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# 1.

Stratton goes to his first day at classes at PCC and concludes he is going to like his
anthropology course. “You can just tell,” he says to his girlfriend later, “it’s gonna be a
great course. The teacher brought up all these interesting subjects, and it was just the
first day!”
This is an inductive generalization argument. The sample is Stratton goes to his first day at
classes at PCC. Target would be the teacher brought up all these interesting subjects. And the
property in question is Will he enjoy his anthropology course and is it going to be a great course?
Inductive fallacies: Hasty generalization - Stratton bases his first day of class to determine the
rest of the course.
2. The cocktail Betsy that orders before dinner is watery, so she decides not to eat at the
restaurant after all. “I don’t think they can make a decent dinner if they can’t even
make a decent martini,” she mutters.
This argument is analogical argument. The sample is the watery cocktail and target is decent
martini. The terms of the comparison would be the dinner. The feature in question would be the
dinner is also bad just like the cocktail.
Inductive fallacies: Biased sample - Betsy assumes that the restaurant is not good because of the
restaurant's inability to make a decent drink.
3.

Stortz has heard from his friends that the folks in North Carolina are pretty friendly,
so he looks forward to going through there on his bike trip.

This argument is obviously an inductive generalization argument. The sample would be the
People from North Carolina that Stortz’s friends have encountered, the target is Stortz is taking
his bike trip to North Carolina, and the property in question is that people in North Carolina are
friendly and will he go there?
Inductive fallacies: Hasty generalization - Stortz hasn't met anyone from North Carolina, but he
is looking forward to his trip because he believes they are kind due to his discussion with friends.
4. Agnes has read that fair-skinned, blonde, blue-eyed people are more likely to develop
problems from over-exposure to the sun, but she discounts these reports. “After all,”
she reasons, “my Uncle Bob works outside all day on a boat, and I’ve never heard of
him having problems with sun exposure, even though he is blonde, blue-eyed, and fairskinned.”
This is an inductive generalization argument. The sample is her Uncle Bob that never had
problems with sun exposure even though he works outside under the sun, the target is Agnes
discounting the report that says that fair-skinned, blonde, blue-eyed people are more likely to
develop problems from sun exposure, and the property in question is whether this report is true
or not. This contains a biased generalization because since her uncle did not have the disease, she
only emphasis into his conditions and does not observe any other people with fair-skin, blonde
hair, and blue eyes that may have skin cancer.

5. Mr. Al C. Holic reads a report in the newspaper that a daily glass of wine or two might be
good for the heart, so he decides to get hammered. “Why in hell not,” he says. “If one glass
of wine is good for you, then surely five or six is really good for you!”
This probably is an inductive generalization argument. The sample is reading the newspaper that
drinking a glass of wine daily being good for the heart, and the target would be him getting
hammered. The property in question is if drinking a glass of wine daily is good for your heart,
having five or six glasses of wine is really good for the heart.
The fallacy is hasty generalization. Mistaken reasoning - Having one or two glasses of wine may
be beneficial for your heart but does not necessarily mean that any amount would be beneficial
for it.
6. Overheard: “You don’t think this country is in a slump? Get real. George here was laid
off before Memorial Day, and Howie’s wife and a whole bunch of other people lost their
jobs when the Safeway over on Jeffrey closed down. These are tough times.”
This is an analogical argument. Sample: George, Howie's wife, and a whole bunch of other
people. Target: The country being in a slump. Property in question: Is this country is in a slump
or in a tough times?
The term of comparison: George's, Howie's wife, and a whole bunch of other people losing their
jobs.
The hasty generalization was used in this fallacy because without having enough studies or other
observations of the population other than the speaker's witness of friends losing their jobs, a
conclusion was based off little of experiences.
7. Fewer than 20% of college professors think of themselves as shy, according to a new
study by two psychologists. “We were surprised by this result because other studies have
reported almost 50% of adult Americans think of themselves as shy, said Jane Smalley,
professor at Chico State University. “College professors are sometimes considered an
introverted group and so we expected perhaps a majority to think of themselves as shy,”
she said. Smalley and her associate John Mason interviewed 150 college professors who
were identified by their deans and other administrators at 25 American universities as
“typical” faculty. The universities were selected by a random procedure from a list of
American colleges and universities.
This is might be an inductive Generalization. Sample: College professors randomly selected
from a list of American colleges and universities. Target: The percentage of Americans adult
think of themselves is shy. Property in question/Analogical arguments: Do fewer than 20% of
college professors think of themselves as shy?
Inductive fallacies is Weak analogy; this does not apply to all professors and this passage is
lacking in information.

8. Juanita has taken six courses at Valley Community College, and she has a grade average
of B so far. All the courses she has taken have been in sociology and psychology. She’s
thinking of enrolling in another course next term, and she expects to make at least a B in
whatever she takes. Suppose that when she took the previous courses, Juanita had done all
her studying alone because she didn’t know any of the other students at Valley but that now
she knows several good students and plans to study with them when she takes her next
course. Would her argument be stronger or weaker than if she were planning to study
alone? Discuss.
Her argument is weak because the argument does not provide enough information that her
studying with other good students would have benefitted her and we do not know if she will get a
better grade by joining group of people for her next courses. This is an analogical argument, and
the sample is her grade average of a B so far, the target is her expected grade for the next term
and the property in question is whether her grades will improve in the next course by doing
group study with other students.
9. A random survey of 1000 callers to a drug-help hotline produced the following results:
535 of the callers were heavy users of cocaine freebase, amphetamines, or heroine; 220 were
“recreational” users of cocaine or marijuana, 92 were not drug users at all, and the
remainder refused to answer. This survey proves that most people who use drugs are not of
the “recreational” type.
Inductive Generalization. Sample: The randomly select survey of 1000 callers to a drug-help
hotline representing most people who use drugs. Target is the 553 who were heavy users, 220
who were “recreational” users, and 92 who were not drug users. And the property in question
would be do most of the people not use drugs for recreational purposes?
Inductive fallacies: Biased sample - the sample of people were drug users calling for help but
they do not represent all the drug users who didn't call.
10. Goldman may have won the Supervisor of the Year award, but that just means they
didn’t look very hard for a winner. I know a couple of people who work in Goldman’s
division and they say that he’s a real pain to work for. I’d sooner trust my friends than
some awards committee.
This might be an analogical argument. The sample would be the Supervisor of the Year award,
the target would be the couple of people who work in Goldman’s division, and the property in
question is that he might not deserve the award because they didn't look hard for a winner. This
might contain a fallacy of a hasty generalization, because some people that said he's a pain to
work for might compare to a larger group who knows him and think he is a hard worker that is
easy to work with. Inductive fallacies: Biased sample - The individual would rather trust his
friends than the awards committee.