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3.1 INTRODUCTION

This chapter deals with the economical and safe design of the common types of shallow

foundations. The main foundation types that are considered here are: isolated or spread

footings, combined footings, strap or cantilever footings and mat or raft foundations.

Shallow foundations are structural members that are used to transfer safely to the

ground the dead load of the superstructure and all external forces acting upon it. The type

and magnitude of the loading will usually be furnished by the engineer design the

superstructure. It is up to the foundation engineer to collect all the information regarding the

purpose of the superstructure, the material that will be used in its construction, its sensitivity

to settlements in general and to differential settlement in particular and all other pertinent

information that may influence the successful selection and execution of the foundation

design. The foundation engineer should also select the soil stratum that most suitable for the

support of the superstructure.

The design of shallow foundations is based on the assumption that they are rigid so that

the variation of pressure under the foundations will be linear. The distribution of pressure will

be uniform if the centroid of the foundation coincides with the resultant of the applied loads.

The requirements in design of foundations are:

1. The pressure on the soil should not exceed the bearing capacity of the soil.

2. The settlement of the structure should be within the permissible limits. Further

there should be no differential settlement.

In order to proportion shallow foundations one should either know the presumptive

allowable soil pressure as dictated by prevalent code or know the appropriate strength

parameters of the soil, i.e., the angle of internal friction,f , and cohesion, C.

Foundation Engineering

allowable soil pressure.

Through many years of practice, it has been possible to estimate the allowable soil

pressure for different types of soils for uncomplicated soil conditions. Accordingly different

Building codes give allowable average soil pressure. Here EBCS 7 is presented.

Table 3,1 Presumed Design Bearing resistance * under static loading( EBCS 7)

Supporting

Description Compactness**

Presumed

Ground

or

Design Bearing

Type

Consistency***

Resistance

Remarks

(kPa)

Massively crystalline igneous and

Hard and

sound

basalt, gneiss)

Rocks

5600

Medium hard

schist)

and sound

Medium hard

and sound

2800

These

2800

values are

based on the

Soft

1400

limestone)

assumptions

that the

foundations

Soft shale

Soft

850

are carried

down to

unweathered

Decomposed rock to be

rock

Non-

Dense

560

Width of

cohesive

Medium dense

420

foundation

soils

Loose

280

than 1m

Foundation Engineering

Sand

Dense

420

Medium dense

280

Ground

Loose

140

water level

assumed to

be depth not

less than B

below the

base of the

foundation.

Cohesive

Silt

soils

Clay

Hard

280

Stiff

200

Medium stiff

140

Soft

70

Hard

420

Stiff

280

Medium stiff

140

Soft

70

Very soft

Not applicable

* The given design bearing values do not include the effect of the depth of embedment

of the foundation.

** Compactness: dense: N> 30

medium dense: N is 10 to 30

loose: N< 10, where N is standard penetration value

*** Consistency: hard: q

stiff: q

u

u

medium stiff q

soft: q

> 400kPa

= 100 to 200kPa

u

= 50 to 100kPa

= 25 to 50 kPa, where q

Foundation Engineering

parameters

f and c.

For cases where presumptive allowable soil pressures cannot be used, one should

determine the soil strength parameters f and c. These parameters may be approximated or

determined from laboratory tests. Using the value of f and c thus obtained, one can easily

determine the area of the foundation in question using bearing capacity equations.

In applying the bearing capacity equations one should differentiate two states of loading,

namely, the initial or instantaneous loading condition

condition.

In the initial loading condition, the load is assumed to act instantaneously. At this stage

the pore water pressure in the soil does not have time to dissipate. This situation

corresponds to the quick or undrained test condition of the triaxial test. The soil parameters

are designated by f

and c

- in most cases f

= 0.

In the final or long-term loading condition, the load is assumed to act gradually as

construction progresses thus giving the pore water pressure in the soil ample time to

dissipate. Here the situation corresponds to the slow or drained test condition of the triaxial

test. The soil parameters in this case are designated by f and c.

The ultimate load that may be applied on a foundation with sides

aand bmay be

(3.1)

a' = a-2

ea = effective length

b' = b-2

e b = effective width

and e

The actual sustained load on the footing may be related to the ultimate load

Vult =Fs* P

----------------------------------------------------------------------------

P = actual sustained load on the foundation

(3.2)

Foundation Engineering

b

b

a

a

ea

eb

One may then express Eqn. (3.1) as

Fs *P = A' s

ult -----------------------------------------------------------------

(3.3)

Fs * P

A' =

--------------------------------------------------------------------

(3.4)

ult

From Eqn. (3.4) one easily determines the required area since all the quantities on the

right hand side of the equation are known.

The ultimate bearing capacity,

s ult

= CN c S c d c ic + b

N S d i+qN

Where

q

ult

C = Cohesion,

q = Effective surcharge at the base level of the footing.

= effective unit weight of soil

N

c, N q, N

c,

c ,d q ,

S q ,S = Shape factors

c, i q ,

d = Depth factors

i , = Inclination factors

S q d q iq

------------------

(3.5)

Foundation Engineering

straight lines and an arc of a circle. The bearing capacity coefficient would have the values

Nc =5.14, Nq= 1.0, N

(3.6)

Before going into the structural design, one should check if the settlement of the selected

foundation is within the prescribed safe limits. If the settlement exceeds the safe limits, one

should incr ease the dimensions of the foundations until the danger of settlement is

eliminated.

The last stage in the design of foundations is the structural design. The structural design

process for reinforced concrete foundations include:

Selecting a concrete with an appropriate strength

Selecting an appropriate grade of reinforcing steel

Determining the required foundation thickness

Determining the size, number and spacing of the reinforcing bars

Designing the connection between the super structure and the foundation

i. Punching Shear Resistance

up

where

= 0.25 fctd k1 k2 u d

= ( 1+50

(MN)

e ) = 2.0

For members where more than 50% of the bottom reinforcement is curtailed , k

d=

ex

d x + dy

2

+.=

ey

0.015

ii. Diagonal Tension (Wide beam) shear resistance

Vu d = 0.25 fctd k1 k2 b

(MN)

=1

Foundation Engineering

where

k

K

= ( 1+50

2

) = 2.0

As

bw d

ld =

f f yd

f yk

f yd =

f ctd =

(cm)

4 f bd

; f bd = fctd

0.35 f ck

c

Where

A

(m)

f

f

f

f

f

bd

ck

ctd

yd

yk

c

e

ex

ey

= geometrical ratio of reinforcement in the x-direction

= geometrical ratio of reinforcement in the y-direction

=1

Foundation Engineering

I. Depth of footing

The depth of embedment must be at least large enough to accommodate the required

footing thickness. This depth is measured from the lowest adjacent ground surface to the

bottom of the footing.

Footings should be carried below

a) zone of high volume change due to moisture fluctuation

b) top (organic) soil

c) peat and muck

d) unconsolidated (or fill) material

According to EBCS-7

- minimum depth of footing should be 50cm

- for footings on sloping sites, minimum depth of footing should be 60cm and

90cm below ground surface on rocky and soil formations, respectively.

Footing at different elevations: - When adjacent footings are to be placed at different

levels, the distance between the edges of footings shall be such as to prevent undesirable

overlapping of stresses in soils and disturbance of the soil under the higher footing due to

excavation for the lower footing. A minimum clear distance of half the width of the footing is

recommended.

The required area of the footing and subsequently the proportions will be determined

using presumptive allowable soil pressure and/or the soil strength parameters f and c as

discussed previously.

i) Punching shear

normal practice to provide adequate depth to sustain the shear stress developed without

reinforcement. The critical section that is to be considered is indicated in Fig. 3.2

Foundation Engineering

b +3d

a +3d

a

Critical

section

P

Critical

section

1.5d 1.5d

d

Average soil

pressure,s

b

Section A-A

Fig. 3.2 Critical section for punching shear

From the figure it is apparent the concrete shear resistance along the perimeter

according to EBCS2 would be

2( a +3d + b+ 3d) dV

up

(3.7)

The net force on the perimeter due to the soil pressure would be

{}

()()

a * b - []

a'+3d

+

b' 3d s

ult

From equilibrium consideration, Eqn. (3.7) and Eqn. (3.8) should be equal

2( a +3d + b+ 3d) dV

up

{a }* b

[(a])('++)3 d

b ' 3d

ult

(3.8)

Foundation Engineering

10

()

up

up

up

up

up

up

up

up

ult

+ 3b'ds

+ 9d2 s

ult

ult

= ()

ab- a'b' s

ult

ul t

2a' dVup + 2b' dVup + 12d 2 Vup + 9d 2 s ult + 3a' d s ult + 3b' d s ult = ()

ab - a' b' s ult

d (2a'V + 2b'V + 3a's

up

up

d2 (12V + 9s

up

ul t

d 2 (12V + 9s

up

d2 (12V + 9s

up

ult

ult

+ 3b's

ult

) + d 2 (12V + 9s

up

)+ d(2V (a'+b') + 3s

ul t

up

) + d(2V + 3s

up

) + d(2V + 3s

up

ult

ult

ult

ult

) = ()

ab - a'b' s

(a'+b')) = ()

ab - a'b' s

)(a'+b') = (A )

footing

- A

column

ult

ult

ult

ult

(3.9)

For square columns a = b and round colmns with diameter a, Eqn. (3.9) would be

d2 (12V + 9)s

up

ult

) + d (2V + 3s

up

ult

)(2a' = (A )

footing

- A

column

ult

(3.10)

In the above equations, all quantities with the exception of d are known. By solving one

of the equations the effective depth necessary to sustain the punching shear may be

determined.

The selected depth using the punching shear criterion may not be adequate to withstand

the diagonal tension developed. Hence one should also check the safety against diagonal

tension. The critical sections that should be considered are given in Fig. 3.3 .

Foundation Engineering

11

b

D D

B

C

d

a

d

Critical

section

C

P

Critical

section

d d

d

Average soil

pressure,s

b

Section B-B

Fig. 3.3 Critical section for diagonal tension

The shear forces are calculated along the plane C-C and D-D

s ult

(3.11)

s ult

(3.12)

v

C-C

D-D

VC - C

ad

VD- D

.

bd

These calculated actual shear stresses should be compared with diagonal shear

resistance.

(3.13)

(3.14)

Foundation Engineering

12

The external moment on any section of a footing shall be determined by passing a

vertical plane through the footing, and computing the moment of the forces acting over the

entire area of the footing on one side of that vertical plane. The critical sections for the

bending moment vary according to the type of columns.

According to EBCS 2-1995, the critical section for moment shall be taken as follows:

a) At the face of column, pedestal or wall for footings supporting a concrete

pedestal or wall

b) Halfway between middle and edge of wall, for footings supporting a masonry

wall

c) Halfway between face of column and edge of steel base for footings

supporting a column with base plates.

Critical sections

varies according

to the type of

column as given

in a,b and c

b

Column

Concrete

Column

a)

Critical

section

d

b

ld

Available

embedment length

Foundation Engineering

13

Masonry

column

b)

Critical

section

d

X x/2

ld

Available

embedment length

Steel

column

Base plate

X

c)

x/2

Critical

section

d

ld

b

Fig. 3.4 Critical sections for moments

Available

embedment length

Flexural Reinforcement

1. Distribution: In one-way footings and two-way square footings,

reinforcement shall be distributed uniformly across the entire width of

footing.

2. In two-way rectangular footings, reinforcement shall be distributed as

follows:

a) Reinforcement in long direction shall be distributed uniformly across the entire width

of footing

b) For reinforcement in the short direction, a portion of the total reinforcement given by

Eqn.(3.15) shall be distributed uniformly ov er a band width ( centered on center line

of column or pedestal) equal to the length of the short side of footing. The reminder of

the reinforcement required in the short direction shall be distributed uniformly out side

the center band width of the footing.

Foundation Engineering

14

Total re inf orcement in short direction

+1

The reinforcement bars must extend a sufficient distance into the concrete to develop

proper anchorage. This distance is called the development length.

The necessary development length may be calculated using the following equation.

ld =

f f yd

4 fbd

The thickness of footing above bottom reinforcement shall not be less than 150mm for

footing on soil, or 300mm for footing on piles.

Concrete cover to reinforcement (According to EBCS2-1995)

- Concrete cast directly against the earth, the minimum cover should be greater

than 75mm

- Concrete cast against prepared ground (including blinding) the minimum cover

should be greater than 40mm.

Spacing of reinforcement

The clear horizontal and vertical distance between bars shall be at least equal to the

largest of the following values: (EBCS2-1995)

a) 20mm

b) the diameter of the largest bar

c) the maximum size of the aggregate plus 5mm

The spacing between main bars for slabs shall not exceed the smaller of 2h or 350mm

The spacing between secondary bars shall not exceed 400mm

(3.15)

Foundation Engineering

15

Examples

3.1 Determine the dimensions of a square footing necessary to sustain an axial column

load of 850kN as shown in Fig. below, if

a) an allowable presumptive bearing pressure of 150kN/m

b) C u = 40 kN/m 2 ; C = 7.5 kN/m

; f =22.5

is used.

P=850kN

= 19.1kN/m

2m

GWL

B

Solution

a) Using presumptive value

A=

as

850

= 5.67 m 2 = B

150

b) Using the bearing capacity formula

i) Initial loading condition

= 5.14C u S c dc ic + q S q dq iq

Shape factors

= 1.2 , S

c

Depth factors

=1

Foundation Engineering

d

16

= (1+0.4(2/B)) , d

=1

i

=1

,i q=1

Hence

s ult = 5.14*40 *1.2*(1+0.8/B)*1+ 19.1*2*1**1*1 = (244.8+195.84/B +38.2)

A s

ult

= P Fs

A=

253 B

P * Fs

ult

2 +195.84B

850 * 2

=

= B2

253 + 195.84 / B

1700 = 0

ii) Final or long term loading condition

s ult

= CN c S c dc ic + B

Nc = 17.45, N

N S d i + q N q S q dq iq

= 6.82, N q = 8.23

Shape factors

S

= 1+(N q / N c )=1.47 , S = 0.6 ,

c

Sq = 1+ tan f= 1.41

Depth factors

d

= 1+ 0.4 (2 / B)=1+0.8/B, d = 1, d

(Df / B) =1+0.63/B

ic = 1, i

= 1 , iq = 1

Hence

= 7.5*17.45*1.47*(1+0.8/B)*1+ B *9.1* 6.82* 0.6*1*1 + 19.1*2*8.23*

ult

A* s

ult

= P* Fs

Foundation Engineering

2

P * Fs

B =

18.62*B

ult

3+

17

850 * 2

635 .67 + 433.18 + 18.62B

B

()

635.67*B

+ 433.18*B = 1700

From the above the dimension of the footing would be 1.35m X1.35m

3.2 Given R.C. column size 30X50 cm with 4f22.

P = 1500kN

M = 375 kN-m

Ultimate soil bearing pressure = 400kPa

f

yk

ctk

= 1.5 MPa,

P

M

l2

b

30

50

l1

Foundation Engineering

18

Solution

Size of footing

Let l1 = l 2

a - 50

Then

Eccentricity, e

b - 30

a - b = 50 - 30 = 20cm = 0.2 m

2

P

375 =

1500

0.25m

Contact pressure

P

M

s min

s

max

400 =

P+

1

A

6e

s max

P +

1

ab

6e

1500

6 * 0.25

1+

()()

0.2 + b b

0.2 + b

2550

()

0.2 + b

by trial and error b= 2.345 m

Take b= 2.4m

Then a = b+0.20m = 2.60m

Foundation Engineering

19

s

s

max

min

1500 + 6 * 0.25

2

s

()2.6()2.4 1 2.6 = 379.07kN / m < ult

1500 6 * 0.25

1

= 101.70kN / m2 > 0

()()

()

2.6 2.4

2.6

ok

ok

i, Punching shear

The Punching shear resistance according to EBCS-2 is given by

Take d= 0.40m and

k

k

min

= 0.5/f

yk

= ( 1+50

) = (1 +50*0.0017) =1.085

Then

up =

P

M

2.15

0.45m

101.70kN/m

1.5d

1.5d 0.45m

379.07kN/m

s1

s2

Foundation Engineering

20

= 149 .71kN / m2

2.60

2.15 * (379.07 - 101.7)

s = 101 .7 +

= 331.06 kN / m2

2

2.60

s +s

331 .06 + 149 .71

2 *1.7 =

s = 1

*1.7 = 408 .65kN / m

2

2

V = 408 .65 *1.5 = 612 .98kN

s = 101.7 +

1

Net shear force developed = 1500 612.98 = 887.02 kN > Vup not ok !

Since the developed shear force is greater than the punching shear resistance, one may

increase the depth.

k

k

min

= 0.5/f

yk

= ( 1+50

) = (1 +50*0.0017) =1.085

Then

up

P

M

2.225

0.375m

101.70kN/m

1.5d

1.5d 0.375m

379.07kN/m

s1

s2

Foundation Engineering

s = 101.7 +

1

21

= 141 .71kN / m2

2.60

2.225 * (379.07 - 101.7)

s = 101 .7 +

= 339.07kN / m2

2

2.60

s +s

339.07 + 141 .71

2 *1.85 =

s = 1

*1.85 = 444.72 kN / m

2

2

V = 444.72 *1.65 = 733 .79kN

Net shear force developed = 1500 733.79 = 766.21 kN < Vup ok !

The depth satisfies the punching shear requirement for the assumed

min

P

M

1.05m

1.55m

101.7kN/m

379.07kN/m

s = 101 .7 +

s =

1

+s

max

s

2

()

379 .07 - 101 .7 (1.55 + 0.45 )

2.60

()

1.05 -

d =

+379.07

315.06

2

= 315 .06kN / m2

0.6 = 208.24kN / m

Vd = 208.24 *2.4 =499.78kN

The wide beam shear resistance according to EBCS-2 is given by

V

=

f k kb d

(MN)

u d 0.25 ctd 1 2 w

Foundation Engineering

22

Since the developed shear force is greater than the wide beam shear resistance, one

may increase the depth

Take d = 0.60m

Contact stress at distance d from the face of the column, s

s = 101 .7

++

()379.07 -

101.7 (1.55

0.60

2.60

s = 331 .06 kN / m2

+s max

()

1.05 -

d =

+379.07 331.06

0.45

2

= 159.78kN / m

Developed wide beam shear

Vd = 159.78 *2.4 =383.47kN

Wide beam shear resistance

V

=

f k kb d

u d 0.25 ctd 1 2 w

(MN)

= 0.25*1*1.085*1*2.4*0.60 =0.3906MN =390.60kN > Vd ok !

Bending Moment

M

1.35m

1.05m

101.70kN/m

379.07kN/m

s2

s1

Foundation Engineering

s = 101.70 +

s =

23

2.60

= 267 .06 N / m2

2

s = (1.05)(267 .06 ) = 280 .41kN / m

1

+ 2

M = s

(1 .05)

1 3

s (

2

1.05

) b

2

+() () 2

58.81 (1.05 )

3

M =

280 .41 (

1.05

2

) 1 = 188 .38kN - m / m

M = 0.32 * fcd * bd 2

0.6 2 = 1305 .22kN - m / m

Calculation of reinforcement

Long direction

fcd 1f

2M

fcd bd 2

yd

11 .33

1260 .87

As =

1-

2 * 188 .38

11 .33 10 3 * 1.0 * ()

0.6

use f 16

spacing =

=

As

12.6

Use f 16c/c16cm

16 cm

= 0.0021 >

min

Foundation Engineering

24

Short direction

1.15m

0.85m

s

s

s avg =

s

avg

M = s1(

2

2

M =

cd

fyd

1-

min

1 .05

) 1 = 126 . 21 kN - m / m

2

2M

f bd 2

cd

11.33

1260.87

As =

= 240.39kN / m2

1 .05

) a

2

240 .39 (

s max + s min

379.07 + 101.7

1-

2 *126 .21

11.33 103 * 1.0 * ()

0.584

= 0.0014 <

spacing =

Use f16c/c20cm

=

As

9.98

20.2cm

min

Foundation Engineering

25

uniformly.

Development length

f f

l =

yd

4f

bd

yd

; fbd = fctd

yk

s

ctd

0 .=35

ck

l =

d

f f

yd

4 =f

bd

4* 1

0. 35

20

1 .5

1MPa

104 .35cm

ldavailable = 100cm < ld , bend the bars upward with a minimum length of 10cm

A) Rectangular Combined footing

a) Area of use :- Used to carry two or more columns in one row

-used to carry two columns when X = L/2,

X= distance to center of gravity of column load

X

B

c.g

L

L

Linear soil pressure distribution under footing

Foundation Engineering

26

In the short direction, it is analyzed as spread footing with effective

widths at exterior and interior columns being a +d/2 and a +d respectively

a a

a+d/2

a+d

L

d) Design procedure

i) determine length of footing (L) in such a way that the center of gravity(c.g.)of

footing area coincides that of the c.g. of loads

i.e., L = 2x

ii) determine the width of footing(B) such that the allowable soil pressure is not

exceeded

i.e.,

B=

P

Ls all

iii) determine and draw shear force and bending moment diagrams along the

length of the footing

iv) calculate depth of footing

v) calculate steel reinforcement for bending moment requirement

Foundation Engineering

27

Area of use:- used in case where exterior column carries largest load and X < L/2

X

but X > L/3

c.g

B1

B2

L

L

Linear soil pressure distribution under footing

b) Analysis: - In the long direction, it is analyzed as a continuous beam

In the short direction, it is analyzed as spread footing similar to that

of rectangular combined footing.

c) Design procedure

1) determine the sizes of footing (L,B

A=

A=

s all

+ B1

B2

ii) the c.g. of footing are coincides that of column loads. The

distance to the c.g. of trapezoidal footing x is calculated from

X '=

L 2B2 + B1

3 B2 + B1

2) determine and draw shear force and bending moment diagrams along the

length of the footing. In this case, the shear force and bending moment diagrams

are 2 nd degree and 3

rd

4) calculate steel reinforcement for bending moment requirement

Foundation Engineering

28

Strap footings are used as alternatives to combined footings when the cost of combined

footings is relatively high.

Essentially a strap footing consists of a rigid beam connecting two pads (footings) to

transmit unbalanced shear and moment from the statically unbalanced footing to the second

fotting.

Design Assumptions

- strap is infinitely rigid

- strap is a pure flexural member and does not take soil reaction. (To confirm

with this, strap is constructed slightly above soil or soil under strap is loosened).

a1

b1

a2

Strap

b

a

P1

XC

WS

XS

a1

a2

s a2

sa1

a/2

e

b2

XR

R2

R1

a/2

1. a) Assume a

e=

a1 - a'

2

e = XC - X R

b) Determine the magnitude of the soil reaction force by taking moments about R

R1 = 1P

Xc

XR

+ Ws

Xs

XR

Foundation Engineering

29

In this equation the weight of the strap, Ws, may be neglected if the strap is relatively

short.

c) Determine the reaction R

R2 = P1 + P2 + Ws - R1

2. Determine sizes of footings using known v alues of R

b1 =

R1

s a1 * a1

b2 =

R2

s *a

a2

2

of a2 and determine b

b2 = a2 =

2

R2

s a2

, R2 and s

all

).

It should be noted that the actual bearing pressures under the footings should not very

different from each other in order to minimize differential settlement.

3. Determine and draw shear force and bending moment diagrams along the length of

the footings.

4. Select depths of footings for shear requirement.

5. Select steel reinforcement for bending requirement.

6. In short direction, the footings analyzed as spread footing subject to uniform soil

pressure.

7. Design strap as flexural member for the shear and moment obtained above.

Mat or raft foundation is a large concrete slab supporting several columns in two or

more rows. It is used where the supporting soil has low bearing capacity. The bearing

capacity increased by combining all individual footings in to one mat since bearing capacity

is proportional to width and depth of foundations. In addition to increasing the bearing

capacity, mat foundations tend to bridge over irregularities of the soil and the average

settlement does not approach the extreme values of isolated footings. Thus mat foundations

are often used for supporting structures that are sensitive to differential settlement.

Foundation Engineering

30

Design Assumptions

- mat is infinitely rigid

- planner soil pressure distribution under mat

Design Procedure

i) Determine the line of action of the resultant of all the loads acting on the mat

ii) Determine the contact pressure distribution as under

a) If the resultant passes through the center of gravity of the mat, the contact

pressure is given by

s =

Q

A

Qe

Q Qex

x y y

A Iyy

Ixx

The maximum contact pressure should be less than the allowable soil pressure

c) Divide the slab mat into strips in x and y directions. Each strip is assumed to

act as independent beam subjected to the contact pressure and the columns

loads.

d) Determine the modified column loads

e) Draw the sheer force and bending moment diagrams for each strip.

f) Select depth of mat for shear requirement

g) Select steel reinforcement for moment requirement

Y

ex

ey

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