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• Around 25% of the total production cost is
spent for Heat
• Economy of the plant depends of its specific
Heat consumption
• Reduction in specific heat consumption
leads to smoother and easier kiln operation

Reduction in cooler Loss
Secondary Air & TAD
Temp raise
Improved flame in kiln
& better combustion in
Less circulation of
volatile matter
Less formation of Build
ups in Riser Pipe
Smoother and easier
kiln Operation

Reduction in
Specific Heat
Reduction in
Specific Vent Gas

Increased Rawmeal
Feed to Kiln

More Clinker

Controllable Parameters

Air Distribution
False Air Intake
Cooler Loss
Cyclone Efficiency

of fuels – Moisture in Coal . Quality & Properties – Types of fuel – C.V.CONTENTS • Introduction • Rawmeal Quality and Properties – – – – Heat of reaction Content of combustible materials Content of free & combined moisture Temperature of kiln feed • Combustibles.

Contents… • Air Distribution – Primary air – Excess air in Kiln – False air intake • Cooler Loss • Preheater Cyclone Efficiency • Conclusion .

57 12.9 8.5 55.85 19.04 94.95 Heat in Clinker discharge 23.HEAT BALANCE Heat In put Kcal /Kg Clinker Heat through Coal Combustion 689.16 Heat in H2O evaporation 1.48 .1 3.39 Sensible heat in Raw meal 25.69 0.97 0.43 Sensible heat in Fuel 0.29 Heat in PH exit Dust 3.87 2.14 Cooler exhaust air 94.23 Radiation Loss 61.98 0.13 Sensible Heat in Air 14.06 3.03 Total Heat In put 729.95 % 100 % Heat Out put Kcal /Kg Clinker Heat in PH exit Gases 140.54 Heat of reaction 402.

Rawmeal Quality and Properties Influence on * Heat of reaction * Content of combustible material * Content of free and combined moisture * Temperature of kiln feed .

Heat of Reaction……. • The theoritical amount of energy required to convert the rawmeal into the corresponding mixture of clinker minerals • Energy chemically absorbed by the formation of clinker Heat of Reaction = Heat required to decompose the carbonates... silicates and chemically combined water - Heat liberated by the formation of calcium silicates. alkali sulphates and combustion of organic compounds .

• Heat of reaction (HOR) will be normally in the range of 385 .3% in specific power consumption .1 kcals / kg of clinker in specific heat consumption * 0.3 degC in exit gas temperature * 0.420 Kcals / Kg of clinker • It is an inherent characteristic of a rawmix and it is not in the power of the operational staff to influence • It can be reduced by using the materials like blast furnace slag which is having around 55% CaO and very low heat of reaction • Increase in HOR by 1Kcal / Kg of clinker increases * 1.

Coal Shale etc.COMBUSTIBLE MATERIAL • Organic matter present in the rawmeal partly substitute the fired fuel and thus reduces the fuel expense • Typical combustibles in raw mix comprise Soil. • But…… they burn in the preheater lower cyclones and thus less efficiently burnt and increases the exit gas temperature.. • Leads to frequent ‘ CO ’ formation in the exit gas . Pyrite . Organic matter.

Effect of Combustible materials on Heat consumption 10Kcals/ Kg of clinker as Combustibles in Rawmeal Less than10Kcals/ kg of clinker Reduction in specific Heat Consumption + Heat Loss in Preheater Exit Gas .

Operating considerations CO problems Increase in Exit gas temperature CO can not be reduced only by more excess air Exit gas volume also increases with Excess air Can Manage by PH gas down comer cooling if PH fan is a bottleneck or having the GCT before the ID fan .

• Combined moisture will be around 0.5 -1.Content of Free and Combined Water • Free water in rawmeal evaporates at top stage cyclones and reduce the preheater exit gas temperature to some extent • Combined moisture (chemically bound water) evaporates at second stage cyclone.5% in rawmill which is not affected by the drying process in rawmill. .

4 Kcal/kg clinker heat consn 1.Free moisture Combined moisture 1 Determined by Raw mill It is characteristic of minerals in the raw materials 2 Free water evaporate at temp Combined water evaporate at temp above 100 Deg C. weight (range :0. 3 Usually less than 1 % by Usually 0.2 % moisture adds to 0.2 % moisture adds to Every 0.5 % by weight outlet temp below 100 Deg C.1 Kcal/kg clinker heat consn .5 – 1.8%) 4 Every 0.5 to 0.

Influence of Free moisture in Raw meal Free moisture in rawmeal Raise in Sp heat consn Redn in Exit gas temp Reduction in Sp Power More moisture gives flow problem Raw mill output can improve with more moisture in raw meal .

5 Kcal/kg clinker heat after adjusting the power benefit consn more after adjusting the power benefit ( for 1 million TPA @ Rs 430/Mkcal & Rs 4/ Kwh) .0 kcal/kg clinker more 0.3 % .9 % Specific Power consn Net effect 1.Influence of Free and Combined Moisture Free moisture ( for Every 1 % by wt) Combined moisture ( for Every 1 % by wt) + 1.6 Kcal / kg clinker Specific Heat consn .6.35 Deg C Exit gas temp -16 Deg C -1.8 Kcal / kg clinker + 5.

the effect on preheater exit gas temperature may be beneficial to the ID fan capacity and power consumption .• Influence of free and combined moisture on heat consumption is only moderate But….

4 Deg C Sp Power + 1. Determined by the temp in the raw mill outlet 2.Temperature of Kiln Feed 1.1 % Parameter affected Specific Heat consn . Has some influence on heat economy Exit gas temp Per 10 Deg C increase in Kiln feed temp -0.5 Kcal / Kg clinker + 5.


smoke gas volume increases .Based on the fuel used  Combustion gas volume varies  Amount of ash content also varies  Heat consumption also varies  Temperature profile of kiln system varies • Firing with coal will increase the specific heat consumption as compared with oil firing because of the introduction of coal ash into the kiln Specific Heat As the Ash in coal increases consumption. exit gas temp.

.For gas fired kiln……. • Smoke gas volume will be more as the natural gas contains more of Hydrogen • the preheater exit temperature is high and specific power consumption of the ID Fan will also be high Oil to Coal Sp Heat + 12 Kcal /Kg cl Due to coal ash Oil to gas + 12 Kcal /Kg cl Due to more hydrogen in Gas Exit gas temp +5 Deg C + 13 Deg C Sp Power + 14% due to more flue gas volume + 2% .

harder will be the kiln operation • Hydrogen / Carbon ratio affects the NCV • Increase of Sulphur reduces the NCV • Coal displays higher difference in NCV due to variations in ash and type • Oil displays fairly less change in NCV for different grades • Low C.V coals .V coals are cheaper than high C. higher will be the Heat consumption • Lower the NCV.Calorific value of fuels NCV: The Net CV is the amount of useful heat released from combustion • Lower the NCV.

1 Deg C Coal per 100 Kcal /Kg coal increase in NCV .0.0.1 % Sp heat consumption Fuel oil per 100 Kcal /Kg oil increase in NCV No influence .0.1.0 % . ash content effect .V of fuel Exit gas temp .5 Deg C Sp Power consumption .Calorific value of fuels… Results from reference model: The Influence of the Net C.1.2 Kcal / Kg clinker excl.

MOISTURE in COAL • A minimum residual moisture is required in the fine coal to avoid self ignition • A higher moisture content will reduce the flowability and cause dangerous build-ups H ig h M o is t u r e c o n t e n t o f c o a l B u lid U p s in F in e C o a l B in I n c r e a s e d S m o k e g a s V o lu m e R e d u c e d c a lo r ific V a lu e R e d u c e d F lo w a b ilit y In c r e a s e d H e a t lo s s in E x it G a s I n c r e a s e d S p e c ific H e a t C o n s u m p tio n L e s s k iln p r o d u c tio n I n c r e a s e d I D F a n P o w e r c o n s u m p tio n M o r e a s h d ilu tio n o f c lin k e r .

Issues:  Residual moisture is determined by the self ignition characteristic of coal  Lignite and high volatile coals has more self ignition property and requires high residual moisture  Too much residual moisture will affect flow ability and cause dangerous build ups  Moisture in coal adds up to inactive gas volume thro kiln system .

7 % Operating considerations: For Direct firing systems the heat consumption increases with more coal moisture For indirect firing systems the effect is minimal .45 Kcal / kg clinker Exit gas temp Sp power consumption +1.0 Deg C + 0.Results from reference model: The influence of Moisture in fine coal Sp heat consumption Per 1 % increase in moisture of coal + 0.

¤ Primary air ¤ Excess air ¤ False air False air Excess air Primary air .AIR DISTRIBUTION Influence of …….

PRIMARY AIR • Injected through the burner pipe into the kiln for flame formation and control • Using hot primary air will improve the heat economy but needs bigger fan and ducting • Minimizing the primary air will improve the heat economy by using more secondary air • Preheater kilns are more sensitive to primary air • Amount of primary air determined by * Flame formation * Burner design * Design of firing installation .

15 Deg C + 0.0.06 Deg C Sp Power consn + 0.5 % + 0.2 % .0.2 Kcal / kg clinker Exit gas temp + Kcal / kg clinker .Air Per 1 % increase Primary Air Per 10 Deg C temp increase P. 3 Deg C -0.0.06 % . 4 Deg C .Air Per 1 % increase Primary Air Per 10 Deg C temp increase Sp heat consn + 1.4 Kcal / kg clinker + 0.7 Kcal / kg clinker .5 % .AIR DISTRIBUTION … PRIMARY AIR Results from reference model: Influence of Primary air quantity and temperature For PH kilns For Calciner kilns P.

Excess Air in the KILN • A certain excess air is maintained in the kiln inlet to avoid CO formation and reducing conditions in kiln • Increase in kiln draft increases the heat consumption but neutralised by the increased heat recuperation from the cooler • The amount of excess air during operation is determined by the Oxygen content in the kiln inlet and preheater exit. which continuously monitored by the on-line gas analysers. .

Increased Excess Air More heat Loss in preheater Heat loss Increased ID Fan Load Excess O2 in Smoke Gas Movement of Heat towards inlet Cooling of Burning Zone .

7 % +0.9 % .1 Kcal / kg clinker air up Exit gas temp +1.7 Deg C Sp power consn + 1.9 Deg C +0.The influence of Excess air on the heat consn and other parameters for PH and ILC Kiln For PH kiln Per % Increase in excess air in kiln For Calciner kiln Per % Increase in excess air in kiln Sp heat consn Independent of excess +0.

8198 Nm3 / Kg of Clinker @10% Excess air Combustion air = 1.5 NM3 / Kg of clinker . Combustion air = 1.166 Kg of air /Kg of clinker = 0.06 Kg of air/Kg of clinker = 0.9018 Nm3 / Kg of Clinker The waste gas quantity from preheater is = 1.For a specific heat consumption of 750 KCals/Kg of clinker . Theo.

whereas the increase in specific heat cinsumption is 1. • As it is a induced draft system.8 kcals for kiln inlet seal in preheater tower. • If 0. the effect will be substantial. • Has a substantial influence on the heat consumption. power consumption. it increases the specific heat consumption by 1 kcal/kg of clinker.False air intake……. . • Closer to the kiln outlet.1 kg of false air/kg of clinker enters at preheater top cyclones. production and coating build. intake of certain amount of false air is inevitable.

08/0.08 kg/kg of clinker and the specific heat consumption will increase by (0. it is 0.Common areas to be watched for false air  Preheater doors Kiln inlet seal  Preheater fan damper seal. For a production of 4000 TPD .4 Kcals/ Kg of clinker .  Kiln hood inspection door and cleaning holes  Expansion.1)x 18 = 14. welded and flanged joints in preheater  kiln outlet seal • A 100cm x 10cm hole at kiln riser duct with a draught of 70mmwG will allow a false air of 4 kg of air / sec .

(O2 outlet .O2 outlet) .• Due to the leakage air.X 100 at inlet ( 21 .O2 inlet) % False Air = -------------------. the operating point of ID fan is shifted from its maximum efficiency point causing more power consumption • The ingression of false air may lower the maximum kiln production due to the increase in specific smoke gas quantity. • Amount of false air entry and the profile of false air can be found out by measuring the oxygen content in various places.

7 % +0.1 kg air /kg clinker Increase in false air in kiln inlet Sp heat consn 1 kcal /kg clinker 18 kcal /kg clinker Sp power consn + 1.9 % .1 kg air /kg clinker Increase in false air in top cyclone Per 0.Air leak through an aperture of area A(m2) with a differential pressure of DP(mmWG) can be calculated from Volume (m3 /hr) = 8900 x A x sq Rt ( DP) Results from reference model: The influence of False air on the heat consn and other parameters for PH and ILC Kiln Per 0.

the cooler loss can often increased by 10-20 Kcals/Kg of clinker and ID fan power consumption by 3-6% • For grate coolers. which can be optimised by adjusting air distribution . optimum recuperation is achieved when clinker is well distributed over the cooler width.COOLER LOSS Heat loss in Cooler exit air Clinker Radiation • With normal wear in daily operation.

• A bed height of 400 . • Reducing the false air entry in cooler • Reducing the heat loss by proper refractory maintenance • Optimizing the cooler specific air consumption.600mm to be maintained by means of adjusting the grate speed and undergrate pressure. . A higher bed thickness improves the heat recuperation and reduces the heat losses for cooler. • Secondary air and tertiary air temperatures are the important indicators of the cooler efficiency and heat recuperation. • Avoiding blowing pot holes by maintaining the gaps between the grate plates minimum.

0 Kcal / Kg cl + 1.1 Kcal / Kg cl Exit gas temp +0.Results from reference model: Influence of cooler loss on heat consn & other parameters For PH kiln Per 1 kcal For Calciner kiln Per /kg cl Increase in 1 kcal /kg cl Increase cooler loss in cooler loss Sp heat consn + 1.28% +0.4% .4 Deg C Sp Power consn +0.3 Deg C +0.

we can reduce the heat consumption by means of the following important points as they have high impact on specific heat consumption. # Periodic maintenance of Dip tubes # Material flap gates and spreader boxes are most important for better heat transfer in preheater. .CYCLONE EFFICIENCY • Higher efficiency of cyclones will reduce the specific heat consumption especially for the bottom stage cyclones. • Though cyclone efficiency is based on the design aspect.

• Maintaining the cyclone interior portion properly. regular cleaning and keeping the surface smoother. • Temperature and pressure profile should be measured in preheater for analysing the cyclones performance.• Avoiding build-ups in the preheater using air blaster. . • Temperature difference between the inlet and outlet of the cyclones is the indication of the cyclone efficiency.

Indicators of Poor Cyclone Efficiency  Small Difference in gas inlet / outlet temperature  Change in temperature profile  Increase in PH Exit gas temp  Increased dust loss  Increase in ID fan power  Change in Kiln feed factor .

9 -0.1 25 Cy 3 0.1 Kg /kg cl Kg /kg cl 18 17 18 21 5.6 11 Cy 1 (top) 0.4 5.9 -9.0 A Change in By False air intake Inlet seal Kiln hood Cy 5 Kg /kg cl (bottom) .1 0.1 0.CONCLUSION Important Optg Parameters Results in a change in Unit Heat Kcal /kg Temp 0 C ID Fan % 0.1 Kg /kg cl 5.1 Kg /kg cl 0.0 21 23 5.

0 % -0.Important Optg Parameters A Change in By Air distribution Primary Air 1.0 Results in a change in Unit Heat Kcal /kg Temp 0 C ID Fan % % 1.5 0.7 .6 Cy 1 (top) 1.2 1.3 0.1 -0.0 % -0.3 Cooler Loss Std Cooler 1.6 -1.5 1.8 -0.7 0.0 0.0 Kcal /kg cl loss Efficiency of Cclone Cy 5 1.