed ten prophets
on this day with
the following blessings,
1. Sayyiduna Adams
2. Sayyiduna Nuhs

penance was accepted.

ark settled on Mount Judi.

3. Sayyiduna Musa
was delivered from the
cruelty of Pharaoh (who was also drowned on this
4. Sayyiduna Isa

was born and raised to the


5. Sayyiduna Yunus
was taken out of the fishs
stomach and his nations offence was forgiven.
6. Sayyiduna Yusuf

was taken out of the well.

7. Sayyiduna Ayub

was cured from his illness.

8. Sayyiduna Idris

was raised to the Heavens.

9. Sayyiduna Ibrahim
was born (and the fire of
Nimrod was cooled for him) on this day.
10. Sayyiduna


was blessed


Several other occurrences have been noted by the

Commentators of Hadith and Historians in their works. For
this reason, the day of Ashura was also revered before the
at Karbala. A Hadith
martyrdom of Imaam Husain
mentions that even the Day of Judgment will occur on the
10th of Muharram

Virtuous Deeds on the Day of Ashura

Fasting on the 10th of Muharram has several excellences
and merits,
Hadhrath Abdullah ibn Abbas states,


The Holy Prophet commanded that fasting be kept on

the 10th of Muharram. Tirmizhi

also said,

The most excellent of fasts after the month of Ramadaan is

the fast kept in Muharram, the month of Allah .
Hadhrath Abdullah ibn Abbas said,

I did not see the Holy Prophet grant distinction to a fast
over other fasts except the fast of Ashura. Bukhari,
Sins of an entire year are forgiven by observing the fast of
Ashura. The Holy Messenger said,

by keeping the fast of Ashura, it is hoped from Allahs
mercy that He forgives the sins of the previous year.
Scholars have also said that even beastly animals observe
fast on the 10th of Muharram.
The Jews would also fast on Ashura since they were saved
from the oppression of Pharaoh on this day. Rasoolullah
commanded that we must oppose the Jews, so, the Islamic
Scholars have stated that fasting should not be observed on

the 10th of Muharram alone (but should be kept on the 9th as

well). [If one was unable to fast on the 9th, he may fast on
the 11th instead. Translator]
So, two fasts should be kept so that there is no similitude
with Jews. The Ahadith also mention the excellence of
fasting on the 9th. Therefore, fasting on both the 9th and 10th
of Muharram is in compliance with both narrations.
Hadhrath Anas narrates that the Holy Prophet said,
The previous sins of the one who fasts on the first Friday
of Muharram are forgiven. For whoever fasts on 3 days of
Muharram (e.g.Thursday, Friday and Saturday), Allah
will record for him the reward of 900 years of worship.
Ummul-Mumineen Sayyidah Aishah
narrates that
Rasoolullah said,

He who fasts during the first 10 days of Muharram is
entitled to the higher plains of Firdaus (the highest level of
Jannah). Nuzhatul-Majaalis
Sultanul-Auliya Khwaja Nizamuddin Auliya MahbbeIlaahi
narrates that Shaikhul-Islam Qutbul-Aqtb
Hadhrath Baba Fareeduddin Masud Ganje-Shakr
about the excellence of fasting on Ashura, Deers in the
jungle do not give their children milk to drink on the day of
Ashura in friendship with the family of the Holy Prophet


. So, why should we abandon this fast? RaahatulQuloob

The Holy Prophet said,

Fifty years of sin are forgiven for the one who performs
four rakaats of Salaah on the day of Ashura and recites
Surah Ikhlas eleven times after Surah Fatiha in each rakaat.
A pulpit ( )of Noor is also erected for him. NuzhatulMajaalis
He also said,

For the one who provides in abundance (i.e. food, etc.) on
the day of Ashura, Allah provides in abundance for him
throughout the entire year. Baihaqi and Nuzhatul-Majaalis
There was a man in Egypt who had nothing except a piece
of clothing. On the day of Ashura, he went to the musjid of
Hadhrath Amr ibn s and performed Fajr Salaah. The
custom of that area on Ashura was for women to come to
the musjid and make dua. So, a woman approached the
man and asked him to give her something for her children.
The man requested her to follow him and then led her to
his home, where he removed his only piece of clothing and
gave it to her from behind the door of his house. In
appreciation, the woman supplicated to Allah
to dress
him in the clothes of Jannah.

During the night, the man had a dream in which he saw an
exquisitely beautiful maiden of Jannah holding a fragrant
apple. When the apple was broken in two, a garb was
found inside it. The man asked her who she was and she
explained, I am Ashura, your companion in Jannah.
He then awoke and found his entire home fragrant, after
which he proceeded to perform wudhu, read two rakaats
Salaah and made the following dua, If she is truly my
companion in Jannah, let my soul be taken away and may I
be united with her. Allah
accepted this dua and the
man then experienced death. Ibid
Imaam Abdullah Yaafa Makki narrates that there was
an eminent and rich Islamic judge who lived in the city of
Ree (current day Tehran). On the day of Ashura, a beggar
preserve your
came to him and said, May Allah
respect! I am a poor and humble beggar who has a family
to feed. I ask you, in the sanctity of this auspicious and
blessed day, to give me 10 munns (a measurement) of flour,
five munns of meat and two dirhams in charity. The judge
promised that he would give the amount at the time of
Zohr. However, when the beggar approached him at the
appointed time, the judge changed his mind and said that
he will give it to him at the time of Asr. When the time of
Asr came, the judge evaded him and did not give anything
at all. The beggar then carried on his way despondently.

As he was walking, he met a Christian seated at the

doorstep of his home and said, Give me something in the
sanctity of this blessed day. The Christian asked about the
significance of Ashura and was told about it by him (the
beggar also mentioned that it was on this day that the
beloved grandson of Rasoolullah , Imaam Husain , was
martyred). The sympathetic Christian then said, You
presented the means of a great and significant day in
asking for your need, so ask what you wish for. The
beggar then requested the same amount that he had asked
from the judge but was given ten sacks of flour, two and a
half munn of meat and twenty dirhams instead. The
Christian then said, This is for you and your family. Come
to me every year on this day and take this from me for as
long as I am alive. The beggar then happily took what was
given to him and returned home.
During the night, the judge had a dream in which he
heard an unseen voice tell him to lift his head. When he
did, he saw two mansions, one made of gold and silver and
the other made of rubies and emeralds, and asked, O
Allah ! Who do these mansions belong to?

It was said, Both could have been yours if you helped the
beggar, but since you did not, they now belong to a


Christian who did. The startled judge then awoke and

began contemplating his fate.
In the morning, he proceeded to the Christian and asked
him what good deed he had done. The Christian enquired
as to why he was asking this and the judge related his
dream to him, then saying, Sell me the good deed you
showed the beggar for the 1,500 dirhams I have in my
hand. Nevertheless, the Christian replied, Even if I am
offered all the dirhams on Earth I still would not sell this
good deed! This was a great exchange with the Creator.
He then recited the Kalima and said, Indeed this deen is
true. Raudul-Rayheen
A person heard Scholars say that Allah
will grant a
thousand dirhams to whoever gives one dirham in charity
on the day of Ashura. For this reason, he decided to give
seven. A year later, he heard a Scholar say the same thing
but interjected, Shaikh, this is not correct. I gave seven
dirhams in charity but did not receive even a coin in return
though one year has passed. Saying this, the man then
returned home.
At night, he heard someone knocking on his door. When
he came out, he saw a person saying to him, O untrue
being! Take these seven dirhams! Had you shown patience
until Qiyaamah, who knows the amount of reward you
would have acquired?! Raudul-Afkr
These narrations establish that to fast on the day of
Ashura, give charity, perform optional Salaah and

remember Allah

are a means of great excellence and

It was the planning of Allah that the beloved grandson

of Rasoolullah , the Leader of the Youth of Jannah,
Hadhrath Imaam Husain , also attain the grand station of
martyrdom on this most auspicious and blessed day.
Remember that the hardships and difficulties experienced
by Imaam Husain
on this day was the reason for his
excellence and rank. So, we should learn from his
martyrdom. Sayyiduna Imaam Husain
presented his
sacrifice solely for the pleasure of Allah
and the
upliftment of the deen of Islam. He raised the voice of truth
against transgression, and even though he suffered severe
persecution, he still remained steadfast on what was right.
We too must learn to sacrifice for Islam, for the pleasure of
Allah and for the upliftment of the deen. On the day of
Ashura especially, we should engage ourselves in good
deeds and stay away from bad ones, i.e. those that are
contrary to the teachings of Allah and His Messenger .
While listening to the narrations regarding the martyrdom
of the Prophets
family, if one fears and cries after
learning of the oppression they experienced, this is good
and a sign of good fortune, but beating the chest, etc.
should not be done as this is Haraam.


Crying in Memory of the Martyrdom

You have already read the Ahadith stating that Sayyiduna
came to the Holy Prophet and informed him
about the martyrdom of Imaam Husain . Rasoolullah
cried after hearing this. In the dream of UmmulMumineen Sayyidah Umme-Salamah , she too saw the
Prophet crying on the occurrence of the martyrdom. He
said to her, I have just been at the place where my son
was martyred. We understand from this how
distressed the heart of the Holy Prophet
was over the
Note that the Holy Prophets
tears (approximately 57
years before the martyrdom) merely from the thought of
Imaam Husains
demise is proof that to shed tears
without any pretence and out of love and grief is actually
Sunnah and a means of great reward.
On his return from the Battle of Siffn, Hadhrath Ali
passed Karbala and said while crying, How many young
family members of Muhammad will be martyred here?!
Indeed the Heavens and the Earth will cry over them.
Indeed, I have already written that at the time of the
martyrdom, the Heavens and the Earth shed tears of blood,
and jinns cried and recited eulogies. Besides this, the Earth
becoming dark for three days and the sky becoming red
establishes that this was an event of immense griefnot
only for humans, but for almost all of creation. A book

called Ghuniytut-Tlibeen, ascribed to Qutbul-Aqtab

Shaikh Abdul-Qadir Jilani , states,

Hadhrath Hamza ibn Zayyat narrates, I saw the Holy
Prophet and Sayyiduna Ibrahim
in a dream. Both of
them were performing (Janaazah) Salaah at the grave of
Husain ibn Ali .
It also states,

70,000 angels descended to the grave of Husain ibn Ali
the day he was martyred, and they will cry over him until
Qiyaamah. Ghuniytut-Tlibeen
Sultnul-Auliya Khwaja Nizmuddin Auliya MehboobeIlhi
states, During the Muharram of 656 A.H, I
presented myself in the court of Sultnul-Mashaaikh
Shaikh Fardul-Haqq wad-Deen Masd Ganje-Shakar .
Explaining the excellence of the first ten days of Muharram,
he said, In these ten days, do not busy yourself in
anything besides obedience to Allah , recitation, dua,
Salaah, etc. because Allahs
punishment and several
mercies descended during this period. After a while, he
said, Do you not know what our Beloved Prophet had
to endure in these ten days? How his sons were mercilessly
martyred in this period? Some were martyred while in the
state of thirst. Those wretches did not give even a single
drop of water to the beloveds of Allah ! After relating
this, Huzr Baba Fard proclaimed the glory of Allah

and fell unconscious. When he woke up, he said, How illhearted, unfortunate and deprived of mercy and blessings
were they, whereas they knew well that they [the martyrs
of Karbala] were the sons of the king of the world, the
Hereafter, and this deen?! Still, they mercilessly
slaughtered them and did not stop to think about how they
on the Day of
were going to face the Holy Messenger
Qiyaamah! Raahatul-Quloob
Hadhrath Khwaja Amir Khusru Nizmi narrates, On
the 5th of Muharram 691 A.H, I had the honour of kissing
the blessed feet of Sultnul-Auliya Khwaja Nizaamuddin
Auliya . While he was talking, he began to cry and said,
Everyone knows how the tyrants mercilessly martyred the
beloveds of Sayyidah Faathimah on the plains of Karbala
and denied them food and water. The entire world was
plunged into grief the day Imaam Husain was martyred.
It began to thunder, lightning became excessive,
earthquakes occurred and angels continuously requested
permission from Allah
to destroy those guilty of these
wicked atrocities. Allah said to them, You do not have
any need to ask Us because fate has been made so. It is a
matter between My Beloved and I, and you do not have
to get involved. On the Day of Qiyaamah, I will judge over
these tyrants based on what My beloveds wish. Whatever
they say will happen. Afdalul-Fawid


Customary Gatherings and Practices of Muharram and

Hadhrath Saad ibn Ubaadah
once came to the Holy
Prophet and said, My mother has passed on.

Which charity is the best (to convey to her)? Rasoolullah
answered, Water. So, Hadhrath Saad
dug a well
and said, This is for the mother of Saad . Abu Dawud,
The Sahaabi said, This is for the mother of Saad . In
other words, the well was dug to convey reward to her
soul. This explicitly establishes that if charity is given out to
convey reward to a soul (and if the name of the person
whom the reward is intended for is taken on the charity or
good deed, or if the persons name is used on the charity
figuratively, e.g. This food is for the martyrs of Karbala;
this distribution of water is for Imaam Husain ; this
feeding is for Shaikh Abdul-Qadir Jilani
or Khwaja
Gharib Nawaaz , etc,) the water-distribution and food
do not become Haraam. Otherwise, we would have to
regard the well dug for Hadhrath Saads mother to be
Haraam as well. Note too that the water of the well was
regarded as Halaal by the Holy Prophet , Sahaabah,
Tabieen, Taba-Tabieen and the people of Madinah. So,
water and food items distributed on the name of Imaam
Husain , the martyrs of Karbala (customarily called
sabeel) or other accomplished servants of Allah
is also
Halaal and permissible according to Muslims.

The authentic work of Hanafi Fiqh, Hidaayah, states,

Indeed, one can convey the reward of ones action to
another, whether it be Salaah, fasting, charity, etc. This is
the ruling of the Ahle-Sunnah wal-Jamaat.
Sirjul-Hind Shah Abdul-Aziz Muhaddith Dehlwi
states, The entire Ummah regards Hadhrath Ali and his
blessed descendents to be illustrious, respected masters
and that the workings of natural affairs (takwn) are related
to them. We always make Fatiha, recite Durood, give
charity, distribute food, etc. on their blessed names. All of
the friends of Allah do this too. Tohfa Ithn Ashariya
He further states, The food which is prepared as niz
(food shared in the name of the pious) for Imaam Hasan
and Imaam Husain , and upon which Fatiha, Qul Sharif
and Durood Sharif is recited, becomes blessed (), and to
partake in it is good indeed. Fataawa Azeezi
Shah Waliyullah Muhaddith Dehlwi states, There is no
harm in preparing and partaking in kheer (a sweet dish)
which is made for the Fatiha of a pious person and in
conveying reward to his soul. It is permissible, and if
Fatiha is made for a pious person, it is permissible for the
wealthy to also partake in it. Zubdatun-Nasih
Hadhrath Shaikh Ahmed Muhammad Shaibaani
from the children of the noted student of Imaam Abu

Hanifa , Imaam Muhammad Shaibaani . A confluence

of both Islamic Law (shariah) and practice (tariqat), his
entire life was spent in piety, encouraging good and
forbidding sin. Speaking about his life, Shah Abdul-Haqq
states, He (Shaikh Ahmed
Muhaddith Dehlwi
Muhammad Shaibaani ) had immense love and respect
for the family of the Holy Prophet , and he learnt to
possess this affection for them from his spiritual master. It
is said that in the first ten days of Muharram and the first
twelve days of Rabiul-Awwal, he would not use new and
extravagant clothing, he would sleep on the floor during
these nights and would perform itikaaf in the cemetery of
the Prophets descendents. Every day, according to his
means, he would send the reward of feeding to the
sanctified soul of the Holy Prophet
and his blessed
family members. On the day of Ashura, he would carry on
his head a vessel containing sharbat (sweet milk), visit the
homes of the Prophets descendents and give it to their
orphans and destitute to drink from it. He would be sad in
these days, as if the incident of Karbala was occurring right
before him. Akhbrul-Akhyr
Hadhrath Shah Abdul-Aziz Muhaddith Dehlwi states,
The practice of this faqeer (beggar, i.e. Shah Muhaddith
Dehlwi ) is written below, and qiys (analogy) should be
made on it. Two gatherings are arranged by this faqeer in a
year. One gathering marks the blessed demise (of the Holy
Prophet ), and the other the martyrdom of Imaam Husain
. The second gathering occurs on the day of Ashura, or a
day or two before it. Sometimes, 400, 500 and even more

than a thousand people present themselves in it. After they

recite Durood Sharif, this faqeer speaks about the
and Imaam Husain
excellence of Imaam Hasan
mentioned in the Ahadith. I also speak about their
martyrdoms mentioned therein, some aspects of their life
history, and the destructive end of their killers.
At the same time, some of the eulogies made by Jinns that
were heard by Hadhrath Umme-Salamah
and other
Sahaabah, dreams seen by Hadhrath Ibn Abbas
other Companions are also mentioned. These establish the
immense grief of Rasoolullahs
blessed heart over the
martyrdom. The recitation of the Quran is then completed
and the five verses are read over whatever items of food
are present for Fatiha. At this time, if a melodious reader
recites Salaam or a eulogy that conforms to Islamic Law,
most of the attendeesas well as this faqeerexpress their
grief and sadness in the form of tears. This is only what
happens. If all of this was not permissible according to this
faqeer, I would have never completed these actions.
Fataawa Azeezi
Hadhrath Shah Rafiuddin Muhaddith Dehlwi , a
translator of the Holy Quran, states in a fatwa (verdict),
Secondly, to appoint a day and month for Moulood Sharif
for people to gather at one place in Rabiul-Awwal, and
likewise to convene a gathering in remembrance of Imaam
during the month of Muharram or another
month, to listen to Salaam and eulogies which conform to
the Shariah, and to express grief in the form of tears over

the plight of the oppressed martyrs of Karbala is

permissible and correct.
Maulana Abdul-Hayy Lucknowi

states in a fatwa,

Question Is there anything wrong if tears fall from the

eyes in thinking about the oppression at Karbala and the
plight of Imaam Husain ?
Answer There is nothing wrong. Baihaqi and Haakim
blessed eyes became
narrate that the Holy Prophets
moist with tears over this very grief. On the day the battle
of Karbala occurred, Hadhrath Ibn Abbas
and UmmeSalamah
saw the Holy Messenger
in a dream in a
grieved state and with his hair mixed with dust. Ahmed and
Baihaqi too have narrated such an occurrence. This crying is
something involuntary. Majmua Fataawa
states, The
AlaHadhrath Imaam Ahmed Raza
gatherings convened to remember Sayyiduna Imaam
Husain and the Ahle-Bayt, and in which their excellence
and praise is related from correct, authentic narrations, is
itself good (hasan) and praiseworthy (mahmd). However,
they should be completely free of maatam (reprehensible
mourning), renewing of grief and other actions that
contradict Islamic Law. These gatherings are praiseworthy
and good irrespective of whether readers in it use poetry or
prose to praise the beloved household. The poetic couplets
in praise of Imaam Husain and the martyrs of Karbala
are popularly known (urf) as eulogies (marsiyahs). These

are not the eulogies prohibited by the Holy Messenger

Aalil-Ifaadah fi Taziyatil-Hind wa Baynish-Shahaadah

[Translators note The prohibited eulogies refer to

wordings that go against Islamic Law and those that are
recited to cause one to beat the chest Mourning (nauha). A
poem (marsiyah) in praise of Imaam Husain
permissible as long as it is derived from authentic
narrations and its wording does not contradict Islamic
further states in the same treatise, The
remembrance of Imaam Husains
martyrdom is only
goodness as long as it is free from fabricated narrations,
prohibited utterances and not made with an un-Islamic
intention. It is said that at the time of remembering the
pious, mercy descends. Aalil-Ifaadah fi Taziyatil-Hind wa
He also writes, To arrange for people to drink water or
sharbat with the sole intention of attaining Allahs
pleasure and to convey reward to the blessed souls of the
Imaams of the Prophets
family is indeed good,
preferable and an act worthy of reward. Rasoolullah
states in a Hadith reported by Hadhrath Anas
(documented by Khateeb),

when your sins become excessive, provide water for people
to drink. Your sins will be removed the way leaves fall
when a strong wind blows.

Likewise, to feed and distribute food is also preferable

and a means of reward. The Holy Prophet said,

Allah is proud of those servants of His who feed people
food. He proudly says to the angels, Look at what good
work they are doing. Aalil-Ifaadah fi Taziyatil-Hind wa
[Translators note The distribution of food in the name of
the pious should be done in a respectul manner. Respect
for Allahs provisions must be maintained.]

Patience and Panic


states in the Holy Quran,

And give glad-tidings to the patient. Those who, when afflicted
by some misfortune, say, Surely we belong to Allah and to
Him is our return. These are the people on whom are blessings
and mercy from their Lord, and they are the rightly guided.
Surah Baqarah, Verses 155-7
These verses establishes that those who demonstrate
patience in the face of hardship and say, Inna Lillahi wa
Inna Ilaihi Rjin (Surely we belong to Allah
and to
Him is our return.) are given glad-tidings of Divine mercy
and blessings. Allah also states,

Indeed Allah is with those who are patient.
Surah Baqarah, Verse 153
This proves that those who are patient have a special
closeness to Allah
. To be patient is undoubtedly
difficult, but its reward is immense too. The Holy Quran

Most certainly, those with patience will be fully rewarded
without measure.
Surah Zumar, Verse 10
The habit of the pious servants of Allah
is to
demonstrate patience, as their true Lord and Master is
pleased with this. He is extremely displeased with those
who are impatient and apprehensive.
Imaam Husain reports that the Holy Prophet said, If
a Muslim experienced a difficulty and later remembers it
and says, Inna Lillahi..., Allah
renews the reward of
the patience as it was from the day of the difficulty, even if
a long time has passed. Ahmed; Ibn Majah; Baihaqi and
Rasoolullah has also been narrated by Hadhrath Anas
ibn Malik to have said the above.


These narrations prove that the one who says, Inna

Lillahi... on remembering the hardships of Imaam Husain
receives the reward of that very days difficulties.
The Quran and Sunnah have time and time again ordered
believers to adopt patience and prohibited them from
impatience and bewailing. This is also the teaching of the
Imaams of the Ahle-Bayt. So, if we are truly the lovers of
family, we should practice upon their
the Prophets

Benefits of Remembering the Martyrdom

In remembering the Companions and Prophet's
household, especially Imaam Hasan and Husain , them
taking to the battlefields to maintain the honour of the
deen, striving to promote the truth, enduring unbearable
hardships to save the dignity of Islam, showing patience on
every difficulty, sacrificing their loved ones, ultimately
sacrificing their own lives (rather than bowing before
falsehood), seeing their beloveds in blood and sand yet not
in every
uttering a word of complaint, praising Allah
situation, seeing their family in a helpless state yet not
losing courage, being pleased with the pleasure of Allah ,
and them being steadfast on the path of truth are all things
that not only increase one's love for them in the heart's of
listeners and readers, but also motivate readers to strive for
and be prepared to sacrifice
the pleasure of Allah
anything they may own for the sole pleasure of their Lord.


On the other hand, we learn lessons from the betrayal of

the people of Kufa, like their cheap talk and baseless claims
of love, them destroying their Hereafter for the luxury of
this world, their punishment for being disrespectful to the
household of the Holy Prophet , them witnessing its
outcome in this world already, the crying and changing of
the colour of the skies on the passing of Allah's special
servants, and thousands of deaths due to one oppressed
In conclusion, I present these couplets in the exalted court
of the Beloved of the Beloved of Allah , the light of
eye, the heartbeat of Ali Murtada , the
ease to the soul of Hasan , the embodiment of patience,
the soul of truth and loyalty, the essence of martyrdom, the
soul of Islam, the base of Imaan, the prince of both worlds,
Sayyiduna Imaam Husain (may peace and salutations of
be upon his grandfather, himself, and all who
Peace be to you, O light of the eye of our master. Peace be to you,
O unique martyr of Islam.
Peace be to you, O firm pillar of the deen of Allah . Peace be to
you, O great conqueror of Karbala.
Even though I am of no worth, O martyr of Karbala, for
the sake of Allah , keep the gaze of your grandfather
on this sinner! Grant me intercession on the Day of
Judgment and save me from humiliation.
Dependent on the generous gaze,
Muhammad Shafi' Okarvi

Islamic Lifestyle Solutions Publications

The Forgotten Haram 40 Narrations Concerning Jerusalem
by Shaykh Faheem
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Muhammad which describes the virtue and inevitable
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There are also two supplementary chapters that deal with
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The History & Compilation of the Quran

An Exposition on the Authenticity & Inimitability of the Holy
Quran by Shaykh Faheem
The Book acts as a response to the atheistic lobbies who
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during the era of the Prophet as well as after his physical
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and Hadhrath
of Hadhrath Abu Bark As-Siddique
Uthman respectively and concludes with the discussion
of the Quran as a linguistic miracle.


The Four Imaams A Forgotten Legacy

The book comprises of 178 pages spanning over 5
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Back to the Basics Traditional Knowledge in the Modern
Age on the 2nd November 2013.
The book is a collaborated effort by the younger
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