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MelissaClark

Approaches2016
TerriSenft
April22nd2016
CloseReaderReport
INTRODUCTION
Imagineyouareonaplane,secondsfromlanding.Theengineisrumblingloud
andthepressureinyourearsisbuildingjusttothepointpastannoying.Youhavea
momentofhesitation.Youknowtheplanecanland,butyouarenotlandingityourself.
Youhaveputyourfaithinanamelessstranger,shieldedbyabrand.Youholdyour
breathforthebriefmomentsbetweenthesightofthetarmacandthewheelstouchingthe
ground.Onceyouhavemadeittothegateyouwillneverthinkaboutthosebrief
momentsagain,yettheydefinedthatveryuncertainmomentintime.
ThatexactfeelingiswhatGregRichardsdescribesinhisworkPlacemakingand
eventsinthenetworksociety.Heexamineshowbringingtogetherofaplaceanda
specificmomentintimeconnectspeopleandplacestooneanother.Itisinthe
atmospherethatweexperienceourownprocessesandcanmakeconclusionstohowwe
interpretmemoriesandthoughts.Richardsspecificallyfocusesonthebuildingofcities,
andtheimpactthattourismcanbringtoacommunity.Asyntheticspacecanreconstruct
thesocialinteractionofcontinuousandproximalbeings.
RichardsuseshisexperienceasaProfessorofPlacemakingandEventsatNHTV
BredaUniversityofAppliedScienceandasProfessorofLeisurestudiesattheUniversity
ofTilburgintheNetherlandstodictatehisstudies.HehasworkedfortheEuropean
Commissionregardingtopicsofculturaltourism,crafttourism,sustainabletourism,
tourismeducationandlaborandmobilityinthetourismindustry.Hefurthershisworkby
applyinghisexperiencetoculturaleventsthroughoutEurope,suchasthedevelopmentof
themultiannualeventprogramtocelebratethe500thanniversaryofthepainter
HieronymusBosch.Richardshaspublishedmanyarticlesreferringtohisworkinthe
tourismindustry,butallinallthereadingreturnsbacktothereader.Itisaninteractive
exposethatdefineshisworkinunderstandingtherolethattheaudienceplaysinbothhis
articlesandhisresearch.
MAJORARGUMENTS
Richardsbreakshisresearchintothreemainpoints
Placeshavetoworkmoreinordertoindividualizetheiridentity
Brandingaloneisnotaneffectivewayofmarketingaplace,aplacemustbeable
totellastory
Placesmustnotonlytellastory,thestoryhastobeabletochangeinperspective
totheviewer

EVIDENCE
Toexplainwhytheideaofplaceissoimportantinthebrandingofaspace,
Richardsguidesustocitiesaroundtheworld.Thefirststorymentionedisthestoryof
Hertogenbosch(orDenBosch)inthe
Netherlands.Withadesiretoexpandbeyond
an
imageofmedievalandoutdatedarchitecture,
the
cityhadtochangetheaudienceinwhichit
wasappealingto.Justbecausethecitywas
appealingtothetouristandappreciatorofart,
the
citydecideditwantedtobecomeaMeeting
City.Thisisacitydefinedbythecoming
togetherofaspecificgroupofpeople.The
leadoftheproject,RosabethMossKanter,hadbouncedaroundideassuchasaweekly
cattlemarketandevenanannualtennistournament,yettheplanwasstilllackingalevel
ofenthusiasm.WhatmadethiscitydifferentthananyoftheotherMeetingCities?
Whilequicklyadaptingtheproposedchallenge,thecitysoughtrefugeeinalocalpainter.
HeironymusBosch,ahabitantofthecityfromthedayhewasborntothedayhedied,
becameaniconforthetownandthepeoplewholivedthere.ThisiswhyRichards
explainsplaceshavetoworkmoreinordertoindividualizetheiridentity.Identityis
everything,andwithoutidentityacitycannotflourish.Evenonapersonallevel,without
identityeverymanwouldbethesame.
ThesecondcitywetraveltoisthecityofBarcelonaanditslinkedeffortsto
rebuilditselfforthe1992Olympics.Thisis
agreatexampleofhowplacemaking,driven
byidentity,canrebrandaplace.Itstarts
withtheregenerationofspaceandthe
purposeofimprovement.Bytheendofthe
Olympicsthecityhadnewculturalspaces,
newvisualicons,andwasenthralledbythe
ideaofopenness.Alargedrivingforce
wasthedeathofFrancoandhowthecity
hadreclaimedthestreetsofexpression.This
istheyearwhereweseeanincreaseinboth
festivalsandpublicfacilitiesinattemptstoplacatethepeoplewhohadlivedthere.The
placebecamethatofthepeopleandthatiswhyaplacemustbeabletotellastory.The
storystartedwithrebirth,regrowthandendedwithredistribution.Thestorydoesnotend
attheendof1992aswell.AfterapostOlympichangoverthestorywentforwardin
openingitsdoortotourism.Gaudi,aSpanishCatalanarchitect,waslargelyestablishedas
aniconicfigureindesignandin1999BarcelonabecamethefirstcitytowinaRIBA
RoyalGoldMedalforitsarchitecture.Thecityhadbeguntonameitsstoryasthatofa
globalcultureandthenitbegantobreakdown.Barcelonaunfortunatelyhadtolearnfrom
itsmistakes.

Thisstoryleadstoourlastcity,
BerlinandspecificallytheSchaustelle
Berlinevent.Thespecificevent
showcasedthemanybuildingsitesinthe
centerofBerlininthe1990sandwas
successfulinturningthereconstruction
intoanengagementofsort.Itforcedthe
residentsandvisitorsaliketoquestionthe
actualspaceversustheconceptualframeworkthattheyhadbeenlivingin.Inother
words,theywerequestionedtoexploretheirownpartintherebuildingofthecityand
whatitmeanttothem.Itiscrucialthatplacesnotonlytellastory,butthestoryhastobe
personal.Inanyurbanspace,therearepeoplewhoinhabitit.Thepeoplemakethespace,
andwithoutthepeoplethebuildings,themarket,andtheimagewouldmeannothing.
BREAKDOWN
BacktotheStreet
WhenbreakingdownRichardswork,itisimportanttonotewhydefiningan
urbanspaceisimportant.Anurbanspaceinotherwordsisjustthecharacteristicsofa
city.Thiscanbefromitsenvironmentanditspurpose,orevenitsindividualgoalsof
growth.Nomatterwhat,urbanspacessurroundusandtodevelopourselvesasa
communitywemustdeterminewhatthisspacerepresents.ThisiswhyRichardstakeus
backtothestreets.
ForRichards,heexploreshowaninitiativemusthavethepotentialtochange.In
otherwords,aspacemustbeabletoadapttoitssurroundingenvironmentsand
circumstances.ThisremindsmeofaquotefromthetheoristJeanBaudrillard(1993),asit
statesidentityisuntenable,identityisdeath.Thisremindsmethatidentityisonly
applicabletoacertainmomentintime.Onceanobjectdies,itsidentitydiesalongwithit.
Themorethataspacecanadapt,thelongerthespacewillsurvive.
Selection:TheProcessofInnovation
Sohowdothesespacesgetchosen,ormoresohowdothesespacesdevelop?It
takesaveryspecialtypeofthinkingtocreateanopenenvironmentforchange.Often
enoughthesespacescomefromdistress.Thisisatimethatseriousquestionshavetobe
asked,andanswersaredemandedasameansofsurvival.ThatiswhyRichardsexplains
thatwemustlookforouranswersfrompeertopeerratherthanatopdownapproach.
Wearecultivatinginnovationwhenweseekforanswersaroundus,andwewillbeable
toapproachalocalcontext.
Richardsalsoarguesthattherelationshipbetweenplacemakingandeventsmust
bearecursiveone.Inordertocreateimpact,therehastobesomethingthatsticksand
thatistheabilitytocreateaglobalizedleisure.
Direction:Creatingdistinction
AllofthistalkaboutsurvivalandwemustmentionLynch(1972)andhis
questionsregardingthetimeofaplace.Eventsalterthistimeandthiscanconfusethe
spaceandthepeopleconnectingtoit,butthisisnotnecessarilyabadthing.Timeand

spaceworkhandandhandtocreateanexperiencethatisnonreplicable.Thisauthenticity
canbeattempted,buttwomomentswillneverhavethesameexactconditions.
Connection:Placemakingasabottomupprocess
Whereasmostplanningcommitteeslookatanurbanspaceinregardstothe
architects,planners,andoccupants,thisisnottheonlyway.Placemakingislargely
dependentuponthepeoplewhoareinteractingwiththespace.Theeverydayfolkifyou
will.
Byusingmemories,imaginings,andimmediatepresentanurbanspacecanbe
experiencedinindividualways(Pink,2008).
VOCABTOKNOW
WhendissectingRichardswork,alotofconsiderationisputintothe
developmentofanurbanspace.Heuseslanguagethatisrelatedtothebuilding,structure,
andthedownfallofacity.Belowaretermstoknowandtheirapplicationsthroughoutthe
paper.
Placemaking(v)thecreationofarealitythatgeneratesexternalities,including
economic,socialandculturalbenefits,aswellasputtingaplaceonthemapforbeinga
goodplacetolive,work,visitandgenerallybe.Richardsuse:Byplacemaking,aplace
becomesimportant.Thisisintermsoftheindividualforeithergoodorbadexperiences.
Events(n)thechancetoalterrealityoverashortertimespan.Richardsuse:Anevent
canbedefinedasaspecificmomentintimethattransformstheaudienceintoanabstract
place.Atangibleeventoccursinthephysicalgatheringofaplace.Forexample,aparty
orarallycanbeconsideredatangibleevent.Anabstracteventreferstoamovement
thatcantakeplaceinanalternativespace.Forexample,atwittermovementtakesplace
onthewebyetstilleffectstheclimateofreality.
ConstructedMeaning(n)Anintendedcommunicationofsomethingthatisnotdirectly
expressed.Thiscanbecultural,social,orpersonal.Constructedmeaningisdefinedby
thecomingtogetherofideasanditsinteractionwiththeplaceortheobject.Richards
use:Richarddoesnotexplicitlydescribethistermyetitsmeaningisimplied.The
individualsinteractingwithinitjudgeaspaceandwhentakingthisintoconsideration,
eachindividualwillhavetheirownpersonalopinionofsaidplace.
Permeability(n)Themakingofpublicspacevisible,accessibleandreadable.Richards
use:Thistermspecificallyreferstoanindividualandtheabilitytheyhavetotheplace.
Mutability(n)Themakingofspacesmultifunctional,heterogeneousandflexible.
Richardsuse:Thistermreferstotheideathatspacesarenotinfinite.Tobeasuccessful
space,thedevelopmentofthestructuremustbeabletochangeandadapttoits
surroundingclimate.Theclimateincludesideasoftheaudience,theeconomy,andthe
spaceitself.

Tangibility(n)Thedevelopmentoftherealitybehindtheimageofthecity,whichin
turnimpactsonthelivedexperienceofallusersofurbanspace.Richardsuse:Thisis
thetermforthetechnicalbuildingofthespace.Thisincludesthelayout,theplanning,
andthespecifictoolsdesignedtoaccommodatethespace.
Hyperreal(adj)exaggeratedincomparedtoreality.Richardsuse:Thehyperrealisthe
combiningofrealityandtheimaginedspace.
USEFULNESS
Overall,thisworkisquitenecessaryformyfutureresearch.AsIbeganto
researchtopics,IhavefoundIaminterestedinthepowerthataplacecanhaveinterms
ofescape.MyspecifictopicofinterestwillexaminehowDisneysThemeParkshave
astaringroleinthelivesoftraumaimpactedchildren.Thisstemsfrommyownpersonal
experienceandtheideathatthefirsttimeIwenttoDisneylandIhatedit.Ihateditwitha
burningpassiontobeexact,andIsworeIwouldnevergoback.ThenmydaddiedandI
hadrealizedthatIhaddealtwiththescariestrealityofthemall,mydadwasdead.The
parkthatIoncehatednowofferedmecomfort.Itwasastorybookescapefromallofmy
problemsandtheparkmoreimportantlyofferedmeanopportunitytobeakid.Thatis
whyIcontinuetogobacktothisday.
Thissamesensationofescapeappliestootherchildrenoftraumasuchasthe
childrenofTheMakeAWishFoundation.Thesechildrenmaketheirdyingwishtovisit
theHappiestPlaceonEarth,butwhy?Oursituationsarecompletelydifferent,yetour
feelingsabouttheparkarequitesimilar.ThisiswhatRichardsexplainsasthe
importanceofplacemaking.ThebrandingoftheDisneyParksaloneguaranteesan
unforgettableexperiencewhereeveryone,withnoregardtoactualage,canbeakid.The
brandexpectsitsconsumerstoplayintoachildlikefantasythatisunattainableinthe
realworld.
Somethingthattheworksfailstoexplainistheideaofhowotherindividuals
perceptionofthespacecanalsoaffectmyownideasabouttheplace.Forexample,I
thinkabouttheendofeverysingleSuperbowl.Whenthestarplayerisaskedwhathe
isgoingtogodonext,thenecessaryandexpectedresponseisIamgoingtoDisney
World.Thisisextremeinnatureasacelebritypersonalityhasthepowertopersuadea
largeaudienceinashortamountoftime,yetthisideacanbeexplainedinamore
personalmanneraswell.AsaloverofDisney,IhavetakenmanypeopletoDisneyland
whohaveneverbeen.Imakesureonthesixhourdrivetotheparktoexplainourgame
planandthebestridesthatwemustride.Ihavecreatedanexpectationformyguests,
andoftenenoughtheysharethesamelevelofexcitement.Theirperceptionoftheparkis
basedoffofmyownexperienceandnonebasedontheirowninterpretation.
ThatiswhyRichardsputssomuchemphasisonexperience.Experience
determinesouropinionsanditisanecessarytohowweprocessourlives.

EXAMPLES/CASESTUDIES
Brokendownbelowaretwodifferentcasestudies.Onefocusesonplacemaking
specificallyanditsimpactontheuser,andtheothercasestudyrelatestomyresearchon
DisneyParksandchildrenoftrauma.
ActTogether:APlacemakingVideo
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=OTLhV7ABCY0
Response:Thisvideousesaformofmedia(videography)todeveloptheideaofaplace.
Wordsflashacrossthescreenthatdepictsthemessuchascreativity,place,andeventhe
ideaoftogetherness.Whenconsideringtheideasofaplace,thisvideocreatesan
experienceforitsviewers.Weseethehowthecenterhasbeenbuiltup,andanewand
innovativediscoveryhasbeencreated.ThisiswhatRichardswoulddescribeas
placemaking.
DiscussionQuestions:
Whatotherwordsmightyouaddtothereel?
Isthisexperiencesynthetic?Haveyouactuallybeentothisplace,yetyoustill
haveanexperiencewithit?
Justbecausethisisanexampleofplacemaking,wouldyousaythisisasuccessful
formofplacemaking?
EffectsofGrantingWishtoChildrenwithLifethreateningConditionson
AdjustmenttoDiseasewithaFocusontheMediatingEffectsofResilienceand
StressCausedbyDiseases
http://synapse.koreamed.org/DOIx.php?
id=10.14475/kjhpc.2015.18.2.148&vmode=PUBREADER
Response:InthisstudyfromtheKoreanStudyofPalliativeCare,theaimoftheresearch
wastoseehowfoundationssuchasMakeAWishcanimprovethequalityofachilds
life.Theymeasurethisintheformofresilienceandhope.Wherethevariablesinthe
studywerequalitativeindescription,researchersusedascaletomeasurethedifferencein
levelsbeforeandafterwishesweregranted.ThisrelatestoRichardsworks,asmany

ofthesewishesincludedaccesstoaplace.Aplacewherebothreleaseandescapeis
offeredtoitsaudience.
DiscussionQuestions:
Isthisqualitativeapproachanaccuraterepresentationoftheresultsitis
presenting?
Whatdoesthisstudytellusabouttheplace?
Arewishesaneffectiveformofcuringachildoflossofhope?
HowwouldtheresultsdifferintheU.S.?InFrance?Inanycountry?

FURTHERQUESTIONS
Alongwithexperiencecomesaquestion.Richardsforcesustoexamineour
personaltakeonaplaceinordertoconnectwithhisreadings.Itbecamequiteeasytodo
sowhenIthoughtofhistheoryintermsofmyownhometown.TracyCaliforniais
definedonitsquaintnessanditsdeterminationtogrow,yethaveyouheardofit?Aplace
canmeaneverythingtooneperson,yetabsolutelynothingtoanother.Thisleadsmeto
questiontheauthenticityofaplace.Canoneplacebemoreauthenticthananother?Is
thereasyntheticculturethatcanalsobedistributedintheorytodescribethepeoplewho
belonginthisplace?Doesthissyntheticdevaluetheimpactthattheplacehasonits
community?
Thesequestionsmoresoregardthetheoriesofauthenticitiesandcommunity,but
verymuchrelatetomystudiesaboutDisneyParks.Disneyaimstocreateaunique
experienceforeachofitsviewers,anditcaterstospecificneedsofthoseviewersaswell.
BesidesjustchildrenandtheparticipantsofMakeAWish,buthowaboutthemarathons
itholdsthere?Ortheparadesthatfeaturebands,performers,andothertalent?
IwillmostlikelyalwayshavequestionsaboutDisneyandhowitaffectsothers,
becausetomeDisneywasthestartofalotofgoodthings.