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Foundation Engineering

3. Design of shallow Foundations

3.1 INTRODUCTION
This chapter deals with the economical and safe design of the common types of shallow
foundations. The main foundation types that are considered here are: isolated or spread
footings, combined footings, strap or cantilever footings and mat or raft foundations.
Shallow foundations are structural members that are used to transfer safely to the
ground the dead load of the superstructure and all external forces acting upon it. The type
and magnitude of the loading will usually be furnished by the engineer design the
superstructure. It is up to the foundation engineer to collect all the information regarding the
purpose of the superstructure, the material that will be used in its construction, its sensitivity
to settlements in general and to differential settlement in particular and all other pertinent
information that may influence the successful selection and execution of the foundation
design. The foundation engineer should also select the soil stratum that most suitable for the
support of the superstructure.
The design of shallow foundations is based on the assumption that they are rigid so that
the variation of pressure under the foundations will be linear. The distribution of pressure will
be uniform if the centroid of the foundation coincides with the resultant of the applied loads.
The requirements in design of foundations are:
1. The pressure on the soil should not exceed the bearing capacity of the soil.
2. The settlement of the structure should be within the permissible limits. Further
there should be no differential settlement.
In order to proportion shallow foundations one should either know the presumptive
allowable soil pressure as dictated by prevalent code or know the appropriate strength
parameters of the soil, i.e., the angle of internal friction,f , and cohesion, C.

Foundation Engineering

3.1.1 Proportioning of shallow foundations using presumptive


allowable soil pressure.
Through many years of practice, it has been possible to estimate the allowable soil
pressure for different types of soils for uncomplicated soil conditions. Accordingly different
Building codes give allowable average soil pressure. Here EBCS 7 is presented.
Table 3,1 Presumed Design Bearing resistance * under static loading( EBCS 7)
Supporting

Description Compactness**

Presumed

Ground

or

Design Bearing

Type

Consistency***

Resistance

Remarks

(kPa)
Massively crystalline igneous and

Hard and

metamorphic rock ( granite,

sound

basalt, gneiss)

Rocks

5600

Foliated metamorphic rock (slate,

Medium hard

schist)

and sound

Sedimentary rock (hard shale,

Medium hard

siltstone, sandstone, limestone)

and sound

2800

These
2800

values are
based on the

Weathered or broken-rock (soft

Soft

1400

limestone)

assumptions
that the
foundations

Soft shale

Soft

850

are carried
down to
unweathered

Decomposed rock to be

rock

assessed as soil below.

Non-

Gravel, sand and gravel

Dense

560

Width of

cohesive

Medium dense

420

foundation

soils

Loose

280

(B) not less


than 1m

Foundation Engineering

Sand

Dense

420

Medium dense

280

Ground

Loose

140

water level
assumed to
be depth not
less than B
below the
base of the
foundation.

Cohesive

Silt

soils

Clay

Hard

280

Stiff

200

Medium stiff

140

Soft

70

Hard

420

Stiff

280

Medium stiff

140

Soft

70

Very soft

Not applicable

* The given design bearing values do not include the effect of the depth of embedment
of the foundation.
** Compactness: dense: N> 30
medium dense: N is 10 to 30
loose: N< 10, where N is standard penetration value
*** Consistency: hard: q
stiff: q

u
u

medium stiff q
soft: q

> 400kPa

= 100 to 200kPa
u

= 50 to 100kPa

= 25 to 50 kPa, where q

is unconfined compressive strength

Foundation Engineering

3.1.2 Proportioning of shallow foundations using the soil strength


parameters

f and c.

For cases where presumptive allowable soil pressures cannot be used, one should
determine the soil strength parameters f and c. These parameters may be approximated or
determined from laboratory tests. Using the value of f and c thus obtained, one can easily
determine the area of the foundation in question using bearing capacity equations.
In applying the bearing capacity equations one should differentiate two states of loading,
namely, the initial or instantaneous loading condition

and the final or long- term loading

condition.
In the initial loading condition, the load is assumed to act instantaneously. At this stage
the pore water pressure in the soil does not have time to dissipate. This situation
corresponds to the quick or undrained test condition of the triaxial test. The soil parameters
are designated by f

and c

- in most cases f

= 0.

In the final or long-term loading condition, the load is assumed to act gradually as
construction progresses thus giving the pore water pressure in the soil ample time to
dissipate. Here the situation corresponds to the slow or drained test condition of the triaxial
test. The soil parameters in this case are designated by f and c.
The ultimate load that may be applied on a foundation with sides

aand bmay be

determined from the following equation

Vult = A'*s ult --------------------------------------------------------Where A' = a' b'=

(3.1)

effective area (Fig. 3.1)

a' = a-2

ea = effective length

b' = b-2

e b = effective width

s ult = ultimate bearing capacity of the footing

and e

= Eccentricities in the long and short directions, respectively.

The actual sustained load on the footing may be related to the ultimate load

Vult =Fs* P

----------------------------------------------------------------------------

Where Fs = factor of safety


P = actual sustained load on the foundation

(3.2)

Foundation Engineering

b
b

a
a

ea

eb

Fig 3.1 Effective width and length of a foundation


One may then express Eqn. (3.1) as

Fs *P = A' s

ult -----------------------------------------------------------------

(3.3)

From which it follows

Fs * P

A' =

--------------------------------------------------------------------

(3.4)

ult

From Eqn. (3.4) one easily determines the required area since all the quantities on the
right hand side of the equation are known.
The ultimate bearing capacity,

s ult

qult , may be determined from the following equation

= CN c S c d c ic + b

N S d i+qN

Where
q

ult

= Ultimate bearing capacity of footing,

C = Cohesion,
q = Effective surcharge at the base level of the footing.
= effective unit weight of soil
N

c, N q, N

c,

c ,d q ,

= Bearing capacity factors

S q ,S = Shape factors

c, i q ,

d = Depth factors

i , = Inclination factors

S q d q iq

------------------

(3.5)

Foundation Engineering

For initial loading conditions, where f

= 0, the failure surface of the soil consist of

straight lines and an arc of a circle. The bearing capacity coefficient would have the values
Nc =5.14, Nq= 1.0, N

= 0. Eqn. (3.5) may be written as

ult = 5.14C u S c dc ic + q S q dq iq ---------------------------------

3.1.3 Structural Considerations

(3.6)

Before going into the structural design, one should check if the settlement of the selected
foundation is within the prescribed safe limits. If the settlement exceeds the safe limits, one
should incr ease the dimensions of the foundations until the danger of settlement is
eliminated.
The last stage in the design of foundations is the structural design. The structural design
process for reinforced concrete foundations include:
Selecting a concrete with an appropriate strength
Selecting an appropriate grade of reinforcing steel
Determining the required foundation thickness
Determining the size, number and spacing of the reinforcing bars
Designing the connection between the super structure and the foundation

Shear resistance according to EBCS-2


i. Punching Shear Resistance

up

where

= 0.25 fctd k1 k2 u d

= ( 1+50

(MN)

e ) = 2.0

= 1.6 d = 1.0 ( d in meters)

For members where more than 50% of the bottom reinforcement is curtailed , k

d=

ex

d x + dy
2

+.=

ey

0.015

d is the average effective hight in the x and y directions


ii. Diagonal Tension (Wide beam) shear resistance

Vu d = 0.25 fctd k1 k2 b

(MN)

=1

Foundation Engineering

where

k
K

= ( 1+50
2

) = 2.0

= 1.6 d = 1.0 ( d in meters)

For members where more than 50 % of the bottom reinforcement is c urtailed , k

As
bw d

iii. Development length

ld =

f f yd

f yk
f yd =
f ctd =

(cm)

4 f bd

; f bd = fctd

0.35 f ck
c

Where
A

= area of tension reinforcement (m

= width of web or rib of a member(m)

d = the distance from extreme compression to centroid of tension reinforcement


(m)
f
f
f
f
f

= design bond strength (MPa)

bd

= characteristics compressive strength of concrete (MPa)

ck

= design tensile strength of concrete (MPa)

ctd

= design yield strength of reinforcement (MPa)

yd
yk

= characteristics yield strength of concrete (MPa)

u = periphery of critical section (m)


c

= partial safety factor for concrete = 1.5

= partial safety factor for steel = 1.15

= geometrical ratio of reinforcement


e
ex
ey

=effective geometrical ratio of reinforcement


= geometrical ratio of reinforcement in the x-direction
= geometrical ratio of reinforcement in the y-direction

f=diameter of reinforcement bar (m)

=1

Foundation Engineering

3.2 Isolated or Spread Footings


I. Depth of footing
The depth of embedment must be at least large enough to accommodate the required
footing thickness. This depth is measured from the lowest adjacent ground surface to the
bottom of the footing.
Footings should be carried below
a) zone of high volume change due to moisture fluctuation
b) top (organic) soil
c) peat and muck
d) unconsolidated (or fill) material
According to EBCS-7
- minimum depth of footing should be 50cm
- for footings on sloping sites, minimum depth of footing should be 60cm and
90cm below ground surface on rocky and soil formations, respectively.
Footing at different elevations: - When adjacent footings are to be placed at different
levels, the distance between the edges of footings shall be such as to prevent undesirable
overlapping of stresses in soils and disturbance of the soil under the higher footing due to
excavation for the lower footing. A minimum clear distance of half the width of the footing is
recommended.

II. Proportioning of footing


The required area of the footing and subsequently the proportions will be determined
using presumptive allowable soil pressure and/or the soil strength parameters f and c as
discussed previously.

III. Structural Design

i) Punching shear

:- This factor generally controls the depth of footings. It is the

normal practice to provide adequate depth to sustain the shear stress developed without
reinforcement. The critical section that is to be considered is indicated in Fig. 3.2

Foundation Engineering

b +3d

a +3d

a
Critical
section

P
Critical
section

1.5d 1.5d

d
Average soil
pressure,s

b
Section A-A
Fig. 3.2 Critical section for punching shear

From the figure it is apparent the concrete shear resistance along the perimeter
according to EBCS2 would be

2( a +3d + b+ 3d) dV

up

(3.7)

Where V up = punching shear resistance


The net force on the perimeter due to the soil pressure would be

{}
()()
a * b - []
a'+3d
+

b' 3d s

ult

From equilibrium consideration, Eqn. (3.7) and Eqn. (3.8) should be equal

2( a +3d + b+ 3d) dV

up

{a }* b

[(a])('++)3 d

b ' 3d

ult

(3.8)

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10

()

2a' dV + 6d2 V + 2b' dV + 6d2 V = ab - a'b'- 3a' d - 3b' d - 9d2 s


up

up

up

up

2a'dV + 6d2 V + 2b'dV + 6d2 V + 3a'ds


up

up

up

up

ult

+ 3b'ds

+ 9d2 s

ult

ult

= ()
ab- a'b' s

ult
ul t

2a' dVup + 2b' dVup + 12d 2 Vup + 9d 2 s ult + 3a' d s ult + 3b' d s ult = ()
ab - a' b' s ult
d (2a'V + 2b'V + 3a's
up

up

d2 (12V + 9s
up

ul t

d 2 (12V + 9s
up

d2 (12V + 9s
up

ult

ult

+ 3b's

ult

) + d 2 (12V + 9s
up

)+ d(2V (a'+b') + 3s

ul t

up

) + d(2V + 3s
up

) + d(2V + 3s
up

ult

ult

ult

ult

) = ()
ab - a'b' s

(a'+b')) = ()
ab - a'b' s

)(a'+ b')) = (ab) - a'b' s

)(a'+b') = (A )

footing

- A

column

ult

ult

ult

ult
(3.9)

For square columns a = b and round colmns with diameter a, Eqn. (3.9) would be

d2 (12V + 9)s
up

ult

) + d (2V + 3s
up

ult

)(2a' = (A )

footing

- A

column

ult

(3.10)

In the above equations, all quantities with the exception of d are known. By solving one
of the equations the effective depth necessary to sustain the punching shear may be
determined.

ii) Diagonal Tension (wide beam shear)


The selected depth using the punching shear criterion may not be adequate to withstand
the diagonal tension developed. Hence one should also check the safety against diagonal
tension. The critical sections that should be considered are given in Fig. 3.3 .

Foundation Engineering

11
b

D D
B

C
d

a
d

Critical
section

C
P

Critical
section

d d

d
Average soil
pressure,s

b
Section B-B
Fig. 3.3 Critical section for diagonal tension
The shear forces are calculated along the plane C-C and D-D

V C-C = (b/2 d - b/2) a

s ult

(3.11)

V D-D = (a/2 d - a/2) b

s ult

(3.12)

The actual shear stress is then calculated from


v

C-C

D-D

VC - C

ad
VD- D
.
bd

These calculated actual shear stresses should be compared with diagonal shear
resistance.

(3.13)

(3.14)

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12

iii) Bending Moment


The external moment on any section of a footing shall be determined by passing a
vertical plane through the footing, and computing the moment of the forces acting over the
entire area of the footing on one side of that vertical plane. The critical sections for the
bending moment vary according to the type of columns.
According to EBCS 2-1995, the critical section for moment shall be taken as follows:
a) At the face of column, pedestal or wall for footings supporting a concrete
pedestal or wall
b) Halfway between middle and edge of wall, for footings supporting a masonry
wall
c) Halfway between face of column and edge of steel base for footings
supporting a column with base plates.

Critical sections
varies according
to the type of
column as given
in a,b and c

b
Column
Concrete
Column

a)

Critical
section

d
b

ld
Available
embedment length

Foundation Engineering

13

Masonry
column

b)

Critical
section

d
X x/2

ld

Available
embedment length

Steel
column

Base plate
X

c)

x/2

Critical
section
d

ld
b
Fig. 3.4 Critical sections for moments

Available
embedment length

Flexural Reinforcement
1. Distribution: In one-way footings and two-way square footings,
reinforcement shall be distributed uniformly across the entire width of
footing.
2. In two-way rectangular footings, reinforcement shall be distributed as
follows:
a) Reinforcement in long direction shall be distributed uniformly across the entire width
of footing
b) For reinforcement in the short direction, a portion of the total reinforcement given by
Eqn.(3.15) shall be distributed uniformly ov er a band width ( centered on center line
of column or pedestal) equal to the length of the short side of footing. The reminder of
the reinforcement required in the short direction shall be distributed uniformly out side
the center band width of the footing.

Foundation Engineering

14

Re inf orcement in band width


Total re inf orcement in short direction

+1

Where is the ratio of long side to short side of footing (a/b).

IV. Development length


The reinforcement bars must extend a sufficient distance into the concrete to develop
proper anchorage. This distance is called the development length.
The necessary development length may be calculated using the following equation.

ld =

f f yd
4 fbd

Minimum Footing cover (According to EBCS2-1995)


The thickness of footing above bottom reinforcement shall not be less than 150mm for
footing on soil, or 300mm for footing on piles.
Concrete cover to reinforcement (According to EBCS2-1995)
- Concrete cast directly against the earth, the minimum cover should be greater
than 75mm
- Concrete cast against prepared ground (including blinding) the minimum cover
should be greater than 40mm.
Spacing of reinforcement
The clear horizontal and vertical distance between bars shall be at least equal to the
largest of the following values: (EBCS2-1995)
a) 20mm
b) the diameter of the largest bar
c) the maximum size of the aggregate plus 5mm
The spacing between main bars for slabs shall not exceed the smaller of 2h or 350mm
The spacing between secondary bars shall not exceed 400mm

(3.15)

Foundation Engineering

15

Examples
3.1 Determine the dimensions of a square footing necessary to sustain an axial column
load of 850kN as shown in Fig. below, if
a) an allowable presumptive bearing pressure of 150kN/m
b) C u = 40 kN/m 2 ; C = 7.5 kN/m

; f =22.5

is used.

P=850kN

= 19.1kN/m

2m
GWL
B

Solution
a) Using presumptive value

A=

as

850
= 5.67 m 2 = B
150

The dimension of the footing would be 2.40m X 2.40m


b) Using the bearing capacity formula
i) Initial loading condition

= 5.14C u S c dc ic + q S q dq iq

Shape factors
= 1.2 , S
c

Depth factors

=1

Foundation Engineering
d

16

= (1+0.4(2/B)) , d

=1

Load inclination factors


i

=1

,i q=1

Hence
s ult = 5.14*40 *1.2*(1+0.8/B)*1+ 19.1*2*1**1*1 = (244.8+195.84/B +38.2)

A s

ult

= P Fs

A=

253 B

P * Fs

ult

2 +195.84B

850 * 2
=
= B2
253 + 195.84 / B
1700 = 0

The dimension of the footing would be 2.25m X 2.25m


ii) Final or long term loading condition

s ult

= CN c S c dc ic + B

Bearing capacity factors


Nc = 17.45, N

N S d i + q N q S q dq iq
= 6.82, N q = 8.23

Shape factors
S
= 1+(N q / N c )=1.47 , S = 0.6 ,
c

Sq = 1+ tan f= 1.41

Depth factors
d

= 1+ 0.4 (2 / B)=1+0.8/B, d = 1, d

= 1+2 tan 22.5(1-sin22.5)

(Df / B) =1+0.63/B

Load inclination factors


ic = 1, i

= 1 , iq = 1

Hence
= 7.5*17.45*1.47*(1+0.8/B)*1+ B *9.1* 6.82* 0.6*1*1 + 19.1*2*8.23*
ult

1.41*(1+0.63/B)*1 = 192.39 +153.91/B +18.62B +443.28 + 279.27/B


A* s

ult

= P* Fs

Foundation Engineering
2

P * Fs

B =

18.62*B

ult

3+

17

850 * 2
635 .67 + 433.18 + 18.62B
B

()

635.67*B

+ 433.18*B = 1700

From the above the dimension of the footing would be 1.35m X1.35m
3.2 Given R.C. column size 30X50 cm with 4f22.
P = 1500kN
M = 375 kN-m
Ultimate soil bearing pressure = 400kPa
f

yk

= 300MPa fyd = 300/1.15 = 260.87 MPa

C25 fck= 20MPa f

ctk

= 1.5 MPa,

Required:- Design of rectangular R.C. footing

P
M

l2
b

30
50

l1

Foundation Engineering

18

Solution
Size of footing
Let l1 = l 2

a - 50

Then

Eccentricity, e

b - 30

a - b = 50 - 30 = 20cm = 0.2 m

2
P

375 =
1500

0.25m

Contact pressure

P
M

s min
s

max

400 =

P+
1
A

6e

s max
P +
1
ab

6e

1500
6 * 0.25
1+
()()
0.2 + b b
0.2 + b

400 ( 0.20b + b2 ) = 1500 +

2550
()
0.2 + b

400 b3 + 160 b2 - 1484 b - 2550 = 0


by trial and error b= 2.345 m
Take b= 2.4m
Then a = b+0.20m = 2.60m

Foundation Engineering

19

Actual contact pressure

s
s

max

min

1500 + 6 * 0.25
2
s
()2.6()2.4 1 2.6 = 379.07kN / m < ult

1500 6 * 0.25
1
= 101.70kN / m2 > 0
()()
()
2.6 2.4
2.6

ok
ok

Thickness of the footing


i, Punching shear
The Punching shear resistance according to EBCS-2 is given by

Vup = 0.25f ctd k1 k2 ud (MN)


Take d= 0.40m and
k
k

min

= 0.5/f

= 0.5 /300 = 0.0017

yk

= ( 1+50

) = (1 +50*0.0017) =1.085

= 1.6 d =1.6 -0.4 = 1.2

u = 2(3d +b) +2(3d+a) = 12d +2b + 2a = 12*0.4 +2*0.5 +2*0.3 =6.4


Then

up =

0.25*1*1.085 *1.2 *6.4*0.4=0.83328MN = 833.28kN


P
M
2.15
0.45m

101.70kN/m

1.5d

1.5d 0.45m

379.07kN/m

s1

s2

Foundation Engineering

20

0.45 * (379.07 - 101.70 )


= 149 .71kN / m2
2.60
2.15 * (379.07 - 101.7)
s = 101 .7 +
= 331.06 kN / m2
2
2.60
s +s
331 .06 + 149 .71
2 *1.7 =
s = 1
*1.7 = 408 .65kN / m
2
2
V = 408 .65 *1.5 = 612 .98kN

s = 101.7 +
1

Net shear force developed = 1500 612.98 = 887.02 kN > Vup not ok !
Since the developed shear force is greater than the punching shear resistance, one may
increase the depth.

Take d= 0.45m and


k
k

min

= 0.5/f

= 0.5 /300 = 0.0017

yk

= ( 1+50

) = (1 +50*0.0017) =1.085

= 1.6 d =1.6 -0.45 = 1.15

u = 2(3d +b) +2(3d+a) = 12d +2b + 2a = 12*0.45 +2*0.5 +2*0.3 =7


Then

up

= 0.25*1*1.085 *1.15 *7*0.45=0.98260MN = 982.60kN


P
M
2.225
0.375m

101.70kN/m

1.5d

1.5d 0.375m

379.07kN/m
s1

s2

Foundation Engineering

s = 101.7 +
1

21

0.375 * (379.07 - 101.70)

= 141 .71kN / m2

2.60
2.225 * (379.07 - 101.7)
s = 101 .7 +
= 339.07kN / m2
2
2.60
s +s
339.07 + 141 .71
2 *1.85 =
s = 1
*1.85 = 444.72 kN / m
2
2
V = 444.72 *1.65 = 733 .79kN
Net shear force developed = 1500 733.79 = 766.21 kN < Vup ok !
The depth satisfies the punching shear requirement for the assumed

min

ii, Wide beam shear


P
M
1.05m
1.55m

101.7kN/m

379.07kN/m

Contact stress at distance d from the face of the column, s

s = 101 .7 +
s =
1

+s

max

s
2

()
379 .07 - 101 .7 (1.55 + 0.45 )
2.60

()
1.05 -

d =

+379.07

315.06
2

= 315 .06kN / m2

0.6 = 208.24kN / m

Developed wide beam shear


Vd = 208.24 *2.4 =499.78kN
The wide beam shear resistance according to EBCS-2 is given by
V
=
f k kb d
(MN)
u d 0.25 ctd 1 2 w

= 0.25*1*1.085*1.15*2.4*0.45 =0.33689MN =336.89kN < Vd not ok !

Foundation Engineering

22

Since the developed shear force is greater than the wide beam shear resistance, one
may increase the depth
Take d = 0.60m
Contact stress at distance d from the face of the column, s

s = 101 .7
++

()379.07 -

101.7 (1.55

0.60

2.60

s = 331 .06 kN / m2

+s max

()
1.05 -

d =

+379.07 331.06
0.45
2

= 159.78kN / m
Developed wide beam shear
Vd = 159.78 *2.4 =383.47kN
Wide beam shear resistance
V
=
f k kb d
u d 0.25 ctd 1 2 w

(MN)
= 0.25*1*1.085*1*2.4*0.60 =0.3906MN =390.60kN > Vd ok !
Bending Moment

M
1.35m
1.05m

101.70kN/m

379.07kN/m

s2

s1

Foundation Engineering

s = 101.70 +
s =

23

1.55 * (379 .07 - 101 .7)


2.60

= 267 .06 N / m2

(1.05)(379.07 - 267 .06) = 58 .81kN / m


2
s = (1.05)(267 .06 ) = 280 .41kN / m
1

+ 2
M = s
(1 .05)
1 3

s (
2

1.05
) b
2

+() () 2
58.81 (1.05 )
3

M =

280 .41 (

1.05
2

) 1 = 188 .38kN - m / m

Moment capacity of concrete

M = 0.32 * fcd * bd 2

= 0.32 * 11.33 10 3 * 1.0 * ()


0.6 2 = 1305 .22kN - m / m

Calculation of reinforcement
Long direction

fcd 1f

2M

fcd bd 2

yd

11 .33
1260 .87

As =

1-

2 * 188 .38
11 .33 10 3 * 1.0 * ()
0.6

bd = 0.0021 * 100 * 60 = 12 .6cm 2 / m

use f 16
spacing =

as * 100 = 2.01 * 100


=
As
12.6

Use f 16c/c16cm

16 cm

= 0.0021 >

min

Foundation Engineering

24

Short direction

1.15m
0.85m

s
s

Average contact pressure,

s avg =
s

avg

M = s1(

2
2

M =

cd

fyd

1-

min

1 .05
) 1 = 126 . 21 kN - m / m
2
2M
f bd 2

cd

11.33
1260.87

As =

= 240.39kN / m2

1 .05
) a
2

240 .39 (

s max + s min

379.07 + 101.7

1-

2 *126 .21
11.33 103 * 1.0 * ()
0.584

= 0.0014 <

bd = 0.0017 *100 * 58.4 = 9.928cm 2 / m

spacing =
Use f16c/c20cm

as *100 = 2.01 * 100


=
As
9.98

20.2cm

min

Foundation Engineering

25

Since there is no much difference between a and b, distribute these reinforcement


uniformly.

Development length

f f

l =

yd

4f

bd

yd

; fbd = fctd

= 260 .87 MPa

yk
s

ctd

0 .=35

ck

l =
d

f f

yd

4 =f

bd

1.6* 260 .87


4* 1

0. 35

20

1 .5

1MPa

104 .35cm

ldavailable = 100cm < ld , bend the bars upward with a minimum length of 10cm

3.3 Combined Footing


A) Rectangular Combined footing
a) Area of use :- Used to carry two or more columns in one row
-used to carry two columns when X = L/2,
X= distance to center of gravity of column load

X
B
c.g
L
L

b) Design Assumptions :- footing is infinitely rigid


Linear soil pressure distribution under footing

Foundation Engineering

26

c) Analysis: - In the long direction, it is analyzed as a continuous beam


In the short direction, it is analyzed as spread footing with effective
widths at exterior and interior columns being a +d/2 and a +d respectively

a a

a+d/2

a+d
L

d) Design procedure
i) determine length of footing (L) in such a way that the center of gravity(c.g.)of
footing area coincides that of the c.g. of loads
i.e., L = 2x
ii) determine the width of footing(B) such that the allowable soil pressure is not
exceeded
i.e.,

B=

P
Ls all

iii) determine and draw shear force and bending moment diagrams along the
length of the footing
iv) calculate depth of footing
v) calculate steel reinforcement for bending moment requirement

Foundation Engineering

27

B) Trapezoidal combined footing


Area of use:- used in case where exterior column carries largest load and X < L/2
X
but X > L/3

c.g

B1

B2

L
L

a) Design Assumptions :- footing is infinitely rigid


Linear soil pressure distribution under footing
b) Analysis: - In the long direction, it is analyzed as a continuous beam
In the short direction, it is analyzed as spread footing similar to that
of rectangular combined footing.
c) Design procedure
1) determine the sizes of footing (L,B

,B2 ) from conditions that

i) the minimum required are

A=
A=

s all
+ B1

B2

ii) the c.g. of footing are coincides that of column loads. The
distance to the c.g. of trapezoidal footing x is calculated from

X '=

L 2B2 + B1
3 B2 + B1

2) determine and draw shear force and bending moment diagrams along the
length of the footing. In this case, the shear force and bending moment diagrams
are 2 nd degree and 3

rd

degree curves, respectively.

3) calculate depth of footing


4) calculate steel reinforcement for bending moment requirement

Foundation Engineering

28

3.4 Strap or Cantilever Footings


Strap footings are used as alternatives to combined footings when the cost of combined
footings is relatively high.
Essentially a strap footing consists of a rigid beam connecting two pads (footings) to
transmit unbalanced shear and moment from the statically unbalanced footing to the second
fotting.
Design Assumptions
- strap is infinitely rigid
- strap is a pure flexural member and does not take soil reaction. (To confirm
with this, strap is constructed slightly above soil or soil under strap is loosened).

a1

b1

a2

Strap

b
a

P1

XC

WS

XS

a1

a2
s a2

sa1
a/2
e

b2

XR

R2

R1

a/2
1. a) Assume a

and establish the eccentricity, e of the soil reaction force R

e=

a1 - a'
2

e = XC - X R
b) Determine the magnitude of the soil reaction force by taking moments about R

R1 = 1P

Xc
XR

+ Ws

Xs
XR

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29

In this equation the weight of the strap, Ws, may be neglected if the strap is relatively
short.
c) Determine the reaction R

from equilibrium consideration

R2 = P1 + P2 + Ws - R1
2. Determine sizes of footings using known v alues of R

b1 =

R1
s a1 * a1

b2 =

R2
s *a
a2
2

(For square footing


of a2 and determine b

b2 = a2 =
2

R2

s a2

, R2 and s

all

. For rectangular footing assume some value

).

It should be noted that the actual bearing pressures under the footings should not very
different from each other in order to minimize differential settlement.
3. Determine and draw shear force and bending moment diagrams along the length of
the footings.
4. Select depths of footings for shear requirement.
5. Select steel reinforcement for bending requirement.
6. In short direction, the footings analyzed as spread footing subject to uniform soil
pressure.
7. Design strap as flexural member for the shear and moment obtained above.

3.5 Mat/Raft Foundation


Mat or raft foundation is a large concrete slab supporting several columns in two or
more rows. It is used where the supporting soil has low bearing capacity. The bearing
capacity increased by combining all individual footings in to one mat since bearing capacity
is proportional to width and depth of foundations. In addition to increasing the bearing
capacity, mat foundations tend to bridge over irregularities of the soil and the average
settlement does not approach the extreme values of isolated footings. Thus mat foundations
are often used for supporting structures that are sensitive to differential settlement.

Foundation Engineering

30

Design of uniform mat


Design Assumptions
- mat is infinitely rigid
- planner soil pressure distribution under mat

Design Procedure
i) Determine the line of action of the resultant of all the loads acting on the mat
ii) Determine the contact pressure distribution as under
a) If the resultant passes through the center of gravity of the mat, the contact
pressure is given by

s =

Q
A

b) If the resultant has an eccentricity of ex and ey in the x and y direction

Qe
Q Qex

x y y
A Iyy
Ixx

The maximum contact pressure should be less than the allowable soil pressure
c) Divide the slab mat into strips in x and y directions. Each strip is assumed to
act as independent beam subjected to the contact pressure and the columns
loads.
d) Determine the modified column loads
e) Draw the sheer force and bending moment diagrams for each strip.
f) Select depth of mat for shear requirement
g) Select steel reinforcement for moment requirement
Y

ex

ey