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ITS TECHNIQUE AND MUSICAL RESOURCES .7/73 3 1975 THE VIOLA DA GAMBA ITS ORIGIN AND HISTORY.

.

NEW YORK LONDON FRANKFURT ZURICH . 7 59 NATHALIE DOLMETSGH THE VIOLA DA GAMBA ORIGIN AND HISTORY.No. ITS TECHNIQUE AND MUSICAL RESOURCES ITS HINRICHSEN EDITION LTD.

4 . S.. Ltd. i.B. All Rights Reserved. Copyright First Hdition 1963 Second Edition 1968 Printed In England by Robert Stockwell Ltd. London.1962 by Hlnrachsera Edition.z. London.. International Copyright Secxired. N".

CITY" fMO. tiHc? KANSAS fe-tbteir.) PUBLIC .To tlie jncieimLOsry of my ir^stor^ttion of" tHc: sixite^ntti in. inspired pi.eeir anrxuislc a.on.ri oFtHe and sovorrtcserttili.

. TECHNIQUE AND MUSICAL RESOURCES ITS by Nathalie Dolmetsch Chapter One Page ORIGIN AND EARLY HISTORY OF THE VIOL Chapter THE SIZES AND TUNINGS OF VIOLS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 85 86 88 . . . . . . . 24 Chapter Three THE DA GAMBA TECHNIQUE FIRST ESSENTIALS OF VIOLA 3$ Chapter Pour THE RULES FOR BOWING . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .CONTENTS THE VIOLA DA GAMBA ITS ORIGIN AND HISTORY. . . . . > . . . 45 . . . 9 Two . . . 78 Appendix BIBLIOGRAPHY . ORGANISATIONS devoted to the study and performance of and instruments old music . . NAMES AND SUBJECTS INDEX . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 74 Chapter Eight THE CONSORT OF VIOLS . . Chapter Five THE VIOLA DA GAMBA AS A SOLO INSTRUMENT 53 Chapter Six ORNAMENTATION AND INTERPRETATION ON THE VIOL 63 Chapter Seven THE VIOL PLAYED * LYRA WAY } . .

or square end of bow (Example is fl in bass clef. . after " and wrist travel back (" closing 28 . . . . with rounded wrist. London. and the narrow neck and typical English Division Viol. Right: ' * indicates point of bow. earliest illustration of . . . . to be which arm stops. hand and wrist continue stroke 28 Full-sized Violone (1580-1632) 7 8 3 3 Position of hand and Position of (pulling) stroke. . . for a 7-stringed viol) V 39 . circa 1500 . . fingerboard. . . the hand) 9 hand wrist at beginning of backward maintained for f -J of bow. fingers immediately behind frets. . by Giovanni Paolo Maggini. of Moderate length. . * . in St. at which point arm is stopped. * . to his directions. . and thumb grasping . . . of Jacques van Eyck" by 30 (1614-84) of Bowing the same marked Left: Rousseau's example. artist (Page 23) 5 6 2 2 Five-stringed Pardessue Grosset. Viol by Hans Vohar. . Bass Viols with more than 200 years between their construction . neck opposite second finger 28 3 How 29 3 Hand and 3 10 1 1 to hold Viol "The Family Gonzaks Coques 12. 13 4 The Rules and place Hands Fingers holding Detail from Bow . .. . . Brescia 27 hand and wrist at beginning of forward (accented) stroke. according * * indicates heel. . (Chris. Left hand placed on bass or tenor. . a Viol by a European 18 . . . Right: " at The Bass Viol. Vienna (1475) showing the early outline without corners. i 3 Page Chapter i Singer accompanied on three five-stringed Viols 17 . to be maintained for f-J of bow. . . Paul's Churchyard A 4 i English Tenor 4a i The Seventeenth-Century Alto Viol and Italian Viol. . 27 .TABLE OF ILLUSTRATIONS Plate i 2. . by Barak Norman "(1713). . Simpson) . Paris (1742) de Viole by Paul-Frangois . 17 Left.

Plate

Chapter

14

4

P*g*

The hands
Cecilia playing on a small Violone.
relaxed hold; the right hand is in the
graceful,
*
.
pulling position for a backward stroke

St.

show a
*

.

.

5

15

6

5

39

French Engraving of gentleman playing on a small
He is
seven-stringed Viola da gamba, with ten frets.
leaning it forward to draw on the lower strings, a useful
practice

1

.

.

.

.

-

.

-

4

-

Johann Schenk, a celebrated German Viola da gamba
Player, from an engraving by his brother Peter Schenk,
Note the extremely long bow, and
of about 1700.
method of holding it
.

.

4

*

1

7,

1

8

6

of ornamentation from Rousseau's Trait6 de la
Example
*
Viole (1687) the plain version above, the ornamented
Trills indicated by Rousseau with a cross
below.
lower example, not on original, have been
on
(letters
:

added
1

9

6

for clarification)

6

7

Division Viol

Marin Marais holding

gamba
21

Title

across his knee

.

.

.

.

-

.

.

(1667)

his large seven-stringed
.

.

.

.

.

.

41

42

Viola da
.

.

.

.

42

"The Viol Played Lyra Way." This
how to identify the frets by letters, for

playing from tablature

23

.

Page from

demonstrates

22

.

Charles Colman's Table of Ornaments, from Christopher
"
"

Simpson's

20

.

.

.

.

.

7

Music for the Lyra Viol in tablature

8

A

.

.

,

.

.

.

51

.

.

.

.

.

.

51

Chest of Viols from the Dolmetsch Workshops,

Haslemere (1960)

52

24

Dolmetsch Family Consort (1925)

25

Three Viola de gambas, Viol Bastarda, Lyra de bracio

26

Two

27

Clavicimbel, Violone, three old

.

.

.

.

.

.

Kleine Poschen, two Diskant-Geigen, Tenor-Geig,
Bas-Geig, Trumscheidt

Wind

Instruments

.

,

61

62

71

72

CHAPTER

I

ORIGIN AND EARLY HISTORY OF THE VIOL
said that In the early years of the Christian
religion,
when the first Fathers founded the Church, they realized
that It was not possible to make the
populace abandon
entirely their pagan credences, so to make the new beliefs easier
is

IT

for the people, the old gods were allowed to live on, In the sub
ordinate positions of myth and legend.
One who survived
in this fashion was Orpheus, and with him his
Lyre.

Clement of Alexandria, a Doctor of the Church who died
217, was responsible for a decree by which a lyre was
engraved on the rings worn by the Faithful. The lyre, by then
no longer a living Instrument, thus survived as a name and an

In

AJX

emblem of divine

music.

As the centuries passed,

name

this

legendary Instrument gave the

and we find, in Italy, the
da
Braccio
and
the
da
Lyra
Lyra
Gamba; the first being played
upwards,' held to the shoulder (as may be seen in many groups
of angelic musicians, In Italian paintings) and the second
downwards/ held between the legs, as its name implies.
The use of plucked musical instruments from the very
glory of

its

to the early viol,

*

6

has never been questioned; there is also a certain
to suggest that the bow, fitted with horse
Athanese Kircher (1602-80),
hair, is of very ancient origin.
a Jesuit who made exhaustive researches Into music, the nature
of sound, and many other branches of human knowledge,
quotes,
on the subject of the bow, one Schilte Haggiborim, a learned
Hebrew author and commentator on the Talmud,
earliest times

amount of evidence

According to Haggiborim, the Instruments of the Sanctuary

THE VIOLA DA GAMBA
were made In diverse fashions. They were thirty-six In number,
and it was David who found the way In which each should
be played. Amongst them were Instruments called Neghinoth,
made of wood, whose shape was rounded, with several holes
in the back.
They had three strings made of gut, from which
the sound was drawn with a bow bound with the hair from the
tail

of a horse.

Here

is

the passage as given

by Kircher:

&

&

rotunda,
Neghinoth, suerunt Instrumenta lignea^ longa
subtus eamultaformina ; tribusfidibus constabant ex intestinis animalium^

&

cum

vellent sonars ea, radebant fides

caudae equinae fortiter

cum Arcu compacto ex

pilis

astrictis.

Another instrument, he asserts, called Haghniugab, was
a viola da gamba, and had six strings.

just like

In Spain, another direct ancestor of the viol developed in
later times, In company with a similar Instrument which was
plucked instead of bowed, and here it had the name of Vihuela ;

by side the plucked Vihuela cle Mano and
bowed Vihuela de Arco. From this name derived the
Italian Viuola and Viola, the Viula of Provence, the VIele of
France (later Viole), and the English VIoL The name Viele
thus there existed side
the

became, in the

sixteei^th

gurdy, which was, in
which rubbed on the

century, identified with the

Hurdy-

a kind of viol played with a wheel
strings, producing a bag-pipe like effect.

fact,

In the twelfth-century Romance of Aucassin and Nicolette,
it Is recounted that Nicolette, in her search for Aucassin,
disguised
herself as a minstrel and travelled from country to country
playing the Viele, until she finally discovered Aucassin at the
English Court.

Another ancestor of the

viol, to which It owes Its sound-post,
This instrument had a sound-post, attached
to the foot of the bridge on the treble side, and
going right
through the sound-board to stand on the inside of the back.
The tuning of the early viol, and also that of the two lyras,
is

the Celtic crwth.

Is

related to that of the crwth.

like shaped vihuela's A two modern These have from four to six strings and are one above the other. 1 treatise . Such crwths are also depicted on mediaeval manuscripts in England. A different tuning became necessary for secular music and all with the third cantus which required much movement. each playing a different Instrument. Jerome mentions yet another manner of tuning but his meaning Is obscured by a scribal error. in fact. which he says was for modal music. He states that the viol had greater freedom than the rebec. like the second string of the previous tunings. was for a viol of which the bottom string (as on the crwth) was a drone and being outside the finger-board was not played on by the fingers. generally plucked. surrounded by his four companions.THE VIOLA DA GAMBA An Interesting picture in the Bible of Charles II (le Chauve) who died in 877. Jerome de Moravie. ceasing to be In unison with the second. no longer only a drone. This drone was tuned to D below middle C. become the lowest note on the instru ment. to G. however. Heman. and the lowest' string on the bass side had now. : (and middle) string at the octave G above. it is clear. The two upper strings were tuned in unison. 3th century monk. wrote in Paris a which gives detailed particulars of the viol of his period. suggestive of the circles representative. Germany and the Low Countries. needed to lie on the finger-board like the others. Also to be seen are Instruments which appear to be vihuelas. had been abandoned. tuned to G. was tuned to G above middle C. triangular harp. to D above middle C. The other modification consisted In the fact that the top string. that * the Drone D. on account of Its tuning which was In greater and lesser intervals It had five strings (unlike the fifths of the three-stringed rebec) and was tuned in two ways the first. . but occasionally bowed. The next string (from the bass side) was tuned a fifth below. shows David playing on a little of France. is plucking what appears to be a crwth. the guitar. and the bottom string. One of them.

to which Michael " " Praetorius devotes a chapter in his Syntagma Musicum (1640) . where it was to their own sub-divisions. but not fitted for maintaining harmonies. The tuning. suited to playing in concerted contra puntal works. added considerably to its number of strings . is somewhat longer and He can only guess at the origin of its name. and there it became popular under the name of Lyra Viol Its part in the development of the viol is difficult to place and date. the second. Praetorius states that (in the hands of a good master) it was able to maintain all the fugues and harmonies which were generally taken by a whole consort. . The viola da gamba of the fourteenth and fifteenth centuries was a melodic instrument. though the body. admitting of the playing in harmony in the manner of the lute and guitar. this is the Viola Bastarda. inherited from the vihuela side of its ancestry. though he suggests that it is probably a bastard from the other voices in the larger. he tells us. became established in fourths. Praetorius describes it as resembling the tenor in sound (pitch?). evolved into the viola da gamba. with its immense possibilities for music of all kinds. seventeenth and eighteenth centuries. as was done in the sixteenth. There is another member of the viol family. The viola bastarda was brought to England in about 1560. by Alfonso Ferrabosco I. which caused the strings to be close together on the finger-board and made it impossible to place the fingers the other cleanly on the notes of a chord without fouling * ' strings. for it had a narrow neck. retaining the drones. with a major third between the middle pair of strings. which instrument it can replace in case of need. taking its name from the Spanish Vihuela and abandoning the drones altogether. consort. developments of the viol become two distinct instruments with The first later of these was the Lyra group (da Braccio and da Gamba) previously spoken of and which.THE VIOLA DA GAMBA These tunings foreshadow the in Italy.

The three-stringed instruments viol were tuned in fifths and were in fact. he deals exhaustively with the method of testing strings to deter mine whether they are true or false. a true double-bass became possible a full octave below the consort bass. Ganassi's warning to the player also shows the strong Moorish Influence on music in Spain (and from Spain to Italy). has not survived. a Spanish Monk whose treatise. He tells the player that if after these precautions he finds his viol still out of tune when playing with others. Ramon de Pareja.THE VIOLA DA GAMBA This relates It to one of its parents. entitled In this work he warns Regola Rubertina. which descended a fifth below the bass viol (down to GG) and was the Contra Basso da Viola of the i6th century. The second volume of Ganassl's work is devoted to the bass In this book viol. Ganassi's vlolone is not the same Instrument as that so named by Praetorius. English 55 " the player against adopting Moorish Attitudes/' such as holding the viol crossways. that of his master. by implication. and the need for careful tuning both of frets and of the instrument. In 1542. This method of holding the viol relates it once again to the vihuela. Those with four were tuned with a third between the two lowest strings and a fourth between the others. his ear has obviously been at fault and he must try again to perfect himself. the vihuela. rebecs. which he calls Violone: a viol with five strings. written In the previous century. and suggests the possibility that he is quoting from an earlier work. the Italian classification of it as viola bastarda This gives. Its other parent. with the more general use of gut covered with wire for the lower strings (a new Invention when " Praetorlus wrote his Syntagma Muslcum"). In his second volume Ganassi also gives a description of viols mounted with only four strings. and others with three. Instrument and its technique will be dealt with in a later chapter. the lyra da gamba. 13 Rebecs are also . At the close of the century. as does Its name. Silvestro Ganassi dal Fontego wrote a treatise on " the viol.

with the violin outline. there exist viols of all periods with shaped and rounded backs. The back was though this was not Invariable. These four-stringed Instruments may have been. The shoulders again were subject to variation. the first. second. ancestors of the violin. four strings. Klelne Geigen. whilst those on English. particularly on consort instruments. and occasionally on these latter. was a slim. French and German were "C" " " flame shaped. and have gifted it with a sound-post. 14 . the viol acquired corners. with six he called Welsche and the strings. It had a waist which on the freely top and bottom string without touching the sides. frequently had ornamental outlines. and resembled the early guitar and The lyra da gamba. Italian makers differed from those of other countries also on a The tail-piece of their viol (to which the point of construction. In Ms rhymed treatise (i545)- The viols of Agricola were of two kinds. as on the violoncello. " " curl which usually meeting squarely/ and without the extra * c 5 became standard on the though a few basses were made violin. allowed the bow with bridge intended to facilitate the playing of several had not needed a waist. they were sometimes constructed to come in square to the heel of the neck. generally flat. but without corners. and such Instruments its flat to move strings at once. like the three-stringed rebec. which the rebec lacked. though usually sloping (which gave greater ease in reaching the end of the finger board for playing in the higher positions). The shaped. though in a more elongated form. The viol of the fifteenth century Instrument. graceful-looking Curved. vihuela. The sound-holes on Italian viols were " F " shaped as on the violin (which points to an Italian origin for the violin's modern form). with only Geigen. During the sixteenth century.THE VIOLA DA GAMBA described by Martin Agricola under the name of Polische " Musica instrumentalis deudsch " Geigen.

he places its origin amongst the Ancient Egyptians. from 1620 to 1624. as on the modern violin. according to Rousseau. his was handed from the Egyptians from the Greeks to the Italians and from the Italians to the English.THE VIOLA DA GAMBA were attached) was fastened at the base by a thick piece of gut. carried the pieces in harmony upon it. the Abb Maugars. attributes the introduction of covered strings. and he names some of cc " the musicians who were instrumental in doing this as Vvalderan at the Court of Spain. spent four years in England at the Courts of James I and Charles I. Another famous French player. a sixth string had been added. this being let-in and firmly glued in the base of strings the instrument. he gained much from * William Young d. Colombe. had five The bridge was low and flat. to whom he also Rousseau asserts that the viol to the Greeks. the thick strings tuned in fourths. The neck was heavy and upright. he says. " " in Vienna and others in various places (allowance must Pries be made for doubtful spelling of the English names) The first viols in France. in us that though the was in his viol " is Traite de la Viole " (Paris. unlike the slim thrown-back neck of Rousseau's day. The makers of other countries made a square hole through the tail-piece. an instrument of great antiquity. His theory of its history in Europe is an interesting one. looped round a button on the end of the instrument. and strings and were very large. In time. 15 . de St. 1687). tells Jean Rousseau. who were the first to compose and play The English. For the seventh string Rousseau gives the credit to Mons. 1671. : . "Joung"* with the Court of Innsbruck. There. it time of comparatively recent introduction in France. through which a hook-shaped wooden peg was thrust. though the instrument he describes is more related to the Eastern Rebec or Rhebab. knowledge of the viol to other kingdoms. and later a seventh. a celebrated violist of his time. he tells us.

The Cardinal was giving a concert of music for voices at his Maugars. to obscure the * voices. or indeed any other instrument. From France. skilled three or more parts on the bass Viol with profuse ornamentation and a rapidity offingers. in c A laughed and pretended to be amused. above all when someone accompanies But the former also plays alone in two. Mersenne wrote of him as coupling him with another celebrated player. and very shortly procured Maugars* banishment. in the following circumstances. seeing that formerly 16 . played with such vigour and brilliance the King's opinion. and indeed played in Rome: at which I am much surprised. greatly to the benefit of music historians. but the Cardinal was greatly incensed. but I have not heard as to the one player who can compare with Ferrabosco of England it is very little Viol. " wrote as follows: he le sentiment de la musique d' Italic (1639) The Lyra is still well esteemed among them.THE VIOLA DA GAMBA those great English masters Giovanni Coperario (John Cooper) and Alfonso Ferrabosco II (born in Greenwich). 3 Maugars return to France. guest. as. his bass on was accompanying the voices viol. After leaving England. in 1636. Maugars travelled to Italy. who Palace. them on the Harpsichord. as his letters from there give invaluable information as to the state of music in Italy at that time. both very men in this art: they excel in divisions and by the incomparable delicacy and suavity of their bowing. and in un curieux sur In "Rcponsc particular as concerned the viol. there is no one in Italy who excels on it. about which he appears to concern himself so little. that nothing to compare with it has hitherto been heard from those who have ployed on the viol. " " I will exclaimed Maugars angrily plague on this ignoramus! " a as became The never play before him again! royal King. Maugars spent twelve years in the This employment finished service of the Cardinal de Richelieu. Hottman: After follows. JVb one in France can equal Maugars and Hottman. with Louis XIII as the principal guest. and his Majesty sent him a message to that effect.

Paul's yard. and the narrow neck and fingerboard YEARS BETWEEN THEIR CONSTRUCTION A typical English Division Viol. CHAPTER No. Dolmetsch Collection 2.' PLATE No. 3 CHAPTER No. Vienna (1475) showing the early outline without corners. Canasxf dal Fontcgo: I * Rcgolo Rubertina* 1542 J SINGER ACCOMPANIED ON THREE FIVE-STRINGED VIOLS PLATES Nos. 'at The Bass Viol. by Barak (1713). 1 BASS VIOLS WITH MORE THAN 200 Viol by Hans Volrat.* London Norman Church- . in St.

4 CHAPTER No. 1 ENGLISH SEVENTEENTH CENTURY ALTO VIOL ITALIAN TENOR VIOL. at. 1500 .PLATE No.

In England it was rising to its greatest musical heights. He was then provided with a theme of some fifteen to twenty notes This he to Improvise. . After the 3 celebration of Mass. did with such brilliance that he was entreated by the Cardinals to on which play again. preserved from damp generally " " lined with green baize in a large chest (such was the recom country. but perhaps he means as a solo Instrument] who then have surpassed all other very good use on other instruments. and certainly they had never heard so many parts sustained on one viol.THE VIOLA DA GAMBA they had one Horatio posterity some de excellent Parma. mendation of Thomas Mace in " Musick's Monument. matched. Maugars answer was to arrange to give a public demonstration in the French Church in Rome. but that they doubted whether he would be capable of improvising divisions on a given theme." 1676). after the Agnus Dei." comprising a set of six. and also the father the great Perrabosco. accompanied on a small organ. This time he was given a rather gayer subject than the first. at which twenty-three Cardinals assisted.. that they were greatly astonished and came to pay me compliments- This procured me the greatest honour which I ever received. decline In Italy. as though they were of their composing. Louis. remarked that it was all very well for him to play these elaborate solo pieces. jealous of a foreigner. both professional and amateur all over the While the viol was In Its cc Every large house had Its chest of viols. but that the professional musicians. We learn that Maugars' playing was much admired by those who came to hear him privately in Rome. amid warm applause. which was the Feast of St. instruments. he mounted the rostrum with his viol. on the following day. nations. of which he wrote: This I diversified with so many inventions and different kinds of movement and tempi. who did marvels on it and who left to pieces^ of which some of our people have made own who brought the of first use of it to the English [he Is mistaken here. and was held In the highest esteem by musicians.

and had then obtained a pardon by the charm of his playing. and that a part too. my Fiddle is a Bass Viol. and took delight . / heard an organ in. pupil Oliver Cromwell. Charles I maintained a private consort. in a of Ferrabosco II. Richard performed by such men Giovanni Deering. I remember so he left us. The story became so far distorted as to say that Sir Roger had managed to slip Into the Protector's presence by bribing the servants. times to life little story brings the musical picture of the for us. and he hearing. By and by. This It was which caused L'Estrange to publish his pamphlet. solo as Christopher Simpson and many others. his played the bass viol John Kingston. have laid down his viol and walked out.THE VIOLA DA GAMBA Both consort and works were being composed and Alfonso Ferrabosco II. having been. He found us playing. James Park (writes Sir Roger). used to have concerts at his house. youth. with a fiddle concealed under Ms cloak. on Cromwell's entrance. Coperario. I did so. in his turn. a Royalist who was to become one of the Licensers of published music under This Charles II. John Jenkins. his organist. little low room of one Mr. Hingston. at which the daring compositions of William Lawes must have obtained their first The King himself played the bass viol. William Lawes. A little anecdote comes to light in a pamphlet entitled " Truth also and Loyalty vindicated " by Sir Roger L'Estrange. I went U This happening led to other Royalists giving Estrange the " of Noll's for held that he Fiddler/' appellation they should. not much to advance the reputation of my cunning. at which Cromwell was often present. Being touched in a in St. In 1662. without the least colour of a or in comes Cromwell. and as design expectation. and found a private company ofJive or six persons: they desired me to take up a viol and bear a part. maintained a consort. and thafs somewhat a Truly troublesome instrument under my cloak" Though Cromwell supported a 20 viol consort. " " " he added.

the Puritans degraded music by banishing it from the Churches and treating ultimately as a temptation of the Devil. But before the Restoration ofK. which A. John's College. Ch.. Many Gentlemen of the Chapel Royal withdrew to Oxford. and much respected by Wilson the Ralph Sheldon Gent. there were. for instance: John Cocky M. Some others. or Harpsichon three y belonging to and an instrument only a common Fidler and could not endure that it should come joyrfd with them : they esteemed a Violin to be among them^ for feare of making their meetings to be vaine andjidling. like Christopher Simpson. Lutinist. uncomfortable life with her. details. Viols began to be out of Fashion^ and only Violins used. smooth and admirable way in playing on the Viol Bister and marrying one of and many more.A. admired for his Professor. and music received a new impetus. a Rom. Catholick. as Treble Viol. by the Authority of the became Rector of Heyford-Wareyne near Woodwards of Woodstock. eminent musicians left the country. He afterwards we hear William interesting Coll. W.THE VIOLA DA GAMBA both in listening to the organ and to Deering's Latin motets. Fellow of Mew 9 Visitors. four and Jive parts with Viols.A. tenor and Bass-Violin. Fellow of Alls. 21 . lived an George Stradling^ M. the finally. the many musicians who met at the house of Ellis. and the King according to the French Mode y would have 24 Violins playing before airie and Of him while he was at Mealesy as being more y brisk than Viols. were maintained by their patrons. Tenor\ played Counter-Tenor and Bass. with an Organ or Virginal. Interesting accounts of some of the regular music meetings are given in the Musical Autobiography of Anthony Wood: The gentlemen in private meetings . frequented. an admirable Coll. where consorts began to flourish in private. it. former organist of St. 2 and especially after .. as Treble-Violin.

P. The u Pardessus de VIole n was also enjoying a period of expansion under de Gaix d'HervcloIs and lesser composers. The viol consort as a composition. especially for this reason. But when King Charles was with the it. the bass viola da gamba was In England. good at the Treble-Viol and the Treble-Violin. man of three or the Meetings. The is difficult. lingered on In England the of II and into that of William and Mary. such as of tone and its capacity for reedy clarity playing in its harmony. lively style considered appropriate to violins. Bach was giving the gamba obbligati in cantatas. were writing In the vigorous. J. G. though It at this period. Marin Marais. to place the dividing line between the intended for viols and those for violins. and all comprehended in a Proctor. through reign James with the consorts of Matthew Locke and Henry Purcell. As a solo instrument. with S. He had Holy well. works composers. Telemann was using It in duo and trio sonatas. exceedingly pittied by all the faculty admired at for his loss [his early death]. restored the Episcopacy and Cathedrals then did the Meetings decay. Louis de Gaix d'HerveloIs and Antoine Forqueray were composing and playing their magnificent "Pieces" at the Court of Louis XIV. because Masters of Musick were called away to Cathedrals and Collegiate Choirs. John Jenkyns. . studied effect. the particular qualities of the instrument. though nevertheless possible on viols. 4 and and He was much twentie yeares of age. and was accounted more suitable for young ladles than the violin. changing trends and fashions. the Mirrour and Wonder of his Age and Music was excellent for for the Lyra-Viol and Division Viol. . whilst in France It was at the height of Its still in use popularity. and some works were published as sensitive to the suitable for either.THE VIOLA DA GAMBA a yong man and a new Commer Proctor died in and was buried in the middle of the Church there. been bred up by Mr. and both were employing. In Germany. and sonatas with the harpsichord.

Cambridge (0... however. European Aftiftt. and composers for the With its departure from the stage. PLATE No.)' . from a MS of the Commentary of St. Trinity College. written at Canterbury. First part of 12th Century. that the viol really began to die out as a solo instrument.7." les It Enterprises was not du Violon et les until the close of the century. the scene viola da gamba. Jean Baptiste Forqueray ( 1 700-83) and Karl Friedrich Abel (1725-87) were the last great players of. was writing his Sonatas for " Violoncello o Viole di Gamba (sic) with a contintio part for the violoncello and harpsichord. in Paris 5 felt it necessary to write his little book Defense de la Basse de Viole centre Preventions du Violence!. In 1 740^ the tide was already beginning to tura> and Hubert " le Blanc. in Italy. and even then it was still considered by many to be a better partner to the violin and harpsichord than the violoncello.4. was set for the violoncello in the string quartets and orchestras of the nineteenth century. Jerome on the books of the Bible.THE VIOLA DA GAMBA " Benedetto Marcello. 4 Hies EmrUent of a Viol fey n.

CHAPTER
THE

SIZES

II

AND TUNINGS OF VIOLS

the end of the fifteenth century the Viol and Violin
families were established as of two distinct types of instruments

FROM
the

:

and generally tuned in fourths and one third 3
the second unfretted and tuned in fifths.
Writers from Virdung in 1511 onwards mention and describe
both families of instruments. That of the Viola da Gamba will
first,

fretted

be considered exclusively here.
Virdung's Viol had nine strings and seven frets, and may
have had a closer relationship to the Lyra da Gamba than the
Martin Agricola's Viols, in 1528, consisted of
later instruments.
Treble and Tenor, with five strings, and Bass with six. The Bass
was equivalent to the seventeenth century Tenor, tuned G, c, f, a,
d, g, the third lying similarly between the middle pair of strings.
The Tenor was tuned like the bass, but without the low G; the
The
third, still between f and a, was no longer in the middle.
Treble, a fourth higher than the tenor, was tuned f, a, d, g, c,
retaining the third between f and a as in the other Viols, thus
bringing it between the lowest pair of strings (the tunings are all
given here from the bottom up)
With Ganassi in 1542, " seventeenth century" tuning had
become established, being both lower in the Bass and higher in the
Treble, which now lay a fifth above the Tenor, which in turn
being a fourth above the Bass gave an octave between the Treble
.

and

Bass,

Ganassi: Treble d, g,

Tenor
Bass

c', c', a', d".

G, c, f, a, d',
D, G, c, e, a,
24

g'.

d'.

THE VIOLA DA GAMBA
GanassI mentions also a fourth member of the
family, the
Alto, which instrument in his time,, though smaller than the tenor
was tuned in unison with it.
"
Traite de la Viole " (Paris, 1687)
Jean Rousseau in his
gives the following information.

Having described the

bass,

he

says:

There have been in use for some time
sizes: one a
little

little

smaller than the Bass

smaller than the Tenor

smaller than the Alto
the parts

of

to serve

three other viols

to serve

of

different

as Tenor, and one a

as Alto; and finally one a little
These four instruments take

to serve

as Treble.

the four voices, as

had been

the practice in Italy
long ago,

where the four viols were tuned thus: the Tenor and Alto in unison, one
fifth above the Bass (i.e. A to a ) and the Treble one fourth above the
f

Tenor and Alto, that is to sqy 9 one octave above the Bass
(d to d"}.
When these four viols were used in France, the Tenor was

tuned a fourth above the Bass [G to g'], the Alto a fourth above
the Tenor [c to c"], and the Treble one tone above the Alto, at
the octave above the Bass [d to d"]
.

"

"
Mersenne, in his Harmonic Universelle (1627) places the
third on the alto between the 4th and fifth string (he counts from
the top) giving f and a, in the following words:
As to the HauU-Contre [Alto] its tuning differs only from that of
the others in that the

and $th

yd

string a major

and

third

the

^th string give a fourth and the

Since

it is

customary

to

tune the

$.th

four

recognised sizes of Viol together from the A, which is taken on the
second string of the Treble and the Bass, on which one regulates usually
all the Viols

With the

which are as numerous as the
six-stringed, the top c" is missing, which makes them equivalent
to a small tenor without the bottom G and they are well suited
with the third between f and a.
In the consort-writing of such composers as Giovanni
Coperario, Thomas Lupo, William Lawes, William White and
Matthew Locke, there is frequently to be found a part from which
five-stringed altos,

25

THE VIOLA DA GAMBA
tessitura appears to have been written for an alto.
"
cc
c
on the line next to the
usually in the clef with

its

This part

is

bottom (as is
sometimes used for treble parts), instead of on the middle line of
Certain instruments surviving from
the stave as for the tenor.
this period, large for

a treble but small for a tenor, lend colour to
was used in England as well as on the

the belief that the alto

Continent.

mentioned

Mace

It

must be borne

mind, however, that

in

in the treatises of John Playford (1674)

The

addition of another

it

is

not

and Thomas

3?

* c

or colour of
the
of
mid-seventeenth
works
sound
century is
complex
and useful in lightening involved contrapuntal
attractive,
a set of 2 Trebles, i Alto, i Tenor, 2 Basses makes a
and
passages,
fine Chest of Viols for this period.
The size of each member of the family may vary considerably 3
The string lengths
as can be judged by the table which follows.
(1676).

voice,

to the

suggested are those that suit the size of body, and though best
suited to a pitch of a semitone (approximately) below the modern
"
??
cc
normal/' are nevertheless able to come up to diapason normal

(a=44o) with strings of average thickness. For a pitch of another
tone below, the string length should, ideally, be increased by the
space of the two widest frets, making one tone, though the thick
ness of the strings is also useful in adjusting the pitch.
To the table has been added those extremes of the Viol family
which are not generally used in the consort: the Pardessus de
first known by its French name as most
and the second by its Italian name for

Viole and the Violone ; the

popular in that country
the same reason.

The Pardessus, lying a fourth above the treble, though keeping
its

third

between the
little

c'

and

e',

had

in

pardessus
Stockholm has seven strings and

interesting

added top

The

either five or six strings.
"
"
Historiska Museet

the
is

tuned

like

An
in

a treble, with an

g".

continental bass acquired an extra string at the bottom

in the mid-seventeenth century, a
26

low AA*

Brescia (1580-1632) . 2 FIVE-STRINGED PARDESSUE DE VIOLE by Paul-Francois Grosset. Berlin CHAPTER No. 5 Institut fur Musikfomhung.PLATE No. Paris (1742) PLATE No. 2 FULL-SIZED VIOLONE by Giovanni Paolo Maggini. 6 Dotmetsch Collection CHAPTER No.

drawing by John Bailey (1958) 8 CHAPTER No. to be maintained for f-. hand and H wrist travel back ('closing' the hand).PLATE No. fingers grasping neck opposite second finger. hand and wrist continue stroke. and thumb wrist. ( 1 95 8 ) 3 Position of hand and wrist at beginning of forward (accented) stroke. after which arm stops. with rounded immediately behind frets. drawing by John Bailey (1958) 3 hand placed on bass or tenor. 3 Position of hand and wrist at beginning of backward (pulling) stroke to be maintained for of bow. . drawing by John Bailey 7 CHAPTER No. at which point arm is stopped. PLATE No.f of bow. 9 ClIAFTIiR Left NO. PLATE No.

* Simpson: Division Viol* (1667) 3 HOW TO HOLD VIOL AND PLACE HANDS . 10 CHAPTER No.PLATE No.

1 1 CHAPTER No. 3 HAND AND FINGERS HOLDING BOW OF MODERATE LENGTH Detail from * The Family of Jacques van Eyk * by Gonzales Coques (1614-84) .PLATE No.

d*. / \ 97 cm. c s c. d* 3f 14* 35. isf" -33. f 15* i \ 35 cm.5 cm. g* length f isf" \ 33 cm. a'. -12 }* 33. D. 23^ ^o cm. DIVISION VIOL (Viola da Gam Gamba) 7 D. c ? e.5 cm. (Note that the smaller Tenors are usually without bottom G) (Taille.5 cm. a. f \ 12 f" 31. BASS VIOL d OR CONSORT BASS (Viola da Gamba. . G. Alt-Tenor) (G). 66 cm. c'. A.5 cm. c' e'. g' (c") 6" f 15* \ 35 cm. 53 cm. 15!* 40. d'.THE VIOLA DA GAMBA of Viols Vmrfmtions In die of string (bridge to nut) length of body PARDESSUS DE VIOLE (g).5 cm.5 cm.5 cm.5 cm. a. \ 35 cm. a. a. Diskant) d. / 26^ 27J* 68 cm.- 39!" 105 cm. d \ cm. d' VIOLONE DD GG S f C. 38" -39** 105 cm. ALTO VIOL (Alto. f \ 21* 53. Alt) c. 70. f \ 25^ \ 65 "cm. Basse de Viole) (AA). 24!* 62 "cm. 39 cm. f.5 cm. g' LYRA VIOL variable tuning \ 2iJ* 52 cm. --41 cm. 71 / 38!" \ 98. g. d'. G. 26}^ 26' 68 "cm. TENOR VIOL f f 18}* 20}" 17}" 47.- f \ 13}* 15* f J 35 cm. \ 45 cm.5 cm. TREBLE VIOL (Dessus dc Viole. f \ aij* 23}-* 60 cm. a'. 55. e'. E. f 26^ 27i* \ 68 cm. c f.

like those of a Lute^ but something thicker. he was a pupil of John Jenkins for the treble viol. if the player so wishes. In Ms " THOMAS First [says he] make Choice of a Viol Jit for jour Hand. are viole da bracclo and not viole da gamba. unlike that of members of the violin family. as all sizes are held downwards between the knees s and bowed " under-hand. as a boy. like the violins. changing to the bass as a young man at Cambridge* Members of the viol family are fretted. which. who. and with seven Frets. Christopher Simpson in "The Division describes the strings and frets as follows Viol" (1659)5 : // [the viol] must be accommodated with six Strings. like lutes and guitars^ the only exceptions to this rule being the viole d'amore. the seventeenth century musical historian writes In his autobiography that. jet rather of a seize something too Big than (at all] too little (Especially if you be young and Growing). to change from one to another as the hand becomes larger. If also jou fasten a small Frety at the distance of an Octave from the open Strings 3* .CHAPTER III THE FIRST ESSENTIALS OF VIOLA DA GAMBA TECHNIQUE " Musick's Monument (1676) gives a considerable amount of useful advice on playing the viol. precedes It with remarks on the Instrument the player should choose: MACE." It Is therefore easy. viola Roger North. as they are played up. The technique of the da gamba. varies very little through the range from treble to bass.

THE VIOLA DA GAMBA (which is the middle betwixt the nut and the Bridge} it will be a good Guide to jour Hand. to in or the tune possible string with playing. your toes turned a little outwards towards your left shoulder. 1687). coming off the fret. adjustable nut should be screwed-up so that the An u u 35 forms a slight outward bow. be played is described by Playford as follows: In holding your viol observe this Rule. has much of the brightness of the open string coming off the nut. by pushing pulling the finger. your and letyour feet and let the rest fiat on the ground. it be laid Stiff and The bow of Playford's day was more commonly one with a fixed nut. when you stop that part of the Finger-board. " " (Paris. however^ the viol to subject themselves to this rule to play on all kinds of seats it is good to use a convenient The position of the viol when it is to a but it : for one is certain one. The frets. Jean Rousseau. The frets characteristic clarity of tone. viol lean top ofyour Further details as to the position Thomas Mace: 33 may be gathered from . John Playford in " A Brief Introduction to the Skill of Music " bow to be of your Bow let (1658) advises as to the In the choice and use y let the Hair y used: be proportioned to the Viol you the Bow not too heavy. are tunable by the player. essential to the clear performance of give to the viol music and brilliant in solo its the close counterpoint in the consorts. being of gut tightly tied with a special knot It is also ideally suited to the purpose." and the hair is laid stiff. the tightness of the hair being therefore regulated by the maker. Each note. place it gently between knees\ resting the lower end thereof upon the calms of your legs. in his Traite de la Viole has much to say concerning the height of seat to be employed stick : The first point be considered for placing the viol is to take to convenient seat y neither too high nor too low all those who play for must accustom oneself that in the beginning : it is not necessary .

that the viol was not allowed to rest against the player's shoulder. Having placed a convenient Seat for Height. joyn the upon the in Shorter against the by which you may Pojze. it may Left Hand. but if $d Finger in Assistance to It. but was held well away. of the the floor. says. close to the viol and not by the middle of the neck. so as by them. Certain points which have not been made clear by Playford or Mace. take jour Fingers. so as jour knees may not hinder set jour Viol Bow. and a little further forward than the right. tut in Playing Swift Divisions^ 2 Fingers and the Thumb is Best. 34 . It can be further observed from contemporary paintings. and so fast that a the Motion ofjour Down between the Calves ofjour Legs stand steadily. 2nd Fingefs-End Turned the Thumb. that the viol must be freely. which might " disturb the frets. so as to be able to play more " d'une maniere plus degagee ". and two ist Finger Fastening that Finger be not Strong enough. the left a little more. which is Thus. Bow. and the continues with instructions bow: for holding the Then Mace Bow betwixt jour Right Thumb and Nut. The viol being well placed. Upright. and Knees. comme il arrive assez ordinairement " and that the actual height of the viol between the calves of the legs will body of the . and " 33 carried with the left hand at the heel of the neck. by Bending.THE VIOLA DA GAMBA Then enter into your posture. should be turned out. vary with the size of the players. on such yourself Natural Posture. balanced in a comparatively upright position. always kept flat on the ground and never turned on their sides or with the heel off of the instrument. who states that the player must sit on the edge of the seat. the height of the seat and the size He has a little more to add about the positions he feet. and keep up the Point ofjour Fore** Hairs. and in a Comely. near the Stalk. are clarified by Rousseau. which. without the help ofjour stander-bj cannot easily take it from Thence.

and the manner of holding it. object. assisted at the end by the wrist. the viol bow had become progres sively longer as the makers attempted to gratify increasingly. One. In the words of movement. This. I could never Use It so well. This difficulty is readily understood when it is realised that during the sixteenth century. There are some good illustrations of the position of hand for holding a bow of moderate length in contemporary paintings. the players' desire for a long stroke. that for my own Part. bows except by holding them two or three inches off the nut. while a cherub holds up her music. can be seen in the engraved portrait of Johann Schenk I. though Rousseau: To manage the the bow hand thrown back] the wrist y the wrist must be advanced inwards [with and.. hand must say that the . Tet I must confess. But 'tis possible. Another. this is by Gonzales Coques (1614-1684) and portrays the "Family of Jacques Van Eyck. by Domenico Zampieri (1581-1641) represents St. Johann was a virtuoso German viola da gambist of the late seventeenth and early eighteenth centuries. beginning must follow. by his brother Peter Schenk. yielding: which 35 to push is to the bow from the end. Simpson's Directions. as may be seen from Mace's defeated its it as was not possible to balance such words. for Good Poking of It. In the management of the bow. that by Use I might have made It as Familiar to self as It My was to Him.THE VIOLA DA GAMBA He adds Ingenuously: This according to Mr. and the short stroke The elbow should play no part in the entirely from the wrist. shows a young man playing on a six-stringed viola da gamba. of comparatively late date." A clear picture of a very long bow. Cecilia playing on a small double-bass viol or violone. as when I held it 2 or 3 inches off the Nut (more or less} according to is the Length or Weight of the Bow. stiffness is to be avoided. the general consensus of opinion seems to have been that the long stroke should come from the shoulder.

Under the marginal heading: " Mace states: Sweet Stroke c< The surest way (as to gain a draw your Bow just Cross the Strings in a Direct Line^ endeavouring to Sound one Single String. that should Cross. And. and till you have gained This. This is the First and Best Piece of Practice you can follow. but ifyou stir that Joint in quick Notes. or Elevating the Point in the least. which is must be generally . and from Point to Hand Smoothly. many have] your Viol will seem Bad. think of Nothing else. following the arm without pulling the elbow. in which posture (playing long notes) you will necessarily move your shoulder Joint. for one must not advance it on the forward stroke nor take it back on the backward one [the elbow]. which (by all means] must be aooyded. or Force Nature. Quick Motes expressed by moving some Joint nearer the agreed upon to be the Wrist 36 therefore Hand. well-nigh from Hand to Point. Simpson advises I Told you before that you must stretch out your Arm : Streight. or Teilding to an Agile Bending: I do conceive most familiarly Natural. the which enough yet] something Plying. or Contended for . and your Play Worse. Speaking of the Division Viol.THE VIOLA DA GAMBA advance inwards^ and when one pulls the bow back one must carry the hand outwards . to quote Mace: So likewise. which some as with my Arm (Straight of do contend for ? / could never do so well. with a long Bow. Now being thus far ready for exercise [continues Mace] attempt the striking ofyour Strings. and not Only to Dripping. but before you do thaty Arm yourself with Preparative Resolutions to gain a Handsome-Sweet-Smart-ClearStroak. For I would have no Posture Urg*d> Disputed. or else Play not at all: for your Viol be never so Good^ ifyou have too an Unhandsom~Harsh~Rugged~Scratching~Scraping~Stroak. it will cause the whole body to shake. as also any other indecent Gesture. for the Exact straitness Bow-Arm.

24 bow-hair " " playing length) lies across the nut. can be precised as follows : The bow should be grasped between thumb and first two The thumb. hand recovering Its original position. for three-quarters " of the return stroke.THE VIOLA DA GAMBA Mace further explains that this movement begins and ends and describes it as " a further jet of the wrist. for three-quarters of the stroke. to finish the stroke. ins. . and this with the help of the thumb. The hand remains in this extended bow from with the wrist quite loose and relaxed. with the hand bent back from the wrist. and so upon all Others. The first finger is curled aslant over the stick." while the arm pulls back the bow from the shoulder. the cross the strings at a distance of two or three inches from the bridge. balances the bow. The bow Is tipped downwards towards the bridge. tells his reader that: Mace If it be a Large-Consort-Viol^your Bow must Move about % Inches and a Halffrom the Bridge. the. and the tip of the second finger pressed firmly on the bow-hair. Information that the towards the bridge. tirez. * The 3rd finger may be joined to the and. if a Treble-Viol.* The palm of the hand Is turned a little upwards. poussez. so that it rests on the " The forward. At this point the arm stops and the hand continues to go forward from the wrist. The last quarter is accomplished by the position. accented stroke. Rousseau urges the importance of using long strokes of the bow." the long strokes. and besides advising the use of one finger on the bow-hair. The arm pushes the edge of the hair. some players 37 prefer this. Simpson and Rousseau agree that the bow should wrist." begins at the point. bringing the palm close to the bow-hair. coupled with the infor mation gained from contemporary paintings. about an Inch and a Half. correspon dingly across the stick on a longer bow. on a bow of moderate length (not exceeding fingers. the shoulder. according to This Suitable Proportion. gives bow should lean downwards The instructions of all these masters.

In such" that one admired him often more In the tender performance of une " than In the fullest and most learned works. was the first to compose. set maj pass smoothly from Note to Note. petite chansonette tenderness The of his play [says Rousseau] came from these that the viol bow bow which he animated and softened with such charmed all those who heard him. hold it on there. In France. it is from him in particular that we have the fine from carriage of the hand which has given the last perfection to the viol. left hand Rousseau speaks of Colombe. who. as also to continue the Sound of a Note when the Fingers too the Bow has left it. that taking it off. and the first to " " produce de beau chants which imitated the voice. and plaj the following Notes with other Fingers^ until some occasion require the This is done as well for better order of Fingering. which is the onlj . Hottman. 38 of the voice. even surpassed his teacher: -for besides the beautiful strokes of the bow which he learnt Mons. he says. Hottraan. He Is speaking of Mons.THE VIOLA DA GAMBA Rousseau gives his readers an idea of the quality of sound should be expected to produce. and this give perfection to the viol and to make it be esteemed beautiful strokes of the skill it is and judgment which began to that he y above all other instruments. without lifting them far from the Strings. who. and made it possible to imitate all the most beautiful ornaments model of all the instruments. have liberty On to Play on the Lute) keep jour opposite to jour fore-finger . as occasion shall require. the subject of fingering Simpson states When jou . so as jour thumb on Hand may remove up and down. Tou must not [says Simpson] grasp the neck of jour Viol like violin. by a The position of the left hand and arm are also well described the writers already quoted. pieces in harmony realized upon the viol.. anj Finger down. the pupil of Hottman. has made performance easier and free-er. he asserts. but rather (as those that the back of the Neck. In discussing the position of the St.

4 Left. 13 CHAPTER No. the right ON A SMALL VIOLONE hand is in the * * pulling position for a backward stroke .EX E M V b~ vH *** 1 rf rs PLATES Nos. Rousseau: 12.'-\ <&? ym /a F/o/e ' (1687) THE RULES OF BOWING Rousseau's example. is in right.* indicates heel. or square end of bow (' Example for a 7-stringed Viol) clef.rC_tar * TVoiYl . * fl bass ' the same marked according to his directions. indicates point of bow. 14 CHAPTER No. Domemco Zampien ' PL ATE No. ffsn' . 4 ^ ST. The hands show a (15814641) CECILIA PLAYING graceful. ' * V 1- E* V . relaxed hold.

and method of holding 1700. playing on a small seven-stringed Viola da gamba. A CELEBRATED GERMAN VIOLA DA GAMBA PLAYER from an engraving by his brother Peter Schenk. 5 JOHANN SCHENK. it. with ten frets. of about Note the extremely long bow. PLATE No. It" . a useful practice. 5 FRENCH ENGRAVING of gentleman. He is leaning it forward to draw on the lower strings. * i '"H * ! > * 4 PLATE No. 16 CHAPTER No. 15 CHAPTER No.. .

.Comtnc. not on original) have been added for clarification. the ornamented below. s'il * 17. Trills indicated by Rousseau with a cross (letters on lower example. - AINS NOK. 6 k Example of ornamentation from Rousseau Trait^ de la Viole' (1687): the plain version above. JAPTfc'R y avoir. IK NO.

6 Charles Colman's Table of C)rnamcnts............ tBatkfaft ex: txf: &lrt/ation a p/>* . 19 CHAPTER No.... ''" '' exf " - ii i ~ .. rtrii 3ettt...." 1667 PLATE No. 20 CHAPTER No... " ... ' Simpson's ~f (Dolman from or thus. 6 MAR1N MARAIS holding his large $even$tringed Viola da gamba across his knee cx ...........^ /tt&rtes 1 PLATE No..... i) affor ut C'liristophcr Division Viol.. "~ ' . ..fl.

THE VIOLA DA GAMBA In speaking of the position for holding the viol. firmly pressed immediately behind the frets. though this is debatable. works already quoted* The fingers are placed on the tips. and so on. so that the fret can be felt. the fingers reach all the chords naturally. Another work which should be mentioned is that of Danoville. he tells us. Further information as to fingering will be found in the next chapter. whereas the English place it opposite the first finger. be observed that the French writers advise that the opposite the middle finger. Further guidance is to be obtained from that great master of the viol. and in placing the thumb opposite the middle finger. as that it otherwise it would risk falling against the shoulder." This little Avertissement." as Rousseau 43 . in not hollowing the hand. novice. " published in 1686. one to a fret. and even to remove the thumb when practising vibrato. contenant tout ce qui est necessaire. It will thumb should be Accurate information left hand. the second finger behind This is the starting place for a the third. consists in rounding the wrist and the fingers. 1686) he writes: The carriage of the hand. d'utile et de curieux " dans cette Science. entitled L'Art de toucher le Dessus et la Basse de Viole. from here the first finger should extend back to the first fret when this is required." for ease of fingering in certain passages. the first finger behind the second fret. by this agreeable position of hand. for this must be free to move. The viol. on the bass and as to the spacing of the fingers of the is to be found in many of the division viol. which gives all the grace and facility of performance. In the preface to his first book " Pieces " a Une et Deux Violes (Paris. should be held firmly between the legs. he points out must not be supported by the left hand. Marin Marais. There may be a slight advantage in the French method for holding chords. and sometimes the whole hand moves " back into this half-position.

be seen in pieces that are full to That is to say. distance between the frets is too little the Jingers to the of chords. In his number of small points (without actually naming him). work.THE VIOLA DA GAMBA c< Trait^ de covers part of the same ground as Rousseau's " la Viole though in less detail. sometimes rejects this of method^ because use of all the notes difficult to achieve. and In line with Rousseau's. that when it is the fast finger they a 2. and movements of the body. the beginner: advice to abstain openings of Danoville's He warns from making grimaces. a 3. The author undertakes that the calls It. beginner who follows his method months. The spacing of the left hand on the another Though he does not treble viol is point on which Danoville Is informative. give actual fingerings. which are postures the mouthy that generally displease everyone. mark a figure i 9 above similarly the other fingers. he speaks as follows: The distance between the frets of the Bass determines that fingering which is suits it does not also suit the Treble. attacks Danoville on a shall learn to play in six Though Rousseau. composed by various authors y for the performance of which they are obliged the necessary note to be played^ The and too constrictedy The which causes have in difficulty in being compressed as they being extended on the Bass 44 . such as gestures of the head. Is generally sound. or the Jingers a 4- makes and The Treble the accuracy have as much difference to mark fingerings.

so that the edge of the hair first touches the string. The fact that the viol by its nature and its type of bowing. which keeps the bow moving in a straight line. so that his works might be correctly 45 . If the composer's intentions are to be carried out. gives a light attack. that is to say the stroke which begins with the point of the bow on the string. towards the end of the stroke. so fully described by the old masters have been laid down in the previous chapter. This is essential to a clear pure tone. as Rousseau tells us so that the hand may carry itself naturally and not be : constrained.CHAPTER IV THE RULES FOR BOWING elements of bowing. according to the accents required in the music. still leaves the need to use the bow In the correct direction. Direction of the bow was one of the things which Marin bowing of the viol. the Marais considered important enough to mark. The rules here to be set out concern the direction of the bow. it will be observed that the bow moves in a curve.. The leaning of the bow. wherever there was the least occasion for doubt. The theory behind them. " The principle must be grasped that with the underhand " accented stroke is the forward one. In the normal THE bowing the wrist compensates for this natural curve by its move ment. and the practical necessity for using the wrist at the end of the stroke are readily appreciated if an experimental stroke is made with an entirely stiff wrist. and is also done. skidding on the string. and with the hand at the farthest distance from the string. hard accents^ lest it should depart from its own character and imitate the violin. is not expected to give strong.

is brings and expresses all the passions which can be expressed by the Voice and which distinguish the various tempi of a melody. " " " called poussez (push) and a small "tirez ' 3 p t " for the for the forward stroke backward stroke 5 ' (pull). all the graces. the strength and with pushing. to the rules'. a little by quick care can adjustments ensure that the important notes are on the strong. and push on the Violin what you pull on the Viol. and that on the Viol one pushes the longs of it is also different this reason for which the breves.THE VIOLA DA GAMBA ec He employed a small interpreted. of which the first is the first or third part of a Bar one must begin with a forward stroke. Once this is realized the bowings will be found to accord with those here The added to a duplicate of Rousseau's chart. At of Common time. even though the number of notes the sign 46 . Speaking of the bow Rousseau says : If the Viol. that the bowing is exactly that you must push on the Viol what you pull on the opposite. is in is done in contrary fashion on the Violin. manner of holding these and pulls the arm on account of the two instruments. Though a perpetual is bow correction of direction both unnecessary and fidgety. and a series of lettered instructions for bowing themThis is most valuable. which is why it is of great consequence to use the bow according and further proof of this necessity is Masters mark the bowings in their pieces. the Violin it is in pulling. or offour Beats [in the bar]. The reason Violin. instructions are quoted in full as they are of general application. Rousseau gives a chart with various time signatures and phrases^ following each other in musical sequence. difference and for this difference is that in Viol playing. forward stroke. when one finds Crotchets. played one can say that the bow hand with by the left is the soul. since it a body. exactness with which the Further one knows that it is the one of the things which set the between the Viol and the Violin. a he made them little has though confusing to follow by changing the order of the alphabetical references on the musical examples.

When one finds Qyavers or Semi-guavers of which one is obliged lifted to about half draw if the the fast and second Tempo is a guick bow should slurred with a single stroke. At same time when one finds Quavers^ and the first is the first part of a Beat me must use a forward stroke C. and if it is the second or fourth part of the Bar one must take a backward stroke B. or some Passage with a single [back] of the Bow$ me mmt always use a forward stroke for the landing of the Octave or Passage JT that there is a difference between slurring // must be motioned stroke note the notes Bow & and drawing them. rule must he observed in all Time Signatures. but the notes in accordance one. the strings: In drawing twice. the Bow should be must not through the stroke and replaced immediately to continue the stroke without starting it again. & & 9 F stroke When of a Piece of Music one meets. one must use a backward stroke D. for with regard 47 to quick (leger) one one has observed the is very when what may follow. not be raised.THE VIOLA DA G A M B A of equal value should be uneven A. one does . the Tempo to take its course. if it is the second part of a Beat. the or third is the a Beat one must a use stroke E9 first first part of forward and ifit is the second or fourth part of a Beat you must use a backward the signature. with a backward boW) Quavers of which the first is the first part of a Beat. the In slurring only the finger$ move. If in the course of a Piece there occurs this a descending couU [of a third] or a final Cadence of which the last note is long enough to recover (he bow^ one should observe the bowing rules as at the beginning of a Piece L When one slurs an Octave. In Pieces of Music where the usually allows the Bow rules at the beginning. one must use a back stroke for the first and the second G> if one meets Semi-quavers with a backward bow^ of which the first is thejirst or third part of the in the course & Bar^ one must equally usi a back bow for the first and second H. At the same Signature when one meets Semi-quavers. with the foregoing Rule.

it must be taken with a back bow. At the same Sign for Triple Time. It follows that if the Piece is Lively. if the first two notes are the same [in pitch] one should use a forward stroke on the first and draw the next two backwards without raising the bow. And if the first is worth two beats > or if it is dotted. that is to say marking the second at the half whilst continuing the same stroke JV".THE VIOLA DA GAMBA not observe the Rules of which we have spoken. you must begin with a backward stroke L.. and that it moves always evenly the Bow should be allowed to take its course P. unless one should encounter some Pauses^ or some final Cadence. This rule must be observed particularly when the Notes the fast rise or fall by degrees^ & it must be noted that I am speaking of Quick Music. unless one meets notes to favour the long enough bowing. In Triple Time^ if the first Bar is composed of three notes of a Beat each. or in fact some other Note long enough to favour the 9 bowing without affecting the Piece (Mouvment). in the course of a Piece 9 with a the Backward Bow. and when this Mixture ceases one begins again to observe the Rules R. one should follow the bow.. you must begin with a forward stroke M. which is to say that at the half of the Forward stroke the second Note should be marked whilst continuing the stroke 0. For same time Signature when the Piece calls for no accent on any Beat of the Bar. if each Bar is mixed with crotchets and minims which syncopate in rising. when one meets a dotted Crotchet or Quaver with a back stroke one must take the following Jiote with the 4B . when one finds a Mote worth two Beats at the beginning of the Bar. they must he played with a single forward stroke. At same Time Signature. slightly lifting the Bow> as we have said before Q. the In three-eight Time the bowing of the Quavers should be performed as one observed for the Crotchets in Triple Time. But if and second of the Bar are on different notes. that is to say with a continuation of the same stroke. with accents on the first Note of each bar on Notes worth one beat. In all Time Signatures. if it is followed with a Note of a single Bent.

T. a Crotchet which is the first or third Bar. you must draw the two following with a back stroke. the accent (Mouvement) is usually marked on the first Note of each Bar composed of six Crotchets. as you have observed on the Crotchets in other Duple Time When the Quavers are much mixed with Semi-quavers> must you follow the Bow [i. In four-time the Quavers should be played equally. that 49 is to say . but particularly in quick to movements. But if the first Mote is the second or fourth part of a Beat. making two bars of one.THE VIOLA DA GAMBA same Bow. though one encounters. Duple Time stroke for the first part of in the first and of the second JBeat. observed particularly in Quick Movements T.e. and accent them equally. V. only that in this Time Signature. one must follow the frequently dotted notes are met with a back Bow. for then you must follow the Bow. you must observe the same bowing Rules on the Quavers. as muck as the Time permits. Measures. and all Jigg mouvements. whether it be a observing Jigg or not. if Bow. In all Time Signatures where the movement is not marked. and note that I mean a dotted Crotchet or Quaver in Common Time to rule [as an example of] the other values of Motes in other Time Signatures S. In this Signature. In six-eight time. let It take its course]. one must follow Time. When one meets a syncopated Note with a back stroke. with a back note the of In Tunes where Crotchets. & no couU or appoggiatura in the melody the bow should be where there is allowed take its course on equal Notes. unless this is a second This Rule must be syncopation. and start again on the three following. you must begin with a backward stroke X. Bow. In six-four Time. the following Note must be taken with the same stroke. if the Note which begins the Bar is worth a whole Beat. one must take the following Quaver with the same you must the take a Time Measure moves forward & in Bow. In four-eight Time. that is the to same Rules as say you must in Triple observe the Rules for Triple Time on the fast three crotchets of the bar.

For instance. of each Bar. In Triple Time. Occasionally the second In some cases Interpretation is required. in quick Movements in Quavers^ one should slightly mark the first. .THE VIOLA DA GAMBA not marking any: but with regard to Semi-quavers slightly the first. The above translation is an attempt to convey Rousseau's meaning whilst conserving has to give way to the his style. you should mark a each Bar & let the others follow evenly : little the first The same of must be thing done in six-four time on the Crotchets. you should accent &c. as Rousseau uses the same word to convey different " 9 ideas. &c. For Duple Time. but being careful not to mark them too harshly. in Quavers. third. Mouvement/ generally used to mean " 3 Tempo/ In some cases signifies a quick Tempo. third. and in yet another merely the time signature. in quick moving Airs. first.

21 CHAPTER No.g. * 11 for the in tablature 1682 LYRA VIOL. for Tunes Viol. fome for Brief and young $(ule$ Containing IfiftrBions Second Editio 9 Enltrged with AAA*sh*l Nv I. 22 CrfHAI^TE-R IMO. 144 14 Lyra-way.Muficks Recreation O N The VIOL. 1682) .TVrfjr/W. J. Printed by ex^f. 14 Music for the Lyra Viol .' playing from tablature the Notes afccnding and del rending. Lyra-way: ACE3 a <<$ Being SL choice Collection of LESSONS Lyra-T*>ay. 7 Jto/r/i This demonstrates Short and eajie how Playford * Mustek Recreation on the to identify the frets Leflons or by letters.J PLATE No. and JfP* for y. (John Flayford. *&.ESSO NS. and arc to be Sold athis Shop near the Tfmple Oharck PLATE No.To which is added Practitioners.

PLATE No. 23 CHAPTER No. HASLEMERE (I960) . 8 A CHEST OF VIOLS FROM THE DOLMETSCH WORKSHOPS.

nevertheless: 53 . and even later. Bach. For this reason. The technique of the viol differs from that of any other stringed instrument and to obtain satisfactory results the player must realise the following facts. and is moved correctly. the family. by a brief pressure of the effort.e. viola FROM bridge is proportionately lower. has to turn either to works for the bass which do not drop below the bottom G. when except for required. violin. Rousseau. as it was more commonly called in England) was one of the most highly considered instruments for solo playing. provided the The tone of the wrist remains relaxed. drawn from all the That of the treble is also considerable. chiefly French and English. but countries of Europe. the vioPs underhand bowing gives the lighter action to suit these factors. and the strings thinner. i. viol has to be drawn out with an avoidance of the giving of an accent finger on the hair. and results in each note having " " a very long vibration.. the tenor. it has an immense repertoire. The resources of the bass extend from the pieces published in tablature by Tobias Hume in 1605. This reduces the pressure on the belly. Each viol is of much thinner and the violin slighter construction than its nearest counterpart in with accord To or 'cello. For the treble. though it makes an attractive solo instrument. this. Correspondingly.CHAPTER V THE VIOLA DA GAMBA AS A SOLO INSTRUMENT about 1600 to 1750 the viola da gamba (or bass viol. in speaking of accompanying lively music with strongly marked accents remarks that. or to music transposed to suit its range. there is a great deal of late seventeenth century music. S. to the sonatas ofJ.

One must same thing in all styles of playing. as I have formerly admonish* d you. 7 (which alwayes happens by reason of some Prick-note [dotted-note] or odd rest) .THE VIOLA DA GAMBA one must not be harsh with the instrument. by which you shall swiftest Notes either through most distinguishable: A thing in which want of a due compliance [yielding] of the many Bow fail. for if treats it is too forced much it and does not obey. takes the bit between its teeth when Similarly the viol is treated harshly it gives much less tone. if it is excited with moderation. Bow see an even Number of Qiiavers or Semi-quavers. to practise your examples slow and then faster by degrees. on the contrary. though not absolutely without some exception : for sometimes the quickness of the Notes may force the contrary Also quick Notes skipping from the Treble to the Bass. as You must begin with your Bow forward . as 3. that admonition is most requisite in Swift Division. whereas if one animates it without forcing the bow. are best expressed On with contrary Bows. bearing your moderately stiff upon the Strings [that Bow not pressing too hard] at a make your is. or else by playing them too near the point of the you may avqyd them. motion of the Bow. & often only produces a disagreable noise. and so persued. where also jour is Bow and Fingers you must be careful that the motion of do equally answer each other. But if the 6 5 8. one draws from it all the service one can wish. this vital matter of bowing there point which Simpson first another essential explains. to the Strings or not crossing them at a right distance from the Bridge. 5. 5 which errors I note that admonitions/ the one which no other 54 . it yields a beautiful tone which satisfies. With regard to the accented stroke beginning at the point of the bow. yea. Number be odd. convenient distance from the point thereof. And. 4. Simpson instructs his readers as follows observe the : When you 2. Among these useful " Bow. which requires to be treated much as one a horse. the first must be played with Bow the This of that odd number is the most proper backward. though the were employed forward in the next Note before them.

downwards towards the the bow is from the tipped bass. wrist is at its nicely most relaxed. the player. can conveniently use the middleto-forward action of his wrist (the most important. the hand is thrown back to its fullest extent. If it be Stiff Strung. starting brought round string. so and then on the edge of the bridge (even more than hair. rather more Sweet. from the Bridge. or the bass to the treble. When the bow is at the fast notes are performed with the wrist. on the back and upper This saves considerable forth. is to When employ a turn of the wrist to get round the strings. Iffor Consort Use Play be not so the Bridge. usual) almost on to the flat of the hair. viz. for come at Them: But if you be especially unto Curious Ears. He has been previously This is not as to the distance of the bow from the bridge. for the reader is instructed: According to Its Stringing. and movement. wrist action from this position causes the bow to jump on the As the string. A further useful practice in performing skipping passages from the treble strings to the bass. yet It is more Lusty.THE VIOLA DA GAMBA that of not playing the quick notes at the point The reason for this particular advice is that these of the bow. for by that means. Thomas Mace quoted only a matter of the is size of the viol. writer mentions is and quick point. starting middle to two-thirds of the bow. than when you Play Alone. little too than too . Sweet. full movement of which the wrist is capable is not from the required for these rapid passages. nearer According to Its Use. Play very near your near. Further or Stand at High Pitch (which is both one) then Play a little zdly. your Play will be the 55 far off. for the do ifyou be the Play at a Great Distance from to same Reason. and difficult on the string and the and with this the bow lies to acquire). viz. arm of very helpful concerning the niceties bowing to suit the viol and the occasion. and a little Ruffness %dly* so likewise you may Auditors. which although It is lost in the Crowd. the Ruffness will be lost before it to Play a Auditors .

can only be done when playing across the strings. An examination of notes thus marked will show that they are always such as can be played on an open string. as by subjecting yourself to playing on the same string as much as possible you produce only one thread of sound. Matthew Locke's system was to mark such notes by giving them two tails. at important points in the music. and For also in the fingerings of Simpson. Marais and Forqueray. on the contrary. The advantage of these holds " is that the note continues to c< bow has left the string. and is not left with the one thread of sound vibrate after the objected to by le Blanc. except where vibrato is In the required. seventeenth century the vibrant tone of the open string appears to have been treated as one of the desirable qualities of the viol. thus providing some of the harmonies of the piece. proves that to command three strings. this. of playing whole passages upon one string." leads him to write as follows: The new method. among certain players. placing the fingers thereon simultaneously.THE VIOLA DA GAMBA With regard open strings are used with indiscriminately stopped ones. Thomas Mace and Simpson speak of the importance of holding down notes with the left hand after the bow has left them. The rediscovery of this earlier principle " of viol technique. gives a semblance of a spray of water. which one keeps in mind the whole time. in 1 740] proceeds only ignorance of the fingerboard. stopped notes were sometimes played with the open string. the frets making the tone much the same. the ear unconsciously picks up the under " " current of sounds. as is to be seen in the quantity of music written in tablature. of course. the practice appears to have developed. which he considers new. This practice [says Hubert le Blanc. In the eighteenth century. affording one the power ofproducing notes with the speed ofCossoni [a celebrated 56 . from beautiful in truth but giving the effect of one line. in unison added vibration. to the left-hand technique.

four times as difficult to get into one's mind as the key place the fingers to the board of the harpsichord. over one particular string. of which one becomes the slave for the resulting quality of tone. but rather the union of sounds contained within words between full-stops and even commas. like such as from Le Gouvreur. Here then is this formulated maxim. one learns to draw almost as much tone as an One avoids from open string. while shifting the hand. 57 . the passage of notes one to another is less from perceptible than if one hovers. to another which will last as long. which makes the fingerboard. to pass from one position. that bow say with the sequence of a kind of slur caused by the finding the strings ready pressed to receive it.THE VIOLA DA GAMBA Italian singer] and over and above permitting one to play several notes at once. uniting in one woven tissue the many notes she can produce with a single breath. There will result from this a declamation a phrase. which has lasted one phrase. so ungraceful to see in the carriage of the hand. which imply an ignorance of the fingerboard and an obstacle to connected notes. where it is permissible for a voice to take a breath. to (In consequence one must teach the viol as one does the harpsichord making each change of hand accord with the musical the ladies.} once. play in consequence. and in the same fashion on the viol. Melle More [singers?] or Forcroi le P&re [Antoine Forqueray] on the viol. The hand will not form itself when limited to the greater portion of one string as having more vibration : whereas holding several strings firmly against the fingerboard. when the sense effect of a phrase permits it without interruption. knowledge offour three or four notes at The work of different places the left where one can same passage. In holding down the strings simultaneously. phrase taking a new direction. placing the fingers in so hand depends on the Have in mind many Niches. The shifting of the hand at the right moment has the same as to breathe. these Niagara-like leaps. It must not be imagined that in the shifting of the hand one is only considering grace. as are produced by is to the voice ofCossoni.

THE VIOLA DA GAMBA The position to choose. as in the well-formed leg of a Lady. the with facility ease of playing which interrupts Discourse." Rousseau asserts that there are two kinds. is determined by the which one passes from one phrase to the one following. out of the four. Vibrato on the viol was used only occasionally. All Single the Letters [notes]. the first intended to maintain a good position of hand. and least the thread of the the link between its phrases. because It is can be Committed in the Kind. to considers the neglect of the be a gross And I will the Grossest that harmonies of the piece. One must play according to the composer's intentions: if it is at the base of the neck hold yourself there firmly. to express emotion and to heighten an Used thus sparingly its power is much increased. &c. of an Intire Bass. A mode Musical phrases were also swelled and diminished. without any Full Stops [chords]. " holds " with the fault: take the more Pains to Explain the Error. which the Queen of Navarre held to have such power over the 58 . To many string players and singers. On and the second to sustain the Thomas Mace left hand. viz. though there are others who are well aware of it. vibrato. Tet upon a Judicious Examination. and with assurance. Observe : Best Lessons [pieces] of the Best Masters are often so Composed as They shall seem to be Single. can be beautiful. there wilt be found a Perfect Composition. " the subject of holds. for to descend and ascend incessantly is to make terms with JVb man can serve two masters at once. either with or without vibrato. the idea that a plain without note. as here described by Hubert le Blanc: The grace of Musical Discourse decrease [of consists in making the appropriate volume] follow the Increase. And that you may know the right meaning of a Hold. is the Musical compass which serves as a guide in choosing a position. effect. and Treble: with Strong Intimations of Inner Parts. of expression which was much favoured on the viol was the swelling of the note. will seem strange. Heaven and Hell. proudly. and very Thin Things.

there are to be found many signs for ornaments and graces. when the fingers are on two strings. though he names them differently. heart of Marais has a sign two for above the note. The first one is with two fingers pressed together (the finger already performed required for the note with the next one added to it). turn makes we it clear that the move are indebted to Rousseau. " In the five books of Pieces de Violes " by Marin Marais. in front of the fret. " " with an added p when he wants the swelling only on the dot of a dotted note. which played alone would have no meaning. placing a little "e" 3 ' the string repeatedly. the most detailed of our sources. The swell is employed in each direction in which the musical phrase finishes. If these are given vibrato or swelled. Marais' two kinds of vibrato are the only ones on record as " having been used on the viol. character will show that the chief points of expression lie in one or two notes. Those for vibrato are placed at intervals in slow. cc in Simpson's opinion much commendable. or both. For the information that the fingers must be variation of tone. which is not possible when stopping a note with the little finger. the passage springs to life in a way that would be impossible if it were done to every note. one finger resting behind the fret whilst the other is brought down to touch for the swelled note (as well as different kinds of vibrato). The second type of vibrato. He explains that the second type is to supplement the first. by a rapid rocking of the <c " " so softly and nicely that it makes no wrist." pressed together. In Rousseau's opinion. similarly performed with the wrist. and serve only as a link.THE VIOLA DA GAMBA Man. with the exception of an organ" shake played with the bow. One softens the conjunctions. or The two for double-stops. 59 . says Simpson. kinds of vibrato described by Rousseau are identical with those of Marais. which in ment is its a hand-and-wrist one. tender or The analysis of a phrase in a piece of this passionate music. is for the little finger only. the frequent use of which was not.

as on the contrary. and harmonic with the He states that it can never make a bad effect. And and this not only on the all these are concerned in our Division-Viol. when or when playing in a group of mixed instruments. or peculiar to the Tet when we would express Life. viol. which are more natural to the Treble. It should be stated that for the second kind. but sometimes also on the Bass. express Love. At the close expected in the matter of expression of his table of Graces he adds : fore-mentioned Graces. Others. as does Playford. more smooth and Feminine. some are more rough and Masculine.THE VIOLA DA GAMBA vibrato could be used in all kinds of play. or Cheerful ness upon the Treble. the little finger has to balance well on the fret for it to be effective. as implqying the whole Compass of the Scale. Compassion. Sorrow. we do frequently use both Shaked Beats and Back falls. these being the various classes of music that he lists in his book. and is particularly agreeable in a tender piece. and therefore more Of these Bass. A paragraph from Simpson will give an idea of what was " " on the viol. as your Shaked Beats and Back-falls. or the like. Courage. Treble. as your Close-shake and plain Graces. Simpson mentions only the first type of vibrato. acting by turns all the Parts therein contained. smooth and swelling Motes when we would upper parts. that to say in melodic accompanying one's own voice is solo playing. and .

.

w^/pTSni'fl' Syntagma Musicum ' (1640) .T !/.ff 1 ' 'ii(|l w Wi*wf*|in^ * Pmetorius. TrViiTO.

is on the subject from available writers French writers and composers are particularly detailed in who are somewhat sparing. and considerable information for that instrument. some ornaments. this A great deal of the manner of performance in the sixteenth to eighteenth centuries was the same for all instruments then in use. Thus Marais gives in his and expression for. can imagine what this would be reduced is IT to if it filigree were limited to the mere ground-work on which of sound is founded. I ham been obliged to supplement with new The most signs capable beautiful pieces lose infinitely of making those who play my A pieces enter into my wishes. Those familiar with the extravagant elaborations of Eastern music. however. matter of interpretation which can affect the whole character of the music is that of playing apparently even notes. as he of signs for ornaments third book: in his says prefaces. The further one goes back into the past. are individual to the viol. in contrast to the English. this matter.CHAPTER VI ORNAMENTATION AND INTERPRETATION ON THE VIOL now widely accepted that an essential to the performance of music of the sixteenth. the more one is faced with the bare bones of great music. which have been learned by ear from player to player down the generations. seventeenth and eighteenth centuries is a thorough knowledge of the conventions of ornamentation and interpretation of the period. 63 . a series of their charm if they are not played in the style proper to them. and being unable to give an idea of this style by ordinary notes.

informs us of the con vention by which notes slurred in pairs were played uneven. Simpson gives us the following information : . used with the same intention. and Among he does not even A slur his written-out (though explaining in earlier instructions that they should be played with one stroke of as trills the bow) it may well be assumed that this was his intention." in places pairs Simpson's where uneven notes would render the phrase more expressive. even]. from the first to the second: and when they are not so marked. these dots are Strangely enough. one can nevertheless play them as though they were [that is. English musicians there is the possibility that the slur was. That this was customary Marais. For the fact that uneven notes were often written even. treating even notes has by a process of export to South America by the early be handed down through generations of musicians and finally to return to us with the popularity of South American jazz.THE VIOLA DA GAMBA unevenly. one giving even notes and the other dotted. to (1717) deplores the inaccuracy of writing notes even. Johann Joachim Quantz. ia the following remarks The Is made quite clear by : dots which are above unslurred notes signify that they should be played. each note. in these kinds of movements. as the style of the piece will sometimes call for it naturally. Similar slurs occur also with other seventeenth century composers. settlers. few slurred very occasionally. but were generally left to the taste of the player. is Dynamics were seldom indicated. whereas one dots them usually. as in the Allemandes [processional German dances character] which do not require this observation. whose book on the transverse flute was published in 1752. this of a marchlike and I have only which might be in doubt and much manner of in use among foreigners. marked them [the dots] in those places even in the figured basses. " in Division to be found are Viol. in survived. when they are to be played uneven. " " L/Art de Toucher le Clavecin Francois Couperin. there the evidence of duplicate manuscripts of William Lawes and others. equal.

Rousseau " Traite de la Viole. can be realised that slurs should be added to the taste and a knowledge of the style suggest music where English them. and by Bow. though they were not generally marked by the composers. with their signs and manner of 65 . In speaking of two viols extemporising divisions together. three. or the middle or ending. Slurs in the modern sense of the word." also marks slurs in his examples in the " Simpson describes their use among the bowed Graces ": To be added that of Playing two. both in playing works of his own and in interpreting those of others. By the our fancy. one being stopped and the other open. and so arranged that the accents were always on the forward stroke. and then (as it were] swell or grow louder towards the the fingers. taken in conjunction with Simpson's words. This is an indication frequently to be found in the bass duos of Matthew Locke. he suggests that they may: Joyn together in a Thundering Strain of Quick Division. this Loud or Soft is sometimes expres'd in one and the same Note. In this respect a study of the indications of the French masters is this it helpful.THE VIOLA DA GAMBA Gracing of Motes is performed two wayes. with which they may conclude. were carefully marked by Marais. which would not have that Grace or these may ornament if they were played From severally. as when we make it Soft at the Beginning. or else with a Strain of Slow and Sweet Notes. according to humour of the Musick. viz by the Bow. according as may best sute the circumstance of time and place. four or more Notes with one Motion of the Bow. is That unisons were both intended and indicated by composers " " Division Viol also made clear in a paragraph in Simpson's : Where you it signifies see any Note with a Tail both upward and downward two Strings sounding in Unison . Again. " Graces to be Simpson also gives a table of what he calls performed with the fingers. as when we play Loud or Soft. His slurrings are most valuable.

In another passage he states In quick (" leger"} and accented movements. extravagant. however." Playford also makes use of Colman's table. very often too bold and strange and difficult of performance.THE VIOLA DA GAMBA " The ever performance/ for which he tells us he is indebted to famous Charles Colman Doctor in Musick. German beginning Italian Italian Of the influences. and which gives it the which like flavour. obscure. according to Rousseau: A melodic salt which seasons the melody. in such that neither too much nor too that more is required in the seasoning of certain is required. & salt little must be used with prudence. being chiefly limited to simple trills at the cadences Except that they filled-in. : Thus & be able to in using ornaments one discern where must apply them more are required and where less. he tells us. however. " According to Joachim Quantz. style. In his in this case. The signs themselves are of little use as he and the other English 3 writers practically never use them. and assuming a considerable knowledge of harmony." which was published in Berlin in 1 752 (in a German and in a French edition) : Germans were given to ornamentation than the other nations. The Agrlments (as the French call the ornaments) are. with their detailed representation of the ornaments required in seventeenth century music. the explanations. Quantz did by Quantz was speaking. but . in his Essai d'une Methode pour apprendre a jouer de la Flute Traversi&re. without which it would be tasteless and insipid. it excites in those who have it not more astonish it ment than pleasure. here and there. though without acknowledgement. not approve: The Italian manner of playing is arbitrary. The French manner of playing 66 is slavish. ornaments must be few. intervals which involved the less : a leap. artificial. meats and & less in others with moderation. with running notes. admits of adding many ornaments. are most valuable. of previous times. affected to be taste was own time.

clear. Allowance must be made 1752.THE VIOLA DA GAMBA modest. Rousseau explains the ornaments though he fully. given them names of his own. which French wrote out their intentions far Italians. Fortunately. the first note is repeated before a slurred rise to the second. coMarais signs are important as they related to those of Marais. has. 67 ." sign (Marais: swelling is on the dot of a dotted note) Swelled Mote. intelligible to everyone amateurs. if the ." or enfle. Plain Beat or Rise. French the is preferable to for the fact that particularly In Quantz writes in Italy. Quantz draws the conclusion that the French music depends more on the composition and the Italian on the performance. and the manner of playing of their manner of singing. THE ORNAMENTS " " e. the greater part of the ornaments being set-down by the composer. when ornamentation. used when rising a tone or a semi-tone. (Marais has no sign). were. neat and appropriate in the expression. added to by their signification) 3 himself. taking up a part of its value. basically. those in general use in France. "e p. had become somewhat extravagant. quite unnecessarily. who depended more on the fully of the interpretation performer. does not give the connoisseurs much to think out. he explains his meaning in terms of the generally accepted nomen clature in France. A kind of upward appoggiatura. He adds further: The manner of singing of the Italians is preferable to their manner is to state that the more than the of playing.". but on the other it hand. easy to imitate^ neither precious nor obscure. it and convenient for does not require a great knowledge of harmony. The names (and which the player will find of the most practical use are those given by Simpson.

Acute or Springer. Close Shake.") Coule. mordents and All the preceding ornaments calls " Smooth Graces. This is A the third below (or sometimes the fifth).) Same as the elevation." vibrato. by a sideways rocking of the wrist. but downwards. the two fingers being balanced on the frets. trills. for double-stops.) descending a tone or a semitone. 68 . Cadent." sign (Marais " form of coule. the second note is anticipated at the close of the first.") The vibrato performed with the little finger balanced on the It is also used occasionally fret.) a similar appoggiatura. Double-Back-falL (Written-out by Marais. (Written-out by Marais. but descending. (Written-out by Marais. " " Elevation.") the vibrato performed with two fingers pressed close (Marais together. Rousseau says it should be used before a trill with appoggiatura." performed by sliding up to a note from Back-fall. taking up part of its time When value. come under the heading of what The following are the " Shaked Simpson Graces. This is " " Pinc6 ou Flatement. " (Given by Marais and Rousseau. The little notes added to this take together half the value of the lower written note. Plainte." under which heading he classes trills. alternately with such several times in succession. by a rocking of the wrist.THE VIOLA DA GAMBA (Written-out by Marais. thus raising it a tone or a semitone for a short fraction of time.) Performed by clapping down a finger at the expiration of a note. sign . and can be performed. as previously described. / . the time value of the little notes being taken from that of the upper written note." sign AA/*.

(For this Marais adds a little note to his Batement sign.THE VIOLA DA GAMBA The Back-fall Shaked. also shows that the refinements of intonation were studied and sought after. In this is third. with a beat on the Shaked Cadent and Double Relish. An idea of the universal use of a trill at a close can be obtained " from the following passage from Simpson's Compendium of " how to overcome is He Practical Musick discussing (1665).) A kind of mordent. (Marais indicates this with combined signs and notes. before the note. sign x Trill ".e. is drowned either by the the or the the Shake voice of finger. Shaked Elevation. and that the trill of the voice and the shake of serve instead the finger were musically synonymous. play the written note.. of This paragraph." sign " " . besides making the point for which it was quoted. trilling the Plain Beat previously described.) combined a " coule " of a top note and a turn at the close. the imperfections of the tempered scale from the intonation angle Only one place there is where I conceive a Quarter-note might : of a semi-tone. i. after the note). with appoggiatura. " " Shaked Beat. This combination of ornaments will be better understood by a study of Simpson's table than by a verbal explanation. (Given by Marais and Rousseau. Speaking of ornamentation in accompaniment and ensemble playing. commonly. " Batement. Rousseau says: 69 . " (Marais Tremblement. which is in the binding Cadence of the Trill greater (major] third and that. then down a tone or semitone and up again.) This is a mordent.

and from the bottom to the " " ricochets top of the instrument which are called and which one barely endures in violin playing. Speaking of the treble viol. Some composers used this cross as a universal 70 . play to it is the of pieces proper character of the Treble Viol. and one must not omit in one's playing anything give pleasure to the ear with strokes both tender and which can rich. in harmony. which well should attach themselves is why those to all the delicacy imitate all that a beautiful Voice can do with all the who of the charms of Art- One should use all the ornaments to their full extent. one should The make the of accompaniment requires. the bass should do likewise when it imitates the same phrase. whose function to animate. accents too Rousseau. but all the graces and must be natural and used "a passages [elaboration of phrases] " and with wit propos One must beware. is In the example given of Rousseau's ornamentation. whereas that of the treble viol is to flatter. according to much in lively music. this was a common practice. however. in fact. warns the player to avoid a profusion of passages which only confuse the melody.THE VIOLA DA GAMBA The made of accompaniment demands that if some ornament is of the melody. after the imitation. recur afterwards in the other parts. particularly "Cadence avec Appuy" [Simpson's Back-fall Shaked] and the " Port de Voix" [Simpson's Plain Beat] which are the foundations of the Melody. that if one hears make some ornament or slur on a particular phrase of the spirit the treble melody. Rousseau. and that same phrase should spirit in a certain phrase manner of a fugue or same ornament as was made the fast time. of marking the one depart from the lest character of the treble viol which does not require to be treated like the Violin. it will be observed that he uses a small cross to indicate a trill. Rousseau states : The playing of melody rather than the playing wish to melody. and which he says are called "faire des coliftchets" as also he must not practise those passages from the top to the bottom.

l ' ' ' "' i.^.' vl. ' PLATE No. 26 Praelorius: '.. .' . .^wiitS Syntagma Musicum ' (1640) .

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in the words of Rousseau: It must be observed that all ornaments which alter the measure of the" Mouvement " time [mood or style] should never be used. leaving supply the suitable grace. it to the player to Finally.THE VIOLA DA GAMBA sign that an ornament was required. 73 .

is credited with bringing the lyra viol to England. Elizabeth herself spoke Italian fluently and brought to her court a number of Italian musicians. The English court had many connections with Italy in the strings. not much larger than a consort viols. Of these Alfonso Ferrabosco I. Among those for one lyra are pieces originally written by him for a consort of five helped to popularize it. was one of those who He composed works for one. to tuned in an cc sixteenth century. was a comparatively small instrument." Such including his magnificent works stretch the resources of the instrument and the hand of the player to the utmost. known as the Lyra da Gamba. two and three lyra viols. and would be unplayable on a full-sized viola da gamba. and held between the knees like the viola da gamba. for " it was fretted. tenor. bowed with the underhand' 3 bowing. One of the great charms of the lyra lay in the fact that it had a variable tuning. who became a fine musician and composer. Its chief use was for accompanying the voice. The lyra of this period. " Dovehouse Pavan. IN : The ancestor of the lyra viol is probably to be found in an earlier Italian instrument. which were published in 1609. however. with its nearly flat bridge and twelve " up and down tuning.CHAPTER THE VIOL PLAYED cc VII LYRA WAY " the reign of Elizabeth I a new member was added to the family of viols in England the Lyra or Harp Viol. This instrument was a true viol in its method of tone production. being tuned in a chord to suit the key of 74 . who entered her service in about 1560. and Ferrabosco II. it lent itself readily playing in harmony in the simpler keys.

however. places. irrespective of the size and usual pitch of the viol. and so on up the finger-board. playing from staff notation. interspersed " " with the bowed these were called notes. Notation by tablature its position simple to understand. obtained by playing on two strings at once. intervals. Another of the attractive characteristics of the lyra was the use of pizzicato notes plucked with the left hand. as in the viola d'amore. one being stopped by the finger to give the same note as the adjoining open string. " a " standing for the " " " " open string. the resonance achieved was very great. There were as many as twenty-three recognized tunings for the lyra. thumps. is A further advantage of tablature so long as the viol is is that tuned in the correct it can be played from. and each letter a position on the string. but on the finger-board. as there is no evidence of its having been adopted by any of Farranf s it contemporaries. was said to have invented a lyra with sympathetic strings running underneath the finger-board. As the tuning of the viol itself usually included a pair of octaves and fifths. this difficulty for the lute. b the first fret. and no doubt further variants were used by some players. Early in the seventeenth century. might seek their notes in the wrong In the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries. Daniel Farrant. seems to have been an unnecessary complication. for and tablature composers employed tablature as indicates not the note. octaves and unisons. once it is realised that each line of the six-line stave represents a string. gave a sympathetic resonance to the whole viol. the time values being indicated above the stave. To increase this as much as possible great use was made of open strings. If this was really so. musicians began to discover 75 . one of the early lyra composers. besides admitting of many chords and double-stops. this. did not exist. c the second.THE VIOLA DA GAMBA particular pieces. Such a variety would cause confusion to modern players who.

add to all these now. eight sets described as for and harpsichord) lyra. and And to make jour peculiarly for two and three Lyroes. a pair of violins. both Consort-wise. there being most Admirable Things made by our Very Best Masters. 4 and 5 parts by John Jenkins." After listing in detail the Monument and another of theorbo lutes.' there were many consorts Playford calls for lyras. of a publication by proof of this development lies in the title " Recreation Musick's as it was published John Playford. also a fact. because in Consort they often retort against the Treble. the treble parts being for viols tuned in the same intervals as the lyra. but an octave higher.way of the family to be so employed was a the Division Viol. In 1652 " on the Lyra Viol . This. a Second Treble. imitating and often standing of That Part. 76 . 3. including some in 2. which was little smaller than the consort bass. in the three subsequent editions it appeared as 53 " Musick's Recreation on the Viol: Lyra way. in " Musick's and its furnishings. such as those composed by Ferrabosco II. grace the room he " (1676) he describes the ideal music room " Chest of Viols. That music was written for lyras in combination with other instruments is. and also for the Lyro viol with two Though a 5 pieces treble viols. Let them by Lusty. use.THE VIOLA DA GAMBA that the system of playing and tuning the lyra could be applied " " came into to any viol. The most usual member A great proportion of the music written was for what " The lone Lyra Viol. violin and bass (probably continuo gamba contained eighteen sets . When Thomas Britton. his library instead of books of lyra consorts.. which should continues: store more Amply-Compleat. Smart-Speaking Viols. viz. the famous "musical small coal man" died in 1714. however. and some also " Tobias Hume published in 1605 for viols played lyra way. or two with one treble. and the term playing the viol lyra. perhaps." " for two Lyro Viols. for that Sort of Mustek." The music Is entirely in tablature. 3 Full seid Lyro Viols. was the kind of consort which Thomas Mace had in mind when.

Giovanni Coperario. for the lone lyra. were Among men William Corkine. giving proof of the popularity of playing the viol in this fashion In the seventeenth century. like the I in give. besides those already mentioned." showing pieces which it contains are described as " " " " have must been that the y pronounced short. Harp-way Flat " providing a major Playford's recipe for setting the pitch of the lyra is to tune " 5 as high as it will go without breaking/ and from the top string this by intervals. two tunings. This perilous proceeding must have led to varying results according to the courage of the " It also makes it quite clear that. gives us an indica " The three-part tion as to the pronunciation of the name lyra. 77 ." u Leero-sett. some were very extended. the pitch was not considered Important." player. and " The later those known as viol stringing. the rest of the strings. a vast tunes and songs were set. William Lawes. In addition to the original works of such composers. the numerous composers who wrote for the lyra and the viol played lyra way. Christopher Simpson. With the passage of time these extreme tunings fell out of use as they the many were impracticable with the usual editions of Playford are restricted to " *c Harp-way Sharp and a minor tuning.THE VIOLA DA GAMBA Of tunings with which the lyra began its life in England. One anonymous seventeenth century MS. or turned into number of popular fantasias for the Instrument. Simon Ives and William such well-known as Young. there being as much as two octaves and a fourth between the first and the sixth string.

wind instruments. as this will bear bindings with discords. any allowances whatsoever tolerable in other kinds of music. and it is not till considerably the reign of Henry VIII that one can trace the development of the consort for viols. diminish and alter at his pleasure. because the composer is tied to And nothing but that he may add. Thomas Morley in his " Plaine and Easie Introduction to " Practicall Musick (1597) speaks of it as follows: his collection The most principal and without a chiefest dittie is the fantasie. consort music for viols was fully established. had twenty-five viols in AT the time of when he died. and other recorders Development after this was swift. making either much or little of it as shall seem best in his own conceit.CHAPTER VIII THE CONSORT OF VIOLS Henry VII wind instruments predominated over strings in this country. except changing the ayre and leaving the key. proportions. and wresteth and turneth it as he lists . what you and list. with the clarity of a fretted 78 . Henry himself. musician and composer. In this may be shown more art than in any other music. suited to contra thin reedy tone. that is kind of music which is made when a musician taketh a point at his pleasure. which in fantasie may never be suffered. Fifty years later. and by the time Elizabeth I was on the throne. from the vocal part-music of the churches on the one side. though he had far more flutes. slow motions. Other things you may use at your pleasure. even those few restrictions which Morley placed on the fantasy had been swept The viol as an instrument is particularly puntal music. and the instrumental dance music on the other. its Thomas aside. quick motions.

suppose you cannot procure an Mire Chest of Viols Suitable &c. the higher strings should be proportionately shorter than the lower ones.THE VIOLA DA GAMBA Instrument. In the 1 7th century. helping the individual parts to follow their separate ways whilst remaining distinct one from another. Let your Then your Trebles must be just as Short again. in the Bass be Large. Colour. because they stand 8 Notes Higher than the Basses. many big houses had their chests of viols. take this Certain Rule. the of all stringed instruments being always a compromise truly string length as. as Pick up (Here. to in fantasies (or fancies as they were sometimes called). Tour best provision (and most complete] will be and Proportionately Suited. in spite of their constant crossing and overlapping. to mar Wood. 2 Tenors. those present taking their turn as players or listeners according to the number of callers at this particular musical cc at home. Suiting as you can (every way]. the smaller viol would have a different colour of tone and be richer in its upper register. ideally. and on the recognized night of that bear a part with members of the family would drop visitors in particular household. Mace continues: Now. This quality of the viol must have contributed considerably to the development of the fantasy. &c. as are your Basses. but especially for Seize. 2 Basses. Therefore as Short again. the first tenor can be replaced by an instrument such of case in the being tuned tuned c to c". viz. an alto. Endeavour odd ones. Mace writes in 1676: a Good Chest of and 2 Trebles: All Viols." Thomas Speaking of furnishing the music room. Then Thus. After theorising as to the reasons for which a viol improves with age. Alternatively. viz. pavans or other ensemble works. to 79 . And to be Exact in That. Even like the tenor (Ganassi tuning). Six in number. or There] so many excellent Good both for Shape. Nut. for String (viz. viz.) from Bridge.

THE VIOLA DA GAMBA the Middle of Every String. and with the added advantage that the suit every easiest consorts are quite as great musically as the most difficult. or mean Hands to Perform with) yet This Caution made the Musick Lovely. or Out-cry another by Loud Play. as always. several times it is is spoken of by one of the great charms of many writers and stressed by Mace. than jour Basses. by which means (though sometimes we had but indifferent. The first essential is. to Equally-Sciz? d Instruments (Rare Chests of Viols). and very to Contentive. to FFret [the 5th (in the String fret in tablature] . One of the great advantages of consort music is that works can be found to suit almost any combinations of viols from two to seven. and as equally Performed: For we would never Allow Any -Performer to Over-top. The this equality between the parts kind of music. whilst the more their patterns around this vital central thread. just so long as from the Bridge. This means that as soon as two players meet they can form their consort. in an skilled performers weave Nomine " fantasy. but our Great Care was. that the player should have control of wrist and bow and therefore produce a pleasant free tone in a player is then able to play the theme in notes slow notes. It is interesting to remember that it was Arnold Dolmetsch's accidental discovery at the British Museum of fantasies for viols. To quote Mace again: we had Those Choice Consorts. is The Tenors an 8th. who are tempted to join them after a time. from the complete beginner to the brilliant virtuoso. because they stand a ^th Higher. life first " to the restoration of ancient modern " performance of 80 music and fantasies being . Of the thousands of existing compositions there are works to degree of proficiency. his given in 1891. Therefore so Long. Such " In lasting a bar each. have all the Parts Equally Heard. and stand as an encouragement to others. which inspired him to devote his instruments. whilst he was searching for viola d'amore music.

there guide to himself. and later recurs in another part after the manner of a fugue. while remaining aware of the other moving parts. certain part-books and score-books in which the scribe has written. It is a safe rule that. from closes. cross-rhythm and cross-phrasing are to make their effect. There exist. various embellishments and floridly ornamented closes which appear to have been meant as a passages. each player must declaim and accent his own even though it another part. music. because of the long resonance of the viols. should occur at one beat's distance in canon with by the polyphonic nature of the has something of importance to say. besides. however. There are generally. " " The conclusion appears to be that a discreet Gracing of parts Is not out of place.THE VIOLA DA GAMBA The question of ornamentation In consort playing is one on which the English writers give us little guidance. Whilst ornaments used to excess would obviously obscure contrapuntal Is no reason to suppose that they were barred. in his brilliant especially suites for one treble and two bass viols. Rousseau gives us a clue as to French practice when several instruments were playing together. A and detach particularly helpful point to observe is the shortening ing of the leading note. should be similarly ornamented. a more detached style of playing is demanded than would be required of a string quartet. Christopher Simpson. in margins or on odd pages. it In the performance of consorts. by telling us that if a certain phrase is ornamented by one player. phrase according to its rhythmic requirements. fills the Fantasy with as many written-out trills and ornaments as he does the Ayre and Galliard which complete each suite. each part rising as and making way for another when this in turn receives the theme. and though these fantasies " Chest of are less contrapuntal than the usual consorts for the " Viols they are nevertheless related. If rhythm and phrasing. passages where the viols come Dynamics are also controlled it 81 . for performance in consort after private study.

in his " Compendium of Practical Musick (London.THE VIOLA DA GAMBA together for a short while. as on the violin. and divers other excellent men. 4 and 3 excellent. for art and contrivance. Colman. or what his own fancy shall lead him to: but still concluding with for variety. 1665) We must now speak a little more of music made for instruments. intended commonly for viols. these fugues. Mr. parts. he takes some other Point. 5. introduces some chromatic notes. The next in dignity after a Fancy is a Pavan. but and is on the principle that. at first ordained for a grave and (as most instrumental musics were in 82 stately their manner of several kinds. which some derive from Padua dancing deceased. White. now you may see many it. Jenkins. according to the order When with bindings and inter mixtures of discords. and does the like with it: or else. air. according to Hubert le Blanc.great bell of St. . Mica. a note on the viol is not. compositions made by Alfonso Ferrabosco. In of music the composer (being not limited to words] doth employ and invention solely about the bringing in and carrying on of all his art and method formerly shewed. fugues and all other Figures of Descant are in no less (if not in more] use than in vocal music. : in which points. heretofore in Ward. Also by Mr. Simpson speaks as follows. this sort kind the chief and most of 6. to a climax or grand conclusion in the last few bars. something which hath Art and Excellency in Of this sort England Dr. Lock. Lupo. from a passionate forte to a tender pianis simo. in Italy. the final note is never held fortissimo and cut off abruptly at the end. while some contrapuntal sections will need to be altogether Though most fantasies will rise gentler and softer than others. Coperario. and here fine contrasts of tone can be effectively employed. part of a column of sound capable of being moulded but is like a stroke of the . Of the works for viols. Of this are Fancies. he has tried all the several ways which he thinks jit to be used therein. yet living. Germain which dies away on rather allowed to diminish the " finish softly. or falls into some lighter humour like a Madrigal. Doctors and Batchelors in music.

and so exactly strung. an organ. but Composition made only now grown up to a height of to delight the ear. of $. John Wilson. each group of players had its accustomed leader. but would more often pick out the theme as it passed from viol to viol.) of music. we are told. bachelor too." It was the custom to accompany the consort with. an instance of this is to be observed in the diary of that great musical amateur Anthony Wood. which is largely the same as Simpson's and then continues: And were played upon so many equal and truly sized viols. Simpson concludes with the following words: You need not seek for Outlandish Authors. where many Royalist musicians had taken refuge during " " the Protectorate of Oliver Cromwell. 4. made properly for instruments. 5 and parts. One of those who " Dr. tuned. preferably. notably William Lawes giving the organ occasional independent contra puntal phrases. but alternatively a virginal or lute continuo. . He is describing the music meetings which took place at the house of William Ellis (formerly organist at Eton College) at Oxford. the frequented the weekly meetings was the best at in all Lute the public Professor. as well for their excellent as their various and numerous Consorts. no Nation (in my opinion) being equal to the English in way.* Thomas Mace gives a very attractive picture of the function of the organ in consort. when the host was himself a musician. especially for Instru mental Music. This part was by no means restricted to sustaining chords. of all which (as I said) Fancies are the chief. as may be seen from many original organ parts.THE VIOLA DA GAMBA Fancies and Symphonies excepted). He some times play'd the lute but mostly presided the Consort. England. that Though in fantasies all the parts are equal. and played upon as no one part was any * Some these composers. " alwaies play'd his part on the organ or virginal." (This Will Ellis. He gives a list of the best composers of fantasies.

On improved upon. the words of Thomas Mace cannot be softly. it. as Divine raptures. that to set them forth according to their true praise there are no words sufficient in language.THE VIOLA DA GAMBA impediment to the other. that they have been to myself (and many others). and a good temper. making us capable of Heavenly and Divine faculties. and agreeing to the inward. the required) by organ evenly. 4. Allmaines. Subtle and Acute Argumenta tions. butfar greater that so few know THE END. the pleasure and benefit that can be gained by playing in Consorts of Viols. 'Tis pity few believe thus much. all which were so many Pathetical Stories. gravity influences. Rhetorical and Sublime discourses. speak of them shall be only to say. jet what I can best the organ. and sweetly according to all. . so suitable. to intersposed (now and then) with some Pavins. and disposing us to solidity. 5 and 6 parts. powerfully captivating all our unruly and affections (for the time).. secret and intellectual faculties of the soul and mind. but intervals each part amplified still (as the composition and heightened the other. We had for our grave music. solemn and sweet delightful Ayres. fantasies of 3.

Pieces de Violes Pieces a une et a Deux Violes Marin Mersenne. Dannoville. de Toucher V Art de Toucher le le Clavecin Dessus et la Basse de Viole Ganassi dal Fontego. 1686. 1717. Compendium of Practical Mustek 1667. 170L Pieces de Violes 1711. Musica instrumentalis deudsch UArt Francois Couperin.) Treatise on the Viol Syntagma Musicum Michael Praetorius. Harmonie Universelle Jerome de Mora vie. Musurgia Universalis Silvestro Hubert le les Blanc.S. 1650. 1686. 1511. Sebastian Virdung. Musick*s Monument Marin Marais. 1740. 1627.THE VIOLA DA GAMBA by NATHALIE DOLMETSGH BIBLIOGRAPHY Martin Agricola. 1665. Johann Joachim Quantz Jean 1752. Christopher Simpson. Mons. 1640. Defense de la Basse de Viole Contre et les Pretentious du Violoncel Entreprises . 1686. 13th Century (M.du Violon Thomas Mace. 1542. Regola Rubertina Athanese Kircher. The Division Viol Musica getutscht 85 . 1545. Essai d'une Methods pour apprendre ajouer de la Flute Traversiere Traite de la Viole Rousseau. 1687.

10. 76 Hurdy-Gurdy. 10 PL 27 Clement of Alexandria. 64. 79. 20. 22 Bailey. 78 Henry VIII. 43 Abel. 76 Geigen. Paul Francois. 22. PL 4 Aucassin et Nicolctte. 76. Mons. 16. 9.9 Bas-Geig de bracio. 20. PL Geigen. 15 Charles II of England. 38 Couperin. John. 56. 11 Italian Tenor Viol. Jean Baptiste. 56. 77. PL 5 PL 23 Haggiborim. John. 3. Moris. 57 Forqueray. 23 Bach. Oliver. Kleine. Francois. 20. English Court. 64 Cromwell. 21. PI. 53. Danoville. PL 26 Bass Viols. 82 Contra Basso da Viola. 63 Ellis. 22 enkins. 10 Agricola. 32. 44 Forqueray. 10 Charles I of England. Athanese. 80 David Instruments of the Sanctuary. PL Ives. 19. 8. Schilte. Division 3. 20 Coques. Guitar. 15 Hottman. William. Dr. 9 Haghniugab. William. Silvestro dal Fontego. Karl Friedrich. Welsche. 80. Charles. Alfonso II. 14 Caix d'Hervelois. 16. 22. 20 Historiska Museet (Stockholm). 14 Geigen. 14. Giovanni (John Cooper). 11 I of England. 20. 19. 10 Compendium of Practical Mustek (Simpson). 11 Chest of Viols. 9 PL 4 Simon. 10. John. Alfonso I. 23 Alto Viol. 75 Ferrabosco. (King). 10 'erome de Moravie. 26 . 25 Henry VII. 10 86 PL 1 . PL 11 Kircher. 11 Celtic Clavicymbel. Jacques van. Antoine. 9 Colman. 7. 83 In Nomine. Ganassi. 9. 82 Fingering the Bass Viol. 19 Dolmetsch. Richard. 25 Britton. 78 Hingston. 76. 82. 82 Eastern Music. 80. 43 Deering. 82 Harmonie Universelle (Mersenne). PL 2. Daniel. 35. 74. 25. Martin. 74 Ferrabosco. 76. 20 PL 26 Viol. 77 Cossoni. Louis dc. 1 1 83 Eyk. Polische. Gonzales. Thomas.. 22 CRWTH. 35. Tobias. 15 II of England. Arnold. 24 Fingering the Treble Viol. 57 Hume. 66. Johann Sebastian. 81 Grosset. 12..THE VIOLA DA GAMBA INDEX by Nathalie Dolmetsch Farrant. 20. PL 24 amcs ames Drone. 22 Charles II of France. 77 Discant Geig. PL 19 Coperario. 26. PL 11 Corkine. 25. 14. 24.

56. Domenico. John. 25. 13 Rebec or Rebab. Giovanni Paolo. Sebastian. 66. 83. 45. Matthew. 82 Wilson. 82 More. Vvalderan. 19 26. 23 Maugars. Vienna. 12. 77. Ramon de Pareja. 82 Lyra de Braccio. 25. 16 35. 36. 11. 22. 73: PL 12. Abb. a. Rousseau. 45 70. PL 1 Richelieu. Barak. 12. 23. 12. 66 87 .22 Praetorius. Cecilia. 79. 77. 15. PL 14 St. Thomas. Violone. 43. Marin. 19. 22. 25. 59.34. PL 26 Schenk. 26. Mons. 25. William.38. 14. Michael. John. 66. 16 Louis XIV. Christopher. 20. Johan(n). PL 20 Marcello. 77 Le Blanc. William. 55 - Syntagma Musicum 80 Maggini. William. PL 12. 64 Locke. Hans. 32 Viula. 14 Regola Rubertina (Ganassi). 33. Jean. 9. PL 16 Schenk. 76 38 Tenor-Geig. 25. PL 22 Scheidtholtt. Horatio PL 26. Trumscheidt. 15. 74. 13 Vihuela de Mano. 10. John. 12. 10 Viol[a] Bastarda. 57 L'Estrange. 35. 67.83 15. 64. PL 6 Marais. 15 de. 10 Viuolat 10 Vohar. 37. 58. Benedetto. 64 Dessus et la Basse de Viole 44 Lawes. Wood. 25. Peter. 16 Mersenne. 12. Cardinal de. 60. 33. 33 . 83 PL 21. 13. PI. Ward. Colombe. 34. 13. 57.70. 82 White. PL 15. 64. 19 St. Telemann. 25 PL 10. Johann Joachim.27 58. 82 Louis XIII. 3 PL PL 25 6. 21. 22 Young. Richard. 59. 9 Octai) Playford. 13. 43. 38. 25. 82 Le Couvreur. PL 2 Posam. 13. 22 Neghinoth. 12. 21. Lute. Pries (Price). 32. 65. 13. 34. Anthony PL 25-27 Henry. 35 Simpson. . 19. 25 Mico. 15. Viele. 18 Clavecin (Couperin). 17. PL 25 Lyra da (de) Gamba. 53. 14. PL 14 Quantz. Georg Philipp. 56. 32. 37. Sir Roger. 13. 76 Zampieri. 25.THE VIOLA DA GAMBA VArt UArt de Toucher le de toucher le (JDanoville). Marin. 24 North. 14 Mustek's Monument (Mace). PL 16 . 56. 35. 17. Lyra Viol. Melle. 35 .50. 54. 27 Virdung. Norman. 18 PL 26 10 VUiuela de Arco> 10. 65. 13. 76. PL 26 Traite de la Viole (Rousseau). 10 Parma. 15 Purcell. PL 27 Orpheus. 57 Morley. 67 32 . (Praetorius). 9. de. Roger. 20.60. 58 . 63-69. 10 Viola. 78 Musica instrumentatis deudsch. Thomas. 54. Hubert. 13. 22 Lupo. 12 Mace. 43. Thomas.

General Editor: Armen Carapetyan Annual Journal Musica Disciplina Editors: Arrnen Carapetyan and Gilbert Reaney Particulars about the publications of the A. Angela Evans. include scholarly treatises on music.ORGANISATIONS DEVOTED TO THE STUDY AND PERFORMANCE OF OLD MUSIC AND INSTRUMENTS AMERICAN INSTITUTE OF MUSICOLOGY editions of old music and publications of the A.A. London. Dallas 30.S. Dulwich Village.. from A. Ann Arbor. Courts Hill Road. Meech. : VIOLA DA GAMBA SOCIETY promotion of the playing of viols in the authentic manner. holding six meetings a year and organising an annual Summer School Annual Journal The Lute Society Journal Editor Ian Harwood Particulars about Membership from Mrs. 10-12 Baches Street. School of Music. N. Cuyler. and for U. Michigan 48105 for research into the DOLMETSCH FOUNDATION for the promotion of early music and instruments in concerts and annual Festivals The Consort Editor: Richard D. Wilts.I.ai 7 Pickwick LUTE SOCIETY for the promotion of the playing of the lute (and allied instruments). (three times a year) Editor-in-Chief: James Haar Particulars about Membership from Miss Louise E.E.S.LM. Box 30665. organising an annual Summer School of viol playing and arranging a biennial competition for original consort music Semi. 5 Wilton Square. old musical Halfpenny Road. M.I .LM.LM. published in four series: CORPUS MENSURABILIS MUSICAE. N. London. Diana Poulton. M.. Bach House. and MISCELLANEA. technique and music. Surrey for the : 88 . Annual Journal : GALPIN SOCIETY for the promotion of the history. The CORPUS SCRIPTORUM DE MUSICA. Haslemere. construction instruments Annual Journal and playing of The Galpin Society Journal Editor Eric Particulars about Membership from : : Jeremy Montagu. C. P. from Hinrichsen Edition Ltd. London. 136 High Street.O. spreading accurate knowledge of its history. Noble Particulars about Membership from Mrs. S. Maryborough.Annual Journal The Viola da gamba Society Bulletin Editor: Miss Ruth Daniells Particulars about Membership from Mr. North Aros. Texas : AMERICAN MUSICOLOGICAL SOCIETY byways of music history and science Journal of the A. MUSIGOLOOIGAL STUDIES AND DOCUMENTS. University of Michigan.

89 or 2 Vns. Morley-Pegge> with an Introduction by Max Hinrichsen. With three pages of Wesley Facsimile. and an historical Introduc tion by Nathalie Dolmetsch. its Origin and Evolution by R. in progress is accompanied by the same instrumental consort as prescribed for Morley's Lessons A New Tork Public Library Publication . Cittern and Pandora A definitive edition of one of the great monuments of early music. with a portrait of John Playford. Foreword by Carleton Sprague-Smith. The British Wind Band. 759 WIND BAND WAITS THE ORCHESTRAL HORN The Waits/ a historical study by L. 1682. a contemporary picture of a Viol. Flute. Hinrichsen Edition No. 58 Pages EDITIONS OF ENGLISH XVnth CENTURY CHAMBER MUSIC based on Arnold Dolmetsch's Interpretation prepared by Nathalie Dolmetsch and Layton Ring COPERARIO: FANTASY 2 Vns. & (5') FERRABOSCO Ii FANTASY for 5 Viols or a V'cellos i with or without Keyboard Hinrichsen Edition No. Langwill. 578a/b. 195 pp. enlarged edition of 1682.Peters Edition No. LYRA-WAY Facsimile reproduction of the second. 2 V'cellos & Scores and Parts .THE VIOLA DA GAMBA ITS ORIGIN AND HISTORY ITS TECHNIQUE AND MUSICAL RESOURCES With many illustrations by Nathalie Dolmetsch Hinrichsen Edition No. 9 Facsimiles and y-colour The mask Frontispiece.. about 1596. * ' its Rise and Progress during three Centuries by Harold C. and 12 further musical and other Illustrations. 6100. i or 2 Vas. xix. reconstructed and edited with an historical Introduction and Critical Notes by Sydney Beck. MODERN URTEXT xx. Va. showing Mask Music for a Wedding Feast. io"X 13" PLAYFORD: MUSICK?S RECREATION ON THE VIOL. Lute. G.. Hinrichsen Edition No. S-i6a * * ' THOMAS MORLEY: THE FIRST BOOK OF CONSORT LESSONS for Treble and Bass Viols. Reproduction of 24 Horns. Hindi an<* The Orchestral French Horn.

Keyboard ad lib.. 641/3 Buonaxnente * I^a Momteverde * the 2 Violins in strict canon throughout prepared by Denis Stevens Fingering and bowing marks by Tehudi M. Bb prepared by K. HENRY PURCEUL Score and Parts (1659-1:695) Fantasia: Three Parts upon a Ground (6') 3 Vns. 2. & V'cello 3 Vns.THOMAS TOMKJNS (1572-1656) prepared by Harry Danks 2 Pavam a.enuhin Hinrichsen Edition No. 220. 5 (5') la Nomodbac m 3 (4') Treble & i Bass Viol or 5 Viols or 2 Vns.. & Keyboard. 1687 discovered JOHN JENKINS Aria in (1592-1678) prepared by Cecily Arnold and Marshall Johnson m. 733. 558a/b. G. D. 4242a/b. C. 624/5. da gamba/V'cello ad lib. Va. Bb.. or a Vns. Va. 55. E m. Score and Parts transcribed OLD-ENGLISH TRIO SONATAS with a new Keyboard realisation Vns. prepared by Waldemar Woehl and K. 5. F m. 2.. Va. 5 A. F (Golden) . 5$9a/b. and edited by Denis Stevens and Thurston Dart Hinrichsen Edition No. F. 627. da gamba/V'cello II D A Hinrichsen Edition No. (4 1/2') Sonata a 2 in (3') Violin. D. Bb. 64. Purcell Eb. G Boyce Nos. G m. 680 Handel Op. 78. Viola da gamba/V'cello and Keyboard Va. D m. & Va. . D. 8. and prepared by Lay ton Ring Expression and bowing marks by Jean Pougnet Hinrichsen Edition No. 9. G m.. 7: E m. Schleifer Peters Edition Nos. Eb. 4. G. & V'cello Hinrichsen Edition No.. prepared by Herbert Murrill and Stanley Sadie Hinrichsen Edition Nos. da gamba/V'cello. Scores and Parts OEMINIANI upon Violin & CHACONNE (1687-176!*): Sarabaade Tlteine tlae from (9') Coreili's Sonata Op. 7 Harpsichord/Piano.. 464ga/b mil Scores and Parts aire available separately ad lib. 6. 5 No.. A m. Eb. 3. Schleifer Peters Edition No. da gamba/V'cello or String Trio 2 Arne Nos. da gamba/V'cello ad lib. G rn. Va. 12: F.

.. *.V. I96aa. Hedlund. the eleventh volume of this series covers the Papers read at the joint International Cambridge Congress of the and the Galpin The subjects discussed are wide-ranging and of great interest to all Society..HINRICHSEN'S ELEVENTH Music MUSIC. Oldman. Hinrichsen No. Skeaping) in Section Nine : * Mediaeval Churches Musical Instruments sculptured in the Decoration of English (Charles and Harriet Nicewonger) . B. Dr. Following the success of HINRICHSEN'S TENTH Music BOOK Organ and Choral Aspects and Prospects.. A special feature of this volume of 300 Text Pages is its lavish use of illustrations there are 170 Plates on 100 Pages.. in Section Four: Collections of Musical Instruments in Antwerp (jf. 91 Cloth Bound .. Holland. Douillcz) *Les Collections privies d'instruments de musique (G Thibault) in Section Seven: * Water Organs (Susi Jeans] in Section Eiglit: Some Points in the Nomenclature of Folk Instruments (Anthony Baines) *The Evolution of the Cittern (Emmanuel Winternttz) The International Catalogue of Music for the Lute and kindred Instruments (Jean Jacqwt) The Cylindrical Reed Pipe from Antiquity to the aoth Century (James . H.O. Oldman) in Scottish Libraries (Marie Linton) . Vincent Duckies. Professor Jan LaRue and Jeanette B. .B. G. E. *The Javanese Rebab (Mantle Hood} *Henry PurcelPs Use of the Recorder ( Walter Bergmann) *Shawm Band Pieces by Couperin (Guy Otdkam). C. Panizzi and the Music Collection of the British Music Museum (C. J. among its contents : in Section One: Practical Musicology (Sir Jack Westrup) in Section Two. Rita Brnton. C. Winternitz.. JM[ac(jrillwray} . : IAML music lovers. C. *Musical Treasures of the Vienna Art Museum (Victor Luithleri) *The Schremzer Collection of String Instrumental Fittings (Kenneth . B. The American contributors (in order of the contributions) : Dr. and H* Nicewonger.. LIBRARIES BOOK AND INSTRUMENTS Editors: Unity Sherrington and Guy Oldhara Foreword by Dr. Dr. * with numerous illustrations. Professor Mantle Hood.. Harold Spivake.

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