You are on page 1of 392

Ex

C. K.

Libris

OGDEN

THE

THEORY AND PRACTICE


OF

BREWING.
MICHAEL COMB RUNE,

BREWER.

ORIGIN ALLY PUBLISHED WITH PERMISSION OF THE MASTER, WARDENS,

AND COURT OF ASSISTANTS OF THE WORSHIPFUL


COMPANY OF BREWERS.

A NEW EDITION.
CORRECTED ANi> GREATLY ENLARGED BY THE AUTHOR,

LONDON:
PRINTED FOR VERNOR. AND HOOD, LONGMAN AND REES, CVTflEUAND MARTIN, AND J. WALKER,
By

J.

Wright,

St.

John's Square, Clerkcnvell.

TO

DOCTOR PETER SHAW,


PHYSICIAN TO HIS MAJESTY,
FELLOW OF THE ROYAL COLLEGE

F PHYSICIANS

OF LO.VDOV,

AND OF THE 11OYAL SOCIETY.

SIR,

THE

brewing of malt liquors has hitherto

been conducted by such vague traditional


maxims, that an attempt to establish its
practice on truer

and more

must, like every

new

with

fixed principles

essay,

be attended

difficulties.

Your works,

be lasting monu-

Sir, will

ments, not only of your great

abilities,

but

also of your zeal for the

the

arts,

improvement of
manufactures, and commerce of

You

your country.

me

to

treatise,

will therefore

permit

place under your patronage this

which,

if it

can boast no other

merit, has that of having been undertaken

and

finished

by your advice and counsel.

a2
*

15

'

it

Some

favor, I hope, will

this distant

for

endeavour to imitate the laud-

able example you have

be the

be shewn

set,

and whatever

success, I shall ever glory in the

opporjjmity

it

has given

me

of professing

myself publicly,
Sir,

Your most obedient,

And most obliged humble

Servant,

MICHAEL COMBRUNE-.
Hampstead, Middlesex,

December

15,

171.

%-

THE

CONTENTS.
PART

Paga
I.

Explanation of technical terms,

SECTION

I.

Of Fire,

<......

SECTION

15

II.

Of Air,

1$

SECTION

III.

Of Water,

24

SECTION
Of

IV.
33

Earth,

SECTION. V.
Of Menstruums

or Dissolvents,

34,

SECTION

VI.

Of the Thermometer,

39

SECTION
Of the

its fruits,

Vine,

and juices,

SECTION
Of fermentation

VII.

VIII.

in general,

SECTION
Of artificial

fermentation,

,.i

SECTION
Of the

50

....

66

IX.
*

80

X.

nature of Barley,

89

SECTION XL
Of Malting

.,

..

94

CONTENTS.

vi

SECTION
Of the

XII.

different Properties of Malt,

ber of

its

and of the num113

fermentable Parts,

SECTION

XIII.

131

Observations on defective Malts,

PART

II.

SECTION
Of the heat

of the Air, as

it

I.

relates to the practical

145

part of Brewing,

SECTION
Of Grinding,

II.

157

'.

SECTION

III.

SECTION

IV.

Of Extraction,

160

Of the nature and

properties of Hops,

SECTION
Of the lengths

201

V.

necessary to form malt liquors of the

217

several denominations,

SECTION

VI.

Method of calculating the height


which worts are to go out,

SECTION

in the

Copper

at

220

VII.

Of Boiling,

224

SECTION

VIII.

Of the

quantity of Water wasted ; and of the application of the preceding rules to two different
230
processes of Brewing,
f

CONTENTS;
SECTION
Of

the division of the

rii

IX.

Water

for the respective

Worts and Mashes, and of the heat adequate to


each of these,

234

SECTION
An

enquiry into the

X.

volume of Malt,

in order to re-

duce the Grist to liquid measure,

25S

..... ......

SECTION XL
Of

the proportion of cold Water to be added to


that which is on the point of
boiling, in order
to obtain the desired heat in the extract,

SECTION

271

XII.

Of Mashing,

286

SECTION
Of

XIII.

the incidents, which cause the heat of the extract to vary

from the calculation, the allow-

ances they require, and the means to obviate

289

their effects,

SECTION XIV.
Of the

disposition of the

Worts when turned out of

the Copper, the thickness they should be laid at


in the Backs to cool, and the heat they should
retain for fermentation,

under the several

cir-

304

cumstances,

SECTION XV.
Of

Yeast,

its

nature and contents, and of the

ner and quantities in which


the Worts,

it is

to

man-

be added to
,

,.

311

CONTENTS.

itiu

SECTION XVI.
Of practical

fermentation, and the

management of

the several sorts of Malt liquors, to the


period
at which they are to be cleansed, or put into

the casks,

318

SECTION
Of

XVII.

the signs generally directing the processes of


Brewing, and their comparison with the forego-

ing Theory and Practice,

327

SECTION xvm.
An enquiry,

what may be, at all times, a proper


stock of Beer, and the management of it in the
into

,..:

cellars,

331

SECTION XIX.
Of Precipitation, and

other remedies, applicable to


the diseases incident to Beers,
334

SECTION XX.
Of Taste,
Appendix,

:..:

342

349

THE

PREFACE.
THE difference that appears in

the several processes of

brewing, though executed with the same materials, by the

same persons, and


knowledged.

The

to

who are charged with


cannot be small

the

same

intent, is generally ac-

uneasiness this must occasion to those


the directive part of the business,

and the more desirous they are of well

executing the duty incumbent on them, the greater


their disappointment, whenfrustrated in their hopes.

remove

this uncertainty,

that of experiments, as

whatever

no method seems preferable

it is

ca?i be established

by

means

this

upon a

be multiplied

different purposes.
ficial enquiries,

our guides,
to

and

to

any art

solid foundation

these require caution, perseverance,

must

alone,

is

To

but

expence-, they

and varied both for the same and for

The

operations of nature elude super-

where we have few or no principles for

many experiments

confound or deceive.

knowledge of their

are made, which tend only

Effects seen, without a sufficient


causes,

often

are

neglected,

or

viewed in an improper light, seldom faithfully reported,


and, for want of distinguishing the several circumstances

PREFACE.

x
that attend them,

many

times become the support of old

new

prejudices, or the foundation of

Whoever

is

attentive to

ones.

practical part of brewing,

the,

will soon be convinced that heat, or fire,

agent therein, as

used in a greater or

this element,

degree, or differently applied,

greatest part of the variety

is

the

Kith which

krcwing,

is

we are enabled

and

to

And,

required.

but a few

is

to be

found

an

in-

any purposes where the

sufficiently accurate for

measure of heat

It

less

of the

occasion

we perceive.

years since the thermometer has been


strument

the principal

is

as

it is

the only one

examine the processes of

to

account for the difference in the ef-

fects, a theory of the art, founded on practice,

must

be of

later date than the discovery of the instrument that guides,

us

to the principles.

So long since as the year 1T4I

and never neglected any opportunity


of the trade, or

might

try such experiments as

be conducive to the purpose.

haps shameful,
the

to

many

to

this research,

began

to consult the artists

It

is

needless, per-

mention their number, or

disappointments

met with

simple, and confirmed by

ing myself with having

continuity.

to

speak of

in this pursuit.

Error admits of numberless combinations.


is

I conceived

At

Truth alone
last, flatter-

collected the true theoiy, assisted

and encouraged by men of

abilities,

public should judge whether

thought

had succeeded

it jit

in

my

the
en-

PREFACE.

xi

deavours; and in 1758 the Essay on Brewing was sub-

mitted

to

them, either for their approbation, or that the

errors therein

reason
velty,

to

repent of

more than

the attention, I

my

least plausible,

have had no

temerity, though perhaps the no-

the merit of this performance,

may add

the

and

engaged

favor and advice of some

They have allowed

good judges.

be pointed out.

might

my principles

to be at

agreement with practice has

their

since repeatedly convinced

me

they were not

far from

truth.

The Essay just mentioned,


turally forms
tise.

The second part

is

ent branches in as
to

corrected, na-

entirely practical,

ing a short idea of the whole process,

manner

and

revised

the first part or theory of the present trea*

dfter giv-

I resume

its differ-

many chapters, and endeavour

guide the practitioner, that he

may,

in such

in every

fart, at all times, and under a variety of circumstances,

know what he

is to

do,

and seldom, if

ever, to be disap-

pointed in his object.

From
benefit,

the investigation of so extensive a business,


it is

hoped,

must accrue

to

the public

the process of brewing being carried on in a just

form manner, our malt liquors,


better deserve the name of wine.

some

from

and uni-

probably, will in time

Boerhaave, Shaw, Macquer, and most of the great


masters in chymistry are far from limiting that

name

to

*ii

PREFACE.

the liquors produced

from

it to all fermented

extend

tillation,

the juice of the

grape

they

vegetable juices, which , on dis-

yield an ardent spirit, and look on the strength

and faculty wine has


in
self, to be

to

proportion

liquid, generally

cherish nature,
to the

termed

quantity

it

spirit of wine.

roughly pure and dephlegmated,


whatever different vegetable

it is

is

and preserve

it-

possesses of this

This,

when

tho-

one and the same,

produced from.

Barley

wines possess the same spiritous principle, which

the

is

preservative part of the most valuable foreign wines, with

a power

j)f

quality,

and

being brewed superior or inferior

ardent spirit, will not,


.wine than those

The

to

them in

the other constituejit parts of beer, beside this

reasons

I believe,

be esteemed less whole-

which make up the whole of grape wine

why Great Britain hath

not hitherto fur*

nished foreign nations with this part of her product, but

more

especially her seamen, are obvious.

Our mariners,

when

at home, do not dislike beer, either as to their pa-

lates,

or

its effects

on their constitution ; but when abroad,

spiritous liquors, or

new

wines, often the product of

The

enemy's country, are substituted in lieu thereof.


disuse of beers, on these occasions, has been

an

owing to the un-

certainty of the principles on which they were brewed; the

maintaining them sound in long voyages and in hot


mates, could not sufficiently be depended upon

and

it

cli-

has

been supposed they could not be procured at so easy a rate

PREFACE.

xia

The

>*', brandies, or rums, purchased abroad.

<w

frst of these objections, the author hopes, by this toork,


to

remove ; and, were

would be brewed for

all the duties to be -allowed

this purpose,

on what

our seamen might be

furnished with beer stronger than Spanish wine, and at a


less

efpence, the

for

seven years.

It

hops being taken

true that, in times of peace, the

is

his Majesty's service are not very

seamen in
but the

mean price of malt and

number of

considerable.

numerous,

those then employed by merchants is

should not have 'presumed

to

mention

this, but on account of the encouragement given to the

exportation of corn, and

to

many manufactures
It

growth or British labor.

is

computed

of British

that, in

Eng-

land and Wales, are brewed three millions Jive hundred


thousand quarters of malt yearly, for which purpose up-

wards of one hundred and fifty thousand weight of hops

The improvement of

Are used.

come a means of increasing

growth of our country,

viz.

the brewery

the

of barley,

legislative

might be
tice,

to

more than one

to

between four-

and fifteen thousand weight annually.

Whether

it

be-

consumption of the

hundred thousand quarters, and of hops


teen

might

this be

an

object deserving the attention of the

power, or of the landed

the proper

means

to

put

it

interest,

are considerations which do not belong

being sufficient here

to

point out,

and what

successfully in prac-

how

to this

place

universally bene-

PREFACE.

sir

fcialit

is to establish

the art of brewing on true

and inva-

riable principles.

This being the first attempt, that has been made,


duce this art

to

he has a just claim

any

and

rules

to the

errors he unwillingly

believing that there is no

ments, he recommends
rior talents

indulgence of the public, for

may
room

it to

and more

NATURE ;

have adopted
left

those,

far from

for future improve-

who, blessed with supe-

leisure than himself,

clined to try their skill in the

the steps of

to re*

Author hopes

principles, the

same

field, to

after the strictest enquiry

will befound, the success of brewing beers

be in-

may

watch

and

closely

made,

it

ales wholly

depends on a true imitation of the wines she forms.

This second edition,


spects, differs

deavoured

may be
considerably from

to convert to

it

obsemed, in
the first.

re-

have en-

use every advice, every opinion

received, and. having put these to the


practice, fiat ter myself

many

it

test

of farther

will be found improved.

A COPY OF DOCTOR SHAW'S LETTER.


ON PERUSING THE ESSAY BEFORE MEXTIOXE0.

DEAR

SIB,

/ HAVE,

with pleasure and

read over your manuscript


to see

improvement,

and should

be

glad

some other trades as justly reduced

rules as

you have done that of brewing

to

which

would not only be making a right application


of philosophical knowledge, but, at the same
time,

accommodate human

wherein

in

life,

it is still deficient.

many respects,

Perhaps your ex-

ample may excite some able men,

to

give us

their respective trades, in the form

of so many
For my own part, having long wished

arts.
to see

some attempts of this kind, for the good

of society

in general,

cannot but be particu-

larly pleased with the nature, design, and exe-

cution of your essay, and am,

Dear

Sir,

Your obliged Friend,


TV,

n T

Pall-Mall, July 20,


iT58.

And

humble, Servant,

PETER

SHAIf\

AN

EXPLANATION
OF THE

TECHNICAL TERMS.
1
is

HE

intent of every brewer, when he forms his drink,


to extract the fermentable parts of the malt, in the

to add hops, in such proportion

most perfect manner ;


as experience teaches
the beer

him

will preserve

and ameliorate

and to employ just so much yeast as

is

sufficient

to obtain a complete fermentation.

Perhaps

it

may be

said, these particulars are already

sufficiently understood,

more

and that

it

would be a much

work

to publish remedies for the imperfections, or diseases, beer is naturally or accidentally sub-

useful

and which at present are deemed incurable. But


the designs just now mentioned be executed according
to the rules of chymistry, such imperfections and such

ject to,
if

diseases not existing, the remedies will not be wanted ;


for beer brewed upon true principles, is, neither naturally

nor accidentally, subject to

perceived in

it.

Hence

it is

many

disorders often

evident, that

some know-

ledge of chymistry is absolutely necessary to complete


the brewer, as, without the informations acquired from
that science,
for"

he must be unqualified to lay down rules


and to secure to himself the favor of the

his practice,

public

for which purpose,

and to make this

treatise useful

to those concerned in the practical part of brewing,

it

has

AN EXPLANATION

as much as possible,
the technical terms of art, to prefix an explanation of
those that necessarily occur, and, in as short a manner as

been thought adviseable to avoid,

possible, to trace the properties of fire, air, water,


earth, as far as they relate to the subject.

and

ACIDS are all those things which taste sour, as vinegar,


juice of lemons, spirit of nitre, spirit of salt, the oil and
a violent agitation, by
spirit of vitriol, &c. and are put in

being mixed with certain earths, or the ashes of vege-

An

tables.

more or less, into the composiproduced by, or rather is the last


fermentation. Mixed in a due proportion with
acid enters,

tion of all plants,


effect of,

an

and

is

alkali, it constitutes a neutral salt, that is,

in neither the acid nor alkali

quently termed acid


under a fluid form.

prevail.

fre-

though generally they appear

salts,

ALKALIES, or alkaline

a salt where-

Acids are

salts, are

of a nature directly-

contrary to the acids, and generally manifest themselves


by effervescing therewith they have an urinous taste,
and are produced from the ashes of vegetables, and by se:

veral other means.

They,

as well as testaceous

carious substances, are frequently

made use

to absorb the acid parts of stale beer,

and

cal-

of by cooperi,

by them

called

softning.

Am

is

a thin elastic fluid, surrounding the globe of the

absolutely necessary to the preservation both


of animal and vegetable life, and for the exciting and
carrying on fermentation.
earth

it is

ALCOHOL
to

is

the pure spirit of wine, generally supposed


least particle of water or phlegm.

be without the

OF THE TECHNICAL TERMS.

ANIMALS are organized bodies, endued with sensation


life.
Minerals are said to grow arid increase, plants

and

grow and lire, but animals only to have sensation.


Animal substances cannot ferment so as to produce by

to

themselves a vinous liquor; but there

may

be cases

wherein some of their parts rather help than retard the


act of fermentation.*

ATMOSPHERE
the earth

is

ATTRACTION
tions

is

that rast collection of air, with

which

surrounded to a considerable height.


is

an indefinite term, applicable to

all

ac-

whereby bodies tend towards one another, whether

by virtue of their weight, magnetism, electricity, or any


other power.
It is not, therefore, the cause
determining
some bodies to approach one another, that is expressed
by the word attraction, but the effect itself. The space,
through which this power extends, is called the sphere
of attraction.

BLACKING

is

a technical term used

note sugar that is calcined, until


occasions the name.

BREWING

is

it

by coopers,

to de-

obtains the colour that

the operation of preparing beers and ales

from malt.

may thus be accounted for. The minute parof fuel being by fire detached from each other,
and becoming themselves fire, pass through the pores of
BOILING

ticles

* Vide
Dr. Pringle's experiments in his book of observations oo the
diseases of the army, p. 350, 351

& seq.
2

AN EXPLANATION

4
the vessel, and

mix with

an active

tually in

the water

hence

the fluid.

state,

These, being perpetheir motion to

communicate

arises, at first,

tion,

and from a continued action

effect

is

a small intestine

mo-

in the first cause, the

increased, and the motion of the liquor continu-

becomes sensibly agitated,


acting chiefly on the particles that compose the lowest surface of the water, give
ally accelerated

by degrees,

but the particles of the

it

fire,

them an impulse upwards, by rendering them specifithem to ascend, according to the laws of equilibrium. Hence there is a constant

cally lighter, so as to determine

flux of water from the bottom to the top of the vessel,

and reciprocally from the top to the bottom. This appears to be the reason why water is hot at the top sooner
than at the bottom, and why an equal heat cannot be
The thermometer theredistributed through the whole.
fore can be of little service, to determine immediately the

degree of heat, especially in large vessels, on which account it is better for brewers to heat a certain quantity
just to the act of boiling, and to

temper

it,

by adding a

Boiling water is incapable of receiving any increase of heat, though acted on


by ever so great a fire, unless the atmosphere becomes
sufficient quantity of cold water.

It ocheavier, or the vapours of the water be confined.


casions the mercury to rise, according to Farenheit's

scale, to

212 degrees.

CHARR.

body

is

said to

be charred when, by

fire,

or most active parts are drove out ; its coarse


the same means, placed chiefly on the external

its volatile

by

oils,

parts

and so deprived of color

CLEANSING
ton,

where

it

is

as to

be quite black.

the act of removing the beer from the


first fermented, into the casks.

was

OF THE TECHNICAL TERMS.

CLOUDY is an epithet joined to such beers, which, from


the violent heat given to the water that brewed them,
are loaded with

more

than can be attenuated

oils

by

fermentation, and incorporated with the water ; from


Avhence a muddy and grey oil is seen floating on the surface of the liquor, though the body is often transparen- ;
this oil is frequently extracted in such quantity as to ex-

ceed the power of any known menstruum.

COHESION

by which the

that action

is

same body adhere together,

COLD

is

as if they

particles of the

were but one.

a relative term in opposition to heat. Its


is not known, and it is
supposed that the

greatest degree

colder a

body

is,

the less

is

the agitation of

its

internal

parts.

COLOUR ; a greater or less degree of heat causes different colours in most bodies, and from a due observation,
of the colour of malt,
heat

it

we may determine what degree

of

has been impressed with.

DENSITY expresses the closeness, compactness, or near


approach of the parts of a body to one another the more
a body weighs in proportion to its bulk, the greater is
:

its

Gold

density.

there

is

is

the densest

body

in nature,

because

none known of the same bulk, which weighs so

much.

EARTH
globe

is

that fossil matter or element,

whereof our

partly consists.

EBULLITION

is

the boiling or bubbling of water, or


3

any

AN EXPLANATION

6
other liquor,

when

the

fire

has forced itself a passage

Brewers suppose water to be just beginning

through

it.

to boil,

when they perceive a

from the bottom upwards

in

small portion of it forced


a right line, so as to disturb

when the liquor is in this state, they call it


through, or upon the point of ebullition. The vulgar
notion that the water is hotter at this time than when it
the surface

boils, is

without any foundation.

EFFERVESCENCE

^ii

a sudden agitation, arising in certain

is

bodies upon mixing them together

commonly

this agitation

most

generates heat.

ELASTICITY, or springiness, is that property of bodies,


restore themselves to their former figure,

by which they
after

any pressure or

distension.

EXPANSION is the swelling or increase of the bulk of


bodies from heat, or any other cause.

EXTRACT consists of the parts of a body separated from


the rest, by cold or hot water.

FERMENTATION is a
ticles

of a mixture

the particles

sensible internal

motion of the par-

by the continuance of this motion,


are gradually removed from their former
:

some visible separation, joined together again in a different order and arrangement, so a.s
to constitute a new
compound. No liquors are capable
of inebriating, except those that have been fermented.

situation, and, after

FIXED BODIES are those, which, consisting of grosser


by a strong attraction, and by that means

parts, cohering

OF THE TECHNICAL TERMS.


less susceptible

of agitation, can neither be separated nor


perhaps not without

raised, without a strong heat, or

fermentation.

FIRE

is

known by

only

properties, of

its

and

chief are to penetrate

dilate

all

solid

which the

and

fluid

bodies.

FREEZING POINT
begins to

heit's scale, is

FOXED

is

the degree of cold, at which water

be formed into

is

ice,

which, according to Faren-

expressed by 32.

a techical term, used

by brewers,

to indicate

beers in a putrid state.

GUMS

are concreted vegetable juices, which transude


trees, and harden upon the

through the bark of certain


surface

they easily dissolve in water, and by that means

distinguish themselves from balsams or resins.

HERMETICALLY SEALED

is

a particular method of stop-

ping the mouth of vessels, so close that the most subtil


spirit cannot fly out, which is done by heating the neck
of the -bottles, till it is just ready to melt, and then with
hot pinchers twisting

HOMOGENEOUS
or subjects,

is

it

close together.

an appellation given to such parts

which are similar or of the same nature and

properties.

ISINGLASS

a preparation from a

is

somewhat bigger than the sturgeon


in stale beer

is

fish

called huso,

a solution of which

used, to fine or precipitate other beers

AN EXPLANATION

8
it is

imported from Russia by the Dutch, and from them

to us.

LIGHT

particles of matter

consists of

inconceivably

small, capable of exciting in us the sensation of colours,

by being reflected from every point of the surface of


luminous bodies ; but, notwithstanding they are so exceeding small, Sir Isaac Newton found means to divide
a single ray into seven distinct parts, viz. red, orange,
yellow, green, blue, indigo, and violet.

MALT, in general, is any sort of grain, first germinated, and then dried, so as to prevent any future vegetation

that generally used,

is

experience has found to be the

made

of barley, which
the purpose of

fittest for

brewing.

MEDIUM

which a body in momedium through which the bodies


near the earth move water is the medium wherein fish
live glass affords a medium or a free passage to light.
This term is also made use of, to express the mean of

tion passes

is

that space, through

air is the
;

two numbers, and sometimes the middle between

several

quantities.

MUSTS are the unfermented juices of grapes, or of any


other vegetable substances.

MENSTRUUM
ing

its

parts

manner

is
any fluid, which is capable of interposbetween those of other bodies, and in this

either dissolves

part of them.

them

perfectly, or extracts

some

OF THE TECHNICAL TERMS.


OIL

an unctuous,

is

inflammable substance, drawn

from several animal and vegetable substances.


Isinglass dissolved

PRECIPITATION.

becomes a

gluti-

nous and heavy body ; this put into malt liquors intended to be fined, carries down, by its weight, all those

swimming
and

particles,

which prevent

its

transparency;

this act is called fining, or precipitation.

REPULSION ; " Doctor Knight defines it to be that cause


which makes bodies mutually endeavour to recede from
each other, with different forces at different times."

In

they are placed beyond the sphere of each

this case

other's attraction

or cohesion,

and mutually

fly

from

each other.

RESINS, or balsams, are the oils of vegetables inspissated and combined with a proportion of the acid salts ;
as well as they

mix with any

spirituous liquor, as

little

are they soluble in water ; but they become so, either by


the intervention of gums or soaps, or by the attenuating
virtue of fermentation.

SALTS are substances sharp and pungent, which readily dissolve in water,

and from thence, by evaporation,

and appear in a solid form.


They easily
unite together, and form different compounds.
Thus
salts, composed of acids and alkalies, partake of both,
crystallise

and are called

SETT a
:

neutral.

grist of

malt

is

by brewers

said to

be

sett,

when, instead of separating for extraction, it runs in


This accident
clods, increases, in heat, and coagulates.

AN EXPLANATION

10
is

owing

to the over quantity of fire in the water, ap-

any of the extractions. The air included in the


grist, which is a principal agent in resolving the malt,
being thereby expelled, the mass remains inert, and its
plied to

parts, adhering too closel^v together, are with difficulty

separated.
Though an immediate application of more
cold water to the grist is the only remedy, yet, as the
is
speedy and strong, it seldom takes effect.
malts, which have not yet lost the heat they receiv-

cohesion

New

ed from the
this error,

SUGAR,

kiln, are

most apt to lead the brewer into

and generally
or saccharine

in the first part of the process.

are properly those that

salts,

come from the sugar canes; many

plants, fruits

and

give sweet juices reducible to the same form ;


they are supposed to be acids smoothed over with oils ;
all vegetable sweets are
capable of fermenting spontagrains

neously when crude ; if boiled, they require an addition


of yeast to make them perform that act. Malt, or it*
extracts, have all the properties of saccharine salts.

SULPHUR. Though by sulphur is commonly understood the mineral substance called brimstone, yet in chymistry

it is

frequently used to signify in general any oily

substance, inflammable by fire, and, without


Addition, indissoluble in water.

SOAP OR SAPONACEOUS
of

oil

mixed with

some degree, mixed with

ing to the nature of these

saponaceous, that

is,

salts,

salina

Common

JUICES.

alkaline salts

froth on
being agitated in water.
are, in

some

this

soap is made
mixture causes a

The

oils

their salts

of vegetables
;

and accord-

appear either resinous or

soluble or indissoluble in water.

OF THE TECHNICAL TERMS.

\\

Sugar is a kind of soap, rendering oil miscible with


water ; and therefore all bodies, from which saccharine
salts are

extracted,

VEGETABLE

is

may be termed

saponaceous,

a term applied to plants, considered as

capable of growth, having vessels and parts for this purpose, but generally supposed to be without sensation.

VINEGAR is an acid penetrating liquor, prepared from


wine, beer, cyder, or a must, which has been fermented
as far as

it

VITRIOL

was capable.

is,

in general, a metalline substance

with the strongest acid

salt

known.

combined

This acid, being


nothing from that

separated from the metal, differs in


which is extracted from alum or brimstone.

It is

impro-

perly called spirit of vitriol, when diluted with water,


and, with as little propriety, oil, when free from it.

VOLATILE BODIES are

those, which, either from their

smallness or their form, do not cohere very strongly together, and being most susceptible of those agitations,
which keep liquors in a fluid state, are most easily separated and rarified into vapour, with a gentle heat, and

on the contrary condensed and brought down with

WINE

is

cold.

a brisk, agreeable, spirituous, fluid cordial,

formed from fermented vegetable bodies. In this sense


beers and ales may be called, and really are, barley
wines.

WORTS

are the unfermented extracts of malt.

AN EXPLANATION,

12

YEAST

is

&c.

both the flowers and lees of a fermented

wort, the former of these being elastic air enveloped in a


than the latter.
subject less strong and less consistent

PRINCIPLES
OF THE

THEORY OF BREWING.
SECTION

I.

OF FIRE.
1

HOUGH

the chief cause and principle of al-

fire is

most every change

in bodies,

and though persons un-

taught in chymistry imagine they understand


yet, certain

or elude so

it is,

much

The

our nicest research.

very inadequate judges of

and suppose no

its

nature,

few subjects are so incomprehensible,

fire in

it

the eye

may

a bar of iron, because

appear red, though at the same time


the touch

it

senses are

be deceived,
it

may

does not
contain

equally unfaith-

enough

to generate pain

ful, for

a body, containing numberless particles of heat,

will to us feel cold, if

The

it is

is

much more

so than ourselves.

great and fundamental difference

phers, in respect to the nature of

fire,

among

is,

philoso-

whether

originally such, formed by the Creator himself,

beginning of things
ducible in bodies,
particles thereof.

rated in a body,

or whether

it

by

alteration in the

certain that heat

attrition

be

be mechanically pro-

by inducing some
It is

it

at the

may be

but whether

it

gene-

existed

THE THEORY OF SKEWING.

there before, or was caused immediately


is

by the motion,

a matter of no great import to the art of brewing

for the effects, with

which we

are alone concerned, are

the same.
Fire expands

all

bodies, both solid and fluid. If an iron

rod just capable of passing through a ring of the same


is

metal,

heated red-hot,

will

it

be increased

in length,

and so much swelled as not to be able to pass through


the ring, as before :*

if

a fluid

is

put into a bellied

glass,

with a long slender neck, and properly marked, the

by being heated,

fluid,

will manifestly rise to a consi-

derable height.

The expansion
rent fluids

of fluids,

by

in proportion to their density.


ally

heat,

with some exceptions,

heated to ebullition,

is

is

different in diffe-

may be

it

said to

expanded one 26th part of its

bulk,f so that 27 gallons of boiling water, will,


cold,

be

Pure rain water, gradu-

when

measure no more than 26, and 27 gallons of boil-

ing wort will not yield so much, because worts contain

many

oily particles,

* There

less

dense than wa-

a very singular exception in regard to iron itself, in this


only a certain degree of heat that expands this metal;

It is

respect.

(and that
melted,

is

which, though

it

much

less

than any other either more or less dense)


when in a solid form.

occupies a less space than

when
This

ought to caution us against an entire dependence on general rules, hy


which nature doth not appear to be wholly restricted. See Mem. d
i'Acad. des Scienc. p. 273.
*

See Dr. Lewis's Philosophical

Commerce

of Arts, p. 42.

THE THEORY OF BREWING.

15

hare the property of being more expansible

ter,

\ve see the reason

why

ber of barrels of wort,

the same of beer,

hence

a copper, containing a given num-

when

when

is

cold,

not capable to hold

boiling.

Bodies are weakened or loosened in their texture by


*

fire:

and run

liquify

rated

by an

the hardest,

by it

into their constituent parts.

vegetables seem at

become

increased degree of heat, will

and vegetables are resolved and sepa-

first,

on being exposed to the

rigid or stiff; but this

tion of the

aqueous

particles,

adhesion of the solid matter.


fire

must be owned

It

is

fire,

which prevented a closer


It

is

only in this manner

strengthens some bodies which before were weak.

That the texture of bodies should be loosened by


seems a consequence of expansion

expanded but by
another

and

if

these

fire,

for a body cannot

particles receding farther

its

the case of barley

Fire
ter,

may

be

from one

be not able to regain the situation

they had when cold, the body will remain looser in


texture than before
is

to

owing to the evapora-

it

suffered the action of

its

This

fire.

when malted.

be conveyed through most bodies,

ashes, sand, &c.

The

effect

as air,

wa-

seems to be different

according to the different conveyances.

difference

appears between boiling and roasting, yet they answer


the same purpose, that of preserving the subject
this, in proportion to the

degree of heat

similar variety appears,

even to our

it

and

has suffered^

taste,

from the

THE THEORY OF BREWING.

16
different

conveyance of

fire to

malt

for acids having

great tendency to unite with water, if this element does

not naturally contain any


heat

is

itself, is

the reason

why

conveyed through water, and applied

the virtues of pale malt

some of these
this great

the water gaining from the grain

salts, or possessing

aqueous heat

nauseous burnt

taste,

conveyed through

a great

to extract

as

them

itself,

the effect of

not to imprint on the palate a

is

is

the case of great heats,

air to the

same

The

grain.

when

salts

the

water has obtained, or perhaps had, being sheathed by


the oils

it

draws from the malt, rather become saccha-

rine,

which cannot be the case when

by a

strong heat, entirely void of any such property

but malt, the more

it is

dried, the longer

is it

upon
;

capable of

a sound state, and the liquor brewed

maintaining

itself in

with

in proportion to its dryness,

it will,

are acted

oils

sound, the hotter the water

is,

keep the longer

applied to malt, provided

heat doth not exceed the highest extracted degree,

its

the

more durable and sound

The
ing,

is

the knowledge of

to regulate them.

its

different degrees,

Till of late, chymists

were much to seek

more

will the extract be.

consideration of fire or heat, relative to brew-

last

in this respect

and

and how
all

others,

they distinguished

or less fire in a very vague and indeterminate

ner, as the

first,

second, third, andfourth degree of heat,

meaning no precise heat, or heat measured by any


dard

but,

by

man-

stan-

the invention of the thermometer,

we

THE THEORY OF BREWING.


our

are enabled to regulate

fires

17

with the utmost preci-

Thermometers are formed on different scales

sion.

therefore, when any degree

of heat

made

to avoid confusion, the scale

cated.

mentioned,

is

use of should be indi-

have constantly employed Fahrenheit's, as

the author of

cording to this instrument,* by


artificial

divisions

cold

below the

Academy,

it,

an

mercury stood at 72

so as the

first frost.

it is

Ac-

the most perfect, and the most generally received.

was made

and

in order

The gentlemen of the French

in the winter of the year 1736, observed, at

Torneao, Latitude 65
grees below

51',

the natural cold to be 33 de-

these are proofs there are colds

more

intense than the

water

first

first frost,

or 32 degrees,

begins to harden into ice

much
where

from 32 to 90 de-

grees are the limits of vegetation, according to the different plants that receive those or the intermediate heats.

The

40th degree

is

marked by Boerhaave

mentable heat, and the 80th as the

last

as the first fer:

47 degrees

have found to be generally the medium heat of London,


throughout the year, in the shade

be that of our bodies when


are

its

much

degrees
moisture,

when

98 degrees

in a fever.

when turned

Hay

stacked with too

At 175 the

highest-rectified spirits of wine boil, and at

* See Marline's
Dissertation on Heat.

was which

said to

quite black, in the heart of

the rick, indicated a heat of 165 degrees.

purest and

is

from 105 to 112

in health, as

fixed

mercury

What

at St. Petersburg, I

the degree of cold

do net recollect

THE THEORY OF BREWING.

18

this

degree

have found well-grown malts to charr, at

212 degrees water


triol.

sion

the

Gold,

exceed
fire in

600 quicksilver and

boils, at

silver, iron,

this heat

still

than any

known

is

the focus of the burning lens of Tschirnhausen,

made by

or of the concave mirror


said to volatilise metals

and

periments have reached

much

of vi-

and most other metals in fu-

greater

oil

less,

Villette

vitrify bricks.

but

they are

Thus

how much more,

far ex-

or

how

the power of this element extends, will pro-

bably be for ever hid from mankind.

THE THEORY OF BREWING.

SECTION

19

II.

OF AIR.
JN

ONE

of the operations, either of nature or art, can

be carried on without the action or assistance of


is

a principal agent in fermentation

ers

ought to be well acquainted with

perties

By

It

its

principal pro-

and powers.

we mean

air

a fluid, scarcely perceptible to our

senses, and discovering

makes

air.

and therefore brew-

to bodies.

only by the resistance

itself

We

find

it

it

every where incumbent

on the surface of the globe, rising to a considerable


height, and

phere.

commonly known by

The weight

850, and

its

of air

is

the

name of atmos-

to that of water as

gravitating force equal to that of a

to

column

so that an area of one foot

air, a

pressure equal to 2080 pounds

of water of 33 feet high

square receives, from

weight.
Elasticity

and

is

a property belonging only to this element,

this quality varies in proportion to the

weights.

We scarcely

find this element,

the others) in a pure state

mon

compressing

(any more than

one thousandth part of com-

air, says Boerhaave, consists of aqueous, spiritous,

oily, saline,

These are

and other particles scattered through

not, or but

little,

prevent fermentation: consequently, where the

it.

compressible, and in general

air is

THE THEORY OF BREWING.

20

purest, fermentation

The same

best carried on.

is

au-

thor suspects, that the ultimate particles of air cohere toto insinuate themselves into the
gether, so as not easily
smallest pores, either of solids or fluids.

Hence, those

acquainted with brewing, easily account,

why very

water, which forces strong and pinguious

hot

from

particles

malt, forms at the same time extracts unfavourable for

fermentation, as

trance of air

comes

is

less

much

so

are an obstruction to the free en-

and, from an analogous reason, extracts

which are much


tation

oils

impressed with

fire, in

them fermen-

the whole soon be-

accelerated, that

sour.

Air, like other bodies,

expanded and

is

heat, and exerts

its elasticity

ber of degrees of

fire it

the season

is,

the

has received

more

rarified

by
num-

in proportion to the

active

the hotter therefore

and violent

will the fer-

mentation be.
Air abounds with water, and
ing and insinuating
ceiving

Its

it.

is

weight, or gravitating force, must neces-

sarily produce numberless effects.

in the air

the saline,

is

perpetually penetrat-

every thing capable of re-

itself into

The water

rendered more active by

its

gummous, and saponaceous

contained

motion

particles

hence

it

meets

with are loosened in their texture, and, in some degree,


dissolved.

As

principles similar to these are the chief

constituent parts of malt,

the reason

is

obvious

why

such, which are old, or have lain a proper time exposed


1

THE THEORY OF BREWING.


to the influence of the
other words, yield a

more

air, dissolve

21

readily, or, in

more copious extract than

others.

All bodies in a passive state, remaining a sufficient

time in the same place, become of the same degree of


heat with the air
lying in the

On

itself.

account the water,

this

backs used by brewers,

same degree of heat

as the

thermometer shews the open

When

air in the shade to be.

nearly of the

is

this

instrument indicates

a cold below the freezing point, or 32 degrees,


water does not then become

ice, the reason

is,

the

if

because

it

has not been exposed long enough to be thoroughly affected

by such a

For water does not immediately

cold.

assume the same degree of temperature with the


principally on account of

pumped

its

density, also from

out of deep and hot wells, from

in motion,

and from

many

its

arise" to

air,

being

being kept

Under these

other incidents.

circumstances, no great error can

its

estimate

its

heat equal to 35 degrees.

Air

not easily expelled from bodies, either solid or

is

Water

fluid.

requires

two hours boiling

charged of the greatest part of


thus expelled

its air.

to be

That

by heat appears from hence

it

dis-

may be

water,

if

boiled the space abovementioned, instead of having any


air

bubbles when

comes a

Worts
salts

and

solid

it is

mass

froze, as ice

commonly

has, be-

like crystal.

or musts, as they contain great quantities of


oils,

require a greater degree of heat to

B3

make

THE THEORY OF BREWING.

22

them

boil

consequently more

expelled from boil-

air is

ing worts, than from boiling water in the

and as

when

dies,*
selves.

same time

doth not instantaneously re-enter those bo-

air

cold, they

Were

it

would never ferment of them-

not for the substitute of yeast, to sup-

ply the deficiency of air

lost

by

boiling, they

or putrify, for want of that internal elastic

would fox

air,

which

is

absolutely necessary to fermentation.

As

air joined to

water contributes so powerfully to

render that fluid more active, that water which has en-

dured .fire" the

make

least time,

provided

it

be hot enough, will

the strongest extracts.

Though

there

is air

tity in different fluids

in every fluid,

it differs

in

quan-

so that no rule can be laid

down

for the quantity of air,

which worts should contain.

Probably the quantity, sufficient to saturate one

sort, will

not be an adequate proportion for another.

Air in
confines,

this

manner encompasses,

and compresses

all

is

bodies.

in contact with,
It insinuates itself

into their penetrable passages, exerts all

its

on

solids, or fluids, and finding in bodies

to

which

it

power

has a tendency, unites with them.

weight and perpetual motion,


parts of the bodies in which

it

par MODS, de Mayran.)

By

its

strongly agitates those

it is

contained, rubs, and

intermixes them intimately together.


* It
requires seven or eight days.

either

some elements

By

disuniting

(See Dissertation sur la glace

Paris edition, 1749.

Page 191.

THE THEORY OF BREWING.


some, and joining others,
fects,

That

it

?3

produces very singular

ef-

not easily accomplished by any other means.


this

element has such surprising powers,

from the following experiment.

is

evident

" Fermentable

parts

"

duly prepared and disposed in the vacuum of Mr.

"

Boyle's air-pump will not ferment^ though acted up-

" on
by a proper heat;
" main

but, discharging their air,

unchanged."

B4
fit

.1

re-

THE THEORY OF BREWING.

SECTION

III.

OF WATER.

As water

is

perpetually an object of our senses, and

use of for most of the purposes of Hfe,

it

the nature of this element was perfectly understood

who have enquired

they
find

it

difficult to

very

of this difficulty

is,

into

is

iron

been long dried,

yet, on

resists

distillation, yields

already observed, that air

is

much

One reason

fectly

In

pure

its

more than

water.

have

it,

but in a va-

possible then ever to obtain water per-

most perfect

quor very
less,

is it

Hartshorn,

file

intimately mixed with, and

possibly never entirely separated from

cuum ; how

but

not easily separated from

other bodies, or other bodies from water.


after having

with the greatest care,

it

form a just idea of it.

water

made

might be imagined

fluid,

state,

we

understand

it

to

be a

li-

inodorous, insipid, pellucid, and colour-

which, in a certain degree of cold, freezes into a

brittle,

hard, glassy ice.

Lightness

weighs

is

less

reckoned a perfection

in \vater, that

being in general the purest.

which

Hence the

great difficulty of determining the standard weight

should have.

Fountain, river, or well waters,

admixture with

saline, earthy, sulphureous,

substances, are rendered

much

and

by

it

their

vitriolic

heavier than in their na-

THE THEORY OF BREWING.


tural state

on the other hand, an increase of heat, or an

addition of air,

is

the expansion, diminishes the

by varying

weight of water.
the purest,

2.5

said to

pint of rain-water, supposed to be

weigh 15 ounces,

grains, but, for the reasons just

drachm, and 50

now mentioned,

this

must

do from

differ in proportion as the seasons of the year

each other.

Another property of water, which


Tvith other liquors, is its fluidity,

it

which

common

has in

is

so great, that a

very small degree of heat, above the freezing point,

makes

it

evaporate.

Experiments to ascertain the pro-

portion steemed away of the quantity of water used in

brewing,

is

an object worthy of the

but the purer the water


rates.

Sea-water, which

tieth part

of

salt,

and wastes much

The

more
less,

the

is,
is

readily

curiosity
it

evapo-

supposed to contain one for-

forcibly resists the

than that which

is

power of

fire,

pure.

ultimate particles of this element, Boerhaave be-

lieved to be

much

less

than those of

through the pores and interstices of


transmit the least elastic air

known

artist's

more

fluid,

(fire

nor

is

air, as

water passes

w ood, which never


r

there, says he,

excepted, which forces

itself

any

through

erery subject) whose parts are more penetrating than


those of water.

Yet

as water is not

an universal dis-

solver, there are vessels which will contain

they will

let

it,

though

pass even the thick syrup of sugar, for su-

THE THEORY OF BREWING.

26

gar makes

its

way by

and

dissolving the tenacious

oily

substance of the wood, which water cannot do.

Water, when

fully saturated

by

fire, is said

to boil,

and by the impulse of that element, comes under a strong

sixth

before

Just

ebullition.

place,

violent

this

have already observed,

takes

agitation

occupies one seventy-

it

more space than when cold

would be exact, when he intends

so the

brewer who

to reduce his liquor to

a certain degree of heat, must allow for this expansion,


abating therefrom the quantity of steam exhaled.

As

water,

rated with

by

fire,

may

boiling,

so

may

it

be said to be

capable of being dissolved therein


dissolve only a
given quantity of
it

may,

some

at the

same time, take

but one ounce of


the utmost of

its

common

quantity,

ples of another kind of

or satu-

but,

though

in a certain proportion of

salt,
it

and

will

salt, viz.

the strongest extract of malt

will

it

any particular substance,

Four ounces of pure rain water

other.

is

will

melt

after taking this as

still

receive

two scru-

In like manner

nitre.

capable of receiving the

properties belonging to hops: but


portion.

filled

be with any other substance

in

This appears from the thin

often swims on the surface of the

a limited pro-

bitter pelicle, that

first

wort of brown

beers, which commonly are overcharged with hops, by

putting the whole quantity of them at

first

wort not being capable of suspending

all

dissolves,

it

therein

no sooner cools but these parts


1

the

that the heat


rise

on the

THE THEORY OF BREWING.


This

top.

may

serve as a hint to prevent this error,

by

wort to have no more hops boiled

suffering the

first

therein than

can sustain

it

27

but as this incident must va-

ry, in proportion to the heat of the extracts

and quantity

of water used, some few experiments are necessary to indicate the

due proportion

for the several sorts of drink.

This however should always be extended to the utmost,


for the

first

wort, which, from

parts, stands

most

in

its

nature and consituent

need of the preservative quality the

hops impart.

Water

acts very differently, as a

ing to the quantity of fire


heat

is

menstruum, accord-

contains

it

consequently

its

a point of the utmost importance with regard to

brewing, and should be properly varied according to


the dryness and nature of the malt, according as

applied either in the

first

the beer
portion also to the time

These ends, we hope

it is

or last mashes, and in pro-is

intended to be kept.

to shew, are to

be obtained to a

degree of numerical certitude.


Nutrition cannot be carried on without water, though
likely water itself

is

not the matter of nourishment, but

only the vehicle.

Water

The

is

farmer,

as necessary to fermentation as heat or air.

who

stacks his

hay or.corn before

it is

suf-

ficiently dried, soon experiences the terrible effects of

too

much

moisture, or water, residing therein

tables therefore intended to

all

vege-

be long kept, ought to be

THE THEORY OF BREWING,

28

The brewer should

well dried.

carefully avoid purchas-

slack bagged, or kept in a moist place,


ing hops that are

or malt that has been sprinkled with water soon after

was taken from the


internal agitation

is

kiln.

By means

it

of the moisture, an

raised in the corn,

which

agitation,

though soon stopped, for want of a sufficient quantity of


air, yet, the

heat thereby generated remaining, every

adventitious seed, fallen from the air, and resting on the

corn, begins to grow, and forms a moss, which dies, and


leaves a putrid musty taste behind, always prevailing,

more or

less,

beer

in

That water

is

made from such

by no means an

grain.

universal solvent, as

some people have believed, has been already observed.


It certainly

does not act as such on metals, gems, stones,

and many other substances


dissolving
rits

oils,

but

is

not in itself capable of

it is

miscible with highly rectified spi-

of wine, or alchohol, which

oil in

nature.

is

the purest vegetable

All saponaceous bodies, whether artificial

or natural, fixed or volatile, readily melt therein


as man}' parts of the malt are dissoluble in
either be, or
that

is,

malt,

we

oils

and water.

a saponaceous substance

lathers, froths,

it,

and

they must

heat, of the nature of soap,

equally miscible with

When
it

become by

and bears a head

is

dissolved in water,

hence, in extracts of

find these signs in the underback.

Weak

and

slack liquors, which contain the salts of the malt without

a sufficient quantity of the

oils,

yield

no

froth.

Some-

THE THEORY OF BREWING.


what
is

like this

happens, when the water for the extract

over-heated, for then as more

are

with

as before,

little

oils

are extracted than

salts, the extract

comes

or no froth or head.

This

balance the

sufficient to

down

29

sameness of appearance, from two causes directly opposite to

each other, has

many

shews the necessity there

is

times misled the


to

and

artist,

employ means

less liable

to error.

This might be a proper place to observe the

diffe-

rence between rain, spring, river, and pond waters


as the art of

brewing

rence of waters,

if

is

very

little

affected

they be equally

pends on the due regulation of heat


are found in most places,

soft,
;

by the

but

diffe-

but rather de-

and as

and become more

soft waters

alike,

when

heated to the degree necessary to form extracts from


malt

it

is

evident, that any sort of beer or ale

may be

brewed with equal success, where malt and hops can be


procured proper for the respective purposes.
to prejudice

and

interest

If hither-

have appropriated to some

places a reputation for particular sort of drinks,


arose from hence

it

has

the principles of the art being totally

unknown, the event depended on experience only, and


lucky combinations were more

frequent

greatest practice was.

want of knowing the

Thus,

for

where the

true reason of the different properties observed in the


several drinks, the cause of their excellencies or defects

was ignorantly attributed

to the

water made use

of,

and

THE THEORY OF BREWING.

30

the inhabitants of particular places soon found an ad-

vantage, in availing themselves of this local reputation.

But

just

tice,

and true principles, followed by as just a prac-

must render the

to the profession,

by

art

more

universal,

and add dignity

establishing the merit of our barley

wines on knowledge, not on opinion void of judgment.

To

place this truth in a fuller light, and to communicate

to the

he

brewer the readiest means to examine any waters

may have

occasion to use,

have extracted from

Doctor Lucas's Essay on Waters, the experiments he

made on

the

Thames,

New

River, and

Hampstead com-

pany's waters, but without closely adhering to the accu-

racy this gentleman prescribed to himself


ness

much

better suiting a

purposes of brewing

it is

man

such exact-

of his abilities

for the

not of absolute necessity.

Experiments on the Thames,

New

River, and

in use in the Cities

Hampstead JVaters, which


of London and Westminster.

in

general are

THE THEORY OF BREWING.

32

All these waters appear to be sufficiently pure for the

common
very

uses of

trivial, if

life

any

the difference between

those of

est to the simple state this

Although

it

them

is

Hampstead approach near-

element

is

to be wished for.

cannot be said to have an immediate relation

to this work, yet


useless here to

it

not, perhaps, be disagreeable or

may

add the quantities of water the

London and Westminster, and

cities

of

the adjacent buildings, are

daily supplied with.

From

the

New

River

Company 57897 Tons

London Bridge,

8500

Chelsea,

1740

Hampstead,

120O

York Buildings,

49

Hartshorn Lane,

205

per Day,

70391 Tons required


every 24 hours.

THE THEORY OF BREWING.

SECTION

33

IV.

OF EARTH.
REGULARITY
of this element.

requires

The

mentioned, defines

body, fixed in the

it

some notice should be taken

great writer on chymistry, so often


to

be a simple, hard,
but not melting in

fire,

luble in water, air, alcohol, or


racters of pure earth, which,

oil.

friable, fossil
it,

nor disso-

These are the cha-

no more than any of the

other elements, comes within our reach, free from ad-

mixture.

Though

it is

one of the component parts of


never made use of

all

vegetables, yet as, designedly,

in

brewing, except sometimes for the purpose of preci-

pitation

whoever

it is

unnecessary to say any thing more upon

desires to

properties

mentioned.

it is

may

be farther informed concerning

consult

all,

or

it

its

any of the authors before

THE THEORY OF BREWING.

34

SECTION

V.

OF MENSTRUUMS OR DISSOLVENTS.
menstruums

is

or subtilised state,

understood a body which, in a fluid


capable of interposing

is

small

its

This act

the small parts of other bodies.


parts betwixt

so obviously relates to the art of brewing, especially

where the extracting of the malt and the boiling of the


hops are concerned, that

should not be passed un-

it

heeded by.

The

doctrine of menstruums, as laid

down by Boer-

haave, seems most intelligible and applicable to our purpose.

He says, the

solutions of bodies in general are the

effect

only of attraction and repulsion, between the par-

ticles

of the menstruums and those of the body dissolved,

the whole action depending


these

two

on the relation between

of consequence, there cannot be any body,

natural or artificial, which, without distinction, will dissolve all bodies whatsoever

why

certain

menstruums

nor

is

dissolve

the cause assignable


certain bodies

the

effects of alcaline, acid, neutral, fixed, or volatile salts,

any more than those of

oils,

are not to be accounted for


universally holds true
dissolution of a

water, alcohol,

fire,

by any general

nor even,

in

many

or air,

rule, that

cases, doth the

body depend on the purity or simplicity

THE THEORY OF 'BREWING.


of the menstruum

the nearest path then to success,

cautiously to apply every


the

and

elements of

effect of

fire

to discover.

air greatly

menstruums, and in

mitted as such.

Water

tural sapos of plants,

these, the oils, salts,

curately

and

promote the action

this light

dissolves

most

spirit

they are adthe na-

salts, all

and the ripe juices of


and

is

menstruum we know of to

body whose solvent we want

The

35

fruits

for in

of the vegetables, are ac-

mixed and concreted together, and

malts, hav-

ing the same constituent parts with them, this element

becomes a proper menstruum to extract

this

grain:

though malts, by being dried with heats which greatly


exceed what
turity,

is

necessary to bring barley to a state of ma-

do, from hence, require greater, though de-

terminate heats, yet inferior to that at which water boils

but such heats must be applied in proportion to their

Even

dryness, to extract their necessary parts.

by

t^e intervention of acids, dissolve in water

earths,

but having

treated of the four elements already, as far as

we con-

we

shall, in

ceived was requisite for the art of brewing,


this chapter, confine ourselves to oils

these acting as

To

and

the definition already given of

oils, it

cessary to add, in general, they contain

a volatile acid salt


tions,

salts,

and view

menstruums only.

may be

ne-

some water, and

that they receive different appella-

and have different properties

respective spissitudes.

in proportion to their

Oils from vegetables are obtain-

C2

THE THEORY OF BREWING,

36

ed by expression, infusion, and

distillation

which methods, a too great heat


gives them a

is

to

prejudicial rancidness,

in either of

be avoided, as

this

and where water

does not interpose, alters their color until thereby


they
are turned black.
In general oils unite with themselves, but,
excepting
alcohol,

for salts attract water,

salts,

arises

when combined with

not with water, unless

many

and so they do

oils

hence

elegant preparations both natural and

arti-

from which wines are formed.

ficial,

The power

of

oils in

tion to their heat,

dissolving bodies

is

in

a propor-

and being capable, Avhen pure, of

ceiving a quantity of fire equal to 600 degrees,


surprising this liquid should

sinous bodies

r^.

it is

not

mix with gums and with

re-

but the color of these, and of every sub-

ject when thrown into boiling oils, changes in proportion


to the impression

made on them by

low, a red, or a black.

thickened

by

heat, either to a yel-

Oils which are inspissated, or

heat, are termed balsams.

Do

not the

oils

of malt, from the heat they have undergone, resemble


these

and from the circumstance of

their

having en-

dured a heat superior to that necessary for putrefaction,

may
salt

they not be suspected to possess a volatile alcaline

Beyond doubt, the

extracts from malt (though they

boil at a heat of 218 degrees only) yet

do they,

measure, dissolve hops, which are

resinous.

Salt

may

gum

well be denominated a

in great

menstruum, as

it

THE THEORY OF BREWING.


easily diluted with water

fixed alcaline salts

already seen appear to be the produce of

Such are never distinguished

in the

tables in their natural state

though a

salt (the effect

37

we have

fire alone.

composition of vegevolatile alcalious

of heat equal or superior to that necessary

for putrefaction)

is

found in many, and especially in

such as are putrified.

The power

of a fixed alcali as a solvent

plied (says Boerhaave)

concretions, so far as they are


sinous, or of

gummy

is

to animal, vegetable,

balsams,

oils,

great, ap-

or fossil

gummy, re-

resinous nature, and therefore con-

creted from oily substances

these, this salt intimately

disposing them to be

opens, attenuates, and resolves

perfectly miscible with water

oils

however the impression of

taste

of alcohol leaving
naturally belonging

to this salt.

Vegetable acid

salt dissolves

animal, vegetable,

and metalline substances, except mercury,


In most terrestrial vegetables this

gold.

ripe mealy corn has the least indication of

therefrom,

salt is
it,

fossil,

silver,

and

evident

yet extracts

when fermented, and sometimes before they

are fermented, discover sensibly their acidity. Sea-plants


in general

have not their roots inserted

in the earth at

the bottom of the sea, and these in distillation yield an


oily volatile alcali

but more subtil than the native acids

of vegetables, are the vinous acids produced by fermentation

they dissolve equally most matters put into them,

THE THEORY OF BREWING.

38

and render the whole homogene.

when under

this act,

might be introduced the choicest


tics

must or wort,

Into a

by means of an elaeosaccharum,
flavors,

and the aroma-

of the Indies be applied to heighten the taste and

flavor of our barley wines.

The

laws of England at

present subsisting are indeed opposite to any improve-

ment of

from the apprehensions of abuse

this sort,

where elegance alone

is

of our beers and ales might thereby be increased.

such, this

is

but

intended, undoubtedly the merit

As

a part of chymical knowledge well worth the

enquiry and attention of the brewer.


Neutral

salts

have already been mentioned

these are

very various, and very different when acting as menResins and gum-resins are generally said to

struums.

be most effectually dissolved by alcohol

but Boerhaave

informs us, that sal-amoniac (a very salutary subject and


a neutral

salt) if

boiled with

gums,

resins of vegetables, intimately

them

to be conveniently

mixed

ing spiritous menstruums.

much

is

sufficient.

much consequence

Of

resins, or the

resolves,

in

gum-

and disposes

aqueous and ferment-

this class of salts thus

This observation perhaps

is

of too

to escape the notice of the artist.

THE THEORY OF BREWfNG.

39

SECTION VL
OF THE THERMOMETER,
1 HIS

instrument

is

or decrease of heat.

designed for measuring the increase

By

doing

our minds the quantity of


is

time,

impregnated

fire,

with.

it

numerically,

it

fixes in

which any subject,


If

different

at

any

bodies are

brought together, though each possesses a different degree of heat,

it

teaches us to discover what degree of

heat they will arrive at

when thoroughly mixed, sup-

posing effervescence to produce no alteration in the mixture.

The
tainly

inventor of this admirable instrument

is

not eer-

known, though the merit of the discovery has been

ascribed to several great

men, of different

nations, in or-

der to do them and their countries honor.

It

came to

us from Italy, about the beginning of the sixteenth century.

The

first

instrument to

inventors were far from bringing this

its

As

present degree of perfection.

was not then hermetically

sealed,

it

the contained fluid

was, at the same time, influenced by the weight of the


air,

and by the expansion of heat.

The academy of

Florence added this improvement to their thermometers,

which soon made them more generally received

.but,

as the
highest degree of heat of the instrument, con-

THE THEOEY OF BREWING.

46
strutted

by the Florentine gentlemen, was

fixed

by the

action of the strongest rays of the sun in their country,


this

vague determination, varying

and the want of a fixed universal


observations

in almost

every place,

rendered

scale,

made with such thermometers

of

all

the

little

use

to us.

Boyle, Halley, Newton, and several other great men,

thought

They

this

instrument highly worthy of their attention.

endeavoured to

fix

two invariable points to reckon

from, and, by means of these, to establish a proper division.

Monsieur des Amontons

have

said to

is

first

made

use of the degree of boiling water, for graduating his


Fahrenheit, indeed, found the

mercurial thermometers.
pressure of the air, in

its

a variation of six degrees in that point


cluded, a thermometer
is

in its

middle

state,

almost every purpose.

would cause

greatest latitude,

made

he therefore con-

at the time

might be

when

the air

sufficiently exact for

Long before

the heat of boiling

water was settled as a permanent degree,

many means
The degree of

were proposed to determine another.


temperature ^in a deep cave or
air

cellar,

could reach, was imagined by

where no external

many

a proper one

but what that degree truly was, and whether

and universal, was found too

At

last

difficult to

it

was fixed

be determined.

the freezing point of water was


thought of, and

though some doubts arose, with Dr. Halley and others,


whether water constantly froze

at the

same degree of

THE THEORY OF BREWING.

41

Dr. Martine has since, by several experiments,

cold,

proved

now

this to

be beyond

doubt, and this degree

all

is

received for as fixed a point as that of boiling

water.

These two degrees being thus determined, the next


business was the division of the intermediate space

some

could be generally received.

scale, that

no

there seemed to be

minations, and that which

most perfect,

The
filled,

is

liquid

used in the thermometer at

is

common, and,

far

in other respects, the

from being the

wherewith

simplest.

were

thermometers

became the object of another enquiry.

Newton employed,
this,

Though

difficulty in this, philosophers of

have not been uniform in their deter-

different countries

present the most

to

is

but

apt to adhere to the sides

when suddenly

want of the parts which thus

be

Sir Isaac

for this purpose, linseed oil

being an unctuous body,

of the glass, and,

on

affected

by

cold, for

stick to the sides, does not

shew the true degree.

Tinged water was employed by others


yig,

when

but

this freez-

Fahrenheit's thermometer points 32 degrees,

and boiling, when

it

rises to

capable of denoting any

212, was, from thence, in-

more

intense cold or heat.

Spirit of wine, which endures

stagnating,

much

was next made use of;

cold without

but this liquor,

being susceptible of no greater degree of heat than that

THE THEORY OF BREWING,

42

which, in Fahrenheit's scale,

is

expressed by 175, could

be of no service where boiling water was concerned.

At

last the

properest fluid, to answer every purpose,

was found to be mercury.


to freeze*

and

is

free

and not

to boil

This had never been knoAvn

under a heat of 600 degrees,

from every inconveniency attending other

liquors.

As the instrument

is

ple, that heat or fire

entirely founded
all

expands

on

this princi-

bodies, as cold con-

denses them, there was a necessity of employing a fluid


easy to be dilated.
in the bulb.

quantity of

it is

seated in one part

This .being expanded by heat,

is

pushed

forward into a fine tube, or capillary cylinder, so small,


that the motion of the fluid in

it is

speedy and percep-

Some thermometers have been constructed with

tible.

their reservoir

composed of a

neral, at present, they are

the bulb

is,

the sooner

it is

larger cylinder

made

globular.

The

any

distinct the degrees.

smaller

heated through, and the finer

the tube, the greater will be the length of

more

but in ge-

It

is

it,

and the

scarcely possible that

glass cylinder, so very small, should be perfectly-

regular

the quicksilver, during the expansion, passing

through some parts of the tube wider than others, the

Lately, indeed,

with the greatest

art,

by such intense cold as can only be procured


and in the coldest climates, mercury is said to

have been stagnated, or

fixed.

THE THEORY OF BREWING.


degrees will be shorter in the
latter.

first

case,

43

and longer

If the divisions, therefore, are

in the

made equal be-

tween the boiling and freezing points, a thermometer,

whose cylinder
this

is

irregular, cannot

be

To

true.

rectify

inconveniency, the ingenious Mr. Bird, of London,

puts into the tube about the length of an inch of mercu-

ry

and measuring, with a pair of compasses, the true

extent of this

quicksilver in one place, he

moves

to the other, carefully observing

where

body of

it

from one end

it

increases or diminishes in length, thereby ascertaining

the parts, and

By

how much

the degrees are to be varied.

thermometers are perfectly ac-

this contrivance, his

curate, and exceed all that were ever


I shall

not trouble

tions that

my

made

before.

reader with numerous calcula-

have been made, to express the quantity of

particles of the liquor contained in the bulb, in order to

determine how
to think a

much it is dilated.

more curious than

cient, for our purpose, to


ters

know how

ought to be constructed

inclination,

may be

This, Dr. Marline seems

useful enquiry.

they

the best

who have

It is suffi-

thermomeleisure

and

agreeably entertained by the author

last cited.

By

observing the rise of the mercury in the thermo-

meter, during any given time,


the time of the day,

we

as, for instance,

ascertain the degree

during

and value

of the heat of every part of the day, from whence

may

THE THEORY OF BREWING.

44

be fixed the medium of the whole time, or any part


thereof.

By repeated

it

experiments,

dium heat of most days


o'clock in the morning,

appears, the

the instrument

if

me-

usually indicated at eight

is

is

placed in

the shade, in a northern situation, and out of the reach


of any accidental heat.

Though water
and cold, yet, as

is

not so readily affected as air by heat

all

bodies long exposed in the same

place,

become of the same degree of heat with

itself,

DO great error can

the air

from estimating water, in

arise

general, to be of the same heat as the air, at eight o'clock


in the morning, in the shade.

The thermometer
water

is

teaches us that the heat of boiling

equal to 212 degrees,

and by calculation we may

kriow what quantity of cold water


it

to

any degree we choose

so,

is

necessary to bring

notwithstanding the in-

strument cannot be used in large vessels, where the water is heating, yet,

may
rule

the

by

the power of numbers, the heat

be ascertained with the greatest accuracy.


is

The

this: multiply 212, the heat of boiling water,

number of

by

barrels of water thus heated, (suppose 22}

and the number of barrels of cold water to be added to


the former, (suppose 10,) by the heat of the air at eight
o'clock, (suppose 50,)

add these two products together,

and divide by the sum of the barrels


the degree of heat of the water

mixed

the quotient shews


togetJier.

THE THEORY OF BREWING.

212 heat of boiling water.


22 barrels to be made to boil.
50 deg. heat of

424

22

4664

10

500

sum 32

5 1 64(

air at eight.

10 barrel^ of cold water.

424

500

1 degrees will be the heat of the water

when mixed

of barrels 32

together.

196

192

44
32
12

The

calculation

may

be extended to three or more

bodies, provided they be brought to the same denomination.

there

is

Suppose 32 barrels of water to be used where


a grist of 20 quarters of malt,

ters of malt are of a

if

these 20 quar-

volume or bulk equal

to

1 1

barrels

of water, and the malt, by having lain exposed to the


is

of the same degree of heat with the

know

air, in

air,

order to

the heat of the mash, the calculation must be thus

continued.

THE THEORY OF BREWING.

46

16

f heat of water 50 degrees of heat of malt

32 barrels of water

1 1

barrels,

volume of malt

550

333

483
32 water 5163
11 malt

43

550
5713

43

132 degrees, which will be the heat of


the mash.

141

129

123

86
37

We shall meet

hereafter with

some

incidents,

casion a difference in the calculations

made

which oc-

for the pur-

pose of brewing, but of these particular mention will be

made

in the practical part.

The

thermometer, by shewing the different degrees of

heat of each part of the year, informs us, at the same


time,

how necessary

it is

the proportions of boiling water

to cold should be varied to effect an imiform intent

also

that the heat of the extracts of small beer should differ

proportionably as the heats of the seasons do

it

assists

us

THE THEORY OF BREWING.

41

to fix the quantity of hops necessary to be used at diffe-

rent times

how much

yeast

is

requisite, in

the year, to carry on a due fermentation


riation

to

is

each term of

and what va-

be made in the length of time that worts


Indeed, without this knowledge, beers,

ought to boil.

though brewed

in their

due season, cannot be regularly

fermented, and whenever they prove good, so often


it

be said fortune was on the brewer's

may

side.

,Beers are deposited in cellars, to prevent their being


affected

variations of heat

by the

By means

nal air.

of the thermometer,

mined the heat of these


kept

and whether

in,

and cold

cellars, the

it

in the exter-

be deter-

may

temper the liquor

will sooner or later

come

is

for-

ward.

The brewing
is

fittest

strument.

when
As

season,

and the reason why such season

for brewing, can only


It

necessity obliges us to
all

be discovered by

brew in the summer months.

vegetable fermentation

between two

this in-

points out likewise our chance for success,

settled points,

we

is

carried on in heats,

are,

by

this instrument,

taught to put our worts together at such a temperature,


as they shall neither

nor retarded by too

be evaporated by too great a heat,

much cold.

If curiosity should lead us so far,

we might

likewise

by it, the particular strength of each wort,


of every mash for if water boils at 212
degrees, oil
determine,

600, and worts be a composition of water,

oil

and

or
at

salt,

THE THEORY OF BREWING.

48

the

more the heat of a

boiling water, the

the stronger

A given

is

more

boiling wort exceeds that of

oils

and

must

salts

contain, or

it

the wort.

quantity of hops, boiled in a given quantity

of water, must have a similar effect, consequently the


intrinsic value of this vegetable

same man-

in the

may,

ner, be ascertained.

The more

more do they

the malts are dried, the

alter

in color, from a white to a light yellow, next to an

on to a brown,

ber, farther

speckled with black


If

more

fire

we

which

is

continued, the grain will at

state

intirely black.

am-

becomes

in

or heat

and become

charr,

until the color

frequently see

By

it.

last

observing the

degrees of heat necessary to induce these alterations,

we

may, by the mere inspection of the malt, know with


what degree of

fire it

such which best

has been dried

suits

and fixing upon

our purpose, direct, with the

greatest accuracy, not only the heat of the

mean

but the

first

mash,

heat the whole brewing should be impres-

sed with to answer our intent, circumstances of the


greatest consequence to the right

management of the

process.
If I

had not already

said

enough

er of the utility of this instrument,


to

be

use of

in the choice,
it, I

to convince the

how

brew-

curious he ought

and how well acquainted with the

should add the heat gained by the efferves-

cing of malt,

is

to

be determined by

it

alne

the quan-

*hTHE
tity of heat lost

THEORY OF BREWING.
by mashing, by

the water in

49

its

passage

from the copper to the mash ton, and by the extract

coming down

into the underback, these can

no other method

means

and, above

know with

to

all, that there

be found by
is

no other

certainty the heat of every extract.

know very well good beers w ere sometimes, perhaps


often, made before the thermometer was known, and
r

still is,

if

by many who are

entirely ignorant of

it

but

this,

not wholly the effect of chance, cannot be said to be

very distant from


unassisted

it.

They who

carry on this process,

by principles and the use of the thermometer,

must admit they are frequently unsuccessful, whereas


did they carefully and with knowledge apply

this in-

strument, they certainly would not be disappointed.


It is

equally true, the breAving art, for a long space of

time, has been governed

alone

if

by an ill-conveyed

as often

made

want of certain and well established

rules.

'the best practitioners, faulty drinks

them

feel the

It is just

have

as absurd for a brewer to refuse the use of the

thermometer, as

it

would be

the informations of his

for

an architect to reject

plummet and

they were unserviceable because the


>ably

tradition

lucky combinations have sometimes flattered

many

others,

were

rule,
first

and to

assert

house, and

pro*.

built without their assistance.

THE THEORY OF BREW^G

$0

SECTION

VII.

OF THE FINE, ITS FRUITS, AND

AFTER these

JUICES.

short accounts of the principles and in-

strument necessary to the right understanding of the

brewing

art,

we

now draw

should

near to the particular

object of this treatise, but as the most successful


to investigate
similar

it,

must be

first

example nature has

not be lost by making

to inspect the great

set before us,

spirit

distillation, yields

miscible with water,

wine, whatever vegetable matter

As beer and

ales contain

this definition,

and

our time will

this enquiry.

Any fermented liquor, that, in


flammable

method

spirit

it is

in-

called

produced from.

exactly answerable to

may justly be

brewing

making wines from corn.

may be

an

called the art of

Those, indeed, which are the

produce of the grape, have a particular claim to the

name,

either because they are the

most ancient and the

most universal, or that a great part of


preparation

is

owing

their previous

to the care of nature

itself.

By

observing the agents she employs, and the circumstances

under which she

acts,

we

shall find ourselves

enabled to

follow her steps, and to imitate her operations.

Most grapes contain

become

juices, which,

in time as light

when fermented,

and pellucid as water, and are

THE THEORY OF BREWING.

51

possessed of fine spiritous parts, sufficient to cherish,

comfort, and even inebriate.

But

these properties of

vinosity are observed not to be equally perfect in the


fruits of all vines

not at

some of them are found

proper for

all

this

purpose.

It is

less,

others

therefore neces-

sary to examine the circumstances which attend the

forming and ripening of those grapes, whose juices pro-

duce the

finest liquors of the kind.

All grapes,

when they

first

bud

sour, therefore of a middle nature.

forth, are austere

And

this

and

can be no

other than the effect of the autumnal remaining sap,

mixed with

the

new

raised vernal one, the consequence

of which mixture will be found greatly to merit our inquiry.

As

far as

our senses can judge, at

that the juice, in this state, consists of

first, it

than an acid combined with a tasteless water.


the fruit

is

ripe,

it

becomes

The

highly flavoured juice.


taste of

which shew,

full

that,

appears

somewhat more

When

of a rich, sweet, and

color,

consistency,

by the power of

and

heat, a con-

siderable quantity of oil has been raised, and, sheathing

the

salts, is

the reason of

its

saccharine taste and saccha-

rine properties.

In England, grapes are probably produced under th


least heat

they can be raised by.

They discover themwhen the mediun)

selves in their first shape, about June,

heat of the twenty-four hour's shade

is

with what more should be added for the

D2

57,60.

This,

effect of the

THE THEORY OF BREWING.

52

sim's beams, are the degrees of heat

the juices into this

The

which

first

introduce

fruit.

in the countries where


highest degrees of heat,

to
grapes corne to perfect maturity, have been observed

be, in various parts of Italy, Spain, and Greece 100, and


at Montpelier 88, in the shade; to which, according to

Dr. Lining's observations, 20 degrees must be added


for the effect of the sun's beams.
Italy will then

amount

of France

108.

to

The

greatest heat in

to 120 degrees, and in the south

These approach nearly

to

the

strongest heats observed in the hottest climates, which,


in Astracan, Syria, Senegal,

and Carolina, were from 124

to 126 degrees.

Those

countries,

produce the richest

where the heat

with sweet, thick and oily juices.

Tockay

is

greatest, in general

fruits, that is, the

wine-hills, there

is

most impregnated

We are told,

among the

one which, directly fronting

the south, and being the most exposed to the sun, yields
the sweetest and rishest grapes.
hill,

It is

called the sugar-

and the delicious wines extracted from

cular spot, are


rial family.

all

Those grapes, some

in other places,

this parti-

deposited in the cellars of the


in the Canaries,

impe-

some

being suffered to remain the longest on

the tree, with their stems half cut through,

procure their juices to

by this means

be highly concentrated, and pro-

duce that species of sweet,

oily,

balmy wines, which >

THE THEORY OF BREWING.


from

this operation, are called sack,

53

a derivation of the

French word sec or dry<


In

all distillations

and acid
fire is

of unfermented vegetables,

salts rise first.

required for the elevation of

one for the

lixivial salts,

water

more considerable degree of


oils,

and a

which render those

still

oils

greater

miscible

with water.

plant,

exposed to a very gentle heat,

at first yields a

water which contains the perfect smell of the vegetable


blended with a subtile
heavier

oil will

oil

come over

more heat be added, an

if

from some a

volatile alkali,

which gradually grows

from others a phlegm

will

acid ;.and, last of

with the farther assistance of

the black,

thick,

a less degree,

it is

rise,

said to place a like series of events

forming and maturating

of

by imitating what she does, that the

in-

the

in

habitants of different countries

tages of their

fire,

Nature, in

empyreumatic sulphur.

may be

before our eyes,


grapes, and

all,

soil

and of their

may improve

the advan-

air.

In order to illustrate the doctrine, that grapes are en-

dued with various properties,

in

proportion to the heat

of the air they have been exposed to,

what Boerhaave has observed,

let

us remember

that, in very

ther, the oleous corpuscles of the earth are

hot weacarried

up

into the air, and, descending again, cause the showers

and dews

snow of

in

summer

winter.

to

The

be very different from the pure


first

are acrid, and disposed to


3

THE THEORY OF BREWING.

54-

and

froth, the last is transparent

mer

whereas in cold weather


ter the air
oils

it is

scarcely so at

cold

is

the opener of nature.

is

itself,

Hence sum-

always

fruitful,

In win-

all.

abounds with acid parts, neither smoothed by

nor rarined by heat

heat

ing

insipid.

rain, or rain falling in hot seasons, is

the condensing power, as

In

summer, the

air, dilat-

penetrates every where, and gives to the rain

a disposition to froth, occasioned by the admixture of


oleous and aerial particles.

Thus

the acid

salts, either

previously existing, or by the venial heat introduced into


the grapes, and necessary to their preservation, are neutralized

by coming

in contact

going autumn produced

after

with the juices the fore-

which a hotter sun, cover-

ing or blending these juices with


into a saccharine form.

more or
Jesser

changes the whole

and counterbalanced by a greater or

less sharp,

quantity of

more or

oils,

In proportion as these acids are

oils,

less to the state

the juices of grapes approach


of perfection, which fermenta-

tion requires.

There are many


in

places, as Jamaica, Barbadoes, &c.

which experience shews the vine cannot be cultivated

to advantage.

By comparing

with those in Italy


fect

is

the heat of these places

and Montpelier,

it

appears

this

de-

not owing to excessive heats, but to their constan-

cy and uniformity

the temperature of the air of these

countries seldom being so low as the degree necessary


for the

first

production of the

fruit.

Whenever

the cul-

THE THEORY OF BREWING.


tivation of the vine

West

Indies,

is

55

attempted in these parts of the

the grapes, on their

first

appearance, are

shaded and skreened from the beams of the sun, which,


in their infancy, they are not able to bear.

Hence we

learn,

though nature employs both the au-

tumnal and vernal seasons, yet there are

lesser heats

with

which she prepares the first juice of grapes, a stronger power


of the sun she requires to form the
than either to ripen

it.

fruit,

and a greater

We have investigated the lowest

degrees of heat, in which grapes are produced, and nearly the highest they ever receive to ripen them.
call the first

of maturation.

and

be the lowest of the one,

If nearly 58

26 the highest of the other, and

of acids

is

Let us

the germinating degrees, and the last those

if

a certain power

necessary for the germination of the grapes,

which must be counterbalanced by an equal power of


oils raised

medium

then the
said to

by the heat of the sun

maturated.

shade

of these two numbers, or 92,

be a degree

be produced, and"

is

for their maturation,

at

which

this fruit

inferior to that

may be

cannot possibly

by which

it

should be

At Panama the lowest degree of heat

72, to which 20 being added,

for

the

in the

sun's

beams, the sum will be 92, and consequently no grapes


can grow there, except the vines be placed in the
shade.
If

we

recollect that

will preserve itself, of

we can

scarcely

make wine, which

grapes produced in England,

D4

we

THE THEORY OF BREWING.

56

be induced to think, that the reason of

shall
is

dom
for

raises the

thermometer

a short continuance.

rior to 92,

and hence we

to 100 degrees,

Our medium

this defect

Our sun

the want of the high degrees of heat.

sel-

and that but

heat

is

far infe-

see, at several distant

terms in

summer, new germinated grapes, but seldom any perThese observations, the use of which,

fectly ripe.

brewing,

we

will

endeavour to apply, likewise point out

to us,

what part of our plantations are

fruit,

and to what degree of perfection.

research

in-

made

fit

for each constituent

to

produce

this*

part forming

grapes, as well as the proportion they bear to one another, at first sight, appears to

discover the nature of wines


their parts are

be an

eligible

method

to

but in every vegetable

mixed and interwoven, and every degree

of heat, acting on them, finds these so blended, as

to-

render their division too imperfect for such enquiry

to-

be made with

sufficient

the rules of an art.

accuracy, to

deduce therefrom

In the producing, ripening,

and

fermenting the juice of the grapes, as well as in forming


beers and ales, the element of

fire

so superlatively influ-

ences and governs every progressive act, as to occasion

some remarkable difference


hence, then,

in their appearance

we may expect

the information

we

from,
want,,

and be enabled to discover the laws by which Nature


forms her wines.

When

the constituent parts of a subject are to be esti-

THE THEORY OF BREWING.

57

mated by heat alone, the* number of degrees comprehended between the


which brought

last

the whole of

first
it

heat which formed

constituent parts.

its

and the

it,

must express

to a perfect state,

Complete finished

substances, must have been benefited

by the whole

lati-

tude of degrees applicable thereto; and in proportion as


part of the whole latitude

be

different,

This variety

is

treating of.

wanting, will their nature

is

and themselves

less perfect.

remarkable in the fruit

we

are

now

country endued with the lowest germi-

nating, and with the highest maturating degrees of heat


for grapes,
tion
ties

that

would produce them


they would possess

is,

in the

utmost perfec-

the several proper-

all

they could obtain from this circumstance

sequently

such

are

capable

of

forming wines

conthat

would preserve themselves a very long time, and would


also

become spontaneously

heats

we have observed

during,

it is

is

all

several

capable of en-

reasonable to believe the greatest

degrees of heat employed to form


parts,

From the

fine.

that this fruit

number of

their constituent

must be where, during the whole space of vege-

tation, the heat in the shade varies

from 60 to 106 de-

grees, and constitutes a difference of 46 degrees.

So

great a latitude, ordered by nature, most certainly denotes the general utility of the plant.

The climate of the


nearest to this

southern part of France approaches

but Spanish wines are richer

their grapes

5S

THE THEORY OF BREWING.

are formed

by a warmer sun

heats exceed those of France


their wines are

and maturating

their vernal
;

more stubborn, and,

quire the help of precipitation.

same time,

but, at the

made

to be

fine, re-

This variety increases

according to the heat of climates

thus

we

see wines

which come from the coast of Africa, whose richness and


stubbornness are beyond the reach of any menstruum

employed

Let us endeavour to reduce

to fine them.

apparent inconstancy to rule, in order to


If the lowest heat

which forms the grape,

parts of France, be 60 degrees, and

mean

shade, be the

assist

if

our

>

southern

in the

of their maturating heat, the diffeis

the

mumber

which includes the constituent parts of grapes


country, as these degrees
progress.

art.

88 degrees, in the

rence between 60 and 88, or 28 degrees,

If like juices

in our hot-houses,

this

it is

in this

imply the whole space of their

were to be imitated by

clear half the

art,

as

number of the de-

grees of heat which form the whole of the constituent


parts, or 14,

deducted from 74, the mean heat of their

whole vegetation, would give 60, for the

employed, and

this to

first

greatest heat, nature in this case, permits, or


to

heat to be

be raised, for maturation, to 88, the

be added to the same whole mean.

To

4 degrees
liken the

wines of Spain, where the autumnal and vernal heats are


greater than in France, the heat forming the

must be more, as

also the maturating heats

first

juices

but with

such practice, the number of constituent degrees would

THE THEORY OF BREWING.

59

be found to be fewer, and spontaneous brightness could

no more be expected, than

A strict
to grapes,
ciples

enquiry
is

it is

found, in their wines.

after the heats first

and

last

applied

of such consequence to ascertain the prin-

by which malt

though grapes produced

liquor should be formed, that,

England scarcely make wines

in

which can maintain themselves sound, yet, as the rule


is

from them we

universal, even

blish not only its certainty,

the

shall

be able to esta-

but also the application of

number of the degrees found between the

heats which

germinate the fruit, and those which ripen them.

From twelve
the

mean

years observation,

we have found

heat in the shade, from the 1st of

June, to the 15th, when grapes with us

bud

Our

forth,

to

first

Deg.

be

57.60

greatest heat, under like circumstances,

from the 15th to the 3Ist of July, to be

61.10

Their difference,

3.5O

Their medium,

If,

from

their

59.35

medium, 59.35, we subtract

1.75, half

their difference, or half their constituent parts,

have

left

57.60 for the germinating heat

medium, 59.35, we add


constituent parts,

we

1.75,

shall

half the

and

we must

if to their

number of

their

have 61.10, the highest mean

THE THEORY OF BREWING,

60

heat, in the shade, at the time the richest juices of

grapes are formed.

It is

true,

when

following months,

our

in July, nor even in the

the heat continues nearly alike,

our grapes are not ripe, nor gathered

the properties

raised by our greatest sunshine, as yet have not reached

the fruit, and though the

ber and October

mean

is less,

yet

the grapes the juices raised

which concentrate and grow


plant, though, for

want of a

heat of the air in Septemit

by

is

sufficient to

place in

the preceding hot sun,

richer,

by remaining on the
they do not

sufficient heat,

reach that perfection obtained in warmer climates.

The want

many parts both of America


reason we gave for this, (See page

of grapes in

and Africa, and the

55,) warrants the truth of the division

we have just now

made, between the germinating and maturating heats


and

if

the effects caused

benefit the fruit,

by a hot sun do not immediately

by a parity of reason,

after the grapes

are gathered, the plant must possess, (and surely for

some longer space, by a continued

heat, equal,

and

of-

ten superior, to the vernal sun,) juices which Nature


is

too frugal not usefully to apply

forming the

in

prehend,

assist

which are

fully to

these juices,

expand the ensuing year, and

b'y their oleaginous

quality, to preserve these

whole plant during the cold of the winter


at the

same time

we ap-

embryo of the leaves

that

it

serve,

and the

which cold,

contracts the'pores of the vine,

condenses and thickens these richer juices, from whence

THE THEORY OF BREWING.


few,

any of them, are

if

lost or

tion.

The

tivity,

when blending with

far

nal heats,

those this season attracts, the

the flowers appear, and the fruit forms.

we

conceive the act of germination extends,

and

for

provided

expended by perspira-

heat of the following spring renews their ac-

leaves open,

Thus

61

assisted

and which,

both by the autumnal and ver-

in point of

power, are nearly equal

and uniform.

The
this

heat of the sun, during

we add

the

retained there

summer months, and

more constant heat

by

if

to

at the roots of the vine,

the density of the earth

these (though

superior to the germinating heat) produce a like unifor-

mity for maturating the

fruit:

thus nature, in order

to implant in wines an original even taste, and to facilitate

the fermentable act, amidst the great variety that

appears to us in the heat of the

air,

seems, upon the

whole, to act by steady and equal motions


perhaps,
to rule
I

am

more

this is the best

'or rather,

manner by which we can reduce

the inconstancy of the atmosphere.

sensible these facts

had been represented

in

natural light, had I observed the degrees of heat

impressed on the vine in every season of the year;


the difference of the sun's heat, in every hour of the
day,

a variety exceeding that in the shade; that between


night and day
earth at
all

these

its

the aspect of the plant

the heat of the

surface, as well as at the roots of the vine

would have increased the circumstances

to a

THE THEORY OF BREWING.

62

prodigious extent

which, though perhaps requisite to


investigation,

philosophic

satisfy

from

might,

their

variety, have been the means rather to

number and

in-

duce us to error, than to discover the general rules by


which nature

From the
ture, in

fixedn

acts.

we

above-related process

forming wines,

is

are taught, that na-

not confined to a certain

umber of degrees, but admits,

considerable

latitude,

which the wines vary

for this act, of

extent of

the

according to

in taste

and properties

and that

she affects an equality of heat in each period of vegetation

from whence the brewer

is

taught,

if

malt-liquors with four mashes, as in the

spring the vine


so ought his

is

he form his

autumn and

impressed with heats nearly uniform,

two first mashes

to

be

the third, in imitation

of the high heat of summer, should be


the heat of his last

much

mash the same with

hotter,

and

and

this

this

general rule has been found Universally true, for beers

expected to preserve themselves sound a

sufficient

time

and admits but of a proportional variation, when fewer


or

more mashes

are employed, as the degrees of heat

denominating the constituent parts of the grain, must be


applied in proportion to the quantity of water used to

each mash

when we

but in malt liquors speedily to be drank, or

deviate greatly from the

tions of nature,

we

more perfect produc-

are then compelled to swerve froia

THE THEORY OF BREWING.


her rules

63

a practice never profitable, and which no-

thing but necessity can justify.

The

nature of the

soil

proper for the vine, might, in

another work, be a very useful enquiry.

It will

be suf-

ficient here, barely to hint at the effect,

which

lixivia!

soils

produce

The Portugueze, when they

in musts.

discovered the Island of Madeira in 1420, set


forests,

with which

it

was

totally covered.

It

to burn for the space of seven years, after

greater plenty.
.nd,

It is

the

continued

which the

and yielding such

land was found extremely fruitful,


wines, as, at present,

fire to

we have from

thence, though in

very difficult to fine these wines,

though the climate of

this island is

more temperate

than that of the Canaries, the wines are obliged to be


carried to the Indies and the
to be purged, shook,

warmer

parts of the globe,

and attenuated, before they can

arrive to an equal degree of fineness with other wines

were the Portugueze acquainted with what may be termed the

artificial

method of exciting periodical fermenta-

tion, much

or the whole of this trouble might be avoided.

Hence we

see, that soils

will

and

impregnated with alkaline

salts

produce musts able to support themselves longer,


to resist acidity

more, than other

soils,

under the same

degree of heat.

Grapes have the same constituent parts as other vegetables.

and

The

difference

between them,

as to their tastes

properties, consists in the parts being

mixed

in dif-

THE THEORY OF BREWING.

64

This

fercnt -proportions.

more

bent vessels
others, or

their absor-

readily attracting

juioes than

from their preparing them otherwise, under

different heats

We

from

some

arises, either

and in different

soils.

find, says Dr. Hales, by the chymical analysis of

vegetables, that their substance


volatile salts, water,

is

composed of sulphur,

and earth, which principles are en-

dued with mutual attracting powers.

There enters

like-

wise in the composition, a large portion of air, which has

a wonderful property of attracting in a fixed, or of re-

with a
pelling in an elastic state,
forces.

compressing
actions,

It is

power superior

by the

infinite

and reactions of these principles,

to vast

combinations,

tha,tall

the ope-

rations in animal and vegetable bodies are effected.

who

Boerhaave,

is

somewhat more

particular with regard

to the constituent parts of vegetables,

contain an

oil

mixed with a

salt in

says, that they

form of a sapo, and

that a saponaceous juice arises from the mixture of water

with the former.

Thus we
they have

from the composition of grapes, that

see,

all

the necessary principles to form a most ex-

quisite liquor, capable,

attenuated.

acid, and neutral

The

air

by a

They abound
salts,

gentle heat, to be greatly

with elastic

air,

contained in the interstices of fluids

quantity than

is

water,

oils,

and even saponaceous juices.

commonly apprehended.

is

more

Sir Isaac

in

New-

ton has proved that water has forty times more pores.

THE THEORY OF BREWING.


than solid parts

and the proportion,

likely, is not

When

different in vegetable juices.

e5

the fruit

is

very
in

its

natural entire state, the viscidity of the juices, and their

being enveloped by an outward skin, prevent the expansion of the inclosed air
this

forced state,

it

it lies

as

it

were

inactive.

In

causes no visible motion, nor are the

principles, thus confined, either subjected to

any appa-

rent impressions of the external atmosphere, or so inti-

mately blended as when they are expressed.

free

communication of the external

air,

in the interstices of the


liquor,

required to form a per-

fect mixture.

rations

it

what means

By

is

with that contained

this is effected,

produces, or, in general, in Avhat

what

alte-

manner the

juice of the grape becomes wines, must be the subject of

our next inquiry.

The

process of a perfect fermentation

is

undoubtedly

the same (where the due


proportions of the constituent
parts, forming the must, are exactly kept)

getable juices

it

is

excited

in.

For

whatever ve-

this reason,

we

will

observe the progress of this act in beers and ales, these

being subjects

we

characters appear

may

are

more accustomed

more

to,

and where the

distinct, in order to apply

what

be learned from thence to our chief object, the busi-

ness of the brewer.

THE THEORY OF BREWING.

&5

SECTION

VIII.

OF FERMENTATION IN GENERAL.
VEGETABLE fermentation

is

and earth, naturally tenacious, by


salts

and

heats, are so

pellucid fluid

the different principles,

and evaporation.

to

oils

the interposition of

much attenuated and

be made miscible with, and


geneous

by which

that act,

divided, as to

be suspended

an homo-

in,

which, by a due proportion of


is

preserved from precipitation

According to Boerhaave, a

less

heat

than forty degrees leaves the mass in an inert state, and


the particles
vity

fall

to the

bottom

in proportion to their
gra-

a greater heat than eighty degrees disperses them

too much, and leaves the residuum a rancid, acrimonious,


putrid mass.
certainly very difficult, if not impossible, to dis-

It is

cover the true and adequate cause of fermentation.

by

tracing

its

several stages, circumstances,

we may perhaps

and

But,

effects,

perceive the agents and means employ-

ed by nature to produce

this singular

gree of knowledge, which,

we hope,

is

change

a de-

sufficient to an-

swer our practical purposes.

The
quid,

must, when just pressed from the grapes,

composed of neutral and

is

li-

lixivial salts, oils of diffe-

rent spissitude, water, earth, and elastic

air.

These,

ir-

THE THEORY OF BREWING.


may be

if I

regularly ranged,

settled, a number of

permitted the expres-

Soon

compose a chaos of wine.

sion,

to the sides of the containing vessel

creases as they

after the liquor is

bubbles arise, and at

air

in

augment

61

their

first

adhere

magnitude

number, so that

at last

in-

they

cover the Avhofe surface of the must.


It

has been long suspected, and,

monstrated, that an acid, of which

many

different species,

is

if I

mistake not, de-

others are but so

all

universally dispersed through,

and continually circulating

in,

the air

and that

this is

one of nature's principal agents in maturating and


solving of bodies.

re-

Musts, like other bodies, being porous,

the circulating acids very powerfully introduce themselves therein

by the pressure of the atmosphere,

portion as the pores are

heat they are exposed

more or

The

to.

in

pro-

expanded by the

less

particles of acids are

supposed by Newton to be endued with a great attractive


force, in

which their activity

consists.

By

this force,

they rush towards other bodies, put the fluid in motion,


excite heat, and violently
separate

manner

some

as to generate or expel air,

particles in such

and consequently

bubbles.

From henee

it

appears that, as soon as the acid parti-

cles of the air are

the

oils,

admitted into the must, they act on

and excite a motion somewhat

cence generated, when acids and

though

in

less

degree.

oils

like the efferves-

come

This motion

is

in contact,

the Qause of

THE THEORY OF BREWING.

68

heat,

by which the included

elastic air,

being

rarefieo*,

occasions the bubbles to ascend towards the surface.

These, by the power of attraction, are drawn to the


sides of the vessel

they are small and few, but in-

first

at;

crease, both in number and magnitude, as the

the air continues,

The

surface.
itself to
air,

till,

first

of

whole

stage of vegetable fermentation shews

be a motion excited by the acids

acting on the oleous parts of the

floating in the

liquor,

tion gives an opportunity to the divided


air,

effect

at last, they spread over the

which mo-

minute parts of

dispersed throughout the whole, to collect themselves

in masses

from hence they become capable

and

elasticity,

Arbutlmoton

to free themselves
air p.

It

U6.)

to observe, that all musts,

to exert their

from the must. (See

may, perhaps, be proper

which ferment spontaneously,

contain for this purpose a large portion of elastic

Bubbles

still

continue to rise after the must

covered with them


called,

by

and a body of bladders

the brewers, the head of the drink

is
is

air.

entirely

formed,

as the

bub-

bles increase, the head rises in height, but the oils of the

must, being as yet of different spissitudes, those which are


least tenacious

soon emit their air

stronger, being rarefied

by

others,

somewhat

the fermenting heat, rise on

the surface higher than the rest, while such aerial bubbles as are

more dense, take

From hence, and from

their place

below them.

the constituent parts of the drink

not being as yet intimately mixed, the head takes an

THE THEORY OF BREWING.

69

ttneven and irregular shape, and appears like a beautiful

After

piece of rock work.

and

it is

by

due order,

in their

to

fermentation, which,
parts

spiritous

requires

some time,

be farther attenuated by the act of

when

become

The head

water.

this, it

degrees, that the particles dispose themselves

effected, the saline, oily,

of the liquor then

is

more

and

with *the

miscible*

perfectly

level

hete-

rogeneous bodies, as dirt, straw, corks, &c. assisted


bubbles of

air

and should be skimmed

surface,

becomes more

About

this

by

now buoyed on the


lest, when the liquor

adhering to them, are

light

time,

and

off,

spiritous, they should subside.

such parts of the must as are too

course to be absorbed in the wine (as they consist


chiefly of pinguious oils,

mixed with

much

elastic air)

strongly envelope

sink to the bottom, and

motion increasing, the

form the

air

earth,

from

lees.

internal

formed
are the

first,

is

weight,

But the

bubbles grow larger some, not

of parts so strong as the others,

a heat

though they

their

which generally

burst and strengthen the rest

and thereby

retained in the fermenting liquor, which carries

the act on to a farther degree.

become more pungent and

The

particles of the

spiritous, because

and more active; some of the

must

more

fine

most; volatile ones fly off;

hence, that subtle and dangerous vapor, called gas,

which extinguishes flame and suffocates animals.


wine, by
is

at last

The

these repeated acts, being greatly attenuated,

unable to support, on

E3

its

surface, the weight of

THE THEORY OF BREWING.

TO

such a quantity of froth, rendered more dense by


repeated explosions of the air bubbles.
liquor should be fouled

put

in vessels

by

Now,

lest

the falling in of the froth,

the-

the
it is

having only a small aperture, where

it

continues to ferment, with a slower and less perceptible

motion, which gradually diminishing until


period
its

when

communication with

it

reaches the
it

admits of

to be cut off; not that thereby,

in a strict sense, the fermentation can

pletely

it

neither attracts or repels air,

it

be said to be com-

ended the least heat is sufficient to renew, or rather


:

to continue the act,

more

especially

if

by any means the

atmosphere can gain any admittance, however small.

The

alteration caused in the liquor,

of the external

air,

from the very

not only occasions

first

by the pressure

of

its

fermenting,

the particles of the must to form

themselves in their due order, but also,

by the weight and

of that element, grinds and reduces them into

action

From hence they more

smaller parts.

intimately blend

with each other, the wine becomes of an equal and even


taste,

and

if

the constituent parts of the must be in a per-

fect proportion,

it

will continue to ferment, until, these

being disposed and ranged in right


lucid fluid

That
comes

is

lines,

a fine and pel-

produced.

this operation subsists,

fine, is

evident

even after the liquor be-

for every fretting

is

a continu-

ance of fermentation, though often almost imperceptible.

Thus, the component parts of the liquor are continually

THE THEORY OF BREWING.


reduced to a less volume, the

and

tings are often repeated,

it is

rule, the exact state

any

their

in

more minutely the

pungency

age

It

in

would seem, however,

and the

more

easier their passage

elastic air,

when meliorated

than

by-

to be wholesome, they must be possessed of the

whole of the fermentable


beers and ales,

when

ways be brewed from

For these reasons,

principles.

substituted for wines in

and more especially when given


entire malt

common,

to the sick, should al-

for the last extracts,

the inferior virtues of the grain, have


possessing but
so

by

which wine should be,

Both wines and beers, when

be in the human frame.

new, possess

these fret-

parts are reduced, the

will appear,

more

As

air.

impossible to determine,

order to be perfect for use.


that the

become more attenuated,

oils

capable of retaining elastic

less

71

much

less

the power to

become

light, spiritous,

by

and

transparent.

Wines never

totally

remain inactive

pome degree continues, and

in

greatly attenuated, volatilise, fly

fermentation in

time the
off,

oils,

by being

and permit a readier

admission of the external air into the drink.

In propor-

tion as this circumstance takes place, the latent acids of

the liquor

shw

in this state is
Its

last

themselves, the wine becomes sour, and

termed vinegar.

stage or termination

is,

when

the remaining

active principles, which the vinegar possessed, being eva-

porated in the

air,

a pellicle forms

E4

itself

on

the- surface

THE THEORY OF BREWING.

72

of the liquor, and dust and seeds, which always


the

in

atmosphere,

themselves

depositing

float

thereon,

strengthen this film into a crust, on which grows moss,

and many other small

plants.

These vegetables, toge-

ther with the air, exhaust the watery parts

after

no signs of fermentable principles remain


the rest of created beings,

what

is left is

Upon

all their

a substance resembling

the whole, then,

it

;.

which
like

but,

virtues being lost,

common

earth.

appears, that a liquor

fit

for

fermentation must be composed of water, acids smoothed

over with

of elastic air
in,

or saccharine salts, and a certain portion

oils,

must be

the heat of the air the liquor

lastly, that the pores are to

lest the air,

is

fermented

in proportion to the density of its oils

and

be expanded by slow degrees,

by being admitted too

hastily, should cause

an effervescence rather than a fermentation, and occasion the

whole to become sour.

mented

in countries

Wines, therefore,

where the autumn*

is

fer-

hot, require

their oils to

be more pinguious, than where the season

cooler.

For the same reason beers are best made,

is

when
first

the air

is

at forty degrees of heat, or

below the

fermentable point, because the brewer, in this case,

can put his wort to work, at a heat of

which

contrary, when,

of the medium.

own

be increased by that of the

will not

gr* ater, it will

his

by

its

air

internal motion, the heat

chusing,
;

on the

becomes

again be abated and regulated by the co!4

THE THEORY OF BREWING.


The
heat

it

pores of a wort are expanded in proportion to the


is

impressed with

on which account common

small beer, brewed in summer,

more

<73

when the

air

and acids

easily insinuate themselves into the liquor, ought

to be enriched with oils obtained

sheath these

salts

by

and in winter

hotter extracts, to

contrary method

-the

must be pursued.

From this

history of fermentation,

ety, account for the

company this

act

many

we

can, with propri-

accidents and varieties that ac-

and a comparative review of some of

them may not be unnecessary.

A cold air,
tards,

closing the pores of the liquor, always re-

and sometimes stops, fermentation

contrary, constantly forwards this act


too high, immediately prevents

A must, loaded

with

oils, will

so, will
<*

it

be more

ferment with more

becomes perfectly

fine

diffi-

it

likewise is

but,

when once

lasting.

If the quantities of oil are increased,

the

on the

it.

culty than one which abounds with acids

longer before

heat,

but, if carried

they will exceed

power both of the acids naturally contained in the

must, and of those absorbed from the air in fermenting ;


the liquor will therefore require a longer time before

becomes pellucid, unless


there

may be

cases

assisted

by

precipitation

where even precipitation cannot

it

and
fine'

it.

These considerations naturally lead us to a general

dt-

THE THEORY OF BREWING.

74-

vision of wines into three classes

soon grow

fine,

First,

of such as

and soon become acid, being the growth

of cold countries.

Secondly, of those which, by a due

proportion of heat, both

when they come

when

the grapes germinate, and

form a perfect must, and

to maturity,

not only preserve themselves, but, in due time, (more especially

when

by

precipitation,)

and, thirdly, of such

parent;
first

assisted

as,

become

trans-

having taken their

form under the highest degrees of germination,

(as I

termed them) are replete with oils, disappoint the cooper,


anc render the application of menstruums useless, un1

less in

such quantities as to change the very nature of

the wine.

This remarkable difference


arise

from the climate; and

tion before

made,

that,

in
it

wines appears chiefly to


will confirm the observa-

as wines are neither naturally

nor uniformly perfect, they must be subject to

many

diseases.

All vegetable
ciples,

though

substances possess fermentable prin-

in a diversity of proportions

for thosa

juices only, whose constituent parts approach

to the

proportion necessary for the act of fermentation, can be

made

into wines.

would

not, however,

have attributed to a difference of heat


mates, be understood, as
are

more or

general

less acid,

more or

less

if I

more

from what

in different cli-

thought that vegetables

or less sulphureous, or in

fermentable, merely from the heat

THE THEORY OF BREWING.


of the country they grow

This, though likely OB*

in.

of the principal causes of their being


the only one

so, is

by no means

the form and constitution of the plant

In very hot climates,

another.

it

as limes, tamarinds, lemons,

we

is

find acid fruits, such

and oranges; the propor-

tions of fermentable principles in these fruits are such,

as to render

though
*>f

them incapable of making sound wines,


may, in some degree, be susceptible

their juices

fermentation.

In countries greatly favored by the

sun, some vines and other


attract

the acids from the

fruit trees there are,


air,

which

and possibly from the

farth, so greedily, that,

when

their juices are fermented,

they soon become sour.

On

the contrary, in cold clir

mates,

we

see

warm

aromatic vegetables grow, as


hops,

wormwood,

horse-raddish, camomile,

ciples cannot, without difficulty,

ceptibly, be brought to ferment.

whose prin-

c.

and perhaps not per-

But these instances

must be accounted the extremes on each

sides

for in

cold, as well as in hot countries, fruits are produced

Susceptible of a perfect natural fermentation


for example, apples

some

^vith us,

species of which are endued

with such austere and aromatic qualities, that their expressed juices ferment spontaneously, until they
pellucid,

many
jects,

may

and are capable of remaining

years.

which

From hence

it

in almost

become

sound

state

appears, that proper sub-

will naturally ferment, for

be found

in a

every climate.

making wines,
England, says

THE THEORY OF BREWING,

76

Boerhaave, on
fruits are

this

is

account,

remarkably happy

her

capable of producing a great variety of wines,

equal in goodness to

many

imported, were not our tastes

but too often subservient, not to reason, but to custom

and prejudice.

A similar want of perfection


may
its

be noticed

in

to that observed in wines,

our beers and

ales,

and

it

chiefly has

origin in the different degrees of heat the malt has

been impressed with, both

drying and extracting;

in

where, in the processes of malting and brewing, a

suffi-

cient heat has not been maintained, the liquor undoubt-

edly must become acid

in proportion as the contrary

the case, or that the beer

is

overcharged with hops,

no great excess,

it

retains

this is in

dency

to fermentation than

still

to putrefaction, acids not

get the better of the disease

certain period, sicken, smell rancid,

receiving
health,

more

and improve

oils

exceed

this last

pro-

wines formed from corn, the must, instead

of fermenting,

means,

air,

to fret, and,

recover their former

in taste.

But should the quantity of


portion, in

liquors, at a

and have a disagree-

by long standing, they begin


from the

will

wines made

like to the

from the growth of too hot a sun, these

acids

if

a greater ten-

being wanting, but only enveloped. In this case, time

able taste, but,

is

would putrify, even though, by some

elastic air

has been driven into them.

case, the over proportion

of the

oil,

and

its

In this
tenacity,

THE THEORY OF BREWING.

11

the wort receives no


prevents the entrance of the acids,

enlivening principle from without, and the

conveyed

into

it,

is

enveloped with

to be incapable of action.

oils so

at first

air,

tenacious as

Nothing so much accelerates

and a stagnating air


putrefaction as heat, moisture,
and

all

substances corrupt, sooner or later, in proportion

to the inactivity of the contained air, to the

proper vent, and

want of a

to the closeness of their confinement.

Besides these cases, beers and ales, as well as wines,

sometimes are vapid and


does not so

much

arise

flat,

without being sour

from the imbibing the

this

air of the

atmosphere, as from their fermenting, generating and


casting off too

much

air

To

of their own.

prevent

this

accident, they are best preserved in cool cellars, where


their

"active

invigorating principles are

due bounds, and not suffered to


ought

to convince us of the truth,

fly

off.

kept

within

These

facts

deduced by Dr. Hales,

from many experiments, that there

is

a great plenty of

air

incorporated in the substance of vegetables, which,

by

the action of fermentation,

state,

and

is

as instrumental to

necessary to the
I

life

is

roused into an elastic

prpduce

this act, as it is

and being of animals.

should here close this short and imperfect account

but as, in the art of brewing, there

is

no part so

and at the same time so important to be

in

difficult,'

some measure

understood, as the cause and effects of fermentation

and

as the examination of this act, in all the different


lights

THE THEORY OF BREWING.

?S
in

which

it

our notice, can hardly b

offers itself to

thought uninteresting, these few detached thoughts

hope

will

be allowed

The effect of the act


attenuate the

and

oils,'

of fermentation on liquors

as to cause

oils,

which

is

them

When a

easily inflammable.

such

of.

to

become

wine

is

so to

is,

spiritous,

dispossessed of

nearly the case in vinegar, far from

possessing a heating or inebriating quality,

and becomes a remedy against intoxication.

refreshes

it

The

terra!

of fermentation ought, perhaps, only to be applied, to

which occasions the expressed juices of

that operation

vegetables to

become wine

sumed the same name,

but as several acts have as-

may

it

not be improper here to

notice the difference between them.

Vegetation, one of them,

wherein more
all

air

is

is

that has been said above,

grapes,

is

believe

concerning the juice of

a convincing proof thereof.

Fermentation

is,

where the communication of the ex-

ternal

and internal

state

when the power of

that operation of nature

attracted than repelled.

air of a

must

is

open, and in a perfect

repelling,

is

equal to that of at-

tracting, air.

Putrefaction

is

when, by the power of strong

oils,

or

Otherwise, the communication between the external and


the internal air of the must

is

cut

off,

so that the liquor

neither attracts the one nor repels the other, but,

by

THE THEORY OF BREWING


an

intestine motion, the united particles

tend to

7f

separate and

fly off.

Effervescence

is

when, by the power of attraction, the

particles of matter so hastily rush into contact, as to ge-

nerate a heat which expels the enclosed air

more

or less in proportion to the motion excited.

and

this

THE THEORY OF BREWING.

ffO

SECTION

IX.

OF ARTIFICIAL FERMENTATION.
X>Y what

has been said,

mentation

is

appears, that, though fer-

it

brought on by uniform causes, and produc-

tive of similar effects,

it is

subject to

in respect to its circumstances

difference
as

it

is

and

many

varieties,

both

One

to its perfection.

obvious, and seems to deserve our attention,

furnishes a useful division between natural and ar-

tificial

fermentation.

The

first rises

requires nothing to answer

all

spontaneously, and

the necessary purposes,

but the perfection of the juices, and the advantage of a

proper heat.

The

other, at

first

sight less perfect,

wants

the assistance of ferments, or substitutes, without which

the act could, either not at

all,

or very imperfectly,

be

excited.

There are undoubtedly

liquors, which,

though they

have of themselves a tendency to fermentation, and are


naturally brought to

it,

yet,

from some defect

in the

proportions of their constituent parts, either do not acquire a proper transparency, or cannot maintain themselves in a

sound

state for a sufficient time.

These

dis-

advantages, inbred with them, can hardly ever be entirely

removed

they gain very little, especially the

age, and therefore are

latter,

really inferior to liquors,

from

which

THE THEORY OF BREWING.

81

require the assistance of substituted ferments, to


real wines.

In

some

artificial

become

fermentations, the ferments

are so duly and properly supplied, and so intimately

blended with the liquor, that in the end they approach

very near
ral

and even vie with, the most perfect natu-

to,

Were

wines.

to enter into a

more minute

detail,

it

might be shewn, that wines, when transported from a


hot climate to a cold one, are often hurt and checked in
the progress of the repeated frettings they require

whence they become or remain imperfect,


off

from

from

unless racked

their grosseV lees, or precipitated with strong

menstruums

may be

whereas beers

so brewed, as to be

adapted either to a hot or a cold region, not only without any disadvantage, but with considerable improvements.
Hitherto

have considered grapes as a most pulpous

fruit, sufficient to furnish

for extracting

its

the quantity of water necessary

other parts

but the natives of the

countries where this fruit abounds, in order to preserve

them, as near as possible in their primitive

state, after

they are gathered, suspend them in barns, or place them


in ovens, to dry.

Thus, being

ed of their aqueous
inactive,

In

all

in great

and without juices

sufficient to

form wines.

bodies, the various proportions of their consti-

tuent parts produce different effects

more

measure divest-

parts, these grapes remain almost

or less in a durable state,

hence they remain

and tend

either to in-

THE THEORY OF BREWING.

82

action, fermentation, or putrefaction.

Now, by

a judi-

cious substitution of such parts as shall be wanting, they


are nearly, if not wholly, restored to their pristine nature,
as

may be proved by

the observations and experiments

to the

communicated

public

by Dr.

Pringle.

Thus

grapes, though dried and exported from their natural


climate to another,

the addition of water only, fer-

by

ment spontaneously, and form wines very near


such as they would have produced before.
confidence, be

said, that,

ence appears,

it

which the water

is

when any

It

alike to

may, with

considerable differ-

from the injudicious manner

arises

in

administered, from the fruit not being

duly macerated, or from want of such heat being con-

veyed to the water and

fruit, as the juices

would have

they had been expressed out of the grapes Avhen

had,

if

just

gathered

often from

the whimsical mixture of

other bodies therewith, and perhaps too from the quantity of

brandy, which

is

always put to wines abroad, to

prevent their fretting on board a-ship.

Upon

the whole ?

though, from what just now has been observed, some


small difference must take place,
contradicts the fact, that, a

be impregnated with

parts the grapes had in

rather proves than

due quantity of water being

applied to dry raisins, an extract


will

it

all

may be

formed, which

the necessary constituent

them when ripe upon the vine,

consequently will spontaneously ferment, and


vinous liquor.

Water

then, in this case,

make a

becomes a sub-

THE THEORY OF BREWING,


stitute,

and the liquors produced

accounted of the

first class

of

in this

artificial

S3

manner may be

wines.

Vegetables, in their original state, are divisible into


the pulpous and farinaceous kinds, both possessing the

same constituent
If

though

parts,

in different proportions.

from the farinaceous such parts be taken away as they

superabound

in,

defective, these

and others be added, of which they are


vegetables may,

brought to resemble,

more

in the

by such means, be

proportion of their parts,

especially in their musts, the natural wines

before been treating of

knowledged

have

and these being universally ac-

to be the standard of wines, the nearer

any

fermented liquor approaches thereto, by

its

lightness,

transparency, and taste, the greater must

its

perfection

be.

To

enquire which of the pulpous or which of the fa-

rinaceous kinds of vegetables are

fittest for

the purpose

of wine-making, would here be an unnecessary


digression.

Experience, the best guide, hath, on the one side,

given the preference to the fruit of the vine, and on the


other to barley.

having
grape,

all
is

To make a

the properties

vinous liquor from barley,

of that produced from the

a task, which can only be compassed

by ren-

dering the wort of these, similar to the must of the


other.

As malt

liquors require the addition of other substi-

tutes, besides water, to

become

perfect wines, they can

THE THEORY OF BREWING.

84

only be ranked in the second class of

These

tion.

fermenta-

artificial

substitutes are properly called ferments,

and merit the brewer's

closest attention.

Ferments, in general, such as yeast, flowers or lees of


wine, honey, the expressed juices of ripe fruits, are subjects

more

or less replete with elastic air, and convey

the same to musts, which stand in need thereof.

Boer-

haave has ranged these, and several others, in different


according to their different powers, or rather in

classes,

proportion to the quantity of air they contain for this


purpose.

The juice

of the grape,

when fermented, forms more

lees than the extracts of malt.

May we

infer that, in the fruit, the elastic air

dant, and contained in a greater

though smaller, vesicles, than

it is

is

not,

from thence,

both more abun-

number of

in the

malt

stronger,

The bar-

ley, being first saturated with water, germinated only,

and then dried with a heat


ripened
air in

it,

exceeding that which

far

or that which fermentation admits of, has

part driven out.

the worts of beers and ales

long boiling they undergo.


placing the lost elastic

air,

may become fermentable.

The

expulsion

is still

of air

farther effected

Hence

its

from

by the

the necessity of re-

in order that these extracts

This

is

effected

by means of

the yeast, which, consisting of a collection of small bubbles, rilled with air,

and ready to burst by a

sufficient

THE THEORY OF BREWING.


becomes the ferment, which

heat,

85

facilitates the

change

of the wort into a vinous liquor.

The musts

of rnalt generally produce two gallons of

of the grain, whereas, in the


yeast from eight bushels
coldest fermentable weather, and for the speediest purpose, one gallon of yeast

Much

ty of malt.

wine from corn,


over

is

sufficient to

elastic air still

is,

this quanti-

after the first part of the fermentation

for the liquor, separated

tioned,

work

remains in beer, or
is

from the yeast above men-

at the time of this separation, neither flat,

vapid, nor sour; but as yeast, the lees and flowers of

malt liquors are of a weaker texture than those of grapes,


all artificial

fermentations should be carried on in the

coolest and slowest

more

especially

brown

much

manner

possible:

and beers, but

such as are brewed from high-dried,

malts, (the heat of

whose extracts approaches

nearer to that which dried the grain, than

is

the

case in brewing pale malt) ought not to be racked from


their lees, as

it is

frequently practised for 'natural wines,

unless, on account of some defect, they are to be blended

with fresh worts under a

As

all

new

fermentation.

ferments are liable to be tainted, great care

ought to be taken

in

the choice of them, every imper-

fection in the ferment being readily

must.

It

communicated

to the

would not, therefore, be an improper question

to be determined

by physicians, whether,

sickness, the use

of those which have been

F3

in

a time of

made

in in-

THE THEORY OF BREWING.

t6

fected places ought to be permitted, and whether, at

all

times, a drink fermented in a pure and wholesome air

not preferable to that

which

is

made among

fogs,

is

smoke,

and nauseous stenches.*

Wines from corn

by two appellaAs each of these li-

are distinguished

and beer.

tions, viz. those of ale

quors have suffered in character, either from prejudice


or

want of a

sufficient enquiry,

the objections
into the

made

lightness

The most

wines

yet some, which are

though perfectly

fine,

is

rich,

we

enquire

certain sign

transparency and

more

especially ales,

have been said to be

Transparency appears indeed in

many

viscid.

viscidity

may

Where
is

th

power of the

cannot be said to be a defect

cation of the liquor,

That beers

oils

and the

denoted by the transparency of

the liquor, viscidity can only arise


this

some

therefore be consistent with some degree

are equal, which

salts

wines, before the

are attenuated to their highest perfection, and

of brightness.

proper to levy

against their use, before

means of forming them.

of the wholesomeness of

oils

may be

it

from the want of age


in,

by being used

retain igneous

but only misappli-

too soon.

or fiery particles, seems

Hales's experiments made for discovering the proportion


generated from different bodies, it appears that raisin wine, ab-

By Dr.

f air

sorbed, in fermenting^ a quantity of air equal to nearly one third

of

its

fifth.

volume

and

ale,

undor the

like circumstances,

absorbed

on.

THE THEORY OF BREWING.

Malt dried to keep, has undoubtedly

equally a mistake.
its particles

them
a

is

37

removed by

so far as the cohesion of

fire,

thereby destroyed, otherwise

it

would not be

For

tracted.

this reason,

tact with the water,

heat

is

which

when

the grain comes in con-

to resolve

is

in

be ex-

state to preserve itself sound, or readily to

fit

it,

an effervescent

generated, which adds to the extracting power, and

should be looked on by the brewer as an auxiliary help

but

it

is

ever inclose and confine the whole or part of

form them.

ployed to
its

particles,

to fly

off,

Fire

is

when contained

is

in the grain, or

air

in the

so that

atmosphere,

any liquor whatever,

has been, for some time, exposed thereto.

it

Brown beers, made from maJt more

dried than

from experience, are found to be

less

quors brewed from pale malt

any other,

heating than

which probably

from hence, that brown beers contain a


elastic air than pale beers, as pale
less

em-

body, continually tend

in a

and mix with the surrounding

can be continued

fire

of so subtile a nature, that

only an equal degree, with what

after

impossible that the malt, or the must, should

less

li-

arises

quantity of

malt liquors contain

than wines, produced from vegetables in their natu-

ral state

and as malt liquors contain their

bubbles of a weaker consistence than those


the juices of the grape, the effect of beer,

an over-abundant quantity,

is

elastic air in

made from

when taken

in

neither of so long a con-

tinuance, nor so powerful as that of wine, supposing the

F4

THE THEORY OF BREWING.

88

quality and quantity of each to be equal.

pear to
is

some persons

to

be the

but a justice due to the produce of

add, that some physicians have given


that strong drinks

from malt are

those produced from grapes.

have,

hope

may

guilty of assuming too

may

ap-

As

it

less

my

it

country, to

as their opinion,

pernicious than

far as these

gentlemen

advance, without being thought

much, or countenancing debauch,

by pointing out the wines


orders.

This

effect of prejudice, yet

that occasion the fewest dis-

THE THEORY OF BREWING.

SECTION

89

X.

OF THE NATURE OF BARLEY.


ii\.'f

.fi'iOtl'",; "&>.'.>

is

<J

IflfTJ: llitf.

{;.'

.^j.:-r?'

-/U .T>7 AV J

ventricose

oblong,

spicated,

'

?'

seed,

pointed at each end, and marked Avith a longitudinal

The

furrow.

Dr. Grew,

plants, says
like those
vessels,

essential constitution of the parts, in all

which have

is

the same
is

lobes,

thus this seed,

furnished with radical

which, having a correspondence with the whole

body of the corn, are always ready, when moistened,


to ad minster support to the

called the acrospire.

plume of the embryo, usually

These

ceive their nourishment from

radical vessels, at

^ great number

first,

re-

of glandules

dispersed almost every where in the grain, whose pulpous


parts strain and refine this food, so as to

the capillary tubes

made

fit

it

to enter

and such an abundant provision

is

for the nourishment of the infant plant, that the

same author

says, these glandules take

up more than

nine tenths of the seed.

Barley

is

sown about March, sooner or

ing to the season or


rally

soil that is

to receive

later,
it,

Beard-

and gene-

housed from ten to twenty weeks after. Most plants,

which so

hastily

perform the

office of vegetation, are re-

markable for having their vessels proportionably larger

and that these may be thus formed, the seed must con-

THE THEORY OF BREWING.

90

tain a greater quantity of tenacious oils, in proportion to

those seeds, whose vessels being smaller, require

more

time to perform their growth and come to maturity.

This grain, as

may be

observed, grows and ripens with

the lower degrees of natural heat

from the largeness of the

from whence, and

size of its absorbent vessels,

must receive a great portion of acid parts.


be

viscid,

it

is

it

said to

though, at the same time, a great cooler, wa-

ter boiled with

ever

It

being often drank as such

it

be prepared,

it

and, how-

never heats the body when un-

fermented.

From

these circumstances, of

plete with acids,

it

would

its

being viscous and re-

at first appear to be a

unfit vegetable,

from which vinous

kept, should be

made; and, indeed, the

it,

in its original state, are not only

become

seem to be

grain

is

at full maturity,

its

differently disposed than

vegetation.

By

put in action

germination alone

constituent parts

when

all its

oils,

If,

in this state, the corn

situation, that,

by

is

and the purest

placed in such a

heat, the acid and watery parts

be evaporated, the more such heat


the

a state of

leaving the glandules

finer vessels replete with water, salts,

sulphur.

in

principles are

the fibrous parts possess themselves of a

great quantity of tenacious

it,

extracts from

clammy, but soon

sour.

When the

and

most

liquors, to be long

more dry, and

less acid,
1

is

may

suffered to affect

will the

corn become

THE THEORY OF BREWING.


parts will be divided

its

its

removed

viscidity

91

its taste

becomes saccharine, by the acids being sheathed or covered over with

oils

and these

be rendered more te-

last

nacious in proportion to the greater quantity of heat

they are

made

ried on,

is

to endure.

This process, regularly car-

termed malting, and

plained more

But, before

we

enter thereon,

sider the state of the grain as

When mowed,
to

will hereafter

be ex-

at large.

it

it is

necessary to cen-

comes from the

though, upon the whole,

it

field.

may be

said

be ripe, yet every individual part, or every corn,

cannot be

so.

In some seasons,

this inequality is so re-

markable, as to be distinguished
ference in the situation, the

by the eye.

soil,

The

changes of the winds, the shelter some parts of the

have had from such winds, are


this,

it is

sufficient to

When

and a much greater variety.

part of the corn

is

field

account for
the

greater

supposed to have come to maturity,

cut and stacked

the ripest parts having the least

moisture, and the fewest


in both.

dif-

and the weather, ths

acids, as the greenest

abound

In this state the unripe grains of the corn com-

municate, to such as are more dry, their moisture and


acid parts, which,
agitation ensues,

the

coming in contact with

more

power of the acids and water

and from hence

nerated a heat, the degree whereof


termined.

their oils,

an

or less gentle, in proportion to

is

is

ge^

with difficulty de-

THE THEORY OF BREWING.

92

When

sweating in the

this

mow

kept within

is

per limits, the whole heap of the corn, after


nal emotion

and

is

over,

this

pro-

inter-

becomes of one equable dryness,

not discoloured

is

its

but

if

the grain be put together

too wet or too green, the effervescence occasioned there-

by

produce such a violent intestine heat, as to charr

will

and blacken the greatest part thereof, nay often make


it

burst into actual flame.

The

effect

the corn,
parts of

is

its

that of driving the oils towards the external


vessels

more capable
weather.
it

which a moderate and gentle heat has on

and skin

this

by

means,

it

becomes

to preserve itself against the injuries of the

The more

it is

in this state, the

be to germinate, when used to

this act is carried too far,

this

backwarder will

purpose

somewhat

or to

like

and

if

what we

have just now mentioned, the plume and root of the enclosed

embryo must be scorched, the corn become

and incapable of vegetation.

ert,

duced by a motion

sufficient to

This

effect is

remove the

in-

pro-

particles of

the grain from each other beyond their sphere of attraction

and the heat, by which

been found,

in

It is likely,

ferent textures.

tioned may,

motion

is

excited, has

that vegetables, in general, are susceptible

of a large latitude in

the seeds of

this

malted corn, to be at about 120 degrees.

this respect,

The degree

according to their

of heat just

dif-

now men-

perhaps, be applicable to barley alone

some grapes endure

26 degreees of heat,

THE THEORY OF BREWING.

93

and may be capable of being impressed with more, and


But, with corn,

yet vegetate.

if their oils

have endured

so great a heat, as thereby to be discolored, the seed

can by no means be revived.

The

color of the grain

properly indicates the' healthy state of the embryo, or


future plant

but

this,

more immediately,

is

the business

of the farmer and maltster, than that of the brewer.

Thus, though

it

ster to steep grain


as, for

want of

so barley, that
fit

may be

this, it will
is

disadvantageous to the malt-

which has not sweated

over-heated, or

for his purpose.

in the

mow,

not equally imbibe the water

mow

It is, in fact,

burnt, cannot be

scarcely possible that

any large quantity of barley, from the same stack, should

make

equally perfect malt, as, on

the heat generated


rick,
parts.

is

its

being put together,

always greatest in the centre of the

and considerably more there than

in its

exterior

THE THEORY OF BREWING.

94-

SECTION XL
OF MALTING.
THIS process

intended to furnish proper means, for

is

of the grain in motion


setting the constituent principles
so that the
ral parts,

This
it

is

oils,

may be

effected

enabled to take their proper stations.

by steeping the barley

strongly attracts moisture, as all

in water,

the heat of the air


sary, in proportion to
receive the water only,
skin,

by

and absorbent

its

where

dry bodies do ;ibut

the grain is
requires some time before
three
Two
or
therewith.*
days, more or

ward

which before served to defend the seve*

it

fully saturated
less,
;

are neces-

for vegetables

straining through the outv

vessels,

and

their pores are so

* In the northern
part of England, the usual time of steeping baris about 80 hours.

ley in the cistern

40 bushels of barley wetted

hour, will guage then in the couch 40 bushels,


is, if

drained from

20 hours,
40 hours,

40 bushels
40 bushels
40 bushels

-,

60 hours,
80 hours,

40 bushels

its

thstt

exterior moisture.

421

bushels.

45

bushels.

471

bushel..

50

bushels.

Here the barley is supposed to be fully saturated with the water; and
these 40 bushels of barley, guaged (after 80 hours wetting in the cistern) in the couch, will be 50 bushels; but
floor,

from the

effect

sioning the corn to


as

80 bushels.

lie

when again guaged on the


of the roots, and sometimes the shoots, occa-i

hollow, here the 40 bushels of barley will she\r

Vide Ramsbottom, page 113, &c.

THE THEORY OF BREWING.


very

fine, that

they require

most to a vapor, before

element to be reduced

this

it

95

can gain admittance.

al-

Heat

hath not only the property of expanding these pores, but

perhaps also that of adding to the water a power more


effectually to insinuate

By

itself.

the water gaining admittance into the corn, a great

quantity of air

expelled from

is

number of bubbles which

it,

on

arise

contact with the grain, though yet

A judgment

in.

is

appears from the


surface

much

way

to

therein.

At

this

when

in

remains there-

is

fully saturat-

any more water, from

turgidity and pulpousness, which occasions

to give

it

readily

an iron rod dropped perpendicularly


time the water

is let

to run, or

drawn

the grain taken out of the cistern, and laid in a regu-

off,

lar

its

formed that the corn

ed, so as not to be able to imbibe


its

as

heap, in height about two

counted

why

grow hot

feet.

moist vegetables,

so doth this

We have

when

before ac-

stacked together,

heap of barley.

The

heat, as-

sisted by the moisture, puts in motion the acids,

and

elastic air

remaining

in

oils,

the corn, and these not only

mollify and soften the radical vessels, but, with united

power, force the juices from the glandular parts into the
roots,

which are thereby disposed to expand themselves,

and impowered to convey nourishment to the embryo


enveloped

in the

heap, or couch,

body of the

is

grain.

The corn

however not suffered

in this

to acquire so

great a degree of heat, as to carry on germination too

THE THEORY O

96

by which not only

fast,
oils

F BREWING.

the finer but also the coarser

would be raised and entangled

malt when made become bitter and


the acrospire

being at

first

germination

but before

perceived to lengthen, the barley

is

on the

persed in beds

together, and the


tasted

ill

spread thin, gradually, as

thereby checked in

is

thrown into larger bodies ; so

is dis-

malt house, and, from

floor of the

it

dries,

its

and

progress,

as the
it

is

that, at the latter part of this

operation, which generally employs

two days, much of

the moisture

are spread, and the

is

evaporated,

its fibres

acrospire near coming through the outward skin of the

By

barley.

these signs the malster

is satisfied

that every

part of the barley has been put in motion and separated.


It is

of great consequence, in making of malt, that the

grain be dried

purpose

it is

suffered to

hours

by a very slow and gradual heat

now thrown

into a large heap,

sensibly hot, as

grow

will in

it

for this

and there

about 20 or 30

thus prepared for drying, in this lively and active

condition,

spread on the kiln

it is

where, meeting with

a heat superior to that requisite for vegetation,

ther growth

is

stopped

the gentleness of the

none of the
01 torn,

though,

first fire it

finer vessels are,

but,

by

in all probability,

ought
this

to

inactive,

hours

it

to,

sudden change, rent


its

parts re-

and put in a preservative

Often, to a fault, the drying of a kiln of malt


in 6 or 8

from

be exposed

by drying, only the cohesion of

moved, rendered

its far-

is

state.

performed

would be to the advantage of the grain

THE THEORY OF BREWING.


more than double

that

intent whatever.

which

oils,

It

this

may

97

time was employed for any

here be observed, that those

part form the roots, being with

in

them

pushed out from the body of the corn, and dried by heat,
are lost to any future wort, not being soluble in water

which

is

likewise true of those oils which are contained

in the shoot or

plume

malt has remaining in

so that the internal part of the


it

a greater proportion of

salts*

to

more

the oils than before, -consequently are less viscid,


saccharine, and easier to be extracted.

Jn

this process, the acid


parts

of the grain, though

they are the most ponderous, yet being very attractive


of water, become weaker, and, by the continued heat of
the kiln, are volatilized and evaporated with the aqueous

steam of the malt.

new

Thus, by malting, the grain acquires

properties, and these vary

dryness

in the first

weaker sun, and

it

at the different

stages qf

resembles the fruits ripened by a

in the last those

which are the growth of

the hottest climates.

When

the whiteness of the barley has not been


greatly

changed by the heat


malt, from

when

the

or kept

fire in

has been kept in,

having retained

its

the Jdln has been

up a longer

time,

it

it is

called pale

original color

u,t

made ,more vehement,

affects

both the

oils

and the

of $he grain, in proportion to the degree of the heat,

salts

and

its

it

to .the time

4ions

ji

it

has been maintained, and thus occa-

con$i4erable alteration ir

the

cqlqr.

Actual

THE THEORY OF BREWING.

98

blackness seldom
malts

is,

and ought never to be, suffered in

but in proportion to the intenseness of the

to, the nearer do they

they have been exposed

that tinge, and from the different

fire

come

brown they shew,

to
re-

ceive their several denominations.

The

condition the barley was gathered in, whether

green or ripe,
ed.

is

also clearly discernible

If gathered green,

tity

when

it is

malt-

rather loses than gains in quan-

it

for the stock of oils in unripe corn being small, the

whole

spent in germination, from whence the malt be-

is

comes of a smaller body, appears


unkindly, or hard.

come

shrivelled,

and

is

often

That, on the contrary, which hath

to full maturity, increases

by malting, and

if

pro-

the process, appears plump,


perly carried through
bright,
clean, and,

The

on being cracked, readily yields the

much

parts, so

malts,

desired

when

by

fine

mealy

the brewer.

dried to the pitch intended

by the

maker, are removed from the kiln into a heap.


heat gradually dimishes, and, from the
ties

of

air,

nous

fire, flies off,

and disperses

sooner or later, as the heap


;

is

itself in

more

Their

known properthe ambient

or less volumi-

perhaps too in some proportion to the weight of

the malt, and as the

Nor can

tenacious.

fire
it

has caused

it

to

are capable of retaining the fire in such a

to suffer

it

confined,

to get away.

much

less

be more or

be supposed that any of

So

subtile

be kept in a

its

manner

less

parts

as not

an element cannot be

state of inactivity,

and

THE THEORY OF BREWING.


imperceptible to our senses.

of a considerable
their fire,

Bars of iron, or brass, even

size, when heated red

their texture

though

99

is

hot, cool

and

undoubtedly

closer than that of malt or barley.

lose

much

The experiments

made by Dr. Martine, on the heating and cooling of several bodies, leave no room to doubt of this fact, which
I

should not be so particular about, nor in some measure

repeat, was

it

not to explain the technical phrase used by

when they say, malts are full of fire, or want


Hence a prejudice hath by some been conceived

brewers,
fire.

against drinks

made from brown

been many months

off the kiln,

malts,

and have no more heat

them, either whole or ground, than the

The

in.

truth of the matter

though they have

is,

air

in

they are kept

that, in proportion as

malts are dried, their particles are more or less separated

from one another,

coming

their cohesion

strongly attract from

The more

is

thereby broke, and,

contact with another body, such as water,

in

it

the uniting particles they want.

violent this intestine motion

is,

the greater

the heat just then generated, though not durable.


effect

somewhat

similar to

is

An

w hat happens on malt being


r

united with water, must occur on the grain being masticated

and the impression made on the palate most pro-

bably gave

rise to

the technical expression just taken no-

tice of.

The minute
will

circumstances of the process of malting

be more readily conceived from what will hereafter

G2

tHE THEORY OF BREWING.

100

be

The

said.

effects that fire will

have, at several de-

grees, on what, from having been barley,

more

malt, are

and that these

differ,

certain.

is

is

now become

particularly the concern of the brewer

both as to the color and properties,

determinate degree of heat produces, on

every body, a certain alteration, and hence, as the action


of

stronger or weaker, the effect will not be the

fire is

same

as

what

it

Barleys, at a

would have been

medium, may

in

any other degree.

be said to

lose,

by malting,

ne fourth part of their weight, including what


rated from
this

them by the

is

sepa-

roots being skreened off: but

proportion varies, according as they are more or

less

dried.

As the

acrospire,

and both the outward and inward

skins of the grain are not dissoluble in water, the glandular or

mealy substance

is

volume and weight but


:

certainly very inconsiderable in


as in this alone are contained

the fermentable principles of the grain,

it

deserves our

utmost attention.

We have before seen, that wines, beers, and


the

first

more

ales, after

fermentation, are meliorated through age

by the
and

refined and gentle agitations they undergo,

which often are not perceptible


cure this favorable

effect,

to our senses.

we must form

To

se-

worts capable

of maintaining themselves, for some time, in a sound

This quality, however,

state.

malt,

is

if

not originally in the

not to be expected in the liquor.

Some

objec-

THE THEORY OF BREWING.


tions

have been raised against

101

method of arguing,

this

and these aided by prejudices, often more powerful


than the objections themselves.
ry, as malting

maybe

therefore necessa-

It is

esteemed the foundation of all our

future success, to enquire after the best and properest

methods of succeeding

Let us, for

in this process.

this

purpose, reassume the consideration of the grain, as

comes from the mow, trace


it

every change

to the kiln,

it

when

receives the
it is

first

it

and observe

undergoes by the action of the

from the time that


vation, to that

it

fire,

degree of preser-

utterly altered

and nearly de-

stroyed.

mow, though there its utmost heat should


much exceed 100 degrees, may be extracted or

Barley in the
not

brewed without malting.


daily evinces

This the

but then the extracts,

changed corn, are immediately put


first

practice

in the

still

this

un-

after the

fermentation, else they would not long remain in a

sound

state.

Nor

is

time, as the extracts

this

method practicable

in

summer

would turn sour, before they were

sufficiently cooled to ferment.


all

distiller's

made from

the charge of the malt duty

It is
is

true,

saved

by

this

means,

but our

spirits

thereby are greatly inferior to those of the French.

Boerhaave recommends the practice of that nation, which


is

to let the wines ferment, subside,

from the

lees,

before they are

and be drawn

distilled.

Was

off fine

this rule

observed in England, distillation would be attempted only-

THE THEORY OF BREWING.

102

from malted grain, which,

if

properly extracted for

purpose, the difference in the

how

useful and necessary

it is

this-

would soon shew

spirit

to give wines (either

from

grapes or corn) time to be softened, and to gain some

degree of vinosity before they are used to

this intent.

But might not barleys be dried without being germinated

with

Undoubtedly they might

many

acids and strong

oils,

but as they abound

they woul(i require a

heat more intense than malt does, before they were sufficiently penetrated,

become

and then the oleaginous parts would

so compact, and so resinous, as nearly to ac-

quire the consistence of a varnish, scarcely to be mollified

by the

dissolved

hottest water,

by

and hardly ever to be entirely

that element.

Barley then ungerminated, either in


or

when

wines

dried,

is

not

fit

its

natural state

for the pnrpose of

making

but when, by germination, the coarser

oils

are

expelled, and the mealy parts of the grain become saccharine, might not this suffice, and where
sity of the grain

being dried by

fire

is

I shall

on the impossibility of stopping germination


period, without the assistance of

fire,

upon
it

not dwell

at a

proper

so that sufficient

quantities of the grain, thus prepared,

provided for the purposes of brewing

the neces-

may

always be

nor even

insist

the difficulty of grinding such grain, as, in this cases

would be spongy and tough.

mention solely the vmfitness of

think

this

it

sufficient to

imperfect malt, for

THE THEORY OF BREWING.


the purpose

and

to be applied to, that of forming beers

some time.

ales capable of preserving themselves for

We
still

it is

10$

should find so

acids blended with the water

many

most favorable

remaining in the grain, that, in the

seasons for brewing, they would often render

summer

deavors abortive, and, in


practicable to obtain from

our enit

im-

extracts in

any

time,

them sound

all

make

manner whatever.
I

have heard of a project of germinating grain, and

drying
der,

by

it

by the heat of the

this

sun, in

summer

time, in or-

means, to save the expence of fuel.

Though

the hottest days in


England may be thought sufficient for
this act, as well as for

making hay,

as barley

yet,

grass are not of equal densities, the effects

the same.

This, however,

is

not the only objection

as the corn, after a sufficient germination,

made

and

would not be
:

should be

inactive, this very hot season, favorable, in appear-

ance, to one part of the process, would rather forward,

than stop or retard, vegetation


heat,

for the barley,

would shoot and come forward so

fast as to

by

this

entangle

two much the constituent principles of the grain with one


another, and drive the coarser ill-tasted
finer s\veet

mealy

which alone,

parts,

oils

among

in their

the

utmost

purity, are the subject required for such as would obtain

good

drinks.

There often appears

in

mankind a strange

disposition

to -wish for the gifts of Providence, in a different

G4

'

man-

THE THEORY OF BREWING.

104

ncr than they have been allotted to us.

schemes

now mentioned,

have just

The

if I

various

mistake not,

have sprung from the desire of having beers and ales of

But

the same appearance with white wines.

as they are

naturally more yellow or brown, when brewed from

malts dried by heats equal or superior to that which con-

them such,

stitutes

such projects, by which

all

deavour to force some subjects to be of a


others, are but so

many

appointments.

commonly be attended with dis-

true, that

is

grain be dried slack, yet;

brewed

in the

en-

attempts against nature, and the

prosecution of them must


It

we

like color with

though the germinated

they are speedily used, and

if

most proper season, they may make a to-

lerable drink,

which

will preserve itself soiind for

some

time: but the proportion, which should be kept be-

tween the heat which dried the malt, and that which
extract

it,

cannot, in this case,

more

as the grain will be


acids, than

it

be truly ascertained

wanting

will

to

and,

and

ought to be, the drink, even supposing

the most fortunate success, and that

turn acid,

replete with air, water,

is

it

does not soon

be frothy, and therefore greatly

still

in salubrity

for an excess in

any of the

fer-

mentable principles must always be hurtful.


Barley then, to be made
ing,

must be malted

that

fit

is,

for the

it

purpose of brew-

must be made to sprout

or germinate with degrees of heat nearly equal to those

which the seed should be impressed with when sown in

THE THEORY OF BREWING.


the ground

and

it

must be dried with a heat superior

to that of vegetation,

and capable of checking

seen

How

it.

we have

germination should be carried on,

far

105

already

the law seems to be fixed universally, as to the

extent of the acrospire

the degree of dryness admits of

a larger latitude, the limits of which

shall

be the sub-

ject of our next enquiry.

Malt dried in so low a degree, as that the vegetative


is

power

not entirely destroyed, on laying together in a

heap, will generate a considerable degree of heat, ger-

minate afresh, and send forth

The

quite green.

its

ciples are then within each other's


this

plume or acrospire

ultimate parts of the nourishing prin-

power of acting,

regermination could not take place

cannot be said to be malted, or in a preservative


Bodies, whose

particles are removed,

their sphere of attraction, can

coming

The grain we

they effervesce.

shews

are

of effervescence,

this act

by

heat,

but,

malt with water,

now speaking

when

state.

beyond

no more germinate

in contact with other bodies, as

else

and such grain

of

first

has been tho-

it

roughly impressed with a heat of 120 degrees, and a


little

th-2

before

its

yellow.

manner

to

be able

in this state,
as

much

color,

air,

their present

from a white, begins to incline to

Such are the malts, which are cured

and

to maintain themselves sound,

in a

though

at this degree of dryness, they possess

and

as

many acid and watery

denomination can admit

of.

particles, as

This there-

THE THEORY OF BREWING.

106

fore

may be termed

ing

this grain for malt.

To

the

first

or lowest degree of dry-

discover the last or greatest degree of heat

ca-

it is

pable of enduring, the circumstance to guide us to


equally true,

though

is

cence, which helped us to the

wholly deprives the grain of

its

of that heat, which

principal virtues.

Dr.

observes, alcohol is one of the most essential parts

of wine

when

when properly

absent,
diffused,

the wine loses


it is

diseases incident to wines,


free

We must therefore

first.

have recourse to the observation

Shaw

it,

not so near at hand as efferves-

from corruption

its

nature, and,

a certain remedy for most

and keeps them sound

aitd

from whence was derived the me-

thod of preserving vegetable and animal substances.

The same

that no subjects but those of the vegetable

found
a

to

produce

new body,

did

it

table

this

though

I have for

riments,

preserving

Is

spirit.

kingdom are

alcohol, then,

created by fermentation and distillation

originally,

excellent author had before this observed,

or

latently, reside in the vege-

a good while been

says Boerhaavey that

all

satisfied,

by cxpe*

other inflammable

bodies are so only as they contain alcohol in them, or, at


least,

something that, on account of

ceedingly like

it

its

fineness,

is

ex-

the grosser parts thereof, that are left

behind, after a separation of this subtile one, being no

longer combustible.

THE THEORY OF BREWING.


Now,

as the

107

same author has clearly proved*

by burning combustible

bodies, as well as

that fire,

by

distilling

them, separates their different inflammable principles,


according to their various degrees of subtilty, the alcohol
residing in the barley,

when exposed

of heat as would cause

to boil,

make
it

it

e.

to such a degree

175 degrees, must

great efforts to disengage itself from the grain.

not, thefefore, natural to conclude, that, in a

whose parts

like malt,

have!

one another, (from whence

by

i.

fire,)

Is

body

been made to recede from

it is

porous, and easily affected

prepared for fermentation, or the

making a

vinous liquor, this event will probably happen at the same

time when the .body of the grain has been ultimately


divided

may

by

fire,

or that malt charrs

not charring be termed the

when, even somewhat before


parts

and

finest oils,

fermentable must,

timately divided

with
off.

by

and

13.

degree of dryness,

takes place, the acid

crisis in solid

fire,

for

forming a

bodies,

somewhat

both being thereby per-

their volatile

and

spiritous

In charring, the subject being ulfire,

the constituent principles are

* Boerhaave Elem. of Chym.


10, 11, 12,

if this is true,

and cannot be recovered.

fly off,

analogous to ebullition in fluids

parts tend to fly

it

and

which are necessary

Charring seems to be a

fectly saturated

last

Vol.

I.

p.

195-199.

Exp.

8,

9,

THE THEORY OF BREWING.

108

set at liberty,

and escape

in the

atmosphere, in propor-

tion to their several degrees of subtilty,

W;hjch urged them.

and

and to the

fife

In boiling they are equally divided,

incline to disperse

but, even the

more

volatile,

medium much denser

being surrounded with water, a

than themselves, they are caught up therein, and, by


the violent motion caused in boiling, entangled with

and with other parts

it

cated or divided therefrom except


,tation.

Now,

it,

contains, so as not to be extri-

by the

act of fermen-

as liquors boil with a greater or less fire

in proportion to their tenacity

likewise be charred

may
The whole body

and gravity,

solid bodies

by various proportions of

of the barley, as

its

heat.

different parts are

of different texture, cannot, at the same instant, become


black, nor, where any quantity of the grain
similar circumstances, if not

is

under

equally germinated, can

the whole charr with the same degree.

To

the several reflections, before made,

thought pro-

per to add the surer help of experience.

made
of.

the following

trial,

If the effects of

two Jimited and

it

with

all

I
I

therefore

was capable

appear satisfactory, by gaining

we may determine and

distant degrees,

fix the properties

the care

of the intermediate spaces, in propor-

tion to their expansion.

In an earthen pan, of about

three inches deep,

equally grown, as

filled

put as
it

two

much
on a

feet diameter,

and

of the palest malt, un-

level to the brim.

This

THE THEORY OF BREWING.

109

I placed over a little charcoal, lighted in a small stove,

and kept continually

At
hour

first it

after.

stirring

did not feel so

from bottom to top.

it

as it did

damp

In about an hour more,

it

about half an

began

to look of

a bright orange color on the outside, and appeared more

Every one

swelled than before.

is

sensible that a long-

continued custom makes us sufficient judges of colors,

and
I

this sense in

a brewer

is

sufficiently exercised.

Then

masticated some of the grain, and found them to be

nearly such as are termed

brown

malts.

On

and making a heap of them, towards the middle,


therein, at
ter

it

rose to 140 degrees

had but

At

about half depth, the bulb of

little

my

stirring,
I

placed

thermome-

the malt felt very

damp, and

smell.

165 degrees, I examined

before, and could perceive no

it

in the

damp

same manner

as

the malt was very

brown, and on being chewed, some few black specks ap.peared.

Many

corns, nearest the bottom,

black, and burnt

and

it

placed

rose to 175 degrees

my
:

were now become

thermometer nearly there,

but, as the particles of fire,

ascending from the stove, act on the thermometer, in


proportion to the distance of the situation

it is

placed

through the whole experiment an abatement of


grees should be allowed, as near as
Putting, a
tion,

little after,

my

thermometer

in,

five de-

could estimate.
in the

where about half the corns were black,

same
it

posi-

shewed

HO

THE THEORY OF BREWING.

180 degrees.

now judged

was nearly

that the water

evaporated, and observed the heap grew black apace.

Again, in the centre of the heap, raised in the middle


of the pan,

found the thermometer

at

180 degrees; the

corn tasted burnt, the surface appeared, about one half


part a full brown, and the rest black.
cated,

still

On being

some white specks appeared, which

masti-

ob-

served to proceed from those barley-corns which had not

been thoroughly germinated, and whose parts cohering

more

closely together, the fire, at this degree, had not

penetrated.
as

it

my

The thermometer was now more

was nearer

all

opinion,

their taste

to, or farther

was

from, the bottom

the true-made malt

insipid,

they were

various,
;

and, in

was charred,

brittle,

and

for

their skins

parting from the kernel.


I,

nevertheless, continued the experiment, and, at 190

degrees,

grain

found some white specks on chewing the

still

the acrospire always appearing of a deeper black,

or brown, than the outward skin


ture, fried at the
I still

the corn, at this junc-

bottom of the pan.

increased the

in the middle,

fire

and the thermometer, placed

between the bottom of the pan, and

upper edge of the corn, shewed 210 degrees.


hissed, fried,

and smoked abundantly.

The

the.

malt

Though, during

the whole process, the grain had been kept stirring, yet,

on examination, the whole was not equally


the

fire,

affected

by

great part thereof was reduced to perfect


3

THE THEORY OF BREWING

ill

the fingers,
cinders, easily crumbling to dust between

some of a very black hue, without


black, with

two

oil

Upon

less so, as the grains

discovered by the length of the shoot


lost their cohesion,

rest

were

This was ea-

hard, steely, or imperfectly germinated.

grains seemed to have

the whole,

were perfectly black, and the

thirds of the corn

of a deep brown, but more or

sily

some very

gloss,

shining on the outside.

most of the

and had a

taste

resembling that of high-roasted coffee.


In the last stage of charring the malt,

placed over

it

a wine glass inverted, into which arose a pinguious oily


matter, and tasted very

salt.

It

may, perhaps, not be

unnecessary to say, that the length of time this experi-

ment took up, was four hours, and

that the effect

both on myself, and on the person

was such

Though, from

we

this

had,

experiment, the degree of heat at

is

not fixed with the utmost, preci-

see that black specks appeared,

thermometer was

at 165 degrees

causes a deficiency of color,

when the

some of the corns were

entirely black at 175, others at 180.


fire

it

attended me,

as greatly resembled that of inebriation.

which malt charrs,


sion, yet

who

it

In proportion as

must occasion a want

of fermentable properties, the whole of which are certainly dispersed,

black.

when

the grain becomes of an absolute

Thus we may conclude, with an

sufficient for the

exactness surely

purposes of brewing, that true germi-

nated malts are charred in heats, at about 175


degrees:

1J2

THE THEORY OF BREWING.

as these correspond to the heat at

the finest spirit of the grain

which pure alcohol, or

itself, boils,

wholly to extricate itself

quire this heat,

tenacious parts of the corn

it

seems to re-

from the more

which, when deprived of this

etherial enlivening principle, remains inert, incapable of

forming a fermentable must or wort, and indicates to us,


that the constituent parts of vegetables

by

heats, equal to those

formed them, and the


their properties

between the
last,

may be

first

resolved

degree which

which ultimately destroys

though the extracts will possess differ-

ent qualities or virtues, according to the determinate


heat which

is

applied.

THE THEORY OF BREWING.


'

\iU

~'i

-'

113

SECTION

XII.

OF THE DIFFERENT PROPERTIES OF MALT,


.

AND OF THE NUMBER OF


'

'.

*..':

-'

i'.J

'

FERMENTABLE PARTS.

ITS

'

m HE consequences
J.

resulting

from the before-mentioned

experiment have already been hinted


cessary to trace

them

and

farther,

But

at.

to

it

is

ne-

shew how much

they tend to the information and use of the brewer.

Germinated barleys, so
cles

little

dried, as that their parti-

remain within their sphere of attraction, are not in a

and therefore cannot properly be

preservative state,

termed malts.

The

first

degree of dryness, which constitutes them

such, as

we have

them

cause some

to

seen before,

effected,

when they

of heat

the highest that leaves

by a

fire

is

that

effervescence.

which occasions
This cannot be

are dried with less than 120 degrees

them white.

When urged

of 115 degrees, they are charred, black, and to-

tally void of fermentable principles.

Now this

difference

of heat, being 55 degrees, and producing in the grain so


great an alteration, as from white to black, the different

shades or colors, belonging to the intermediate degrees,


cannot, with a

little

practice,

White, we know, from

be

easily mistaken.

Sir Isaac

Newton's experi-

THE THEORY OF BREWING.

114

ments,

a composition of

is

all colors,

The

extremes of the dryness of malt.

medium

heat impresses upon

compounded

as black

red and black.

The

it,

may be

is

color,

which the

brown, which, being

said to

be white, yellow,

following table, constructed on

these principles, will, on

chewing the grain, readily

form the practitioner of the degree to which


have been dried.

It is

true

ther the increase of heat

some doubts have

is

by

is

arisen,

this

brewery.

whe-

equal divisions (according

marked on thermometers) or whether the

fire

on bodies

(as

undetermined

but

if

every experiment shews)

exactly corresponding to the expansion

of,

in-

his malts

degrees should not rather be in proportional parts


the effect of

owing

of yellow and red, the four tinges which

shade malt differently,

to the scales

is

These two terms indicate the

to the absence of them.

question in

it is

no wise

the cause

affects

the

THE THEORY OF BREWING.

115

A TABLE

of the different Degrees of the


Dryness of Malt, with the Changes of Co-

lor occasioned by each Increase of the

De-

grees.

Degrees.

119

White

124

W. W.

White

White turning

Yellow

to a

light Yellow.

143

W. W. Y. Y
W. W. Y. Y. Red,
W. W. Y. Y. R. R
W. Y. Y. R. R

148

Y. Y. R. R.

Brown.

152

Y. R. R.

High brown.
Brown inclining

129

134

138

157

......

Y. R. R. Black,

Yellow.

High

yellow.

Amber.
Light brown.

to

black.

162

Y. R. R. B.

167

R. R. B.

High brown, speckled with black.

Half brown,

half

black.

171

R. B. B:

Coffee color.

176

Black,

Black.

N. B. The
prehended,

several letters against each degree,

will help in practice to fix the color.

it is

ap-

THE THEORY OF BREWING.

The foregoing table not


dryness of the malt by

composed of

its

small error

color, but also,

may

practice of brewing,

senses

but as malt occupies

its

said to

its

dryness,

if,

dif-

in the

upon mixing the water with the

malt, the expected degree

may be

Some

together by extraction.

ferent volumes, in proportion to

gard to

grist is

possibly occur in judgments thus formed

upon the report of our

malt

when a

several sorts of malt, to foresee the effect of

when blended

the whole

only enables us to judge of the

is

observed, such parcel of

have been judged of rightly, in re-

So that the first trial either confirms

dryness.

or corrects our opinion thereof.

Though

malt, dried to

tive state, yet

the whole of

peded

is it

its

20 degrees,

the least so as malt

tive: the duration of the worts to be

heat, to

then possesses

fermentable parts.

even so low dried as

not im-

formed from grain

oils

and retard the hasty

to

of such coneffects of the

By

extraction, then, malted grain,

this,

may, with very hot waters, and

with the farther assistance of hops, be


for years will

made

to

produce

be capable of maintaining

themselves sound, or for a long time to


the hottest climates.

if

depend on the power given

draw from the malt,

sistence as shall sheath

beers, which

in a preserva-

would be very speedy and ac-

so low dried, must entirely

by

it

fermentable principles, which,

in the extraction,

the water

is

They may

also,

resist

by a

the effects of
less

heat be-

ing given to the extracting water, and blended with less

THE THEORY OF BREWING.


hops, form drinks, which shall be

we

for use iu so short a

fit

time as a week, and perhaps a term

117

much

shorter

hence

see the degree of heat which dried the malt, and the

degree of heat given to the water to extract

mean of

these

The

it.

numbers (making an allowance

for the

which

directs us to fix the

properties and duration of the wort.

In one sense, then,

quantity of hops used )

we may
as

consider malt, so low dried as this, as being such

would

liquor,

in the shortest time furnish us with a

becomes black,

its

When

it

to that

fit

to

and

malt charrs,

ultimately divided

parts are

lost the principles

and which
prior

fermented

and in another, such as would yield the most deand strongest drink.

licate

has

that

is

form a fermentable wort,

The degree

once possessed.

which produces

this effect,

is

of

heat,

the

which

still

ties.

In worts from malt thus highly impressed

fi

re,

retains

last

any part of the fermentable proper-

by

fermentation would proceed with so slow and

luctant
said to

a pace,

it

in

that,

be in the utmost

this case,

they might be

state of preservation.

can be fixed for their duration.

.re-

No

term

liquor of this sort,

brewed with the

greatest heat

jextracting water,

might keep many years, and become

rather

accommodated

was deposited

it

would admit

of, in the

to the temperature of the


place

in, than to

its

own

constituent parts.

it

Ex-

perience has shewn, that drinks, impressed by the drying

and extracting heat, with a medium of 148


degrees,.

THE THEORY OF BREWING.

118

with a proper addition of hops, at the end of eighteen

months, have been found sound, and in a drinkable


state

and

From

at this

we

find the
middling

brown.

principles, the

is

formed, exhibiting the length of time

made from

malt, impressed with each respective

following table
drinks

degree

two extremes, and on these

these

degree of heat, properly brewed,

in the

season, will require, before they

come

most favourable
to their

due per-

fection to be used.

Equally as with hot extracting waters, 4ow dried pale

may be made

malt

nue

in

to yield beers

a sound state

cooler and low extracting water,

a wort soon
inelegant.

time,

is

for use,

fit

It

will long conti-

though

may

less

upon by

be made to furnish

agreeable and more-

might here be asked, why, then,

malt dried with heats exceeding

In answer to this,

very

which

so high dried malt, acted

it

might justly be

difficult for the malster

said,

at

any

20 degrees
it

would be

exactly to hit this point of

drying, without deviating from

it

either on the one side

or on the other; and suppose this difficulty removed,


still

he could not be certain every individual grain was

equally affected
the malt,

if

the drying was less than

20 degrees,

by receiving the moist impressions of the

would regerminate, and be

spoiled.

air,

Before the use of

hops, malt was high dried, as a means to keep the extracts sound.

To

eradicate an ancient custom or preju-

dice requires a long time.

This, and the conveniency of

THE THEORY OF BREWING.


keeping malts, was the reason why, for

was

in general dried to excess

has been losing

time past

present subsists,

why

many

119

years,

it

an error which for some

ground, as no reason at

malts should exceed in color a

light amber.

A TABLE,

shewing the age beers will require,

when brewed from malts,


and
which,
extracting, have been
drying
impressd with a medium heat corresponding
before being used,
in

to the following degrees.


Longest time with
12 Ib. of hops.

Shortest time with


12 Ib. of hops.

Degrees.

Shortest time with the


fewest quantity of

hops possible.

119

Weeks

124

Month

....

Months

...

129

Months

...

Months

...

4 Months

...

Months

...

134
138

...

6* Months... 12 Months

When

the

medium heat of

..

-^

Brewed
in the

f proper

season

/"2

Weeks

j 4 Weeks
J 6

Weeks

^6 Weeks

the dryness of the malt, and of the

heat of the extracts, are so high as to reqtyre the liquors to be forced

H4

THE THEORY OF BREWING.

!<!>

It

must be observed, that the foregoing table

is

con-

structed on the supposition, that these different sorts of

malt are brewed, fermented with the utmost care, with


waters heated to extract

in

it,

proportion to the dryness

of the grain, and to intent of time there set down, and

with an adequate addition of hops


shall

by

be considered in

its

an ingredient which

What

proper place.

is

meant

the water being heated to extract malt in proportion

to the
dryness of the grain,

may merit some explanation.

Grapes, when ripe, carry with them the water they

have received, both during their growing


of their maturity.

This quantity

To

their musts with.

it is

state,

lost

and

tative principles a

artificial fire, to

for the

is

same

give to their fermen-

due proportion, so what they produce

themselves, or cold water applied to them,


sufficient

form

requisite in regard to malt: but as grapes

stand in no need of

and that

sufficient to

dried grapes or raisins, water

added, to supply what they have


reason

is

But

menstruum.

when

dry,

is

barleys, wanting the assist-

ance of a great heat to bring their parts to the necessary


proportion, require,

when

greater heat to resolve

ment shews, the

malt, a similar or rather a

them

without which,

flour of the grain

or precipitated, in order to

become

experi-

would come away un-

pellucid, part of the oils

which

supported them sound, being carried down by the precipitant, they


will be less capable of
preserving themselves, after having been precipitated, th,an they

were before.

THE THEORY OF BREWING.


dissolved,

121

and thus considerably impoverish the

grist.

Should, on the other hand, too great a heat be applied,

an equal

loss

would be sustained, from some of the

finer

parts being coagulated or blended with oils, tenacious

beyond the power of fermentation

to exhibit them.

The

proportioning therefore the heat of the water to the dryness of the malt,

more

the whole strength

especially to obtain

it is

cause the drink to preserve


is

from the grain

capable of yielding, as well as to


itself

sound

its

intended time,

of real necessity.

Well-brewed drinks should not only preserve themselves

sound their due space,

by time they should


;

in order to

be meliorated

likewise be fine and transparent,

These circumstances prove the

artist's skill

well as the salubrity of the drink

and care, as

and are the surest

signs of a well-formed must, and of a perfect fermentation.

If then the rules for obtaining these

ends can be

deduced from the foregoing principles and experiments,

we may
will

flatter ourselves

with possessing a theory, which

answer our expectations

According

in practice.

to the laws of nature discovered

by

Sir Isaac

Newton, the spaces between the parts of opaque bodies


are filled with

mediums of

different densities,

and the

discontinuity of parts, each in themselves transparent,


the principal cause of their opacity.

infused in an improper

medium,

Salts in

is

powder, or

will intercept the light

gums make a muddy compound, when joined

to spirits

THE THEORY OF BREWING.

122

and

unassisted

oils,

by

salts,

refuse to be incorporated

with water. Musts, therefore, whose constituent parts are

not capable of being dissolved by water into one homo-

geneous body, are not

either for a perfect fermenta-

fit,

tion, or a pellucid drink.

Length of time, which improves beers and wines, often


rectifies

our errors in this respect

various frettings,

mixed, the liquor


itself pellucid.

the error

upon

for the oils being,

by

more attenuated, and more intimately


is

Yet

frequently restored, and becomes of


I

never found

this to

succeed, Avhere

the whole of the dryness of the malt, and

the heat of the extracts, exceeded the

medium by

10

degrees.

to

also, in

remedy

this defect.

suffered to stand,
in

some measure, concurred with nature

Art has

a repelling

till

When

they are rather in an attracting than

when

state, that is,

frettings apparently stand

come spontaneously

beers or wines have been

fine,

still

they

their fermentations

then,

may

mixing with them a more ponderous

if

be precipitated, by
fluid.

occasioned the foulness, are,


particles, that

made

to subside to the bottom,

but the power of dissolved

The
by

this

floating

means,

and leave a limpid wine

isinglass, the ingredient ge-

nerally used for this purpose, seldom takes effect,

the error exceeds the

and

they do not be-

medium,

as before,

when

by more than 10

degrees.

Other ingredients, indeed, have been used, which

THE THEORY OF BREWING.


carry this power near 10 degrees farther.

province to determine, whether such

doubtedly
them.

it

would be better

Beyond

if

It is

not

be salutary

my
un-

there were no occasion for

these limits, precipitation has no effect

the liquor, which cannot be fined thereby,

by

123

if

attempted,

increasing the quantity of the precipitants, will be

overpowered by the menstruum, and injured

How frequent this last


no purpose

in this place to enquire.

ful ingredients,

solid

practice,

would answer

The

use of doubt-

and such errors as have been mentioned,

need no longer blemish the

happy

in its taste.

is,

case of cloudiness

will

art,

be both the

when a

effect

constant and

and the proof of a

and experimental theory.

Beers which become bright of themselves, or by time


alone, as well as those precipitated either
isinglass, or

by more powerful means, each

by

possess their

respective properties in a certain latitude or

degrees

and as these

effects arise

employed in drying the malts, and

dissolved

number of

wholly from the heats

in

forming the extracts,

the following table will be of use to point out the limits,


within which each drink

may be

obtained.

THE THEORY OF BREWING.

124

A TABLE,

shewing the tendency beers have t&

become Jine, when the malt, in drying and extracting, has been impressed with heats, the

medium of which answers


degrees, supposed to

to

the following

be brewed

and kept

in

the most eligible manner.

Deg.
119 White,

124 Inclining to yellow,


129 Yellow,

>Immedjately.
2 Months.

:....

Latitude

f nne

spontaneously.

134 High yellow,

4 Months.

138 Amber,

6 Months.

-\ T
J

143 Light brown,

8 Months.

148 Brown,

10 Months.

12 Months

<

..

152 High brown,


157

*"?>

| 14 Months.

of

musts which

.._)

;.
Latitude

of

musts which
b P re -

fine

3f

cipitation.

of

^itude
heats which

cannot form
musts, so as
f

167 Half brown half black


171 Coffee color,

176 Black,

The

difference

..

18 Months.

wholesome

(20 Months.

between the heat

for

answer

the
intent
of becoming

..^

to

beer.

forming grapes,

and the greatest heat which ripened them, affords to us


the

number of degrees answerable

to their constituent

parts: the investigation of barley, in like manner, though

THE THEORY OF BREWING.


less

istf

important to our purpose, yet may, with some pro-

priety,

be admitted.

Upon examination it
the new grain begins to
its

'

be found, barley

will

forjn (being

still

and

ears,

in possession

of

flower) about the same time with us as grapes do, in

June

when we found

the

mean heat of

the air in the

shade to be 51.60 degrees.

mowed from August

Barleys in general are

tember

by the whole of our summer's


as in

page 59, we estimate

the
grees then would be

heat,

this

to Sep-

they are benefited

so that, in their growth,

and for

like reasons

61.10 degrees: 3.50 de-

number of

their constituent

of heat in the shade, and


parts, taken from the degrees

which perhaps would be different

if

the actual sun-shine

heat and what is reflected from the earth, were accounted


for.

the

Barleys are annuals, unbenefited by the whole of

autumn sun;

stacked, retaining

outward

after

but,
still

much

In these heaps they heat,

skins.

according to the condition in

and which heat


in general

bodies.

is

may

they are

more or

less,

which they were housed

reach to 120 degrees or more, but

equal, or

The

being mowed,

of their straw, leaves, and

somewhat

superior, to that of our

properties of the grain,

by

this

means im-

proved, ripen, and from hence are more capable of preserving themselves.

This might be a reason

ther allowance should be

made

to the

denoting their constituent parts

why

a far-

number of degrees

how much, by

a very

THE THEORY OF BREWING.

126

great

number of

observations,

made from

the germina-

tion, ripening, to the stacking of the barley, in

years, and

ed

in

many

many

might probably be ascertain-

cases,

but the difficulty of doing

this,

and afterwards the

the information such


impossibility of complying with
enquiries

would

and the

afford ,

little

need there

for

is

it,

as nature has allowed a considerable latitude for our de-

viating from what


sensible injury

any

may be
:

styled perfection,

without

these circumstances render such


if

enquiries unnecessary,

not

fruitless.

Vegetables, but more particularly barley, from their


first

origin to such time as they might be ultimately sepa-

rated

by fire, may be divided into

different periods, accord-

ing to the distinct properties belonging to each, (and each

of these require again a more exact enquiry.)

Barley

is

under the act of germination, so long as the acrospire or


stem

is

within the outward skin of the parent corn

excluded,

by the

it

vegetates so long as

interposition of

its

roots.

it

It

may be

said to

a state of concentration, when receiving but


support from the earth, yet
as

do not exceed what

period
heat,

it

it is

this

receives nourishment

little

be in
or

no

acted upon by such heats

might bear

in the vegetative

and in that of inaction, when, by the power of

it is

placed in a passive

state.

Now

germinated, and, by a quick transition,

is

malt

is

barley

impressed with

heats superior to those admitted in vegetation,

and such

THE THEORY OF BREWING.


as places the corn in a state of inaction.

ginning of the process of malting, the


oils,

together with some

body of the

salts,

127

In the be-

more tenacious

are excluded from the

grain, to form the vessels requisite to for-

ward the growth of the future

What

plant.

parent grain (that choice food, at

first

remains in the

necessary to the in-

fant barley) are saccharine salts, alone applicable to the

brewer's purpose, and of the nature and quantity of

To

which, he ought to be well acquainted.

retain these,

and prevent a waste thereof, the germinated corn


placed in

from whence

parts,

intent

such heat, as destroys the union between

becomes

it

When

inactive.

this

obtained by the least heat capable of effecting

is

the malt retains both

its

color,

and the whole of

its

is

its

it,

pro-

perties.

Vegetables, in no part of their growth, are ever affect-

ed by heats so great as to disperse their constituent parts

on the contrary, by natural heats,


proved.

The whole

in general

they are im-

of their elements then, must be mea-

degrees which form them, to the

sured from the

first

which procure

their highest perfection

and

last

in climates

where they are not benefited by the whole of such heat,


their properties

must be accounted only so many degrees,

as in such places are

between the extremes of

mination and maturation.

number

of constituent parts, denoted

must be

so

many

as are

their ger-

Alike with malt, their whole

by degrees of

comprehended between
1

heat,

that de-

THE THEORY OF BREWING.

12S

which leaves
elements, and the

it

malt more dried than

some of

its

in possession of the

first

being

this,

of heat which in malt divides the period

of germination from that of inaction,

be
if

19

the grain then

is

is

we have found

perfectly white, and shews

any sign of effervescence

sions therein,

to impress

it

the

first

change,

fire

to

little

occa-

with a light yellow color;

takes place at 129 degrees of heat, an alteration

this

which can proceed from no other cause, but,


original whiteness, to have expelled

its

for

perfect, and losing

less

must remain.

properties, fewer

The degree

whole of their

heat which excludes a part

mitive parts.

numbers of

The

difference then

m removing

some of

its

pri-

between these two

10, specifies, in degrees of Fahrenheit's scale,

the number of properties constituting barley, malt.


It

must be confessed

the art of brewing,

this

is

upon the uncertain report of our

senses, as perhaps our sight


this

establishing a principle of

may

deceive us in fixing

change of color exactly at 129 degrees; but

know white and

we

black to be the two extremes of the

dry ness of malt, and that the middle color between them
is

brown, which being compounded of yellow and red,

these four tinges, equally divided, as

we have done in

the

foregoing tables, will corroborate our fixing the teint of

yellow at

this degree.

beers have to

made on

become

brewing.*,

The
fine,

table

shewing the tendency

was formed from experiments

whose governing medium heats were

THE THEORY OF BREWING.

129

in point of

time given

from 134 to 148, the proportion

between immediate pelluci-

by these, justifies the division

or 129

So from hence we

degrees.

upon, yet
it

this

remains,

satisfied,

being the most exact division our senses

approaches so near to truth, that


it

be

may

absolute perfection cannot be depended

an

however

afford,

two months,

119, and that taking place at

at

dity,

can be but

trivial,

compared

if

any mistake

to the latitude

But

of errors, fermentation and time correct.

this

num-

10 degrees, denoting the quantity of fermentable

ber,
parts,

must

lessen in proportion as a continued, or a

greater heat deprives the grain of more properties.

speedy

spontaneous pellucidity

whole fermentable parts


ed either through

medium

is

the

effect

of the

malt affected by heat, convey-

air or Avater, or

through both, (so the

of these exceeds not 138 degrees,)

the acids gained to the drink

by long

if assisted

by

standing, such will

Beers, then, intendedto be formed

obtain transparency.

of themselves to

become

fine, in the calculations

discover their elements, so

many

of the

used to

members of the

constituent parts must be implied, as corresponds with

the time the beer

beers are

become

made

fine, in

is

intended to be kept

such proportion as

opacity on the drink,

we

we purpose

many

to impress"

must, in the calculations

to discover the temperature of the extracts,

so

but when

intentionally to require precipitation to

made

imply only

of the constituent parts, as correspond to the


I

THE THEORY OF BREWING.

130

medium

heat which will occasion this foulness.

These

few observations shew the necessity of establishing


fundamental doctrine, the use of which

appear

in practice.

Thus does
ment

this

will obviously

the success of this art depend on the instru-

so often mentioned, which,

by

indicating the ex-

pansions caused by different heats, becomes a sure guide


in our operations.

I shall

now

close this account,

by

comparing with the principles here laid down, the defects

which we, but too

malted.

often,

meet

in

barley

when

THE THEORY OF BREWING.

SECTION

131

XIII.

OBSERVATIONS ON DEFECTIVE MALTS.


J.N the preceding enquiry, some of the defects of malt
have been occasionally mentioned

gone

this process, is
I shall

brewer,

now

but as a perfect

when

knowledge of the grain, especially

it

has under-

a matter of no small concern to the

bring such defects into distinct view,

both to compare them with the foregoing principles, and


that the

knowledge of them may be more

every occasion,

Every

at

hand, on

when wanted.

different

degree of heat acting on bodies causes

a different effect: and this varies also, as such heat

more or
is in

there

The growth

less hastily applied.

general submitted to these laws


is

tation,

some

difference

which

is

of vegetables

but yet

conceive

between germination and vege-

beg leave to point out.

The former

seems to be the act caused by heat and moisture, while


the

plume or acrospire

is still

enveloped within the tegu-

ments of the parent corn, and

it is

most perfectly per-

formed by the gentlest action, and consequently by the


least heat, that is

ples in their

capable of moving the different princi-

due order.

Vegetation, again,

which takes place when the plant


ing rendered stronger

by

is

issues forth, and, be-

the impressions of the


I

that act

air,

be-

THE THEORY OF BREWING.

132

pomes capable of

warmth of

its

resisting

Germination

the sun-shine.

or

inclemencies,
is

the

the only act

necessary for malting, the intention being solely to put


in

motion the principles of the grain, and not to rear up

the

embryo

to a plant.

when

so, the cold season,

as this begins in barley at

Now,

the degree where the water

first

becomes

fluid,

or nearly

the thermometer shews from

about 32 to 40 degrees, would seem the most proper for


this

How

purpose.

far its latitude

may

with propriety

be extended, experience alone can determine.


sters

continue to work

Malt-

so long as they think the season

May, when

in
permits, and leave off generally

the heat

of the water extends at a medium from 50 to 55 degrees.

But the nearer they come


greater

off.

they malt:

vessels of the corn are

motion of the
to fly

must

disadvantage

warmth, the

fluids violent,

Thus the

glandular parts

medium, with the

to this

much

and the

as,

by such

distended, the

finer parts too apt

coarser oils gaining admittance, the

become

filled

with an impure and

less

delicate sulphur, which, instead of a sweet, inclines to a


bitter, taste.

This

is

so manifest,

and so universally ex-

perienced, that, in general, brewers carefully avoid pur-

chasing what

is

termed latter-made malts.

Malt, which has not had a sufficient time to shoot, so


that its

plume may have reached to the extent of the inward

skin of the barley, remains overburthened with too large

and
^ quantity of earth

oils,

which otherwise would have

THE THEORY OF BREWING.


been expended in the acrospire and radical

-.-

53

All

vessels.

those parts of the corn which have not been separated j

and put in motion by the act of germination,


laid

on the kiln to dry, harden and glutinize

part thereof

stem or spire of the barley


as

no greater

be soluble in water, than so far as the

-will

and as much

when

will,
:

is

rises to, or

very

little

farther,

wanting thereof will be lost to the

strength of the drink.

When
spire

malt

grow too much, or until the


shot through the skin of the barley, which is not

is

suffered to

is

often the case, though

all that is left

salts dissoluble in

taining

be malt, that

is,

con-

water, yet as too large a por-

tion of oils has

been expended out of the grain, such

malts cannot be

fit

There

is,

to

brew drinks

for long keeping.

besides, a real loss of the substance of the cornj

occasioned by

its

being overgrown.

Malt, the germination of which has reached and been


stopped- at the proper period^ and has been duly worked

upon the floors,

if

not sufficiently dried on the kiln, even

though the fire be excited to a proper heat, retains


watery

parts;

The

corn,

when

laid together, will

many

be apt

to germinate afresh, perhaps to heat so as to take fire

should not this extreme be the case, at least

mouldy, and communicate an

ill

it

must grow

flavor to the drink.

Malt, well grown, and worked as before, but overdried,

though with a proper degree of heat,

will

become

of so tenacious a nature, as to require a long time before

13

THE THEORY OF BREWING.

134

can admit of the outward impressions of the

it

mellow

or

relax

brewed with
have

and

all

that

it,

the

ing masticated, so

it

advantages

proportion as

in

before

is,

much

it

of

it

is

to

air

to be

fit

otherwise would

has black specks on beparts being charred

its

is

diminution to the strength of the liquor, besides impresswith a burnt or nauseous

it

ing

taste.

Malt, dried on akiln not suffielentlyheated,must require

proportionably a longer time to receive the proper effect


of the fire; the want of which will bring

same

state as

If too

it

into the

malt not thoroughly dried.

quick or fierce a

fire

be employed, instead of

gently evaporating the watery parts of the corn,


fies

the outward skin, divides

grain,

and so

sels.

Such

rarifies

is

fire

torri-

the inclosed air as to burst the ves-

called blown malt, and,

by the

expansion, occupies a larger space than


the

it

from the body of the

it

be continued,

it

causes

its

it

internal
If

ought.

constituent parts to

harden to the consistence of a varnish, or changes


into a brittle substance,

be

steely

tion,

is

and glassy

it

from whence the malt

is

it

said to

dissolves but in a small propor-

very troublesome and dangerous in brewing,

and frequently occasions a

total

want of extraction

by

the brewery termed, setting the grist.

Malt, just, or but lately, taken from the kiln, remains

warm

for a considerable time.

Until the heap becomes

equally cool with the surrounding

air,

it

cannot be said

THE THEORY OF BREWING


or in a

to be mellow,

fit

state ,to

135

be brewed

being harsh and brittle, the whole of

its

its

parts

substance can-

not be resolved, and the proper heat of the water, which


should be applied to

more

for that purpose, is therefore

it

be ascertained.

difficult to

The practice of those

maltsters,

who

sprinkle water

make

malt newly removed from the kiln, to

having been made a long space of time,


to

plump

it,

By

posed.

is

it

appear as

or, as

they say,

a deceit which cannot too

this practice, the

and harshness of the malt,

is

on

much be ex-

circumstance of the heat,

only externally, and in ap-

pearance, removed, and the purchaser grossly imposed

The

on.

grain,
if

volume, and,
heats,

and

The

is

by being moistened, occupies a

greatly damaged.

direct contrary

been made a long time


laxed

it,

is

the case of

malt which has

the dampness of the air has re-

and so much moisture has insinuated

the grain, that some doubt must arise


the

greater

not speedily used, soon grows mouldy,

mash should,

for this reason, be.

itself into

how much

hotter

Yet, supposing no

distemper, such as being mouldy, heated, or

damaged

by vermin, it is observed, malt, under this circumstance,


may more certainly be helped in brewing, than those
just abovementioned.

From what
is

has been said,

to procure malt

germinated to

its

it

appears

how

necessary

it

which has been properly steeped,

true pitch, and dried

14

bya

gentle,

mo-

THE THEORY OF BREWING.

136

derate heat, so as the moisture of the corn be


duly evaporated, then cured

How

easy

much

just so

by

fire as to

say

it

to

to regulate this process in the


cistern, in

it is

the couch, on the floors, and on the kiln,

when

intends no artifice to save his excise,

ster,

enable

a due time, without being blown or burnt.

itself

preserve

the mal-

need not

but with what certainty and ease the whole


might

be carried on by the help of the thermometer,

leave

such to determine as are modest enough to think, that


the art

may be

brought to more accurate rules than

As

those of the bare report of our unassisted senses.

such rules

may

here laid down,

easily be deduced from the principles


I shall

not be more particular in shewing

their application, as not being

nor

my

business as a brewer

conveniency of a malt house^to


sort

yet with truth

it

may

my

immediate purpose,

nor have

I leisure, or

make experiments

the

of this

be said, that such as would

not be disappointed in their brewing, must take care


not to be deceived in their malt.

but too frequently the case,


our guard against
rect them.

was

If

perfect,

gested.

If

it is

its

may

This, however, being

should constantly be on

defects,

and know how

treated in the

same manner

the well-malted parts alone

too slack dried,

an addition of heat,
it

we

if

it

may be

will

to coras if

corrected by

over-dried, or injured by

proportionably be helped.

By

it

be di-

fire,

applying the

thermometer to the extracts, more particularly to the

THE THEORY OF BREWING.


first,

137

the brewer thereby will be informed, to a sufficient

degree of exactness, of the defects he can mend, and


hardly be ever at a loss for the properest means to work
the grain to the greatest advantage.

As

far as

we have proceeded

in

our enquiry, though

some satisfaction must arise from bur being enabled

to ac-

count for the greater part of the process of brewing, yet


it

may be observed, even with the assistance of the thermo-

meter, as yet a geometrical exactness, in many respects,


has not been attained
ncessities of

but nature, when the interest and

mankind are the

object, apparently has sup-

plied our wants, and rectified our defects.

fermentation, when allowed

In this

art,

to display itself, corrects all

our errors to a considerable latitude, though as yet, of


this act, it

may be

or properly discern

said

we

scarcely conceive

its effects.

its

cause,

PART

II.

THE

PRACTICE OF BREWING,

BEFORE

enter

upon the

important, part of this work,

practical,
will not

it

and indeed most


be improper to

give a distinct, though general, view of the different


it is

parts

To

to consist of.

extract from malt a liquor, which,

fermentation,

may

by

the help of

acquire the properties of wine,

is

the

general object of the brewer, and the rules of that art are
the subject of these sheets.

An
nion,

art truly very simple,

if,

according to vulgar opi-

consisted in nothing else than applying

it

water to malt,

warm-

mashing these together, multiplying the

taps at discretion, boiling the extracts with a few hops,


suffering the worts to cool, adding yeast to

ment, and trusting to time,


its taste,

cellars,

brightness, and preservation

few notes

jand

it

fer-

observations, such as are too often,

found to be foisted under the


ing, in

make

and nostrums, for

articles of

beer and brew-

some books of agriculture and others of cookery,

tHE THEORY OF BREWING.

140

might be
air

sufficient,

were the place and constitution of the

always the same, the materials and vessels employed

Entirely similar,

and

lastty, the

the same use and time


culars

only

is

liable to variations,

and can be complied with,

the application of different determinate heats

by

was the

malt drinks intended for

but, as every one of these parti-

artist to

submit himself to loose, vague, and erro-

neous directions, like those above mentioned, they would


only serve to deceive him, and his case would be but
if

maxims,

in his deviation

from them.

A more certain foundation has been


first

little

he trusted to indefinite signs, and insufficient

mended,

laid

down

in the

part of this treatise, and the principles there esta-

blished will, I trust, in all cases, answer our ends, pro-

vided

we make

cation.

use of proper means to settle their appli-

The most

elegible

means

to effect this,

to follow, as near as possible, such plan,


tional

must be

which the ra-

brewer would, in every particular circumstance,

sketch to himself, before he proceeded to business.


first

His

attention ought to be directed not only to the actual

may be exThe grinding

heat of the weather, but also to that which

pected in the season of the year he

is in.

of his malt must be his next object, and as the difference

of the drinks greatly depends upon that of the extracts,

he cannot but chuse to have

distinct ideas of

what may

be expected from the amount of the heat of them. Hops,

which are added

as a preservative to the extracts

form too

THE THEORY OF BREWING.

141

important a part to be employed without a sufficient

The

knowledge of their power.


depending principally on

strength of malt liquors

their quantity or lengths,

it is

necessary to ascertain the heights in the copper, to an-

swer what, on

this

account,

is

The difference

intended.

in boiling, for different drinks or seasons

water by evaporation

the loss of

the proper division of the whole

quantity of this element employed, and, in proportion to

such division, that of the heat to be given


the process

the

means

termining what quantity of cold water


that,

which

under

at the point of ebullition,

is

his consideration.

ing, the

variations

is

each part

to

of,

by de-

be added to

come afterwards

The manner and

expected incidents

many

some small

in

to ascertain these degrees,

time of mash-

which must produce

between the actual and the calcu-

lated heat of his extracts,

it

will

be incumbent upon him

To

dis-

pose of the worts in such forms and at such depths, as

may

to

make a proper

estimation and allowance for.

render the influence of the ambient air the easiest and

most

efficacious,

and then, by the addition of yeast, to

provide the drink with that internal and most powerful

agent

it

had

lost in boiling, are

the next requisites.

Fer-

mentation, which follows, and which the brewer retards


or forwards according to his intentions, completes the

whole process

after these necessary precautions, to

com-

pare his operations with those of the most approved prac-

THE THEORY OF BREWING,

U2

titioners in his art,

and

to find himself able to account for

those signs and established customs, which before were


loosely described, authoritatively dictated, and never suf-

determined or explained, must be to him an ad-

ficiently

ditional satisfaction.
tain cases, the

known, and

As

precipitation

common methods

likewise the

is

requisite in cer-

for effecting

it

should be

means practised among coopers

to correct the real or imagined errors of the brewer, in

order to render the drink agreeable to the palate of the

consumers, will naturally lead him to consider what true


taste

his

and by employing the means, by which

is,

be obtained and improved, he

safely

power,

to

will

it

have done

may
all

in

answer his customers expectation, and to

secure his success.

This arrangement, which appears the most simple,


that,

which the reader

sections.

will find observed in the following

The proper

illustrations of tables

and exam-

ples have not been omitted, and from the complete plans
for brewing,
it

will

be found the

stances,
I

under two forms of the most dissimilar kind,


rules are adapted to all circum-

and applicable to every purpose.

must here add somewhat

ing what may be

in justification, for publish-

said to be the mysteries of an art, often

too cautiously precluded from the sight and attention of


the public

equally been

but every art and science whatever have


laid

open, and from such communication

THE THEORY OF BREWING.


received greater improvements, and
to

mankind

in general,

If attention is

here laid

down,

will

become more useful

and the professors of them in par-

ticular.

it

143

given to the rules and practice

be found that the brewer, from the

from repeated experilarge quantities he manwfactures,


ence, from the conveniency of his utensils, and

than

all,

from the

with his business,


ference to

any one

is

most

else,

more

he has to Be well acquainted

interest

likely to

be successful, in pre-

and therefore can have no reason

to be displeased on being presented with a theory

and

far from being the sole right of the


practice, which,

brewery, the discovery of the principles were certainly


the property of the author and of his friends, whose

would do

his

work honor

if

mentioned.

From

names

the ap-

plication of these principles, being convinced of their

exactness and facility in practice, he offers his labor to a


trade he esteems, with no other view than the hope he
entertains of being of

some

service to

and to the

it

public.
If,

notwithstanding repeated endeavours, some things,

in this treatise, should

in

more than one

if

appear out of their places

others,

redundancies, chiefly occasioned

by

'

the natural temptation of accounting for particular ap-

pearances, have not always been avoided

should

now and then have escaped me,

bered (by the good-natured

it

if

inaccuracies

let it

be remem-

certainly will) that, in

U4
new and

THE THEORY OF BREWING.


intricate subjects, digressions

and repetitions

are in some measure allowable, that an over-fulness


ferable to an affected

is

pre-

and often obscure brevity, and that

the improvement of the art, rather than the talent of


writing,

aim.

must be the brewer's merit, and was

my
*

only

THE PRACTICE OF BREWING.

SECTION

I.

AIR,
AS IT RELATES TO

IN and

THE PRACTICAL PART OF BREWING.

about the city of London, the most intense cold

that has been observed

heat has

made

is

14 degrees, and the greatest

the thermometer rise, in the shade, to 89,

Within these limits are comprehended

all

the fermentable

degrees, and consequently those necessary

on

If the lowest

the process of brewing.

for fermentation be 40,

of these two would, at


for this purpose

for carrying

degree proper

and the highest 80, the medium


first

sight,

appear to be the

fittest

but the internal motion, necessary to

carry on fermentation, excites a heat superior to the original state of the must

grees be the highest

by 10

degrees.

Hence,

if

60 de-

a fermenting must

eligible heat

should arise to, 50 should be the highest for a wort to

be

let

down

at,

to begin this act

be obtained, when that of the


it

which heat can only

air is

equal thereto, so that

denotes the highest natural heat for beers and ales to be

properly fermented.

With regard

to the other extreme,

or the lowest heat, however cold the air

may

be, as the

worts, which form both beers.and ales, gain, by boiling,

a degree greatly superior to any allowed of in fermenta.


tion,

it

is

constantly in the

artist's

power

to adapt his

THE PRACTICE OF BREWING.

146

worts to a proper

medium

The brewing

state.

justly be esteemed

all

heat of the day

in our climate,

season, then,

may

that part of the year in Avhich theis

at or

below 50 degrees

this,

from the beginning of October to the

is

middle of May, or 32 weeks; the most elegible period


of time for brewing

But, as

many

all

kinds of beers.

incidents often

make

it

necessary to ex-

tend these limits, the only time for venturing to comply


therewith

when

is,

55 degrees

the

by which,

medium
six

heat of the season

weeks more

may

is

at

be obtained.

But, under these circumstances, the quantity of beer

brewed should be
dily,

by

less, that

the worts

being thinner spread

the brewing

is

best carried

may

cool

and, to gain

more

rea-

more time,

on with two worts only

taking these precautions, and beginning early in the

morning, the

first

coolers, will,

towards evening, be brought to a heat of

55 degrees.

The

wort, by laying long enough in the

night, in this season of the year, be-

ing generally colder by 10 or 12 degrees than the me-'

dium heat

of the whole 24 hours, the second Avorts

be reduced to a cold of 43 degrees

the

mean

may

of 55 and

43, being 49 degrees, would be the real heat of the worts


in the ton

by

and with 10 degrees more, (the heat gained

fermentation,)

-still

it

would not reach 60 degrees,

the highest fermentable heat, beers intended to preserve

themselves long should arrive to


bfc

to this,

and so

little is

but so near would

it

the uniformity of the heat of the

THE PRACTICE OF BREWING.

be relied on, that necessity alone can justify the

air to

such drinks,
practice of brewing

when

high as 55, consequently,

where

air is so
it

147

the heat of the


it

exceeds

this,

should never be attempted.

As
any

air neither

yet

made by

the extractions are

heats far superior to

natural ones, though the actual temperature of the

is

it

adds

to,

nor diminishes from, their strength,

known

to be

proper heat given to the mash

added to boiling water

is

by means of

the cold

is

cold

and cold water generally

of no other heat than that of the air

when

The

for the following reason.

itself.

Indeed,

so intense, as to occasion a frost,

to change water into ice, that which

is

is

and

then used for

brewing, being mostly drawn from deep wells, or places

where

frost never, or

but seldom, takes place,

may be

estimated at 35 degrees, and this will be sufficiently


exact.
i

The

following table shews the temperature of the air

for every season in the year,

just

now

and confirms what

have

said concerning the season proper for brewing,

and the actual heat of the water.

many

years' observations,

struments, at eight o'clock in the

which the heat


the whole day.

is

It

was deduced from

made with very

accurate in-

morning, the time in

supposed to be the

medium

of that of

THE PRACTICE OF BREWING.

148

A TABLE, shewing

the medium heat, for every


Season of the year, in and about London, deduced from observations made from 1753 to

\765, at eight o'clock each morning.

[59'
to

30 )

14,
to

[37'
31 J

THE PRACTICE OF BREWING.


To ascertain

149

make

the authority of this table, and to

it

useful to several purposes, I have carried to decimals

the

mean numbers

resulting from

my

But such an exactness has been found,

observations.

in the practice of

brewing, to be more troublesome than necessary.

have therefore constructed another table, similar to the


former, but where the fractions are omitted, and the

whole numbers carried on from

five to five.

The

of the latter end of October, and beginning of


ber,

have here been

really are

set

down

rather higher than they

as, at this time of the year, the

brew with are old and weak, and


means more easy

to allow for their

K3

heats

Novem-

hops

fit

to

could not devise any

want of strength.

THE PRACTICE OF BREWING.

150

A TABLE,
in

shewing the medium heat of she

and about London, for every season of the

year,

applicable to practice.

60
to

air,

30

to

31 i

TH PRACTICE OF BREWING.
As nothing

is

151

we

so inconstant as the heat of the air,

are not to be surprised

when

deviates from the progres-

it

The

sion specified in the table.

flowing *water used in

we have

the brewery, at the coldest seasons,

fixed at 35

degrees, and the highest heat in the air, to carry on the


process for beers brewed for long keeping, at 55 degrees.

The

length proper to be drawn, or the quantity of beer

made from each

to be

quarter of malt being fixed, the

brewer, at any time, has

it

in his

power

lations for brewings, supposing the

to be at 35, at 40, at 45, at 50,

to

make

calcu-

mean heat of the

and even

at

air

any degree

of heat whatever, so as never to be unprovided for any

Water, being a body more dense than

season.

quires some time

air, re-

to receive the impressions either of heat

or cold, for which reason the

medium

heat of the shade of

the preceding day, will most conveniently govern this

part of the

process,

some very extraordinary

unless

change should happen in the atmosphere.

This must

make

very easy,

the business of the

as, in the

rect the
to

artist, in this respect,

course of his practice, he will have only to cor-

little

changes that occasional incidents give

and the calculations

answer

will

long as the lengths of beer to

all his

purposes so

be brewed from the same

quantity of malt remain unaltered, and with very


variation and trouble,

when

rise

little

the coppers employed, by

being changed, are of different dimensions.

The

best

method

to

know

the true heat of cold water,

K4

THE PRACTICE OF BREWING.

152

would be

to

keep a very accurate and

meter, in the liquor back


is

but as

thermo-

distinct
in

this,

every place,

not to be expected, and inaccuracies must arise from a


in the air, to prevent their

change
tice,

we must have

consequences in prac-

This has

recourse to experience.

taught us that a difference of 8 degrees, between the actual heat of the water,

was computed,

will

and that from which the brewing

produce, in the

extract, a differ-

first

ence of four degrees*

Most brewers' coppers, though they vary


are generally

mensions,

uniform

less) will

made

in

in their di-

therefore nearly answer alike, that

alter the heat of the tap,

same proportion to the volume of the grist.

more or

is,

But

by 4 degrees.

only hold good in such cases, where the water

brown

nearly

proportions

the effect of one inch of cold water

it

will

this will
is

in the

In brewing

beers, or porter, three worts are generally

made ;

the extracts therefore must be of different lengths from

what they are

in beers

brewed

this case, the quantity of

than

two worts only.

water for the

first

wort,

In

is less

otherwise Avould be.; and what must be allowed

it

for the

at

mash, to wet the malt,

first

is

so

much

as to oc-

casion the second, or piece liquor, to be proportionably


less also

as

it is

of great consequence,

doth not answer to

its

should be brought to such a heat, as to

dium of the

first

if

the

first

tap

proper degree, that the second

make up

the

me-

and second extracts, the second, or piece

"

THE PRACTICE OF BREWING.


by reason of

liquor,

its

shortness,

and more exactly tempered

is

153

more conveniently,

in the little

copper

inch cooling in, is in this case found, both

by

and one

calculation

and experience, to occasion a difference of one degree


of heat only in the mash.

One
ales of

of the principal attentions, in forming beers and

any

sort whatever, is that they


state, at the

most perfect

Common

used.

small beer

required to be in order,

is

as

it is

impossible to pre-

the accidental variations, as to heat

judge

may happen
to act

to

up

in

which

any one season of the

and cold, that

} ear, it is

what a long experience has shown,

expected, and
is

to

mix such quantity of

made

to

their

time they are intended to be

from one to four weeks, and

that,

may come to

come

rational
is

to

be

cold water with

to ebullition, as to bring

the extract to the degree fixed for each- particular season,


the heat, at the time of brewing, vary therefrom, in

let

any degree whatever.


In treating on the subject of air, in the former part of
this

work,

observed the effect

it

had

in penetrating the

parts of the malt, or in the technical term used

by

when

the

brewers, in slacking
grain

is

entire

it.

and whole,

As such
it is

is

the case,

more so when ground, and

experience teaches us, that, when malt has been about

24 hours from the mill, the dampness


equal to half

which

is

to be

it

has imbibed

is

an inch more of cold water added to that

made

to boil for the

fh-st

liquor,

and pro-

THE PRACTICE OF BREWING.

154

duces therefore a diminution of 4 degrees in the heat of


the tap*.

An

somewhat resembling

effect,

this,

caused by

is

the impression of the air on the utensils of a brewhouse,

which are not daily used

the heat received from a fore-

going process has expanded their pores,

and rendered

From

them more susceptible of cold and moisture.

mash

circumstance, the heat of the

first

in a proportion equal to half

an inch

will

less

this

be affected

cooling in, or

in^the space of 24 hours, to 4 degrees of heat.

The time of

the day, in which the

becomes another consideration


morning

the time of the

is

first

extract

is

medium

heat in the whole 24

hours, the other hours will give different degrees.

first

mash

is

made about 4

made*

for as 8 o'clock in the

When

o'clock in the morning, the

following table shews the difference between the heat at

4 and 8
learned

that of the other hours, in the like case,

by

observation.

It

may be

has been observed, that, in

the cold months, from the sun's power being

less,

the

heat of the day and night are more uniform, and also
that the coldest part of the 24 hours

or an hour before sun-rising.

is

about half an hour,

have judged

it

convent

ent to place, in the same table, the several incidents affecting the
*
ed

first

I chose this

extract.

manner of expressing the quantity of moisture receivair, as it is the most easy for the direa-

ground malt from the


tion of the first extract.
in

THE PRACTICE OF BREWING.


INCIDENTS

J55

occasioned by the air affecting the

heat of the Jirst extract, to be noticed more


particularly,

when small beer

the quantity of water


the

is

brewed, as

is

then greatest, and

mash more susceptible of its impressions.

Morning

at

4 o'clock

January
" ebruar

Utensils, for

&

24 hours

.5

lose 4 degrees of heat,

equal tohalfaninch of
co id AV ater.

y
2 6

March

want of be-

in S used > in

I
c
April

*
4

^ay-

June

rS

,...-...

"o

8 -It
op
"5

eg

~
J ul7

August
September

bibes moisture equivalent to half an inch,

which lessens the heat

by 4

The

g
3
o

6 |>

degrees.

difference

between

the actual heat of the

10
air,

and that naturally

expected is to be allowed in proportion of

8 degrees to one inch

cooling 'in.

October

November

23

December

which has been


ground 24 hours, im-

Malt,

Malts, from having been


long kept, or old,

become
slacked.

considerably

15*

Before

THE PRACTICE OF BREWING.


we quit this

observe, that,

subject,

it

may not be impreper

in the hottest season,

and

to

in the hottest

part of the day, the difference between the heat of the


air in the shade,

London,

is

and that in the sun's beams

in

and about

nearly 16 degrees, and also that cellars or re-

positories for beers, are, in winter, generally hotter

ten degrees, than the external air


colder,

by

five.

and

in

by

summer,

THE PRACTICE OF BREWING.

SECTION

157

II.

OF GRINDING.

MALT

mast be ground,

in order to facilitate

action of the water on the grain, which otherwise

be obstructed by the outward

skins.

Every corn should

be cut, but not reduced to a flour or meal,


state, the

grist

would not be

for, in this
It is

easily penetrable.

therefore sufficient that every grain be divided into

or three parts, nor


for

one

is

sort of drink

is

In every brew-

another.

the same

parency of the liquor, mentioned

and the

by some on

trans-

this

occa-

depends, by no means, on the cut of the corn.

sion,

has been a question, whether the motion of the mill

did not communicate

be the case,

what may

it

some heat

to the malt

should this

can be but in a very small degree

arise

from hence,

will

be

lost

Of late

ton.

years

it

if,

by

this

mash

has been recommended, instead of

grinding the malt, to bruise


:

and,

by shooting the

grain out of the sacks, or uncasing the grist*nto the

ders

two

there any necessity for varying this,

more than

ing the intention of grinding

It

the

would

it

between two iron cylin-

means, some of the fine mealy parts are

prevented from being

lost

in air, it

must be very incon-

siderable, and, perhaps, not equal to the disadvantage

of the water not

coming

in

immediate contact with

THE PRACTICE OF BREWING.

15*

In brewing, not

the flour of the grain.

all,

but only a

certain portion of the constituent parts of the malt are


requisite

these, heated water alone

cure, so that,

is

sufficient to pro-

upon the whole, the difference between

bruising and grinding the grain can be of no great con-

sequence.

We have before
exposed

for

observed, malt,

some time

moisture than

to the air,

when whole, and

the dampness, thus ab-

much

cpld Avater, a grist, that

sorbed, being in reality so

has been long ground,

is

capable of being impressed with

hotter waters than otherwise

it

would require. In country

where the quantity brewed

places,

by being ground and


more readily imbibes

bushels of malt, and

make

consists only of a

volume

so small a

few

as to be in-

capable to maintain an uniform heat, where the people


are ignorant, that a certain degree

proper extract with

is

necessary to form a

and where, instead of

this,

boiling

indifferently applied, the effects of these errors

water

is

are in

some measure prevented, by grinding the malts a

considerable time, as a

month or

brewing, and by the excess of


so small a quantity.
state of the air,

to rule,

fire

is,

weeks before the

readily escaping

from

This method, from the inconstant

and from the impossibility of acting

must be very uncertain and

few or no arguments are necessary


truth

six

to

up.

fortuitous, so that

explode

it.

The.

the merit of country ales, so often mentioned,

but whei^
proceeds from the forbearing to use the drink,
I

THE PRACTICE OF BREWING.


it is

in the fittest state.

Thus time not only

159

corrects the

errors of the operators, but also gives them, in the eyes

of the consumers, the credit of an extraordinary know-

ledge and unmerited

ability.

THE PRACTICE OF BREWING.

160

SECTION

III.

OF EXTRACTION.
.T

IRE hnpressed on

is

true, has similar effects as to preservation, but the fact

is

not the same as to taste

malt, either through air or water,

it

the sweet, the burnt flavor,

or the proportion of both, the malt originally had, sensi-

bly appear in the extracts

but water heated to excess

communicate

will not, in extracting pale malt,

worts an empyreumatic taste; whether

from some acid

parts,

still

sweet, or from other reasons,


it is,

the malt

The
for

is

proceeds

oils to

tend towards a

not easily determinable

the foundation of taste in malt liquors

is

in

itself.

basis of all wines is a sweet

circumstance

this

brewing beers agreeable to the palate must always be

attended

Next

to.

should possess
susceptible

all

of.

to this,

it is

the strength,

Pale malt, as

it

required that the liquor


it

can

fittingly

retains the

of the grain, yields the strongest beers.

being
in-

to the

residing in^the heated waters,

which might help the attenuated

certain

this

fittest for

fermentation, malt dried

The
by

be made

whole virtue
finest oils

fierce heats,

a great measure loses these, and what remains are not

only coarser

oils, less

miscible with water, but such as

bring with them the impressed taste of

fire.

THE PRACTICE OF BREWING.


To

161

answer the purposes of taste, strength, and preser-

from what has been

vation,

said

it

appears, that the ex-

to that which
tracting water must be of a heat superior

dried the malt

no other rule appears to direct

make choice

than to

of which has not been removed by


at the

in this,

of malt of such dryness, the delicacy

same time, admit of a

and such as

fire,

will,

number of supe-

sufficient

rior degrees of heat, to extract all its fermentable parts

that

is

(see

degrees

page 124) malt whose dryness

less

than the

mean

is

nearly 19

of the drying and extracting

heats applicable to the purpose intended.

As 119
at

which

tues,

degrees, the
it

first

heat forming pale malt, and

possesses the whole of

may be

said to

sweetness and vir-

its

be the lowest degree of dryness in

the grain to form keeping beers with, so 138 degrees,

above which the native whiteness of the grain


dued, as to remain but
highest dried

mak

fit

in

is

so sub-

a very small proportion,

to be used for

these premises the following table

is

any purpose

is

the

from

formed, to shew the

degree of dryness of malt, where taste and strength are


equally consulted, to brew drinks capable of keeping

themselves sound a long time, at any

The proper

choice of malt

point out, previous to entering

subject of extraction.
is

in

no wise directive

more

This table,
for

medium

required.

thought necessary to

it

at large

on the

must be observed,

brewing common small beer,

soon to be expended, that liquor depending on

many

l2

THE PRACTICE OF BREWING.

other circumstances, of which notice will be taken im-

mediately under that head.

A TABLE,
Malt

shewing the proper

applicable to the

mean of

dry ness of
the drying

and extracting heats under which keeping


malt liquors should be formed.

The
to

its

subject to be resolved having been examined as

dryness,

which

we now come

this section

Extraction

is

to the

immediate matter for

was intended.

a solution of part, or the whole, of a

body, made by means of a menstruum.


is

In brewing,

chiefly the mealy substance of the grain that

to be resolved

fire

and water combined are

is

it

required

sufficient to

THE PRACTICE OF BREWING.


perform

Water properly

this act.

is

163

the receptacle of

the parts dissolved, and fire the power, which conveys


into

a greater or

it

When

all

less

proportion of them.

the parts necessary to form a vinous liquor

are not employed, or

when more than

are required for

purpose are extracted, the liquors must vary

this

in their

constituent parts, and consequently be different in their

This difference

effects.

arises either

from the manner of applying

it

beers and ales will admit of as

many

supposed
tion.

to the

But

First, that

may be reduced

which

is

may be

in its applica-

to the four following

most perfect, and for which malt


it

with certainty pos-

whole of its constituent parts, and the extracts

made with such

heats, as to give the beer

tunity to be improved
fine

and

chose of such dryness, in which

are

varieties as

as the useful differences are alone necessary

brewer, they

sesses the

and the properties of

in the quantity of the heat,

modes of extraction

is

from heat alone, or

an oppor-

by time, and to become of

itself

and transparent.

Secondly, that from which, in order to obtain every

advantage of time, strength, and flavor, such extracts are

produced

as cannot

become

pellucid of themselves, but

require precipitation.

Thirdly, that which


tense,

is

intended soon to become in-

where soundness and transparency are for some

short time expected, but not always obtained, because

THE PRACTICE OF BREWING.

164.

brewed

in

every season of the year, and deprived of the

advantages which age and better managements procure


to the

first.

Fourthly, that where the advantages of strength and


pellucidity are to be procured in a very short space.

These four modes of resolving the

grain, being the

fundamental elements on which almost ever}' specie of


drink

is

brewed,

must observe, the two

first

may be

said to be an exact imitation of natural wines, in forming

which, the principles


applied.

we

The

third

we have

is

laid

down may

the effect of necessity,

fully

be

by which

are deprived of that time nature directs for properly

producing fermented liquors, and where we are subjected to

many

disadvantageous circumstances

against the consequences of which,

we must

to

guard

some

rely, in

measure, upon opinion formed from observation alone

and the fourth


Carried on.

may

Before

treat of

them

separately,

it is

quisite to mention a few general rules applicable to

In the enquiry

we made

markable circumstances

of the means which nature

the

first,

for the production of the fruit,


its

maturation

re-

all.

employs to form the juices of grapes, we found two

greater for

be said to be art too precipitately

re-

a necessary lesser heat

and the second, a much

the former useful to incline

the must to fermentation, the latter to raise therein such


oils as

But

should maintain

in all wines,

it

for

some time

an evenness of

taste

is

in a

sound

state.

requisite to affect

THE PRACTICE OF BREWING;


the palate with an elegant sensation

juices of grapes are formed

first

form impressions

the

summer

upon the same principle

act

it

may be

ob-

autumn and spring heats being nearly equal^

served, the
so the

and

J65

though stronger j

heats,

for

by almost, uni-

though the grapes

re-

main upon the vine some part of the autumn, perhaps


this

space they gain

by the summer's sun

little

from whence the

tastes of

more simple than otherwise they would

we

directed, that a

first

wort

shall

intermediate worts,

tioned to both, and


to

if "several

if

have the

the

medium

means, AVC

same time

heat which
shall obtain

into the drink

is

are

least share

last

wort the

anyj must be propor-

mashes or extracts are made

compose a wort, these must be equal

being careful at the

wine are

Thus

be.

of heat of the whole brewing, and the


greatest

in

more than the juices prepared

as to their heat,

to preserve to the process

to govern the whole.

By

this

our intended purpose^ and place

one and the same smooth

taste.

In the table* shewing the different effects produced in

ihe grain by the different degrees of heat, the numbers,


with respect to beers, express^ not only the

mean

of the

degrees of dryhess the malt had, with those also of heat


in the extracting liquors, but also

communicated by the hops,

that

is

implied the power

is, it

idea of the whole combination.

'Part I. Sect XII.

L3

p.

124

imparts to us, the

THE PRACTICE OF BREWING

166

'As malt liquors are made with different views, so must


the

on which they are formed be varied.

principles

Beers intended long to be kept, inquire more, heat in their

produce such

extracts, in order to

quantity from the grain, as

quick effects of fermentation

or so

oils,

many

in

shall retard 'and delay the


;

and malt

which are

liquors,

soon to be brought into use, claim an opposite manage-

ment.

This

imitating nature, for

is

we have

before ob-

served*, the hotter the autumnal, the vernal and maturating heats are, with

more power do the wines

impressions of time and the air

which governed

this variety,

resist

the

and we traced the rule

by an enquiry

into the

num-

ber of degrees required to form the juices of grapes, and


applied their

number

to discover the

they were impressed with.

first

and

last heats

In calculations to find out

the heat to be given to water properly to resolve the malt,

the same method must be followed,


cessary here to

number

it

being equally ne-

employ only such a proportion of the

of degrees which constitute the whole of the fer-

mentable principles in malt that are needful to the purpose

we would

possession of

answer.

all

We have said malts

their constituent parts'

degree of dry ness,

19 to 129.

tain spontaneous pcllucidity,

By age

when urged

continue in

from

their first

alone beers obin the

whole of

their process with a heat so great as 138 degrees, prcci-

* Sec
page 56.

THE PRACTICE OF BREWING.


pitation or art

extends

it

to

167

near 157 degrees, after

which neither the acid parts furnished by the


art avails:

whence

it

an obstinate foulness

is

may be concluded, that at

the

or

result;

beyond

so great a part of the fermentable principles


as

what remains

in the grain has not

produce transparency.

air,

power

is

nor

from

this heat,

dispersed,

sufficient to

The following table, founded on

these principles, will hereafter be found directive to fix

the

first

malt.

and

last

heats to be given to the extracts of

THE PRACTICE OF BREWING.

168

A TABLE,

shewing the quantify of ferment-

able principle* residing in malts at their seve-

ral degrees of dry ness, or, the number of


constituent parts which

portion
grees,

form

beers in pro-

to their properties*, specified in de-

and

to be

used in calculations^ made

to

ascertain the proper heats to be given to the


first

and

For th

last extracts

of malt.

|)roperti5 answerable to the degree*, see page

THE PRACTICE OF BREWING.

169

beers and ales are divided into strong and

Though

small, this division regards only the proportion of the

vehicle,

and not that of the constituent

The same

parts.

must be employed,

means, as to the heat of the extracts,

to form small beers, capable of preserving themselves

sound

fof

some time,

as are used to

make strong

drinks

for

though a small liquor possesses more aqueous parts,

the

oils

and

salts

more

diluted, not

this causes

but a very

of the malt are only

altered in their proportions,

and

small difference in the duration of the liquor.


It

now

remains to apply these rules, deduced from the

theory, to the several sorts of malt liquors, which answer

modes of

to the four

The

first

extraction, just before laid down.

and most perfect

when the malt

is,

is

chosen

of such dryness, and the extracts made with such heats,


as give the beers an opportunity of being improved

time, and slow fermentations, to


bright and transparent.
all

prehended

Under

by
become spontaneously

this

head,

pale keeping strong, and

may be com-

all

pale keeping

small beers.

From

its

name, regard must be had

malt, and such only used, as


1

is

to the color of the

dried the least, or

by

19* degrees of heat.


* It

may be observed that, in the first and last degrees for drying
we say one degree more, sometimes a degree less.
The experiments we have made do not admit of a geometrical exactmalt, sometimes

ness, nor does the


practice of brewing require it

small errors i

THE PRACTICE OF BREWING.

HO

The hops

should likewise be pale, and their quantity

used in proportion to the time the drink

be kept; suppose,
fine hops, for

The

in this case,

it is

is

intended to

10 months, lOlb. of

every quarter of malt, will be required.

highest degree of heat, or rather the

the highest dryness in malt, with the

mean

medium

of

heat of the

several extractions, to admit of spontaneous pellucidity,

we have

seen in the foregoing table (page 124) to be

138 degrees, and

this

medium

is

chosen, as

it

answers

not only the intent of long keeping, but of brightness


also.

From

the

medium degree

of the malt's dryness, and of

the heat of the extracts, to determine the heat of the

and the

last extract,

first

and the value in degrees of the

quantity of hops to be used, for brewing pale strong and


pale small beers, intended to be kept about ten months
before they are used,

and expected to become

self-

transparent.

119 Malt's dryness.

138

Mean

of malt's dryness,

heat of extracts,* and

value of hops.
3 Degrees, value of 10

135

Mean of malt's

of hops.

dryness and heat of extracts.

removed by age, and these variations have often been adopted


the tables, for the convenieucv ot"
dividing into whole numbers.

effectually
in

Ib.

THE PRACTICE OF BREWING.


For the

first

171

liquor.

135 As before.
3-i

Half the number of the constituent degrees, anSTrerable to 138 degrees, the

mean

heat of

the whole process, to be subtracted*.

1311 Degrees governing the

1 1

first

extracts.

9 Malt's dryness.

144 First rule to discover the heat of the

first

extract.

263

131-1-

As above.

For the
135

As

last liquor.

before.

3| Half the number of the constituent degrees, to be


added, to find
138'-

The

degrees governing the

last extract.

119 Malt's dryness.

158 First rule to discover the heat of

277

1381 As above.

* See
p. 124.

last

mash.

THE PRACTICE OF BREWING.

172

The elements

for

forming pale strong and pale small

beers, intended to be kept, are therefore as follows


Malt's

Value of

Whole

First

Last

dryness.

hops.

medium.

heat.

heat.

138

144

158

119

....

2 heat lost at

the time the extract separates from the grist.

The proof of this


144 Heat of the
158 Heat of

first

is

as follows

extract.

last extract.

302

151

Mean

heat of extracts.

119 Malt's dryness.

270

135

Mean

heat of Malt's dryness, and of heat of extracts.

3 Value of hops.

138

Whole mean

It is

given as above.

necessary to add 2 degrees to the heat of every

mash, such being the mean of 4 degrees, constantly


in every extract, at the time they are separated
grist,

and exposed to the impressions of the


3

air.

lost

from the

THE PRACTICE OF BREWING.


The second mode

of extraction

is,

17$

which every

that, in

advantage which can be procured from the corn, from


art,

and from time

drinks, as cannot

is

expected;

this

become spontaneously

produces

such

pellucid, but re-

quire the help of precipitation.

The improvement, which


by long standing,

is

every fermented liquor gains

very considerable

the parts of the

grain, which give spirit to the wine, being,

by repeated

become

fermentations, constantly attenuated, not only

more

light

and pungent, but more wholesome.

If, in

order to give to beers more of the preservative quality,


greater quantities of oils are extracted, in proportion to
the

transparency cannot take place

salts,

but,

when

the

heat employed for this purpose does not exceed certain


limits, this defect

may

easily be remedied,

be fined by precipitation
part of the very

rency,

it

will,

come both

Where

oils,

which

and the drink

as time enables

it

to take

up

at first prevented its


transpa-

by long standing, and by

precipitation, be-

brighter and stronger.

the

demand

for a liquor

is

constant and consi-

derable, but the quantity required not absolutely certain,


it

ought to be brewed in such manner that time

crease

its

merit, and precipitation render

it

may

in-

almost imme-

diately ready for use.

These circumstances

this class of extraction,

and justify the preference given

to porter or broivn beer,

which comes under the mode wo-

are

now

treating

of..

distinguish

THE PRACTICE OF BREWING.

17*

Though transparency
sahs and

in beers is a sure
.sign of the

being in an exact proportion,

oils

wise a proof of the justness of taste

ing on strong

oils

the choicest

taste,

it

is

in

no

for strong saks act-

pellucidity, but the deli-

may produce

cacy and pungency of

depend on the

finer oils

and

being wholly preserved, these best ad-r

salts

mitting of fermentation, and most perfectly becoming


miscibte with the liquor, the

of the grain

if

more

volatile oils

dried, the consequence in the beer

and rancid

and

salts

excluded, by the malt being too high

The

taste.

less dried

must be, an heavy

the malts are, which

are brewed for beers to be long kept, the hotter are the
extracts required to be, but this greater heat being

com-

mnnicated to the grain through water, an element eight

hundred times more dense than

disperse them,
It

appears,

by

by

air,

the finer parts of the

upon by an heat which in air would

corn, though acted

this

means are

retained.

brew-

the table (page 124) that drinks

ed from malts, affected by heats, whose

medium

is

148

degrees, and with twelve pounds of hops to every quarter of malt, require

tion to

become

from 6 to 12 months with precipita-

bright

this is the

ed forbrown beers to be drank


133,

we

find the

age generally appoint-

at,

and by the

table,

page

proper malts where the medium heat of

the whole process

is

148 degrees, must be such as have

been dried with 130 degrees to

1'onii this

liquor,

whose

THE PRACTICE OF BREWING.


color as yet

is

expected to be

ing deprived of

more valuable

full or

175

brown, without be-

qualifications.

In the drink before examined, the

number of degrees

which constitute the properties of malt, affected by a mean


heat of 138 or 7 degrees, were employed, they being in-

tended to become, in time, spontaneously bright


as this quality in the present case

the assistance of precipitation, the

is

but,

required only with

number

5, in the table,

shewing the constituent parts remaining in the grain

at

every degree of dryness, (page 168) as this corresponds


to the

medium

148,

is

undoubtedly that which must an-

swer our purpose, both as to the nature and to the time


this liquor is in general

made use

of.

These conditions

being premised, the proper degrees of the


extract for porter will be found

by

first

and

used before.

30 Degrees, malt's dryness.

148 Degrees, whole

medium

intended.

4 Degrees, value of hops, fractions omitted.

144

Mean

last

the same rules as were

of malt's dryness and heat of extracts.

THE PRACTICE OF BREWING.

IIS

For the

first

extract.

144 As before.
2J;

Half the number of the constituent degrees to be


deducted.

141^

Mean

of malt's dryness, and of the heat of the

first

extract.

130 Malt's Dryness.


153 Rule to discover the

first

heat.

283
141| As above.

For the

last

extract.

144 As before.
2|;

Half the number of the constituent degrees to be


added.

1461

Mean

of

nialt's

dryness, and of the heat of

last extract.

130 Malt's dryness.


163 Rule to discover the

293
146^ As above.

last

heaK

tht-

THE PRACTICE OF BREWING.


The

1T7

elements for brewing brown strong beers, with

two degrees added


Is lost at their

to the

and

first

what

last extracts, for

parting from the malt, independent of

its

farther division into the respective mashes.


Malt's

Value of

dryness.

hops.

Medium

heat of the

First

Last

extracts, malt's dry-

heat.

heat.

ness,

and value of
hops.

130

Brown

155

148

brewed with malt

beers,

degrees, twenty years since,

so

in the drink

and blackness

low dried as 130

formed

when a
its

but strength and elegance being

hea-

principal

merit, Avould have been a sufficient reason to

the practice

165

would have appeared very

extraordinary, and most likely, at that time,


viness

.........

condemn

now more

attended to, have justified the brewer, in making porter,


to

employ malt of such degree of dryness,

as he shall

think will best answer these purposes.

As high

liquors used to extract low dried malt will

form a must capable to preserve

itself

equally a long time,

as an adequate liquor used to high dried malt doth

the

first

of the other in point of taste, as

malt

is

one, from

finer principles

may

and

of these methods having greatly the advantage

its

change of colorj where part of

may be supposed

not be amiss to enquire

malt, less affected

30 degrees of dryness in

by

fire,

if

to

be evaporated.

there be not reasons

its

It

why

should be used for manufac-

turing this commodity.

THE PRACTICE OF BREWING.

178

The medium

of the malt's dryness, and of the heat of

the extracts, together with the value of the hops which


are to

make

porter,

is

148 degrees.

This, because pre-

cipitation has been found convenient and necessary for


this drink, yet,

when

at the

this last operation, it is

form

supposed to shew

bright, well-tasted,

state as drink should be,

transparent, and

time,

if

is

it

proper age,

and strong

And by

in

capable of preserving

itself

a long

is

oils

yielded by the hops

4 degrees.

deducted,

144

table (page 162)

we

find a

must under the

of 144 degrees should be formed Avith malt dried to

brewing porter

will

this

circumstance the elements of

be as follows.

25 Malt's dryness.

148 Degrees, whole

medium

intended.

4 Value of hops.

144

such

148 degrees.

125 degrees, with

is,

which becomes spontaneously

Will remain,

mean

itself in its best

that

from

The value of the


(See page 180)

has undergone

Mean

of malt's dryness, and heat of extracts.

THE PRACTICE OF BREWING.


For the

first

179

extract.

144 As before.

21 Half the number of constituent parts, to be deducted.

14 1| Mean, of malt's dry ness, and of the heat of the


first

extract.

125 Malt's dryness.


158 Rule to discover the

first

heat.

283

1411-

As above.
For the

last extract.

144 As before.
21 Half the number of constituent parts, to be added.

1461

Mean of malt's

dryness, and of the heat of the last

extract.

25 Malt's dryness.

168 Rule to discover the


i

last

293

146i As above.

:"::';:>

-'^

THE PRACTICE OF BREWING.

180

Elements for brewing porter with malt dried to


degrees, and two degrees added to the

what heat

first

2>

and to the

at their
parting from the
^*
of
a
farther
allotment of this
this, independent

last extracts, for

is lost

malt, but

heat to the respective mashes.


Malfs

Value of

dryness.

hops.

Medium of the
the

heat of

mash.

La3t
mash.

160

1TO

First

malt's

extracts,

dryness, and value of

hops.

125

148

XVhether any attempt to improve


malt of

less

in practice,

this liquor,

dryness than 125 degrees,


is

very uncertain

may

brewed with

porter, if

by using

ever be put

malts so low as 119 degrees, probably would succeed;


for, in this case, the last

ing rules,

would be

mash, according to the forego-

at the 174th degree, at

which the

the grain could not be dispersed, and probably


spirit of

more

the result would be, a

more vinous
It

may be

delicate,

more

strong,

and

liquor.

observed, that 4 degrees are charged for the

quantity of hops used

as this

number corresponds

to the

quantity proper to form beer of this denomination.


greater or a less proportion of hops
to this drink, on account of
lity,

of the necessity there

in a shorter time than that

be to render

which

is

from nine to twelve months, and,


or

otherwise

defective

sometimes allowed

better, or inferior qua-

its

may

is

drinks,

it fit

for use

commonly allowed
lastly,

of old, stale,

Wended,

with

new

THE PRACTICE OF BREWING.


guiles.

In these cases, which cannot be too rare, the

by the

errors should be corrected only

and no

1ft

alteration be

made,

addition of hops,

either in the dryness of the

malts, or in the heat of the extracts.

The

third

mode

of extraction

is

that

which intends

spontaneous transparency, but not a durable liquor.

Under

this

head

is

comprehended common small

beer,

soon to be drank.

Common
in winter,

small beer

is

supposed

mer, from one week to three.

by the

different prices of malt

tent

to

is

'to

from two to six weeks, and

quench

mer sound.

and

thirst,

are, that in the winter

it

Its strength is

and of hops ;
most

its

sum-

regulated

its

chief in-

essential properties

should be fine, and in the sum-

This liquor

great trading cities,

be ready for use,

in the heat of

is

chiefly used in

and about

such as London, where, for want of

a sufficient quantity of cellar room, drinks cannot be

stowed, which, by long and slow fermentations, would

come

to a greater degree of perfection.

The

duration

of this kind of liquor being short, and there being a necessity of

ing

it

brewing

it

in

every season of the year, divid-

into very small quantities, easily affected in

veyance by

the external heat

it,

con-

generally neglected, and

placed in repositories influenced


the incidents attending

its

by every change of air,

and the methods for carrying

on the process must be more uncertain, various, and complicated, than those of

any other liquor made from malt

M3

THE PRACTICE OF BREWING.

U2
The
so

incidents attending this specie of malt liquor are


so short

many,

ther,

existence, so contrary to one ano-

.of

and often so <5merent from what should be expected

in the different periods of the year, that an attempt to

guard, in a just proportion, against every one of them,

and against what


must be

which terminated
most

may happen, and

eligible to

oftentimes does not,

many endeavours of this sort,


doubtful success, we have found it

After

fruitless.

in a

form these drinks

in proportion to the

principal circumstances constantly attending them, and

the result was

more

was able to maintain


rature

it

met with

itself

against that variety of tempe-

in the places allotted to

In proportion as
son,

fortunate, as, in general, the drink

it is

we must employ

it.

in a hot or in a cold sea-

brewed,

every means, either to repel or to

attract the acids circulating in the air

for this purpose,

the degree of dryness in the malt, the quantity of hops,


the heat of the extracts, and the degree of temperature
the wort

is

suffered to ferment with,

greatly depends on
celerated,

must vary

as such

The success, in brewing common small

seasons do.

its

beer >

fermentation being retarded or ac-

in proportion to the heat of the air,

and ex-

pansion being the principal effect of heat, was a wort of


this sort suffered, in winter, to

be so cold as 40 degrees,

the air would, with difficulty,

must, or put

it

in action.

if at all,

penetrate the

This slow fermentation would

not permit the beer to be ready at the time required.

THE PRACTICE OF BREWING.


For these reasons, brewers

down

let

their worts, in that

season, at 60 degrees, whereas, in

the night
sible,

is

made use of

summer, the

them

to get

183

air of

as cold as pos-

by which means a part of them may be 12 de-

grees colder than the

medium

of the heat of the day, and

the whole of the worts nearly 5 degrees, in the space of

24 hours.

The

choice of the malt, as to

brewing

be varied in proportion to the

this liquor, should

several seasons, but

custom requires
For

nearly to an uniform color.


air is so cold as the lowest

dryness than

1 1

dry ness and color, for

its

9 degrees

it

should be kept

when

this reason,

the

fermentable degree, a greater

is

required

but the dryness of

malt forming only one part of the process, the proper

medium
degree,

directing the whole must be brought to

by

summer, malt dried to


as

it

tion,

its

true

the heat given to the extracts. In the height of


1

30 degrees seems to be the best,

unites the properties of speedy readiness, preserva-

and transparency, and these several characters

are,

at that time, requisite in this liquor.

To come

as near as possible to the inclination of the

consumers, or to maintain as near as

may be an uniform

color, if in the hottest season malt dried to


for this purpose, the

mean between

this

and

30

is

9, the

best
first

degree that constitutes malt, must answer nearest every


intent,

when

the heat of the air

is

at

this footing, the


following table will,

M4

40 degrees.

Upon

from the proportion

THE PRACTICE OF BREWING.

184

of these two extremes, shew the color of the grain for

every season of the year.


Malt's

Value of hops

air

dryness.

in degrees.

35

122

40

124

Heat

Jf

45

125

50

127

55

129

60

130

common

after being

in the

small beer was immediately to be used

brewed and fermented, and

the incidents, most of


rated,

it

was

free

from

which we have just now enume-

no hops would be required, and the medium de-

gree of the whole process would be that of the lowest


dried malt, 119, to be employed

was at its

first

malts, this

the heat of the air

fermentable degree, or 40,

as,

with adequate

would make the liquor that would be ready

in the least space, and, at the


stituent parts

some

when

but

short time,

if

same time, yield

its

con-

small beer was intended to be kept

brewed without hops, and not

any accidents, and the process

to

liable to

be carried through,

in

heat of air equal to the highest fermentable degree, or


80, in this case the governing

medium

process must be the utmost heat the grain


ilure,

where malt charrs, or 175 degrees.

for the
is

whole

able to en-

As malt

Ii-

THE PRACTICE OF BREWING.


quors are principally affected by heat,
portion the

medium

we

will

185

first

pro-

heat, directive of each process, for

every fermentable degree, without any regard had to


;any incident whatever.

Now

the principal heats affecting

with regard to

which the beer

common small beer,


under

its

duration, are the degree of heat

is

at first fermented, that of the air

when,

brewed, and when conveyed from place to place, and


that of the cellar

where

to these heats, take the

drink

is

liable to, at the

it is

deposited

mean

let us, in

time when the air

fermentable degree, and at the time


hottest (taking for this the

hours.)

regard

of the circumstances this

medium

when

is

at the first

the season

Having these two extremes, and making a

allowance for the hops employed,


3

is

heat of the whole 24

we

shall

fit

be ablq> from

THE PRACTICE OF BREWING.

186

the above table, to fix the

medium

heat that should go-

vern the several processes for making

common

small

beer in every season of the year.


observed, in page 183, that

40 degrees, brewers
be fermented,

to

at

when

the heat of the air

set the worts of

a heat of 60

common

add to

more heat, excited by the fermentable

The

we

heat of the air

treme, was the


In page 156,

first

we

this

action,

fixed for the

first

small beer

10 degrees

makes

10

ex-

40

fermentable heat,

said cellars in winter

is

were ge-

nerally ten degrees hotter than the air, but

we

observed, those employed for this use, were the

worst of the kind, subjected to exterior impressions, or

son

we

perhaps other defects, for which rea-

here set this heat only

46

at

Divided by the number of circumstances

156
52'

is

the

mean of the

in this season,

indicates a

principal incidents affecting small beer

and, by the foregoing table, this degree

medium

to govern the

which must be added,

by

the hops used,

heat in the air

When

the

grees, (see

whole process 136, to

for preservative efiect

degree more, which makes

bestowed
it

at this

is

60 de-

37 degrees.

mean

heat of the whole 24 hours

page 150)

if,

as in

page 183, by the advan-

tage of the evening and night to cool the wort, an abate-

THE PRACTICE OF BREWING.


ment of

degrees

is

1*7

obtained, the whole of the heat

is

55 degrees, add to this only 8 degrees more, because at


this

time the beer

fore the

real heat will

is

divided, and put in casks long be-

fermentable act

first

is

compleated, and their

be

The medium

heat of the air in the hottest

CO

season (page 150)


In page 156

summer time

we

is

say, the heat of the cellars in

generally 5 degrees colder than

the exterior air, but these being the worst of

the kind,

may

summer

as in winter,

fires, for this

nary

somewhat

certainly be thought

more exposed, though not so much

when

reason

affected in

there are fewer culi-

we

fix their

heat at

Divided by the number of observations

56
3

179

59
is

the

mean

this season,

dium heat
which,

if

of these incidents affecting the small beer at

and by the foregoing table

it

indicates a

me-

to govern the whole process 146 degrees, to

two degrees more be added,

for the effect of the

of hops in
hops, (as experience teaches us six pounds

summer
winter)

scarcely are so powerful as three pounds in


it

will give us for the

mean of the

heats drying

the malt, those impressed in the extracts, together with

the allowance

made

for the

Spontaneous pellucidity

hops 148 degrees.


is

always expected in this

THE PRACTICE OF BREWING

188

drink, although the time allotted to gain this in general


is

much too

short

to forward this intent as far as


possi-

ble, without hazarding the soundness of the drink, in the

computations to determine the heats of the

number of

extracts, the whole

first

and

last

constituent parts of malt

or 10 degrees are employed.

.Having premised these


and
fore

last extracts

made use

rules, the heats for the first

are to be found

of,

by

like operations be-

an example of which we

and knowing the mean heats required

shall state

two

distinct

distant processes, in proportion to these I shall

form a

table, for

When

brewing
the air

is

this

drink in every season of the year.

at 40, the degree of dryness fixed for

malts to be used for


tity of

for

common

small beer

is

124, the quan-

hops three pounds per quarter, the medium of

their dryness

and the heat of the extracts, together with

the value of the hops added thereto,

is

37 degrees.

124 Malt's dryness.


137

Medium

intended.

137
1

136

Value of hops.

Mean

of Malt's dryness, and heat of extracts.

THE PRACTICE OF BREWING.


For the

first

18$

extract.

136 As before.
5 Half the

number of the whole

constituent degrees,

to be deducted. (See p. 168.)

131

124 Malt's dryne&s*


138 Rule to discover the
..*....

first

heat.

262

131

As above.

For the

last extract.

136 As before.
5 Half the
to

number

of the whole constituent degrees,

be added. (See p. 168.)

141

24 Malt's dryness.

158 Rule to discover the


4*^a."

282

141

As above.

'.)'

:.

last heat.

THE PRACTICE OF BREWING.

190

The
138 Heat of the
158 Heat of the

first

proof.

extract.

last extract.

296

148

Mean

heat of extracts.

124 Malt's dryness.

272

;..:

,^,
1

36
1

Mean

of Malt's dryness and heat of extracts.

Value of hops.

137 Medium intended,

The

as above.

elements for forming

the heat of the air

proper division of

is

at

common

small beer,

when

40 degrees, independent of the

this heat,

adequate to each Mash.

Malt's

Value of

Whole

First

Last

dryness.

hops.

medium.

heat.

heat.

137

138

124

158

The medium

of the heat lost in

ing to two degrees,


Jast

is

the mash ton, amount-

added to the heat of the

mash, in the following

table.

first

and

THE PRACTICE OF BREWING.

A TABLE

191

of the elements for forming common

small beer, at every degree of heat in the air,


with the allowance of two degrees of heat, in
the first

From due

and

observation of this table,

it is

necessary

last extractions.

for brewers to

with the daily temperature of the

medium

how

appears,

but also with the

air,

heat of such spaces of time, wherein a drink

like this is

mated

it

be acquainted, not only

expected to preserve

for every 14

This

itself.

have

esti-

days; (page 150) but as the event may

not always exactly correspond with our expectations, an


absolute perfection in this drink, as to

and soundness,

is

not to be expected.

on the care and attention given to

it,

its

It

and on the tempe-

rature and quiescent state of the cellars

The

first

of these circumstances

is

transparency

greatly depends

it is

placed

in.

often neglected, and

the other hardly ever obtained, as the places,

where

THE PRACTICE OF BREWING.

122

common

small beer

is

kept, are generally the worst of

the kind.
In keeping beers, every circumstance

form them so as to obtain elegance

pellucidity, either spontaneously or


in

common small beer, from the

assistant t6

is

in taste,
strength,,

by

and

precipitation, but

shortness of

its

duration^

and from the many complicated incidents that occur^


only the

medium

of the effect of these can be attended

to; which governing medium,

in general, differs so

much

from those which form more exact fermentable proportions, that in these extracts, there

cannot be expected

that near resemblance to natural wines, which,

more favorable management,

The

it is

mode of extraction

fourth

veying a heat, equal to what

is

capable
is

that,

under

of.

which, by con-

practised for keeping

pale strdng, and keeping pale small beers, to the liquors

commonly known by
twopenny j the
yield,

softest

the

and

names of pale

ale,

amber, or

richest taste malt can possibly

and which makes them resemble wines formed

from grapes ripened by the hottest sun, though by


fully exciting periodical fermentations,

art-

they are, in a

very short time, made to become transparent.

As wines have,

in general,

been named from the town

or city, in the neighbourhood of which the grapes, from

which they are made, are found growing,


though with

merous

class

less

this

has,

reason, been the case, with our nu-

of soft beers and

ales.

These topical

THE PRACTICE OF BREWING.


denominations can indeed constitute no
considerable difference, since

drink

the

real, at least

no

birth-place of any

is

193

the least of ah distinctions, where the

method of

practice, the materials employed, and the heat of the cli-

mate, are nearly the same.


Ales are not required to keep a long time

so the hops

bestowed on them, though they should always be of the

and best quality, are proportionably fewer

finest color,

the consumption

made

The
pale

it

reason

requires a

summer,

as

more preservative

properties of this liquor are, that

strength and

its

malt, and

is,

that

of this liquor in cold weather,

generally for purl*, whereas, in

on draught,

The

than in the summer.

in the winter

taste principally

it is

is

longer

quality.
it

should be

depend on the

transparency should be the effect of fer-

its

mentation, accelerated by every means, which will not

be hurtful to
extracts,

is

Malt capable of yielding the strongest

it.

such whose dry ness does not exceed 120

degrees; and 138

we have

seen to be the highest

mean

of the extracts, and of the dry ness of the malt to admit of


pellucidity, without precipitation

only so

many

seasons the ale


*

Purl,

is

the hops used, being

as are necessary to resist the heat of the


is

brewed

in,

may in

general be estimated

pale ale, in which bitter aromatics, such as

wormwood,

orange peel, &c. are infused, used by the labouring people, chiefly in
cold mornings, and a much better and wholesomer relief to them, than
spiritous liquors.

194

THE PRACTICE OF BREWING.

in value,

one degree

from these premises, the elements

for brewing this drink, will be found


as before,

by

where 10 degrees are supposed

the

same

rules

to be equal to

the whole of the constituent parts, and the whole of these


are employed to accelerate

its

coming

to perfection.

120 Degrees of malt's dryness.

138 Degrees, whole


1

137

medium

intended.

Value of hops.

Mean

of malt's drytiess, and heat of extracts.

For the

first

extract.

137 As before.
5 Half the number of the whole constituent degrees
to

132

Mean

be deducted.

of malt's dryness, and of the heat of

extract.

120 Malt's dryness.


144 Rule to discorer the

264

132 As above.

first

heat.

first

THE PRACTICE OF BREWING.


For the

195

last extract;

137 As before.

Half the number of the whole constituent degrees

to

Mean

142

be added.

of malt's dry ness j and of the heat of last

extract.

120 Malt's dryness.


164 Rule to discover the

last

heat of

last extract.

284

42 As above.

The

elements for brewing pale ale or amber, with the

allowance of 2 degrees for the heats lost in the extracts.

Medium

Malt's

Value of

dryness.

hops.

the whole.

120

138

The
tirely

time this liquor

is

medium

mash.

Heat of
last

146

mash.

166

intended to be kept, should en-

England,
to

become spontaneously fine,

of the whole, or 138 degrees, cannot be ex-

In and about London, and in

ceeded.

made

Heat of
first

be governed by the quantity of hops used therein

for this ale being required to

the

of

these ales,

become

fine,

by

some counties

in

periodical fermentations, are

sooner than naturally they would

do, and often, in a shorter time than one week.

The

THE PRACTICE OF BREWING.

196

means of doing
as

by beating the yeast

this,

into the drink j

termed, has by some been greatly blamed, and

it is

thought to be an

ill

An

practice.

opinion that the yeast

made

dissolved in the drink, and thereby

prevailed

it

unwholesome,

and some brewers, erroneously led by

and yet willing

that their

this,

commodity should appear of

equal strength with such as had undergone repeated fermentations, have been induced to add ingredients to their

not of the most destructive nature, at least very

if

worts,

unwholesome.

The

elastic air in the

fermenting ale, the effects of long keep-

plain truth

is,

that,

with
ing arc greatly imitated, though

and to strength

to flavor

fermentation,

explaining
It is

it

under

we

more

qualities

and

it

by

When
are, only

advantage as
relates

if I

famous Burton

do not mistake,

intrinsic value will

may be

in

it

will

ale

may

be found, that

be the same, when

London, or

elsewhere,

from

much cheaper rates


when it is increased

exported at

to
in

a long and chargeable land-carriage.


drinks are

made

so strong as these generally

two mashes can take place, by which the whole

virtue of the malt not being expended, small beer

made

to

have hereafter an opportunity of

Russia and other parts, than


price

less

this case

at large.

judiciously brewed

whence

but as

this class, that the

be ranked, and,
its

shall

by returning the

after these ales.

The

purest and most

parts of the grain being extracted,

it is

is

essential

not to be expect-

THE PRACTICE OF BREWING.

191

ed, from an impoverished grist, that beers can be"

made

their necessary constituent parts, or to

keep

to possess

all

so long, as where fresh malt

is

used

but the sort of small

beer, which answers best to the brewer, and

brious for the consumer, must be,

is

most

salu-

by the addition of

fresh hops, to form the remaining strength into keeping

small beer, the greater quantity of hops necessary to be

allowed, beside those boiled in the ale,

every barrel intended to be made.

is

2i pounds for

As much more water

must be employed,

for this small beer, besides its length,

as will steam

in

away

two hours

and

boiling,

rel per quarter of malt, for waste.

The

the extract of small, will be found

of a bar.J.

by

heat regulating
the fpllowing

rule.

138

Medium

heat intended for keeping small beer.

2 Value of hops,

136

Mean

of malt's dryness and heat of extract.

20 Malt's dryness,

152 *Heat of the mash for keeping small after amber,

one mash, and one wort.

272
136 As above.
*

152, to which 2 degrees must be added, for what

is

lost in th

mash

for

than 16XJ

d-

extracts coming away, or 154


degrees, being the heat of the

keeping small beer, after amber; as this number

N3

is

less

THE PRACTICE OF BREWING.

198

All the hops after these

two brewings,

as those

added

for the keeping small beer have been boiled but in one

wort, are in value, for the next guile of beer, equal to

J^ of fresh hops.

We

should

now put an end

to this section, but, as

other drinks are brewed besides those here particularly

we

treated of,

mention them, to shew how

shall just

their different processes are reducible to the rules just

down.

laid

Brown ale is a liquor, whose length is generally two


from one quarter of malt, and which

rels

for preservation.

fore justly

grown

It is

heavy, thick, foggy, and there-

The hops used

in disuse.

fer in proportion to the heats of the season


in,

bar-

not intended

is

in this, difit 'is

brewed

but are generally nearly half the quantity of what

employed,

The

at the

system

from that of

it

same times,

for

common

ought to be brewed upon

this last liquor

the

is

medium

is

small beer.

not different
of the malt's

dryness, and heat of the extracts, are the same for each

degree of heat in the

air,

and

it

requires the

nagement when under fermentation.


grees, the last

made, to

made

find

mash of

same ma-

But though com-

the amber, consequently, in the computation

how much

of the quantity of the liquor used, is to be


mash of small, the

to boil, to give the true degree of heat to the

and the heat of the goods


be multiplied by the volume of the goods, and the

difference of heat required in this mash, 154,

162 or

8, is to

product in this case subtracted


ing,

whereas, in the operations for brew-

whose heat gradually increased every mash,


3

it is

to

be added.

THE PRACTICE OF BREWING.


mon

pale small beer and

brown

ale are so

much

the malt, which, for

brown

constantly so high as

is

ale,

130 degrees, the practice will appear greatly

made

that

is

made

after this ale,

after pale ale or

amber

case, be valued according to

the

medium governing

small beer, and as

No

grain.

alike in

from the difference of the dryness of

their theory, yet,

Small beer

199

if

by
;

its

different.

the same rules as

the malt must, in that


original dryness,

and

the process be the same as for

no extract had been taken from the

small beer brewed after ales can ever be

equal in goodness to such as are brewed from entire


grists

but that which

is

made

grain being so highly dried,


neither nourishing or

Brown
with pale

stout
;

is

fit

to

after

brown

ale,

from the

and nearly exhausted,

quench

is

thirst.

brewed with brown malt,

as

amber

the system for brewing these liquors

is

is

the

same, allowing for the difference in the dryness of the


malt.

son of

The
its

overstrength of this drink has been the rea-

being discontinued, especially since porter or

brown beer has been brought


That which is brewed with an

to a greater perfection.
intent of being long kept,

should be hopped in proportion to the time proposed, or


the climate

it is

to

be conveyed

to.

Old hock requires the same proportion of hops as are


used in keeping pale strong, or keeping pale small beer;

but more or

less,

be kept before

it

according to the time

becomes

fit

for use.

it is

intended to

The

length

is

THE PRACTICE OF BREWING.

200

about two barrels, from


best malt.

a quarter of the palest and

As spontaneous

pellucidity

is

required,

its

whole medium must not exceed 138 degrees, for the dry-

The management

ing and extracting heat.


fermenting,

of

it,

when

under the same rules with keeping small

is

beer, or those which are allowed a

due time

to

become

of themselves pellucid.

Dorchester beers, both strong and small, range under


the same head.

They

are

brewed from barleys well

germinated, but not dried to the denomination of malt.

The

rule of the whole 138 degrees for the governing

jhedium, must, even with


these drinks

quantities of salt

when under

this grain,

be observed to form

but, from the slackness of the malt, and the

and wheaten flour mixed with the liquor,

fermentation, proceed

mantling, and

its

frothy property.

its

peculiar taste,

its

THE PRACTICE OF BREWING.

SECTION

2<H

IV.

OF THE NATURE AND PROPERTIES


OF HOPS.
1 HE

constituent parts of malt, like those of

all

vege-

table sweets, are so inclined to fermentation, that,

when

once put

in

motion,

it

is

difficult to retard their

gress, retain their preservative qualities,

their

becoming

acid.

Among

pro-

and prevent

many means put

the

in

forwardness of the malt, none

practice, to

check

this

promised so

much

success as blending with the extracts,

the juices of such vegetables as, of themselves, are not


easily
this

Hops were

brought to fermentation.

selected for

purpose, and experience has confirmed their whole-

someness and efficacy.

Hops

are an aromatic, grateful bitter,

endued with an

austere and astringent quality, and guarded

resinous

The

oil.

by a strong

aromatic parts are volatile, and disen-

gage themselves from the plant with a small heat.


preserve them,

in the processes of

To

brewing, the hops

should be put into the copper as soon as possible, and be

thoroughly wetted with the


of the wort
has

little

is

at the least,

first

extract, while the heat

and the

or no effect thereon.

trouble to see this performed,

fire

under the copper

Whoever

will

by the means of

be

at the

rakes, or

THE PRACTICE OF BREWING.

202

otherwise, will be

which, when

made

sensible, that flavor

the wort comes to boil,

is

is

retained,

otherwise con-

stantly dissipated in the air.

The

bitter is of a

requires more

fire

middle nature, or

to extract

setnivolatile

but not so much as the austere or astringent.


is

Hence

it

plain, that the principal virtues of this plant are best

obtained

by decoction, the

themselves, but

brewery.

It

austere parts not exhibiting

when urged by

tinued boiling, as

so violent and long con-

seldom, or never practised in the

is

would be greatly

satisfactory to fix,

experiments, the degrees of heat, that

first

from

disperse the

aromatic, next the bitter, and lastly the austere parts


as

it

than the aromatic part,

it,

it is

this

by

likely,

means, a

more easy and

certain

method of judging of the true value and condition of


hops, than any yet known, might be discovered.

This vegetable

is

so far from being,

by

itself,

capable

of a regular and perfect fermentation, that, on the contrary,

its

resinous parts retard the aptness which malt

has to this act.

Hops, from hence, keep barley-wines

sound a longer space of time, and, by repeated and slow


frettings,

give an opportunity to the particles of the

liquor to be

more separated and comminuted.

mented liquors acquire, by


gency, even though
additional strength

it

from

this

Fer-

means, a greater pun-

was admitted they received no


this

of which might easily be

mixture, the direct contrary

made

to appear.

Hops, then,

THE PRACTICE OF BREWING.

203

are not only the occasion of an improvement of taste,

but an increase of strength.

Grew seems

Dr.

>'

to think the bitter of the

be increased by a greater degree of dryness


haps, this

may

but, per-

only one of the means of their retaining

is

this quality,

longer

hops
;

which undoubtedly decreases through

age, in a proportion, as near as can be guessed, of from


to 15 per cent, yearly.

The

may

varieties of the soils in

have some share

be much

They seem
Whoever will try similar
them.

shire

to

which hops are planted,

in the inequality

and Kentish hops,

benefited

we

perceive in

by

the sea

air.

processes with the* Worcester-

will

soon perceive the difference,

and the general opinion strengthens

this assertion, as the

county of Kent alone produces nearly half the quantity


of hops used in this kingdom.

The

sooner and the tighter hops are strained, after

having been bagged, the better will they preserve them-

The

selves.

We

opinion that they increase in weight,

had rather

attribute to this cause, the inferior quality of the

Worcestershire hops, than to what


in that

county

if

suffer their

is

reported.

That some planters

hops to be so ripe on the poles, that they

become very brown before they are gathered to recover their color,
on the fire of the kiln they strew brimstone, which brings them to a
:

fine

yellow

the dryness and harshness this acid occasions, they cor-

rect by sprinkling the hops with milk, from

whence they bag closer,


but two ingredients more pernicious to
the forming good
beers, perhaps, could not have been though^ of, than
milk and brimstone.

and require

little

straining,

THE PRACTICE OF BREWING,

204

not strained until after Christmas,


not recommend the practice

ture of the winter air, which,

when

drier, is lost again, together with

Nor

yitous parts.

ed by
a

is

this delay, as

damp

hops,

true, hut will

the weather grows

some of

this the greatest

season, too often

Hops may be
into old

may he

the hops imbibe the mois-

the

more

spi-

damage occasion-

by being kept

slack

bagged

in

become mouldy.

divided into ordinary and strong, and

and new.

The denomination

of old

is first

given

New

to them, one year after they have been bagged.

ordinary hops, when of equal

dry-ness, are supposed to be

nearly alike in quality, with old strong ones.

The
the

different teints, Avith

fire

which hops are affected from

of the kiln, afford in brewing the best rule for

adapting their color to that of the malt

in general the

finest hops are the least, but the most carefully, dried.

To

extract the resinous parts of the hops,

sary they should be boiled.

them
wort,

is

The method

it

is

neces-

of disposing

generally to put the whole quantity, in the

which, being always made with

first

waters leSs hot

than the succeeding extracts, possesses the greatest share


of acids, and
sins

and

is

in

bitters to

want of the
defend

it.

largest proportion of re-

The

virtue of the hops is

not entirely lost

by once boiling, there remains

still

enough to

bitter

and preserve the second wort.

But

where the

first

wort

is

short of

itself,

and a large

quantity of hops are required for the whole,

it is

need-

THE PRACTICE OF BREWING:


less

and wasteful to put more in at once than

sorb, the overplus of


licle floating

No

which appears by a thin

on the wort when laid to cool

205

it

can ab-

bitter pel-

in the backs.

can be given to avoid this inconveparticular rules

of the worts on one


niency, as the nature and quantity
side,

and the strength of the hops on the

other,

must oc-

casion a difference in the management, easily determinable

by experience.

When

waters, not sufficiently hot, have been used,

the wort, for want of the proper quantity of

admits of the external impressions of the

oils,

air,

and

readily
easi-

is

ly excited to a strong and tumultuous fermentation,

which disperses the

bitter particlesj

effects of the hops.

The

and diminishes the

virtue of this plant

therefore

is

retained in the drinks, in proportion to the heat of the


extracts,

and the slowness of the fermentation.

But beers being a composition of malt, hops, and


water, united

by

heat,

and the properties of

this

combi-

by the medium of the whole


number of degrees of fire made use of in the process, as
nation being judged of

we brought

the virtues of malt to this denomination,

also essential to reduce those of hops.

After

ous calculations and experiments, made with

and unnecessary here

to mention,

we were

many
this

it is

tedi-

view,

obliged to

have recourse to a more simple and probable hypothesis,

and confirm the truth thereof by repeated experiments,


the relation of which, as

it

becomes here necessary,

will

THE PRACTICE OF BREW

206

IN

C.

to take a general

shew the necessity we were under

view

we attempted

to ascertain

mean heat of the

air applica-

of the whole process before


this point.

In the table shewing the

ble to practice, the greatest cold


this season

we

35 degrees, and in

is

observed, (page 156) the repositories of

beers were more

warm

than this by 10 degrees, which

makes the greatest cold of

cellars to

the same table the highest heat

is

degrees colder than the external

60,

airs,

be 45 degrees

when

this takes place in 6

in

the utmost diffe-

rence then in the temperature of cellars

and

cellars are 5

is

10 degrees,

months, so that the whole vari-

ety of heat beers deposited for keeping undergo in one

twelvemonth

There

is

is

20 degrees.

no specie of beer,

requisite the artist should be

in

brewing of which

more

it is

attentive to alter his

process in proportion to the change of heat in the air,

than

common
is

season,
for use.

small beer, which, though

brewed

In the preceding section, in the table


directing

this variety,

we

find a difference of five


degrees of heat

in the air, requires an alteration in

medium

whole process of 3 degrees, and as

it is

heat of the dryness of


tracts,

heat of the

from the mean

he malt, of the heat of the ex-

and of the value of hops

discover the quantity of


this

in every

constantly expected to be in an uniform order

fire to

in degrees, that

we

are to

be given to the extracts,

can be done only by


deducting from such medium

THE PRACTICE OF BREWING.


so

much

as

Just before

it is

by the properties of the hops.

affected

we have

201

seen, that the whole of the variety

of heat beers deposited in cellars to keep twelve months

undergo, amounts to 20 degrees, these, in a proportion of


5 to 3, would be 12, without being scrupulously exact.

Hops, with regard to


cess,

their proportion in the

must be admitted

to

whole pro-

be one third part thereof, and,

in this case, of the proportion,

now

12,

found, only 4

degrees would be what they contribute towards preserv-

ing the drink

2 months

the quantity of hops necessary

to maintain beers in a sound state this space of time,

have found to be twelve pounds


equal to 4 degrees of the

On

process.

medium

these grounds

we

this quantity then is

heat of the whole

we repeatedly

tried the ex-

periment in a variety of brewings made for different purposes, and never found

timating hops

any inconveniencies from the

Hops should be used


liquors are intended to
air in

in proportion to the time the

be kept, and

which they are fermented.

site to

shewn

es-

in such like proportion.

to the heat of the

The

quantity requi-

preserve beers twelve months, experience has


to

be * twelve pounds, of a good quality, joined

to one quarter of malt,

and when the heat of the

air'is

* This rule
only takes place for such climates as are of the same heat

with ours ; for when drinks are brewed to be expended in more southern
countries, or to undergo long voyages, twenty pounds of hops to one
quarter of malt have been used with success.

THE PRACTICE OF BREWING.

208

40 degrees, three pounds to every quarter has been

at

found

sufficient to preserve drinks

as six

pounds are

to

from four to

six

weeks,

keep them the same term when the

thermometer is so high

as

60 degrees.

From

these facts,

founded on informations obtained from long practice,

we

shall

be used in

hereafter ascertain the proper

quantities

to'

all cases.

Having premised these


rate for the

observations, sufficiently accu-

government of this art, the construction as

well as utility of the following tables will be obvious.

A TABLE

of the value of the hops, expressed

in degrees, to be added to the

medium of the

dryness of the malt, and of the heat of the


extracts.

Hops.

New or

strong.

Pale, low dried,


or old.

ISlb. equal

3|

12

...

..

.-

,.

THE PRACTICE OF BREWING.

20$

A TABLE

of the quantity of hops requisite


for every quarter of Malt brewedfor porter,
supposed to be Jit for

use

from

eight to

twelve months.
wocl
:

Ib.

Old ordinary hops

started over old beer,

14 per Qr.

Ditto, neat guiles,

Strong good

old hops,

12JL

when

started over old


121.

beer,

12

Ditto, neat guiles,

New

strong hops,

when started over

old beer, 12

Ditto, neat guiles,

New

11

ordinary hops started over old beer,

Ditto,

neat guiles,

is

121.

12

N. B. The quantity of old beer

new

....

to

be blended with

here supposed never to exceed one eighth part of

the whole.

THE PRACTICE OF BREWING.

210

A TABLE of the
common small

quantity of hops requisite for

beer, for each

quarter of malt,

in every season.

Heat

New

in the air.

oz.

Ib.

...................

.................

.................

..................

..................

45

....................

50

.....

..............

................

:.

55

....................

60

....................

65

.......

............

70

....................

75

....................

80

.........

oz.

..28

..28..

35.
40

Old hops.

hops.

lb.

,'.

The medium

..

12

heat of the hottest days in England, in

the shade, seldom, at any time, exceeds 60 degrees, but


I

continued the table proportionably, as what

down

is

is

here set

from repeated experiments, and from thence

it

appears, at the lowest fermentable

degree of heat, three

pounds of hops are required

each quarter of malt

at the highest, nine

the same quantity

for

pounds of hops should be allowed for


this,

in

some measure, determines

the effect of a greater activity in fermentation.

THE PRACTICE OF BREWING.

211

A TABLE

of the quantity of hops necessary to


each quarter of malt> in brewing amber or
two-penny.

Heat of the

New

air.

Ib.

35

,.-

Old hops.

hops.
oz.

Ib.

oz.

:f\i

40

45
I.

>.(;

50

55

4
..;o

is

its

by repeated

is

supposed to

drink does, and in the

resist

fit

it

for use,

the impres-

common small beer,

for this reason,

periodical fer-

be soon

90 attenuated, as to

strength,

sions of the air Longer than


in winter

4 12

.ul

a liquor which,
is

mentations,

by

Amber

tities,

-ft;

60

and,

especially

wants fewer hops than that

summer both

require equal quan-

on account of the fermentation of amber being

carried to a greater degree.

The hops once


for small beer,

boiled in amber, but used afterwards

may be

estimated equal to one fourth of

their original quality.

When

twelve shilling small beer

is

the quality of the hops used should

made

at least

after

amber,

be equal

in

value to the quantity of ten pounds fresh hops to every


five barrels of beer,

when brewed from

malt for this purpose.

02

entire grists of

THE PRACTICE OF BREWING.

212

A TABLE

of the quantity of hops necessary

for each quarter of malt, in brewing Burton


ale.

This liquor requires fewer hops than such

more

diluted

by water

as

it

is

winter, the quantities here set

of months

it is

supposed

to

ales as are

always brewed in the

down

are for the

be kept, before

it is

number

drank or

bottled.

Months.
i

Ib.

:.:.: ......................

joivjq
>i

ill

o
8

4i

oz.

...........................

o
Z

30

5
6

................... . .......

...........................

48

...........................

10

...........................

11

...........................

12

............................

Though common amber, keeping amber, and Burton


ales require the

same degree of heat

of their processes,

to

govern the whole

yet some small difference will be

found in the heats of their extracts, on account of the


different quantity of

hops used.

THE PRACTICE OF BREWING.

213

Besides the use of hops for keeping the musts of malt,

may

they

also,

to strengthen

two pounds,
to

with great propriety, be employed both

in a net

suspended

be formed with, are

Though

water the mash

in the

the purchasing the materials, used in

yet as, in this case,

know what

is

manu-

practical part,

of great importance to the brew-

it is

stock

its

it is

prudent for him to keep, of

an ingredient equally necessary and variable in


I

or

sufficient for this purpose.

facture, does not immediately relate to

er to

One

and preserve sound the extracts.

its

value,

hope the attempt of a calculation on this subject, will

easily

be pardoned.

The amount

of the duty

from 1748 to 1765, was


mating the duty at
used in that time.
this interval,

for sixteen years,

upon hops,

.1,171,227, which sum, esti-

2ls. per bag, gives

At

the beginning

1,1

15,454 bags,

and expiration of

hops sold at such high prices, as no consi-

derable stock can be supposed to have remained

hand, viz. from jC.S to

.10 per hundred.

in

If,

there-

fore, to the aforesaid quantity of 1,1 15,454 bags,

which

may

be supposed to have served for the whole consump-

tion during this period,

we add what may have escaped

paying duty*, the annual consumption of hops


*
If,

may be

of the whole quantity of hops grown in one year, one half

is

put into bags, whose tare is one tenth of their whole weight, and the
other half is put in pockets, whose tare is one fortieth of their whole
if the excise office allows one tenth for tare
;
upon the whole,
and the excise or weighing officers, are content with one ninth, as by
their marks, and the weight when sold to the brewer,
appears to be

weight

OS

THE PRACTICE OF BREWING.

21*

estimated at 70,000 bags, including what


Ireland or elsewhere.

From

is

exported to

these premises, the follow-

ing table was constructed, which, though not capable of


absolute certainty,
ers,

in

may be

of some service to the brew-

informing them of the

quantities, that probably

remain in band at any time, and the stock which prudence


will suggest to

the fact; then

them to lay

somewhat

like

in.

one twentieth part more hops are

grown, than what pays duty, or than the excise

be the

case.

officers report to

THE PRACTICE OF BREWING.

A TABLE,

215

shewing the medium price Hops

should bear,

in proportion

to

and determining the quantity

the growth,
to be pur-

chased, in proportion to the stock in hand.

120

75000

130

70000

16

140

67000

12

150

65000

160

62000

170

6000O

180

57000

190

55000

200

52000

20

Forty shillings per hundred weight, are supposed to be the mean


difference between new and old hops, and ought to be estimated in
proportion to the quantity of old left in hand, and that of

grown, in order to ascertain the value of the

04

last.

new hops

THE PRACTICE OF BREWING.

216

This chapter should not be dismissed without reminding the brewery, of the gross imposition they submit to

The

in purchasing hops.

be allowed in the
hop-factors

is

ging, at the

sale of all

refused,

tare

which justice requires to

packed merchandize, by the

who exact payment

same price

as for the

for the bag-

commodity

the consumption of hops, in England,

is

itself.

If

yearly 172,268

cwt. and these be packed one half in bags and the other
half in pockets, taking the
3l.

4s.

mean

price of hops to be

per cwt. in this case the consumers are defrauded

at least of 39,834-1.

per

is

that,

on a just regula^

itself

would

rise in

not the least foundation for.

The

present

tion of this matter, the

price, there

annum

commodity

practice of monopolizing hops,

by much too

frequent,

is

a farther reason to induce the brewery to exert the influ-

ence they ought to have with superior power, to obtain


a right so justly due to them.

THE PRACTICE OF BREWING.

SECTION
r
i\

i.

f.feHftri;

211

V.

>'

vv
OF THE LENGTHS NECESSARY TO FORM MALT-

LIQUORS OF THE SEVERAL DENOMINATIONS.

.DY

length, in the brewery,

of drink

made from one

differ in

this respect

lowed to every

understood the quantity

is

and the particular strength

sort of drink, varies also

is,

al-

somewhat, ac-

This increase or

cording to the prices of the materials.

abatement

Beers and ales

quarter of malt.

however, never such as to make the profits

certain or uniform

for the value of the grain being

sometimes double of what

it is

at other times, a

tionable diminution in strength, can

propor-

by no means take

place.
It

might be expected to

find here tables determining

the differences in strength and quality of each drink, in

proportion to their prices, and the expences of the brewer.

and

But
in

this, for

many

reasons,

would be inconvenient,

some respects impracticable.

be at this trouble,

He, who chuses

to

ought not only to take into the ac-

count, the prices of malt and hops, but the hazards in


the manufacturing them, those of leakage, of bad cellars,

and of careless management, the frequent returns, attend-

ed with many

losses, the

wearing out of

utensils,

and

es-

THE PRACTICE OF BREWING,

218

pecially of casks, which last article, engrosses at least one


fifth

of the brewer's capital,

and carriages,

horses,

the charges of servants,

for the delivery of the drinks, the

duties paid immediately to the government, without any


security

for

the large stock and

the reimbursement,

credit necessary to carry

incidents, hardly to

on

this trade,

and many other

be estimated with a

racy, and never alike to every brewer.


pears,

when malt and hops

value of what

is

are sold at

employed of these,

is

sufficient accu-

In general

mean

it

ap-

prices, the

equal to the

charge

attending the manufacture, or of about half the value of


the drinks.

Hence

this conclusion, sensibly felt

by every

honest trader, that, from change of circumstances, the

reputation of the profits has outlived

the reality

of

them, and that a trade, perhaps the most useful to the


landed interest, to the government, and to the public, of

any, seems distinguished from

and

less

But,

all,

by greater hazards,

encouragement.
in

a treatise

which true brewing

like this,
is

where only the rules upon

founded, are

laid

down,

would

avoid any thing that might, though undesignedly, give

handle to invidious reflections, and ill-timed controversies.


I

therefore content myself with setting

tudes of the lengths which should be

down

made

the

lati-r

for drinks of

every denomination.
*o
-#

i>ic

bns

THE PRACTICE OF BREWING.

219

the

excise

Lengths of

beers,

according to

gauges, observed within the


ty,

bills

of mortal'*

or the JTinchester measure.

Lengths of common small beer.


4^ Barrels to 5?,

Lengths of keeping small beer.


4

Barrels to 5i,

Lengths of amber, or pale

ale.

Lengths of brown strong, or porter,


2

Barrels to 2|,

Lengths of Burton
1

Barrel to

from one quarter of malt.

li Barrel to If,

ale.

THE PRACTICE OF BREWING

220

SECTION

VI.

METHOD OF CALCULATING THE HEIGHT IN THE


COPPER AT WHICH WORTS ARE TO GO OUT.

JL

HE

expected quantities, or lengths of beer and ale,

can only be found by determining at what height in the

copper the worts must be when turned out.

Brewers have several methods of expressing to what

would have

part they
is

Brass,

the worts reduced

the copper

it is

by

rivet the parts of the

last are

boiling.

a fixed point, from which the estimation

generally takes place, either

which

by

the technical appellation for the upper rim of

inches, or

by the

copper together.

nails,

These

not very equal, either in the breadth of their

heads, or their distances from each other.

Inches then,

though not specified on the copper, but determined by


the application of a gauge, on which they are marked,

claim the preference.

The

necessity of coppers being

gauged, and the contents of what they contain on every


inch, both above and

below brass, must appear

in

stronger light, the nearer \ve bring the art to exactness.

The

following tables will shew the most useful manner in

which

conceive this gauging should be specified.

THE PRACTICE OF BREWING.

221

Gauges of Coppers.
Great Copper,

up Nov.

set

30,

Little

*B.

F.

15

15
15
14
14
13
13
13

4
7

17
16
15
14
13
12

I*

P3

10

set

G.

B.

up Aug.

4 Full

15

F.

G.

11
11

6 -d

12
12
12

5 _2

11

fe

&

II

Brass

Copper,

1753.

1750.

10
10
10

rt

35

7
2
6

8
8

7
7
7

O
<o

B. stands for Barrels, F. for Firkins, G. for Gallons.

3,

THE PRACTICE OF BREWING

222

By

the foregoing table,

it

is

seen that

my

great cop-

per holds nearly nine barrels of water to brass, and as the


difference of the

volume between boiling worts, of most

denominations, and cold water,


quantity
barrels.
is

it

is

nearly as 7 to 9, the

will yield of boiling worts will

The diameter

be but seven

of this copper, just above brass,

sixty-eight inches, at a

medium, and

at that

mean

it

holds twelve gallons seven pints of cold water, or nearly

eleven gallons of boiling worts, upon an inch.

Hops macerated, by being twice

boiled, take

for

up

every six pound weight a volume, in the copper, equal


to four gallons

and a half of water, or a pin.

In a copper, the' gauges of which have just been set

down,

it is

required to

know what number

length of twenty-four barrels must go out

of inches a
at,

teen pounds of hops, the guile of beer to be

two

with

fif-

brewed

at

worts.

24 Barrels, length of beer.


14 Barrels, for two full brass,
10

34 Numbers of gallons to a barrel accounted by the excise, out of the


bills

of mortality.

40 Hops twice put


30

Gallons of
boiling wort

upon an inch

in 15lb.
6lb.

is

30

30

340
22

Equal to gallons

11 [362

22
33 Inches above brass, the two worts
to go out togethe r.

THE PRACTICE OF BREWING.


When
brasses

three worts are boiled, the

amount of

223
three full

must be deducted from 'the length; and as the

hops go into the copper three times, they become more


macerated, and take up
tion

is

less

room.

The

propor-

then nearly thirteen or fourteen pounds of hops

for each four gallons

Thus

we

much

in

are able,

lengths;

and a

half.

coppers, which have never been tried or used,

by

the gauges alone, to determine

but, as their circumferences are not always

<xact, and the worts are of very different strengths,

should never neglect such


to accuracy and truth.

lo
n;

-qua
-

<

-.'

*ni
sri*

our

trials

as

may

we

bring us nearer

THE PRACTICE OF BREWING.

224

SECTION

VII.

OF BOILIXG.
IT

has been a question, whether boiling

wort

but

as

their virtues are not yielded

boiling

is

is

necessary to a

hops are of a resinous qualitv, the whole of

by extraction

as needful as the plant itself,

decoction or

and

together

is,

with extraction and fermentation, productive of that uni-

formity of taste in the compound, which constitutes

good

beer.

Worts are composed of


some small portion of

water, and perhaps

from both the malt and

Oils are capable of receiving a degree of heat

hops.

much

oils, salts,

earth,

superior to

respect, the

power

salts,

and these again surpass,

of water.

posed to have received the whole of the


mit

of,

such a degree of heat must

fire it

\Vhen

this

can ad-

arise, as will

proportion to the quantity of the oils, the salts,


water.

in this

Before a wort can be sup-

happens, the wort

may

be

in

and the

be said to be

intimately mixed, and to have but one taste.

The

made

more ex-

fiercer,

would not increase the

heat, or

actly blend together the constituent parts

once obtained, the boiling of the wort


It follows

from

thence, that

is

this

fire,

purpose

completed.

some worts

sooner than others, receive their heat in a

less

will

boil

time, and

THE PRACTICE OF BREWING.


be saturated with

less fire

but, as

it is

325

impossible, and,

the quantities
indeed, unnecessary, to estimate exactly

of

oils, salts,

it is

and water contained

out of our power

each different wort,

any one, the

of.

This renders the ther-

in this case useless,

and obliges us to depend

degree of heat

mometer

in

previously to fix, for

it is

capable

and to observe the signs which


entirely on experiment,
act of ebullition.

accompany the

been mentioned, when acting upon

Fire, as before has

bodies, endeavours to

lines.

wort

effort of fire, in

posed
first,

particles are,

manner, endeavour to

are next, and last of

all

fire,

rise

the

it is

how

violently

it is

is

The

above the whole.

oils.

From

this struggle

first boils,

which

agitated, before the different

While

this

we may be sure that the wort


mixed, but when the fire has penetrated

ebullition lasts,

not intimately

and united the

different parts, the noise abates, the

boils smoother, the

cuously as
rises

com-

imagined, the

principles are blended one with another.

vehement

it is

and becoming lighter

proceeds the noise heard when the wort

proves

in right

resistance to the

proportion to the different parts

The watery

of.

makes a

which are saturated with

in this
salts

make its way through them

set to boil,

it

did at

more upright,

first

in

round the top of the copper,

consequence of the

freely in direct lines through the drink,


fierceness of

it

drives

wort

steam, instead of clouding promis-

fire

passing

and when the

any part of the drink from the body

THE PRACTICE OF BREWING.

226

of the wort, the part so separated ascends perpendicu-

Such are the

larly.

the

signs

satisfied

wort, or the strongest part of the extracts, has

first

been so affected by the


If, at this time,

taste.

by which we may be

become nearly of one

to

fire, as

turned out of the copper,

it is

it

appears pellucid, and forms no considerable sediment.

The proper time

for the boiling of a

wort hitherto has

been determined, without any regard to these circumstances

hence the variety of opinions on

this subject

than on any other part of the process.


greater, perhaps,

While some brewers would confine

boiling to so short a

space as five minutes, there are others

The

hours absolutely requisite.


strength of the wort

gument

is lost

will not hold

boiling a wort in a

who

by long

who

believe

two

alledge, that the

boiling

but

this ar-

good against the experiment of

still,

steam, which appears

first

and examining the collected


than mere water.

little else

continue boiling the

first

Those

wort a long time, do

it

in

due

effect,

and that the hops have yielded the whole of their

virtue.

order to be satisfied that the

They judge

and

if

it

has had

its

of this by the wort curdling, and depositing

flakes like snow.

lected,

fire

will

If a quantity of this

be found to the

taste

sediment

and yield a vinous

liquor.

when

These

therefore, contain part of the strength of the wort


consist of the

first

col-

both sweet and bitter,

boiled again in water, the decoction,

will ferment,

is

cold,

flakes,
;

they

and choicest principles of the malt

THE PRACTICE OF BREWING.


and hops, and, by
no

their subsiding,

327

become of

little

or

use.
It

first

appears, from these circumstances, that boiling a

wort too short or too long a time,

equally detrU

is

mental, that different worts require different times, and


these times can only be fixed

The
the

first

fire,

by

observation.

wort having received, by the assistance of

a sufficient proportion of bitter from the hops,

The

separated therefrom.

is

hops, being deprived of part

of their virtues, are, on the other hand, enriched with

some of the glutinous

particles of. the malt.

They

are

afterwards, a second, and sometimes a third time, boiled

with the following extractions, and thereby divested not

only of what they had thus obtained, but also of the re-

maining part of

The

their preservative qualities.

ness and fluidity of these last worts render

tremely proper for

this

intense as that of the

purpose.

first,

when

Their heat
boiling

thin-

them exis

never so

for, as

they

consist of fewer oils, they are incapable of receiving so

great a degree of heat.

made up by doubling or
first

This deficiency can only be


tripling the space of time the

wort boiled, so that what

ness of heat,

The

may be

yranted in the intense-

supplied from

following table

made according

is

is

its

continuance.

constructed from observations

to the foregoing rules.

P2

THE PRACTICE OF BREWING.

228

A TABLE

shewing the time each wort re-

several sorts of beer, in


quires to boil for the

every season.

It

may, perhaps, be objected,

of the

last

may be

by a long

boiling

extracted, and give a disagreeable taste to the

liquor; but

it

should be observed, this only happens,

either in beers to
in

that,

worts, the rough and austere parts of the hops

be long kept, or

very hot weather.

-wears off
last, it is

In the

by age, and grows

a check

such as are brewed

in

first

case the roughness

into strength,

to the proneness musts

and

have

in the

in

such

seasons to ferment.
*

When

there are but two worts in

keeping pale small, or

marked

for the second

common "small,
and

brown

strong, keeping strong,

the boiling

third wort?.

is

to

be observed as

THE PRACTICE OF BREWING.


One

observation

more

is

necessary under this head

most coppers, especially such


set

by proper workmen,

229'

as are

made

"waste or steam

in

London, and

away, by

boil-

ing, about three or four inches of the contained liquor,


in each hour.
trial,

The

quantity wasted being found on

and knowing how much water the copper holds

upon an
brewing,

inch,

may

what

is

steamed away by boiling in each

easily be estimated.

P3

THE PRACTICE OF BREWING.

330

SECTION
Of

the Quantity of

VIII.

Water wasted

and of

the Appli-

cation of the preceding Rules to two different


processes

of Brewing.

WASTE water, in brewing,


employed

the water steamed

which

is lost

by

in the

Under

away

head

this

though

remain in the beers


is

comprehended

in the boiling of the worts

heating for the extracts

the utensils imbibe

remains

that part which,

in the process, yet does not

when made.

or ales

is

when dry;

that

that

which

that

which necessarily

pumps and underback and more than all,


is retained in the
The fixing to
grist.
;

the water which

a minute exactness how much

is

impossible and unnecessary.

Every one of the

just

now mentioned varies

thus expended,

is

both

articles

in proportion to the grist, to the

lengths made, to the construction and order of the utensils,

and

to the time

employed

in

making the

beer.

To

these different causes of the steam being lessened or in-

creased, might be added every change in the atmosphere.

However,
varies

as,

upon the whole, the quantity of water

from no reason so much,

dryness of the malt, experience

and

surest guide.

as

is,

lost

from the age and

in this case, our sole

have, in the following table,

under every mode of brewing, how much

placed

have found

THE PRACTICE OF BREWING.

231

wastes and evaporanecessary to allow for these several


tions.

Brown strong and pale strong

beers.

Barrels pins.*

For old malts allow

5 per quarter.

For newf malts

per quarter.

Keeping small and common small


For either new or old malt allow

Amber

....

4 per quarter.

or pale ales.

For either new or old malt allow

....

5 per quarter.

Keeping small or common small


Allow

beers.

after

now time

amber.

2 per quarter.

for waste
to begin the account of

two brewings,

which admit of the greatest variety, both

in themselves,

The same

processes will

It is

in the season of the year.

and

be carried on,

in the sequel of this

work,

until they

be

completed. J
*

The

By new

small cask, called

9.

pin,

is

one eighth part of a barrel.


'

.'

cgf

malt, I understand such, as has not lost the whole of the

heat received on the kiln, and by old, such as

is

of equal heat with the

or such which has laid a sufficient time to imbibe part of

;iir,

its

moisture.
J

At

the time

when

the

first

edition of this

work was published,

brown beers were brewed with very high dried malts experience has shewn to the generality of the trade and to the author, this
porter or

practice to be erroneous, the reasons

hereafter will again, be spoken of.

why have

before, and perhaps

In compliance with

ment (though between |he two proposed brewings,

P4

tins

improve-

so great u variety

THE PRACTICE OF BREWING.

232

On the tenth
is

to

By

common

of July a brewing for

1 50 the
time is

pagre

this

medium

heat of the air at

184 the malt to be used for


purpose should be in dryness at

By page

60 de

By page

this )

^ees

The

gauge without the

210 the proper quantity of new hops

pounds per quarter.


cise

small beer

be made with 6 quarters of malt.

is

length, according to the ex-

bills

of mortality,

may be

rated

at 5 barrels | per quarter, or from the whole grist at 30


barrels

By page

See page 219.


222, the inches required in the copper, to

bring out this length, at 2 worts,

will be, for

coppers as

gauged page 221, 56 inches in the 2 worts above brass.

The

state of this part of the

six quarters of

malt dried to

brewing

is,

therefore,

30 degrees, 36 pounds of

hops for 30 barrels | to go out at 56 inches above

brass.

Length

30|

/Boiling by page 228


<

5
1

v-2

wort

hour ^ or 5 inches.

wort 3 hours or 9 inches.

waste water page 23 1


barrels

whole quantity of water

to be used.

And by page

191

we

find the heat of the first extract

to be 154 degrees, and the heat of the last 174 degrees.


The other brewing, of which I purpose to lay down
will not appear) I have founded my calculations for porter, on malts
dried so as best will answer this purpose.

THE PRACTICE OF BREWING.


the process in this treatise,

porter of

is

233

one for brown beer or

quarters of malt, to be brewed on the 20th

1 1

of February.

By page

50 the medium heat of the

air at )

130 degrees,

By page
quarter.

209 the quantity of hops

The

length

would

is

12 pounds per

fix for this liquor,

ing to the excise gauge without the

bills

accord-

of mortality,

is

2 barrels and 4 pins from a quarter, or from the Avhole

27 barrels

grist

By
as

i.

See page 219.

page 222, the inches required, in a copper, such

have specified page 221, to bring out

this length at

3 worts, are 31 above brass.

The
it, is

state

of this brewing, so far as

we have

considered

therefore 11 quarters malt dried to 130 degrees, 132

pounds of hops for 21 barrels i to go out


above

at 31 inches

brass.

barrels the length,

27^

/ boiling
i

8?
18

wort

by page
1

228,

hour or 4 inches.

2 wort 2 hours or 6 inches.

\3 wort 4 hours

or 12 inches.

waste water page 231 old


malt 1| per quarter.

54 barrels, whole quantity of water


to be used.

And by page
to

177

we

find the heat of the first extract

be 155 degrees, and the heat of the

last

extract 165,

THE PRACTICE OF BREWING.

234-

SECTION
Of

IX.

Water for the

the Division of the

respective

and Mashes, and of the Heat adequate

1HAT the whole quantity

to

Worts

each of these.

of water, as well as that of

heat required, ought

not, in

applied to the grist,

is

any brewing,

once to be

at

obvious, both from reason, and

from the example of nature, who,

in

forming the juice

of the grape, divides the process, and iocreasing successively both the moisture

degree to have

its

and the

complete

heat, gives time to each

water and heat to form malt liquors

but previous to

effect.
is

division of the

equally necessary,

this division the following general rules

may be laid down.


The grist, if possible,

is

at

no time

to

be

water than what will cover the malt, to put


in action.

ance
will

is

to

In the

first

all

with less
its

parts

mashes for strong beer, an allow-

be made for nearly

imbibe

left

as

much water

as the grist

and, lastly, the whole quantity of water

used in brewing should be divided, in a proportion analogous to that of the degrees of heat.
Processes for brewing are carried on either with one

copper or with two.


is

almost out of use,

ample

or

two of the

Though
it

may

the

first

of these methods

be necessary

to give an ex-

division of the water used in this

THE PRACTICE OF BREWING.


case, the doing

which

235

will point out the absurdity of this

practice.

In brewing with one copper, scarcely

mashes can be made

more than

otherwise the time taken

three

up

in

the subsequent waters


boiling the worts, and preparing
for extraction,

would be

lose great part of

haps, to

become

so long, as to cause the grist to

heat, and, in

its

warm

The whole water

sour.

weather, perrequired might

naturally be divided into three equal parts,


the quantity at

first

imbibed by the

of brewing, the best

way

grist

management

was

but
is

it

not for

as, in this

make

to

the

wort of pne mash, and the second wort of the other

first

two,

it

will

be found necessary to allow, for the

first

ex-

tracting water, four parts out of seven of the whole quantity required,

and

other two mashes.


ter

to divide the remainder equally for the


if

Thus,

required was fifty-one

the whole quantity of wathe lengths of the

barrels,

extracting waters would be as follow


1

2 Liquor

Liquor
29

3 Liquor.

1 1

Wort.

Barrels.

'

2 Wort.

The water imbibed and


for in this computation,

retained

which

will

by

the malt

is

allowed

be found just to every

purpose, for small beer brewed in one copper only.

But
ther

in strong beers

brewed

somewhat

and

ales,

with three mashes, whe-

at one, two, or three worts, the case will

different, as care

be

should always be taken to

THE PRACTICE OF BREWING^

236

reserve for every

mash a
For

apply to the grist.

be used

tion ought to

sufficient quantity of water to


this reason,

in the first

no greater propor-

mash than

that of three

parts out of seven, as the volume of the malt

is

in a

greater proportion to the quantity of water than in the

preceding case.

If,

therefore, the whole quantity of

water used was thirty-five barrels, the length of the


quors would be
1

li-

2 Liquor

Liquor
15

3 Liquor.

10

10 Barrels.

Employing only one copper, must from hence appear,


1

and

is

allowed to be, bad management

some part

for$ in

or other of the process, however well contrived, the business

must stand

injured,

by

still,

and consequently the extracts be

in

The best

the air continually affecting them.

and most usual practice, and that which here


example,

is

to

brew with two coppers.

will

consequently are necessary to be observed, and

more

To

be

set

Other rules
I

shall

be

particular in the explanation of them.

preserve order, and to convey our ideas in the

clearest

manner, we

shall

make use

of the four

modes of

brewing we mentioned, in the fourth section.


The first of these, which implies keeping pale

and keeping pale small beers

strong

become spontaneously

brewed with two worts and four mashes,

fine, are best

to allow for

to

what

steamed away

is

imbibed by the

during the

first

grist,

and what

is

part of the process, four

THE PRACTICE OF BREWING.

237

sevenths of the whole of the water employed, and con-

sequently a like proportion of the

number

of the degrees

which constitute the difference between the

first

and

heats of the whole brewing, are required for the

wort, and the remainder to the


portion as to the water

is

last

or second.

The

last
first

pro-

permanent, but having now

only a division of heat in a progressive

state, for the tem-

perature to be given to the extracts, to put in practice


the principles laid

down

in

pages 64, 65

the

first

wort,

however, composed of several mashes, must be of one


uniform heat, though
extracts,

less

than that of the second, whose

though more powerful, must, notwithstanding,

be of equal heat among themselves.

According to the rules

laid

down

in section

8, the

whole quantity of water requisite for a guile of keeping


pale strong, or keeping pale small beer,
rels.

In page

Hi, we found,

is

fifty-one bar-

including the heat lost at

the time the extract separates from the grist, the

first

heat to form this process to be 144


degrees, and the last

158 degrees; the quantity of water, and the difference

between these two degrees, are required

to be divided in

such proportions as are best applicable to the purpose

we

intend.

THE PRACTICE OF BREWING.

238

Water

51 Barrels, multiplied

by

Divided by 7) 204

29 Barrels for the

Gives

this

22

Leaves

The
two

Barrels for the second Wort.

twenty-nine barrels, equally divided between the

first

mashes,

last

is

mashes,

The last heat


And the first

fourteen barrels and a half for each;

is

and the twenty-two

two

barrels, equally divided

for pale

keeping beers

160 degrees.

is

146 degrees.

14

is

This, as above, multiplied by


divided

7) 56

by

Leaves

8 degrees.

the proportion to be allotted to the


grees, the remainder, to the
state; the

between the

eleven barrels for each.

is

Their difference

And

Wort, and

first

deducted from 5 1 ,

first

wort, and 6 de-

last, in a regular progressive

elements for this brewing would stand as

under.
Malt's
dryiiess.

Degrees 119
Barrels.

Value of
hops.

Whole

First

medium, mash

133

...

146

14?

...

Second
mash.

Third
mash.

154

157

...

14|

11

Fourth
mash.
...

160
11

THE PRACTICE OF BREWING.

But more exactly

to

formed by nature, our

fermented liquors

imitate the

first

239

wort, answering to the ger-

minating part of her processs, must be of one uniform


heat in the extracts, as must likewise our second wort

165) the mean, then, of the progressive heats

(See page
of the

first

wort

to the

first

and second mashes, and the mean of the pro-

will

be that which must be applied both

must

gressive heats of the second wort, that which

the third and fourth mashes

direct

from whence are deduced

Elements for forming keeping pale strong and


keeping pale small beers.
Malt's

Value

dryness.

ofhops.

Degrees 119

Whole

Second
Mash.

First

medium. Mash.

138

150

..

Barrels

....

150... 158-L

14i

14j

this

Fourth
mash.
..

11

158^
11

Second wort.

First wort.

That

Third

Mash.

method of applying the heats to the mashes

corresponds to the

medium

heat which

is

whole process, the circumstances required


the following operation will prove.

29 Barrels, the

Heated to

50

1450
29

4350

first

wort.

to

govern the

m page

165,

240

THE PRACTICE OF BREWING.


22 Barrels, the second wort.

Heated to

58

11

176

110
22

Whole

3487

quantity

4350

of water,
Barrels 51 )7837( 153

51

The mean heat

of the 4 mashes.

2 Deducted for the heat

lost at the

tap.

273

151 Heat of the tap's


spending.

255

119 Malt's dryness.

187

270

153
135

Mean

heat of Malt's dryness and

of the extracts.
3

138

Value of hops.

Mean

heat of the whole process.

Admitting of the necessary variations in the medium


heats which are to govern processes for different pur-

THE PRACTICE OF BREWING.


poses,

and of those

in the

241

number of degrees forming the

constituent parts of the must, in proportion as the drinks

become spontaneously

are to be formed, either to

or

made

so

by

This rule

shorter duration.
true,
for

when

will

be found universally

beers are brewed with two worts

smallness of the utensils, as

mode

obliged to carry

of extraction

but when,

or on account of the

the benefit of the drink,

the second

fine,

precipitation, or intended for a longer or

is

the case,

often

is

put

in practice,

when

we

are

on the process with three worts, these

proportions must necessarily be altered, and the following have, in this case, been found most advantageous.

The

first

the water

and second wort ought to have two


the

first

wort two thirds of

second the remainder of

this,

thirds of

this quantity, the

and the third wort one

third part of the whole.

Porter or brown beer


this division is

is

the sort of drink, in which

most commonly observed.

Let the whole

quantity of water to be used be that of the brewing, of

which the elements have been


54 barrels.

laid

down, (page 233) ov

242

THE PRACTICE OF BREWING.


54
2

3) 108

36
2

3)

72
24 Barrels of water for the

first

12 Barrels for the second wort.


1

Barrels for the third wort.

54

The last degree


for this drink

is,

with malt dried


to 130 degrees,

165 Degrees.

The first, as per


155 Degrees.

page 178
Their difference

3)

10 Degrees.
2

20

3)14
5

Heat of

first

wort.

wort,

THE PRACTICE OF BREWING.


Five degrees to be proportioned in the

first

wort, and

number allowed

for

and second wort, there remains two degrees

for

these deducted from 7 degrees, the

the

first

243

the second wort

and seven degrees deducted from ten,

the whole difference, leaves three degrees, to be proportioned in the third and last wort.

grist of eleven quarters of

malt

mit of the water allowed for the


divided between the

is

first

too large, to ad-

wort to be equally

and second m#sh therefore,

first

rather than use the whole 24^ barrels in one mash, a


sufficient

qtiantity

mash, both to work


to

come down,

is

to

left to

the brewers

by

it,

into.

By

this

bottom of the copper

management, there

termed the piece liquor.


first

The

It

will

we have

excuse our anticipating thereon.

has been found, and will hereafter be proved, that a

volume of eleven quarters of malt, dried


is

exact

mash should have, might be

referred to the following section, but the order

down,

it

will

form the second extract with, or what


is

quantity of water the

laid

first

and to get as much of the extract

as will save the

be pumped

be enough

only must be applied to the

to 130 degrees,

equal to 6,32 barrels of liquid measure, that malt in

general requires twice


this

quantity of water

its
is

volume of water

to

wet

retained after every tap

Q2

it,

is

and

spent.

THE PRACTICE OF BREWING.

244

6,32 Barrels, volume of the

quarters of

malt.

18,96

6,32

12,64 Barrels of water imbibed by the grist,

which, deducted from


24,00

Whole

quantity of water allowed for

the

Remains

3) 11,36 Extract,

the

first

wort.

which
first

will

be yielded from

and second mash.

3,78 Length of the

first

piece, which

is

sufficient to save the copper.

3,78

12,64 Quantity imbibed as above.

16,42 Quantity of water for the

first

mash.

7,58 Quantity of water for the second mash.

24,00

The

elements of this brewing, as

we have them (page

178) placed in a progressive state,

where the quantity of water allowed

will

be

as under,

for the first wort is

THE PRACTICE OF BREWING.

245

divided into two mashes, according to the circumstances


just

now

taken notice

where the second wort

of,

formed by one entire mash, and the water


the third wort

two

is

separated equally into two parts, for the

mashes, and

last

when

between the

difference

is

allotted for

first

the ten degrees of heat, tne

and

last heats

employed, are

as near as possible proportioned to the lengths of the

worts.
Malt's Value
dryness. of hops,

Deg. 130

...

Whole

First

medium,

mash.

148

155

...

16o-...

16

...

...

...

Barrels

Second
mash.

Third
mash.

...

fourth
mash.

Fifth,

mash.

162

...

164

..

165.

12

...

..

9.

But, for the reasons alledged in page 236, they admit


of the following variation.

Elements for brewing brown beer or porter*


Malt's

Value of

Whole

First

dryness.

hops.

medium.

mash.

Deg. 130

....4....

148

...

16

will

proved

..

if

Third
mash.

1514; - 15fi.. 162..

Barrels

And,

Second
mash.

wort

..

Fourth
mash.

164

12..

2 wort

Fifth

mash.
..

165

9..

3 wort.

same correspondence

as before, the

be found with the medium governing heat.

The
which

third
is

mode

of extraction

is

intended for a drink

soon to be ready for use, in which, in the coldest

season of the year, transparency


hottest months, soundness

have already shewn (page 191)

is

expected, and, in the

to procure these intents,

it

was necessary

we

to vary

THE PRACTICE OF BREWING.

246

medium

the

heats governing these several processes, in

proportion as the seasons of the year differed as to heat

Our

and cold.

present business

is

a proper division of

the whole quantity of water necessary for brewing, into


the respective worts and mashes, and to apply to each,

the adequate degree of heat


suffice for
is

one single example

the operation, and the whole variety

will

drink

this

subjected to, will be expressed in the table subjoined.

The
which

common

general practice to brew


is

best,

is

form

to

it

small beer, and

with two worts and four

mashes, and, in this case, as was before practised for

keeping pale beers,


first

in order to allow for the

absorbed by the grist

quantity

is

required for the

water at

four sevenths of the whole


wort, and the remainder

first

for the second wort, dividing these quantities again into

equal parts, for their respective mashes.

spontaneous pellucidity

is

expected

As a speedy

in every season of

the year, and as every means for producing this without


affecting

the soundness of the drink, must be put in

practice, the whole

number of

constituent parts are not

only applied, but likewise the progressive heats suffered


to take place: for here, through necessity,

we

are

pelled to forsake the rules nature pointed out,

pages 64, 65); the reasons


receives

no

benefit

(as

in

are obvious; this drink

by the slow progress nature recom-

mends, and therefore very


time.

why

com-

little

by the impressions of

THE PRACTICE OF BREWING.


In page 232,

we found

247

the whole quantity of water to

be used for the brewing there specified, fifty-one barrels,

and

in

60, the

page 191, we
first

heat

is

Water

find

when

the heat of the air

is

at

154, the last 174 degrees.


5 1 Barrels, multiplied

by

Divided by 7) 204

Gives

29 for the

first

Wort, and

this de-

ducted from 51,


22 for the second Wort.

Leaves

The

twenty-nine barrels, divided into the

second mashes,

will

first

and

be fourteen barrels and a half for

each; and the twenty-two barrels, equally divided be-

tween the third and fourth mashes,

is

eleven barrels

each.

The
is

(see

The

last

heat for this brewing of

common

page 191)
first

154 degrees.

heat,

Their difference

20

....
'

Multiplied

And

by

divided

small beer

174 degrees.

by

7)

Leaves (to avoid fractions) nearly

80

12 degrees,

THE PRACTICE OF BREWING,

248

to

be proportioned

in the first

wort, and 8 degrees,

the remainder of the 20, to the second wort, in a regular


progressive state

Whole

Value of

Malt's

.....

First

medium, masb

-hops.

dryness.

Degrees 130

the elements for this brewing are

......

148

...

Barrels

154

Second
mash.

Third
mash.

166

170

...

...

of the grain
is

this

11

is

and the price

admitting of almost an endless variety,

needless to pursue

it

the value of the hops, the


cesses,

174

quantity of water used for brewing small beer

in proportion to the largeness of the grist,

it

...

Second wort.

First wort.

The

Fourth
mash.

11

14^

14|

but the dryness of the malt,

medium governing

and the heat of the extracts being

fixed,

the pro-

and con-

stant degrees of heat in proportion to that of the air, I

constructed the following table, which

have

will

be

found useful to the practitioner in every season of the


year.

Heat of

Malt's

Value of

air.

dryness.

hops,

Whole

First

medium, mash.

Second
mash.

Third
mash.

Fourth,

mash.

35

...

122

....

....

135

..

138

..

150

40

...

124

....

....

137

..

140

..

152.. 156.. 160

45

...

125

....

....

140

..

145

..

157.. 161

50

...

127

....

....

143

..

149

..

161

55

...

129

....

1|...

146

..

152

..

164

...

130

....

US

..

154

..

166

....

..

154

..

158

..

165

..

165...

169

..

168

..

172

..

170

..

174

THE PRACTICE OF BREWING.


The

last

business of this section

is

243

to divide the quan-

ales or amber, and to


tity of water requisite to brew pale

apply to such divisions their necessary degrees of

This liquor

is

tation of nature, as in

it

the greatest transparency, joined

to the greatest strength,

To

time.

heat.

rather an effort of art, than an exact imi-

is

a very short

in

expected

obtain these ends, the whole

number of the

constituent properties of malt and two mashes only are

In the

employed.

first,

in order to favor its pellucidity,

the lowest adequate extracting degree must be used;

and
of

in the second, to cause the

malt to yield the whole

necessary parts, the highest fitting heat must be

its

applied

the whole of the process

jected to the governing

medium

nevertheless, sub-

is,

heat of 138 degrees, the

But where

highest which admits of voluntary brightness.

a drink
in

is

formed with two mashes only, and boiled

off

one entire wort, to keep the due proportion between

the quantity of water used, and the heat required in the


extracts,

and

what

tity for

at the
is

same time

to allot the

imbibed by the

grist,

proper quan-

the most conve-

nient division found, will be three-fifths of the whole

quantity of water to be applied to the

remaining two -fifths to the

tom may be
should be a
heat

but

equally

b<*

other.

objected, that the

stiff

this,

mash, and the

first

know

first

to

mash

this,

for

cus-

amber

one, in order the better to retain the


in

the division here

proposed,

obtained by a proper allowance

made

may
in

the

THE PRACTICE OF BREWING.

250

without affecting the proattemperating of the water,


heats required, as otherwise must be the
portion of the
case.

From

8 quarters of malt to

13

make

13 barrels of fine ale.

Length.
i

26

Boiling half hour.

Whole water employed,

multiplied

by

Divided by 5) 78

Gives

10

Barrels for the

first

mash, and leaves

Barrels for the second mash,

the lowest heat being required in the


the highest in the

16 barrels

it

will

last,

first

extract,

according to page 194

and

for the

be 144, and for the 10 barrels

it

will

contain 164 degrees.

But

as the heat of the air occasions

quantities of hops to
tracts are

a difference in the

be used, and as from hence the ex-

somewhat varied

it

nient to add the following table

has been judged conve:

THE PRACTICE OF BREWING.


A TABLE

of the elements for forming pale

ale or amber, at every degree


air,

of heat in the

with the allowance of two degrees of

and

heat, in the first

last extractions.

Heat of

Malt's

Value of

Medium heat of the extracts.

air.

drjness.

hops.

and of malt's dryness.

Last

First

heat

heat,

138

147. 167

138

146

138

146. 166

....

li

138

145

165

120

....

li ...7.^.'..Z.... 138

145

165

120

....

144

164

35

120....

40

120

45

120....

50

120

55

60
In

25 1

summer

brew

this

sake,

4;

....

138

time,

it

is

167

sometimes thought better to

drink with malts more dried

for

conveniency

here insert two examples.

Heat of

Malt's

Value of

Whole

air.

drvness.

hops.

Medium,

Heat of
first

mash,

Heat of
last

mash.

60

122

138

142

162

60

124

138

140

160

For the management of small beer made


see

after

amber,

page 197.

Thus having shewn how

to ascertain the quantities of

the malt, the hops, the water, and the heat to be used,

and to proportion them to each other, as the good or


bad properties of beers

arise

from the extracts, and

fire

252

is

THE PRACTICE OF BREWING.

the governing agent,

we must now

seek the means

to administer the right portion of heat, and so to tem-

per the water that

is

to

form the extracts, as not to be

disappointed of our intentions.

In the calculations made

for this purpose, not only the water in the copper, but

the value and effect of the grist, as to heat and cold, must

be considered.

THE PRACTICE OF BREWING.

SECTION
An

1
is

X.

enquiry into the Volume of Malt, in order


the Grist

HE gallon,

to

liquid

by which malt

is

253

to

Measure.

measured, though

nearly of the same capacity with that, which

The

for beer or water.

is

less,

used

quarter of malt, contains

and the

gallons of this measure,

reduce

64-

barrel, within the bills

of mortality, according to the gauges used by the excise, contains

though the

36 gallons, but without

first

quantity

out the kingdom.

Hence

the

bills,

it

would appear, that propor-

tioning the grain to the barrel of water would be no


cult undertaking.

34;

the measure for sale through-

is

This however

the case, that, after having

is

diffi-

so far from being

made use of

several calcula-

tions to help us to the true proportions,

we

shall find,

they want the corroborating proofs of actual experience,


to

be entirely depended upon.

The
make

ultimate parts of water are so very small, as to

this, as

well as

all

other liquids, appear to the eye

one continued uniform body, without any

interstices.

This cannot be said of malt laying together either whole


or ground
corns,

there are

numbers of vacancies between the

when whole, and between

the

particles

when

ground, but for our present purpose the volume occupied

THE PRACTICE OF BREWING.

354

by any quantity of malt

properly no more, than the

is

be occupied
space which would
either

individual corn,

by every

whole or cut asunder, were they

as closelj- joined

together as water.

To

determine, with precision, the quantity of cold

water to be added to that, which


ing point, (an act
it is

is

brought to the boil-

the brewers called cooling in}

by

necessary to know, what proportion a quarter of

malt bears to the measure of a barrel of water.


operations will

kdge
more

be found requisite to come to

viz. to take several

especially in the

Several

this

know-

gauges of different brewings,


part of the process

first

to

be

well acquainted with the degree of dryness of the malt

used, the heat of the


liquor the

first

extract, and the quantity of

mash tun holds upon every inch

to find out

what degrees of expansion are produced by the


degrees of heat in the

first

mash, how much

the mash tun holds upon an inch

when
and
cess.

when

cold, what quantity of water is

what proportion

in

hot, than

lost

at the several

different

less
it

water
does

by evaporation,

terms of the pro-

In order to put this in practice, the gauges of the

following brewings were taken.

5 quarters of malt dried to 125 degrees.

B*

The

quantity of water used for the

masb was
* B. stands for
barrel', F. for firkins,

first )

F. G.

G.

for gallous,

and the num-

THE PRACTICE OF BREWING.


The

255

malt and water gauged together in


^
mash tun just before the tap was >25, 00 inches.

the
set

....................................................

Allowance for the space under the false ")


bottom boards of the mash tun, as near > 0, 66 inches.
as could be computed ...................... )

The goods gauged


the

first

in the mash tun, after )


15 ' 4
tap was spent ....................... f

B. F. G.
First piece

gauged

in the

copper

802

..........

B. F. G.

The water employed

mash

water just be-

for the second

was

The

grist

gauged with
was set

this

fore the tap

And just after

the tap was spent

15, 63 inches.

B.

The

6(J >

wort consisting of these two)


,,.. j
pieces gauged in the copper
first

G.

F.

_.

B. F. G.

The water used

for the third

mash was

...

Just before the tap was set the grist with )


,
24 ' 60 mches
this gauged in the mash tun ?.
|

And

just after the tap

The

water used for the fourth mash was

was spent

15,

20 inches.

B. F. G.

hers past the

comma, where

836

the inches are expressed, for decimals;

3 1 gallons are here allowed to the barrel, in compliance to the excise gauging, as these calculations were made without th bills.

THE PRACTICE OF BREWING

256

The mash gauged


And just
The

just before the tap

was spent

after the tap

heat of the

for

the true heat of the

mash

first

what

is

lost

by the tap spending,

138 degrees.

is

extract, before

small beer.

tion, raised the

15, 16 inches.

it is

blended with hops,

be estimated to be nearly as strong as a

common

extract was 136 degrees, to which

first

adding two degrees,

The

j Q

This,

first

may

wort of

when under a strong

ebulli-

thermometer to 216 degrees, and seven

barrels of such a wort,

when

boiling, occupied an equal

space with nine barrels of cold water, at the


perature of 60 degrees.

Now,

if

mean tem-

the degrees of expan-

sion follow the proportion of those of heat, the following


table, constructed

upon

this supposition, will

shew how

would be necessary

many

barrels of cold water

cupy

the same space with seven barrels of wort of diffe-

rent heats.

to oc-

THE PRACTICE OF BREWING.


The

quantity of water evaporated in a brewing, whett

not in immediate contact with

than

have found that what was

amounted nearly

Now

my

fire, is

more considerable

generally apprehended to be

it is

trials, I

and

25t

to one

after repeated

manner

lost in this

fifth.

since the heat of the

first

tap was 138 degrees,

--

mash tun holds 20,2 gallons upon an

inch, the

following proportion may be deduced from the preceding


table*

If 8

20,25

8,00)141,7500

17,71 Gallons j

and

this is

the true quantity contained in one inch, at a

heat of 138 degrees.

The

quantity of water used for the

mash, was

first

12 B. 2F. 3 G. or 428 gallons, of which one

posed to be steamed away, when the

first

fifth is

liquor

through the whole process of the extraction

is

sup-

gone

but as the

gauges of the malt and water together are taken before


y

the tap

is set, ifi

the beginning of the process, the whole

evaporation ought not to be deduced, and onB sixth


this account.

We

therefore suppose 357 gallons to be in the

mash

seems to be a

may

sufficient

allowance on

tun at the time of gauging, which number being divided

THE PRACTICE OF BREWING.

258

by

17,71, will

shew how many inches are taken up by

the water at that heat.

17,71)357,0000(20,15

3542

2800
1771

10290

8855
1435

The mash gauged just

before the tap was

25,00lnches.

set,

Allowed for the space under

false

bottoms,

0,66

25,66

Deduct the inches taken up by the water, 20,15


Remainder

for the five quarters of malt,

or 1,10 inch for one quarter.


tiplied

...

5,51 Inches,

This number being mul-

by 17,71, the quantity of gallons contained upon

one inch

at this heat, will give 19,48 gallons for the vo-

lume of one quarter of

this malt.

There now remains

nothing but to bring a barrel of water of 34 gallons,

under

like circumstances, as to

expansion and evapora-

tion, with these 19,48 gallons, with this difference only,

that as the proportion required

and malt

first

come

in contact,

is,

at the

and not

time the water


after the

mash

THE PRACTICE OF BREWING.

259

has been worked, a less allowance for steaming will be


sufficient,

and may

Gauge within

well, be fixed at

Gauge without

the bills of

mortality.
If 7,00

8,00
36

one seventh.
the

bills

of

mortality.
,.,.

36

If 7,00

....

8,00

....

34

34

7,00)272,00

7,00)288,00
41,14
5,87 Lost by steam.

35,24

The barrel of water reduced and


;

as 19,48 gallons,

under

the same circumstances, were found equal to one quarter

of malt, the following division will shew the proportion


"between them.

19,48)35,2400(1,81
1948

19,48)33,3000(1,70
1948

15760

13820

15584

13636

184

1760
1948

Thus,

in malt dried

1,70 quarters

is

to

required to

25 degrees, the quantity of

make a volume equal

of water,
gallons, or a barrel

R2

to 34

according to the excise

THE PRACTICE OF BREWING.

260

gauging without the


of 1,81 quarters

bills

of mortality

required to

is

make

and the quantity

a volume equal to

36 gallons, or a barrel of water, according to the excise

guaging within the

The more
terstices are

bills

of mortality.

the malt has been dried, the larger the in-

between

its

parts

the quantity of water

it

admits will consequently be greater than what is absorbed

by such

as is less dry*

cessary to

water

make

malt will be ne-

last

a volume, equal to that of the barrel of

and every

a variety in

More of this

different degree of dryness

this respect.

It

repeat the operation with a high-dried

must cause

be proper to

will therefore
grist.

Gauges of a brewing of eight quarters of malt dried to


1

40 degrees.

'

.,

-ids

B. F. G,
)

The

water used for the

first

mash,

...... ...

11

Malt and water gauged together in the _


r
26 > 2 > Inche!
mash, just before'the tap was set, ..... j
~l

B.
First piece

gauged

in the

copper,

1C

t JlBIfI

F.

G.

............

B. F. G.

The

water for the second mash was

11

The mash gauged just before the tap was set,

24

35, 7Q Inches.

THE PRACTICE OF BREWING.


Just after the tap was spent,

261

22,19 Inches.

G.

B. F.

The wort made

of these two pieces


gauged in the copper,

The

water used for the third mash was

....

B.

F.

G.

The mash gauged just before the tap was set 31,10

And just

The

was spent,

after the tap

water used for the fourth mash was

The mash gauged just before the

And just
The
by

after the tap

heat of the

extract

...

B.

F.

G.
6

tap was set 30,50 Inches.

was spent

first

Inches.

21,77 Inches.

21,60 Inches.

was 142 degrees.

Now,

the table of expansions (page 256).


G.

If 8,05

7,00

20,25 of cold water, upon

700 an inch in mash tun.


8,05)1417500(17,60 will be the real

805

quantity

of

upon an inch

water
in the

6 1 25

mash tun , when heat-

5635

ed to 142 degrees.

262

THE PRACTICE OF BREWING.

Quantity of water in the

first

mash,

G.

B.

F.

11

24

34

44
33

17

395
Deduction for the evaporation at
period, one sixth,

this

65,83

329,17 true quantity


of the water for the

by

first

mash, which must be divided

the real quantity of water contained

upon an inch

in

the mash tun.

17,60)329,1700(18,70 inches taken


in the

1760

mash

up

tun,

by

the water used

in

'

15317

the

14080

12370
12320

50

'

first

mash.

THE PRACTICE OF BREWING.


The mash gauged
was

just before the tap

26,25 Inches.

set

Allowed

26S

for the space

under the

false

bottoms

,..

0,66
26,91

Inches taken

up by the water

of the

mash

first

18,70

Space occupied by these 8 quarters of


malt

..8) 8,21

Inches of

mash tun.
Space occupied by one quarter

1,02
17,60

6120
714
102
17,9520 Gallons of
water equal in volume to one quarter of this malt.
Excise gauge without the
If

7,00

8,05

bills

of mortality.

34

34

3220
2415
7,00) 273,70

39,10 Expansion of the barrel of


is to be deducted for

water, out of which yth, 5,58,

evaporation.

Remains,
33,52 for the barrel of water reduced, which the quarter of malt, or 17,95, is to be compared

to.

R4

THE PRACTICE OF BREWING,

264

Excise gauge within the


If 7,00

bills

of mortality.

36

8,05

36

4830
2415
7,00)289,80(41,44 Expansion of one barrel of

2800

water,

592 |th to be deducted for eva-

980

poration.

700 35,52 Barrel of water reduced,


-rr
which the quarter of malt,
280O-

or 17,95

2800

to.

is

to be

compared

17,95)33,5200(1,86 Quantity of malt dried to 140 de1795


grees equal to one barrel of water.

15570
1436O

1330
17,95)35,3700(1,97 Quantity of malt dried to 140 de^
1795
grees, equal to one barrel of
water, according to the excise

17420

gauge within the

16155

tality.

12650
12565

bills

of mor-

THE PRACTICE OF BREWING.


Having found the volume of malt

we might divide

of dryness,

the same manner as

at

two

265

distant terms

the intermediate degrees in

we have done

before, could the cer-

tainty of these calculations be entirely

depended upon

but as some allowances have been made without immediate proof,

how

near soever truth the result thereof

from experiments appear,

what

may

may

be proper to point out

wanting to make our suppositions

is

Some

satisfactory.

part of the calculation depends on the quantity

evaporated

more

it

in the

this,

same space of time, may be

or less, as the fire under the water

is

brisk or slow,

or as the weight of the atmosphere differs.

The gauges

are taken at the time the malt and water are in contact,

and more or

less

water

may be imbibed

both of the dryness and age of the malt

in proportion,

water as a

malt as a porous solid body, must

differ in their

but in what proportion

me unknown

sion,

vescence

is

to

fluid,

expaneffer-

may be another cause of want of exactness

different cut the malt has had in the mill,

its

the

being or

not being truly prepared, and lastly the difference as to


time, of the mashing or standing of the grist, prevent

our relying wholly upon the calculation.

It is,

how-

ever, not improbable that some of these incidents correct

one another.

Since

,70 quarter of malt dried to

25 de-

grees are equal to one barrel of water, and 1,86 quarter

of malt dried to 140 have the same volume, the diffe-

rence being but 16 parts out of 100, the whole of the

266

THE PRACTICE OF BREWING.

error cannot

of malt may,

be very great, and one quarter


at a

six bushels

medium, be estimated of the same vo-

lume with one barrel of water.


surest guide, I have,

But, as experience

from a very great number of

is

the

diffe-

rent brewings, collected the following proportions, and

repeatedly found them to be true.


table, the

dryness.

have added, in the

weight malt ought to have, at every degree of

THE PRACTICE OF BREWING.

A TABLE

267

shewing the quantity of malt of

every degree of dryness, equal to the volume

of one barrel of water, and of the mean


weight of one quarter in proportion

to its

dryness.

176

2,04

2,27

226

THE PRACTICE OF BREWING.

268

With a

table thus constructed,

duce every

is

it

very easy to re-

proper volume of water.

its
grist to

pose those of the brewings

we have

Sup-

already mentioned

that of the small beer consists of 6 quarters of malt dried

which

in the table

Malt.

Water.

3,42.

to 130 degrees, the proportion of

1,75 to

Quarter of malt

Barrel of water.

If 1,75

These

six quarters of

1 1

as

malt occupy therefore an equal

A brown

volume with 3,42 barrels of water.


of

is

1.

quarters dried to

this in the table is as

Malt.

30 degrees

,74 to

the proportion of

Water,

Malt.

Water.

11

6,32

If 1,74

The volume

of these 1

beer grist

quarters, of

malt

is

therefore

the same with that of 6, 3 2. barrels of water, and the whole

being brought to one denomination,


find the heat of the

first

mash

we

are enabled to

but the effervescence oc-

casioned by the union of the malt and water must prevent


this calculation

which

The

being

strictly true, the consideration

of

shall take place hereafter.

circumstances are different in the other mashes

the waters used for these, meet a grist already saturated, and the

volume

found for dry malt.


this

is

increased

The

beyond the quantity

quantity to be allowed for

increase cannot be determined

by our former catcu-

THE PRACTICE OF BREWING.


lations,

and new

trials

are to be ittade^ in order to fix

the true proportion.

upon

Gauging

is

undoubtedly the most certain method of

proceeding in these researches

but even this become*

on account of the expansion, evaporation,

less sure,

effervescence, and other incidents already mentioned.

Our

errors

we deduce

however cannot be very considerable, when


our conclusions from numerous and

suffici-

ently varied experiments.

The volume

of the grist of pale malt was found, after

the parting of the

first

extract,

be 15,41 inches,

to

though the space occupied by the malt, when dry, was


only 5,51 inches: and the volume of the brown
at the

malt

grist,

same period, was 22,36 inches, though the dry

filled

The

only a space of 8,21 inches.

and

in both these cases,

in all those

which

proportion

have

tried,

answers nearly to one third, so that the volume of the


grist,

in the second

and

all

subsequent mashes,

estimated at three times the bulk of the malt

and

this is sufficiently accurate

for

may be

when dry,

the operations of

brewing, in which, for conveniency sake, the application of whole

As

it is

numbers should be

effected.

found, by the gauges, that the goods, after the

several taps are spent, remain sensibly of the

lume, or at least very

little

clude, the parts absorbed

diminished

by the water,

may we
in

same vonot con-

which the

vir-

tue of the grain and the strength of the beer consist,

THE PRACTICE OF BREWING.

270

are contained in an amazing small compass

It is

indeed

true that hot waters and repeated mashes do swell some-

what the

made

hulls

and skins of the malt, but no allowance

for this increase will

cause of our surprise.

be

sufficient, to

remove the

THE PRACTICE OF BREWING.

271

SECTION XL
Of

Water

the Proportion of cold

which

is

to

be added to that

on the point of Boiling, in Order

to

obtain the

desired heat in the Extract.

HE

degree of heat, which causes water to boil

termined,

power

Farenheit's scale, to 212.

by

to give to

degree of heat

It

is

any part of the extracting water

and by adding

to

it

two

this

a sufficient propor-

tion of water of an equal heat with that of the air,

blending these

de-

in our

is

and

quantities with the grist, to bring the

The

whole to the required temperature.

rules for ob-

taining this end are extremely simple, and cannot be

unknown

to those,

But

tions.

work generally
to lay

who

as our

down

are skilled in arithmetical opera-

view

useful,

is

we

to render this part of our

think

it

will

be proper

these rules, and to illustrate

briefly

them by the ex-

amples of our two brewings.

Rule

to ascertain the heat

of the first Mash.

Let a express the degree of boiling water,


heat of the

air, c

m the whole quantity


of the malt

to boil, will

JT,

b the actual

the required degree for the extract,

of water to be used, n the volume

that part of the water,

which

is

to

be made

be determined by the following equation.


1

THE PRACTICE OF BREWING.

272

The
of the

quantity of water used, added

(z) multiplied

the heat of the

te (212) less

that

-f

to the

is

is

to be

by

the heat required,

rr,

(-f-)

by

the heat of boiling wa-

the heat of the air will quote

made

how high

to boil or brought

the copper

is

to

The
when

first

example

is

through (212)

barrels, (see

iJtjyrb

re-

mash,

-L

in.

is

at 60, (see

6 quarters of malt

page 268

this

jf
dl oi Dlmfw
that of a brewing of small beer,

the heat of the air

volume of the

v-'J

the quantity to be cooled

how

be charged, the

mainder of the length of the whole liquor for


is

volume

air.

This produce divided

much

grist.

Their sum
less

m+n

;)

the

first

page

232.)

was estimated

liquor

is 144;

page 247) and the heat required for the

The

at 3,42

barrels, (see

first

mash 154

degrees, (seepage 247.)

-o\

rAv/iV

THE PRACTICE OF BREWING.

273

First Mash.
Hi r= 14,50 Barrels of

3,42

m + w=

Volume

17,92

94

water

of grist

154 Heat of the

first

mash*

(a) heat of

boiling water, 212

60 Heat of the

air,

94

7168

b heat of the

60

air,

152

16128

168448 (1108 barrels of water, to

be made to boil out of

152

the 14 -f -barrels which

164

are allotted for the

152

mash.

first

The incidents to

be mentioned, are not

The next example

1248

considered in this calcu-

1216

lation.

of a brewing

is

eleven quarters of malt for porter or

medium

heat of the air

is

that of a grist of

brown beer

forty degrees, the

the grist, 6,32 barrels, (see page 268) the

mash with sixteen

barrels, (see
'

the

volume of

first

liquor to

page 245) and the heat

THE PRACTICE OF BREWING.

274

expected in the mash, one hundred and fifty-seven and


a half * degrees. (See page 245).

First

Mash
}

of brown strong

beer.

6,00 Barrels of water


6,32

Volume

of malt

157 Heat required in the

mash, vide page 247.

22,32

117

15624

heat of boil-

ing water,

air.

117

2232

212

Heat of air, 40

172

40 Heat of the

2232

26 11 44 (15,18 barrels of water, to be

172

made

to boil out of the

16 barrels.

891

860

314
1324

The

half degree omitted in this

mash will be added

to the next.

THE PRACTICE OF BREWING.


I will

setting

275

give one proof of the certainty of this rule,


the state of this first mash from it.

by

down

15,18

212

A. 3218,16

Number

of degrees of heat in 14,66 barrels


of boiling water.
16,00 Barrels of water to first mash.
15,18 Barrels made to boil.

B.

C.

,82 Barrel to cool in.


40 Heat ofcold water.
32,80 Number of degrees of heat in 1,34 barrels of
eold water.
15,18 Boiling water.
,82 Cold water.
6,32 Volume of grist.

22,32 Barrels, volume of the whole mash.


6,32 Barrels, volume of the 11 quarters of
malt.

,40 Heat of the grist.

252,80

Number

of degrees of heat in the

grist.

32,80 B.
3218,16 A.
C. 22,32

350376 (157 degrees of heat required


first mash, as above.
2232
12717
11160
15576
15624

S 2

in the

THE PRACTICE OF BREWING.

276

So long as the mixture


of different heat, as

is

consists only of

two quantities

always the case of the

But

the preceding solution takes place.

first

mash,

in the second

and other mashes, where three bodies are concerned,.


each of different heat,

viz. the boiling water, the cold

water, and the mash, are to be mixed, and brought to a

determinate degree, the rule must be different


the former,

it

is

cases of allaying,

down

into a

ingredients

the same with what

when

compound

is

yet, like

used in similar

different metals are to

be melted

of a certain standard, or different

of different value to be blended, in order to

make a mixture

of a determinate price.

What

the dif-

ferent density of the metals, or the different value of the

ingredients are, in these cases, the different degrees of

heat of the boiling water, the grist, and the

air,

are in

this.

Rule

to ascertain the heat

of the second mash,

and of the subsequent

ones.

Let the same letters stand for the things they signified
before, and

d express the

actual heat of the grist, then

xw+
a

d x

THE PRACTICE OF BREWING.


or in plain terms, the heat required less
the air, multiplied

The heat
tiplied

by

required less

277

the heat of

the quantity of water used.


the heat of the goods, mul-

X ) by the volume of the goods.

Their sum
water, (212)

divided (-h) by the heat of boiling

(z)
less

the heat of the

air.

Will quote the quantity to be made to

boil, or to

be

brought through (212) the remainder part of the whole


liquor for the

cooled

We

mash

may now

brewings, and

consequently the quantity to be

collect the circumstances of the

and subsequent mashes, exclusively of

the incidents which


first

mash

will hereafter

be mentioned.

for the six quarters of small beer,

154 degrees of heat, but


the time the extract

is

this

and every mash

parting from

in its

dry

state,

was 3,42

it,

barrels,

4 degrees, which

it

occupies

three times that space, or 10,26 barrels; the air

heat.

The

state

of this

but now, by being

expanded, and having imbibed much water,

posed to continue in the same

had

looses, in

The volume

reduces the heat to 150 degrees.


grist,

two

find the quantity of boiling water, required

for their second

The

is

in.

is

sup-

of 60 degrees of

length and heat to be given to the three re-

maining mashes, are as follows.


Degrees of heat, 154
Barrels of water,
Liquors,

(See page 247.)

166
14i

14

2d

1st

wort.

S 3

170

174

11

11

3d
2 wort.

4th

THE PRACTICE OF BREWING

278

Second
d
c

Mash for Small

Beer,

166 Heat required in the mash.


150 Heat of the goods.

c zr

d= 16
= 1026

Volume

of the goods,

96

32
160

d x W=: 16416

166 Heat required in the mash.

6=60 Heat of the


106

air.

m :=

450 Barrels of water.

5300

424
106

X m= 153700
dxn= 16416

= 152)170116(11,19
1

52

212

l>= 60
-

Barrels of water to be

made to

boil out of the quantity allotted


r

181

152

152
291

152
1396
1368

for the second mash.

THE PRACTICE OF BREWING.

279

Third Mash.
170 Heat of 3rd mash.
162 Heat of goods*

170 Heat of mash.


60 Heat of air.
110
1 100 Barrels of water
3d mash.

<j

1026 Volume

of*

grist.

8208

152)129208(8,50 Barrels to be made to boil out of the


1216
quantity of water allowed for the
third

mash

760
760
8

Fourth Mash.
174 Heat of 4-th mash.
60 Heat of air.

174 Heat of 4th mash,


166 Heat of goods.

114
1 1

,00 Barrels of water


for 4th mash.

1026 Volume of goods,


-

-^

48

11400
114

16

8O
8208
152

133608
1216

879 Barrels to be made to boil out of the


quantity of water allowed for the
fourth mash.

1200
1064
1368
1368

S4

THE PRACTICE OF BREWING.

380

The
when
fore

common

liquors of this brewing of

the

mean

heat of the air

be ordered

hereafter to

in the following

Boiling water

barrels,

Cold water; barrrels,

of the

...

first

14|.

14|

1 1

(the incidents

state,

4 Liqr.

Liqr.

11

11

11-|

8i

8|

3|

24.

14?

14^

for the

(see

parting of the extract from

dry

......

3^

mash

beer, was 157 degrees,

2 Liqr.

1 Liqr/

grist, in its

manner

be noticed, excepted.)

Lengths of liquors,

The heat

small beer,

60 degrees, must there-

is

11

11

quarters of brown,

1 1

page 245) and

it)

153

the

was valued

after the

volume of the

6,32 barrels of

at

water, (see page 268) but, for the reasons before


tioned,

it

barrels.

men r

now

occupies three times that space, or 18,9S

The

air is

supposed to continue at 40 degrees,

and the length and heat to be given to the

different

mashes, were determined as follows: (see page 245.)

Degree of heat, 157

....

158

....

162

....

164

....

165

Barrels of water,

....

....

12

....

....

JJquors,

16

1st...

wort.

2d....

3d....

2 wort.

4th..

3 wort.

5th

THE PRACTICE OF BREWING.


Becond

Mash of Porter,

281

or brown strong,

212 Boiling water.

40 Heat of air.

172
158 Heat of 2nd mash
1

53

Heat of the grist or goods,

1896 Volume of goods.

158 Heat of 2nd mash 30

40 Heat of

45

air

40
5

118

8,00 Barrels of
water.

9480

94400
9480

be ma.de to boil for


172)103880(6,03 Barrels of water *o

1032

680

the second mash.

THE PRACTICE OF BREWING.


Third Mash.
21 2

Heat of boiling water.

4O Heat of air.

62 Heat of 3rd

154 Heat of goods

62 Heat of 3rd mash.

40 Heat of air.

8
18,96

48

122

12

12,00 Bar. of water.

64
8

146400
15168

i^
15168

112)161568(9,45 Barrels of water to be

1548

688

888

86O

third mash.

made

to boil for

THE PRACTICE OF BREWING.

23

Fourth Mash.
164 Heat of 4th mash.
158 Heat of goods.

18,96

Volume of grist

wetted.

164 Heat of 4th mash.

40 Heat of

36

air.

54
124

48

9,00 Bars, of water.

111600

11376

11376

172) 122976(7,14 Barrels of water to be

1204

257
172

856
688

168

the fourth mash.

made

to boil for

THE PRACTICE OF BREWING.

2S4

Fifth Mash.
165 Heat of 5th Mash.

160 Heat of Goods.

18,96
1

65 Heat of 5th mash.

40 Heat of

30

air.

45

40

125

9,00 Barrels of water.

9480

114500

948O
172) 123980(7,20 Barrels of water to be
the 5th mash.
1204

made

to boil for

358

344

14O

The liquors of this brewing

of

fore be ordered in the following

brown beer must

manner

Barrels of boiling water, 15^

Barrels of cold water,

Liquors,

....

,....

.......

there-

9?

2i

16

12

1st.

2nd.

3rd.

99
4th.

5th.

THE PRACTICE OF BREWING.


What
must be

in the

brewery

settled for this

is

285

generally called cooling in,

brewing according to the number

of barrels of cold water specified as above, the incidents


hereafter to be noticed excepted.

Each of these

calculations

manner as was done before.

may be proved

in the

same

This method of discovering

the proportion of water to be cooled in, deserves, on

account of

its

plainness and utility, to be preferred to

any other, which depend only upon the uncertain defermination of our senses.

THE PRACTICE OF BREWING.

286

SECTION

XII.

OF MASHING.

OF

progress has been

late years, great

made towards

perfecting the construction and disposition of brew-house


utensils,

which seem to admit of very

provement.

two of the

The

great copper, in

little

farther im-

which the waters for

extracts receive their temperature,

very near the mash tun, so that the liquid

may

is

built

readily

be conveyed to the ground malt, without losing any

considerable heat.

cock

is

placed at the bottom

of the copper, which being opened, lets the water have


its

course, through a trunk, to the real bottom of the

mash

tun.

It

soon

passage through

fills

many

the vacant space, forces- itself a


holes

made

in a false bottom,

which supports the grist, and, as the water increases in


quantity,

it

buoys up the whole body of the corn.

In order to

rakes are

first

less violent

blend together the water and the malt,

employed.

By

their horizontal motion,

than that of mashing, the finest parts of the

flower are wetted, and prevented from being scattered

about, or lost in the

But

as a

air.

more intimate penetration and mixture are

necessary, oars are afterwards

nearly perpendicularly, and

made use

of.

by their beating,

They move
or mashing,

THE PRACTICE OF BREWING.

2$7

the grains of the malt are bruised, and a thorough im*.


bibition of the water procured,

The

time employed in this operation cannot be settle4

with an absolute precision.


till

the malt

is

ought to be continued,

sufficiently incorporated with the water,

but not so long as


lessened.

It

till

the heat necessary to the grist b0

As bodies cool more or

less speedily, in

pro*

portion to their volume, and the cohesion of their parts,

a mash which has but

little

water,

commonly

called

a.

stiff mash, requires a longer mashing to be sufficiency

divided, and, frorn


heat.

its

tenacity,

is less

liable to lose jl$

This accounts fpr the general rule, that the

mash ought always

first

to be the longest.

After mashing, the malt and water are suffered to stand


together unmoved, generally for a space of time equal

mashed

to that they were

from the grain

in.

as soon as the

Was

the extract

mashing

is

over,

the particles of the malt would be brought

drawn

many

away

undis-r

solved, and the liquor be turbid, though not rich.

by

leaving

it

some time

But,

in contact with the grain, withr

many advantages

are gained.

different parts of the extract acquire

an uniform

out any external motion,

The

of

heat, the heaviest

and most

terrestrial subside, the

pores

being opened, by heat, imbibe more readily the water,

and give Avay to the attenuation and dissolution of the


oils.

When

the tap comes to be set, or the extract to

be drawn from the

grist,

as the

bottom of the mash U

THE PRACTICE dF

238

become more compact,


passage through

it,

is

BREWING?.

the liquor

in a

a longer time in

is

manner

strained,

its

and conse-

quently extracts more strength from the malt, and be-

comes more homogeneous and transparent.

Such are the reasons why the

grist should not

only be

mashed pretty long, but likewise be suffered to rest an


equal time.

It is

perience shews
hour, to

mash

the practice of most brewers, and ex-

it is

it

one hour and a

mash half an

best, to rake the first

one hour more, and to


half.

The next

suffer

extract

is

it

to stand

commonly

mashed three quarters of an hour, and stands the same


space of time

the third, and

all

that follow, are allowed

one half hour each, both for mashing and standing.

The

heat of the grist being in this manner equally

spread, and the infusion, having received

all

the strength

from the malt, which such a heat could give


every mashing and standing,

undoubtedly,

is

the

fittest

is let

it,

out of the tun.

after

This,

time to observe whether our

expectations have been answered.

The thermometer

is

the only instrument proper for this purpose, and ought


to be placed, or held,

mouth

the
best

by

madt, when the

it,

we

adjoining

to'

observation

is

is set,

The

extract has run nearly half

and

as,

are to judge with what success the process

carried on,

which

where the tap

of the underback cock.

may

it

is

is

necessary to examine every incident,

cause a deviation from the calculated heat.

THE PRACTICE OF BREWING.


*y><n-t- :

.--

itf^jpjjp-?

SECTION
Of the Incidents,

89

XIII.

which cause the Heat of the Extract

to

vary from the Calculation, the allowances they require,

and

JjY

the

means

to obviate their effects.

incidents, I understand such causes as effect either

the malt, the water, or the mash, during the time the

brewing
fer

is

carrying on, so as to occasion their heat to dif-

from what

is

As

determined by calculation*

these

might frequently be a reason of disappointment, an


quiry into their

means

number and

to prevent

and

effects will not

in-

only furnish

rectify the errors they occasion,

but also serve to confirm

this practice.

In our researches on the volume of malt, some notice

was taken of the increase of bodies by

heat,

of ebullition, occupies the largest space


of; but contracting again,

when

may

susceptible
is

added to

together, re-

cause a difference between the

calculated and real degree of heat.

producing an effect opposite


evaporation, becomes

it is

cold water

when mixed

the true volume of both,

mains uncertain, and

loss

Water, when on the point

occasioned by evaporation.

it,

and the

to,

This cause, however,

and balanced

in part

by

so inconsiderable, as hardly to de-

serve any farther consideration.

Water, just on the point of

ebullition,

may be

esteem-

tHE PRACTICE OF BREWING.

290

ed heated to 212 degrees.


of the

fire,

or

by any

Though, by the continuation

other cause*, the heat never goes

beyond this, yet was cold water added

would be exceeded

itself,

and

which otherwise

fire,

ately before the ebullition begins, or

and

in proportion as

we

flies

The

frustrates the intent.

therefore, of adding the eold water to the hot

ended

which vio-

for the cold water absorbing the

superfluous quantity of

becomes hot

to that,

from the mixture

lently boils, the degree expected

is

when

off,

time,

immediis

it

just

deviate from this prac-

heat in the extract will differ from the calcu-

tice, the

lated degree.

The

Water, for every mash, should, as near as possible,

be got ready to

boil,

be used.

A liquor,

ebullition

is

and be cooled

over, and the fire has been

loses part of its heat, if cold


effect

On

in just before

which remains a long time

cannot be the same as

the contrary,

if

water
it

the liquor

is

to

damped up,

applied to

would have been

is

it is

after the

it,

at

the

first.

got ready too soon, and

cold water immediately added to

it,

in order to gain the

the mixture

proper degree of temperature,

by leaving

long together, though the

stopped up, more heat

fire is

* Different
quantities of water are differently affected by the same
when the ebullition is just over, and the surface of
;

portion of fire
the liquor

is

become smooth ;

if

some of

it is,

by a cock, drawn from

the bottom of the copper, where the coldest water always

is,

the re-

maining part, having a greater proportion of fire than before, again


begins to boil, though not affected by any increase of heat.
1

THE PRACTICE OF BREWING.

291

than necessary will be received from the copper and


brickwork, especially

if

the utensils are large.

In both

cases, the degree in the extract will not answer the


intent.

The

effect of effervescence

next deserves our conside-

ration, but this takes place only

comes

in

when

contact with the malt.

the water

first

Germinated grains

must, to become malt, be dried so, that their particles


are

made

to recede

from one another, thus deprived of

the parts, to which their union was due,

when they come

in contact with other bodies, (as water)


they strongly at-

tract the unitive particles they want,


testine motion,
this heat are

which generates

more

is

This motion and

heat.

active in proportion as the grain has

more strongly been impressed by


water

and excite an in-

fire,

and the extracting

hotter.

A large

quantity of liquor applied to the grist

is less

heated than a small one, by the power of effervescence.

The

least

quantity of water, necessary to shew that

power, must be just so much as the malt requires to be


saturated,

which we have seen to be double the volume

of the grain.

When

more water than

the grist, the real effervescing heat


ed, being

dispersed in

more than a

is

this is

by

so

applied to

much

lessen-

sufficient space.

A table shewing the heat of effervescence for every degree of dryness in the malt, can only be formed from
observations.

To

apply

this table to practice,

T2

and to

2S>ft

THE PRACTICE OF BREWING.

find out, for

any quantity of water used

mash, the degrees of heat produced

by

in the first

effervescence,

three times the volume of the grist must be multiplied

the

number expressing

by

the effervescing heat for malt of

such a degree of dryness, and

this

produce be divided by

the real volume of the whole mash.

A TABL&

shewing the heat occasioned by the

effervescing of malt, for its several degrees

of
dryness.
*/
j

THE PRACTICE OF BREWING.

293

no

efferves-

Malt dried only to 119 degrees,


cence, and the strongest

is

raises

generated by malt dried to

176 degrees; the beat produced by this amounts to 40


degrees, but the

number

of effervescing degrees, in this

or any other case, are reached but from success attend-

ing our endeavours, ultimately to penetrate the malt by

heated water, or not until the grist

which,

space of the
fore,

is

perfectly saturated,

in point of time, generally takes


first

mashing and standing

up

the whole

tfce air,

there-

cannot cause any diminution of heat, an incident

winch

The

every subsequent mash.

affects considerably
little

copper being- more distant from the mash

tun than the other, the water there prepared, in

its

sage to the goods, loses some part of

And

its

heat.

proportion to the quantity of water used, to the

pas
in

number

of the extracts that have been made, and according as

the mashes have more or less consistency, in the same

time do they part with more or


servations

made

separately

For strong

Heat

lost

2d
8

.....

of their heat.

Ob*-

upon strong and small beer,

have shewn the proportions of

Mashes

less

this loss to

beer.

3d

4th

12

T3'

he as follows

,5th

8*

THE PRACTICE OF BREWING.

294

For small
Mashes

Heat

lost

beer.

2d

3d

4th

16*

20

A grist not perfectly malted,

or one which contains

many

hard corns, disappoints the expectation of the computed


degree, as the volume cannot be such as was estimated

from an equal dryness of true germinated


been observed,

that,

near pressing through the exterior skin.


it is

It

grain.

in perfect malt, the shoot

deficient in this particular,

By

so

is

has

very

much

as

must it be accounted on! 7

as dried barley, or hard corn.

know no

judging what proportion of the corn

is

better

way

hard to what

of
is

malted, than by putting some in water, the grains not


sufficiently

be done

grown

Were

will sink to the bottom.

in a glass cylinder, the proportion

this to

between the

hard and malted corn might be found with exactness.

The unmalted
volume,

parts being estimated with regard to their

as barley, a quarter of

rel of water as 1,56 to 1*.

in the

brown beer

of hard corns

is

grist,

them

will

be to the bar-

Supposing, therefore, that,

before mentioned, the proportion

of two quarters out of eleven, to discover

the true volume of such a grist, the following rule

be used.
* See
page 267.

may

THE PRACTICE OF BREWING.

295

2 quarters of hard malt


9 quarters of true malt 1,56 volume of
1,74 volume at 130 of

quarter

3,12

dryness
15,66

3,12 volume of 2 quarters of hard corn

Total

numb. 11)18,78 (1,70 true volume of one quarter of

this

malt to one barrel of water, and consequently the eleven


quarters

will

Bv means

fill

a space equal to that of 6,47 barrels.

of this rule,

we may

find

what increase of

heat any proportion of hard corns will occasion, as will

be seen in the following

table.

Proportions of hard corns |

Greater heat of the mash 4

-^

But the brewing of such malt ought

much

of the grist

to

as possible, as the hard parts afford

degrees.

be avoided a*

no strength

to.

the extract.
If

a grist

is

not well and thoroughly mashed, the heat

not being uniformly distributed in the different parts of


the extract, the liquor of the thermometer,
in the

different times,

case, the, best


vations,

mash.

when placed

running stream of the tap, will fluctuate, and, at

shew

way

is

different degrees of heat.

to take the

mean of

In this

several obser-

and to estimate that to be the true heat of the

THE PRACTICE OF BREWING.

If the

variation

gauges of the coppers are not exactly taken, a

must be expected.

Though

the small and hourly variations in the state of

the atmosphere have but


bers, a difference will

little

upon our num-

influence

be observed

in

any considerable

and sudden changes either of the heat or of the weight of


the

Our

air.

instruments, and in particular the thermo-

meter, are supposed to be well constructed and graduIf the water cooled in with

ated.

than estimated, or
cither

tion

more or

less

if

less

hot
is

than was allowed for, the computa-

must be found to vary from the event.

While the malt

is

new,

if

the

fire it

the kiln has not sufficiently spent

not easily accounted for.

heat

is

case,

when malt

pers

more or

is

the time of mashing or standing

is

has received from


this additional

itself,

This

is

likewise the

brickwork of cop-

laid against the hot

and, on the contrary, a loss of dryness

casioned,

The

if

may be

oc-

the store rooms are damp.

artist

should be attentive to

the not pointing

all

these incidents

them out might appear neglectful ; enu-

merating more would exceed the bounds of use.


Small grists brewed in large utensils lose their heats

more
air

readily,

by laying

thin,

and, on the contrary, a

of heat,

is

and greatly exposed to the


less

allowance, for the loss

required in large grists,

and

to

which the

utensils are in proportion.

This really

is

the only difference between brewings car-

THE PRACTICE OF BREWING.


on

ried

in large public

297

brewhouses, and those made in

small private places, in other respects constructed

the same plan, and with an equal care.

propagated an idea, that where the

upon

Prejudice has

grists are large,

and

the utensils in proportion, stronger extracts could be


forced from the malt, in proportion to the quantity, and
that

more delicate beers could be made

less

frequently used.

been

said, will, I

These

in smaller vessels

assertions,

from what has

hope, need no farther enquiry

the de-

grees of heat for the extracts are fixed for every intent,

and

it

cannot be advantageous, by any means, to deviate

from them.
places,

Brewings

where the

grist

will
is

most probably succeed

bounds of man's labour, and not so small

as to prevent

the heat from being uniformly maintained.

vantages are great on

in all

not so large as to exceed the

all sides,

The

disad-

when a due proportion

is

not observed between the utensils and the works carried


on.
It

will

now be proper

to continue the delineation of

our two brewings, and to put


lating to

the circumstances re-

brewing for porter or brown strong beer, computed


for

1 1

all

them under one point of view.

40 degrees of heat

in the air.

quarters of malt, dried to 130 degrees, 132 pounds of

hops for 27 barrels

above

brass.

\, to

go out

at 3 worts, 31 Inches

THE PRACTICE OF BREWING.

298

Volume of grist
Water for first mash

6,32
16,00

22,32

Volume of grist

6,32
3

6 effervescing degrees.

3 degrees for hard corns.

9 degrees equal to

18,96

7 Effervescence, per

inches^

less

in for the first

table.

(see

by

mash,

page 152.)

22,32) 132,72 (6 degrees of heat gained in the

13392

cooling

first

mash

effervescence.

for inci-

> fLess 2 inches^,

dents,

) L. C. more 2

in.

more

2 in.

more

3 in.
J

more 2 in
$

t
* G. C. stands for
great copper, L. C. stands for little copper.
f Deduction from the first mash for heat created by effervescence

and hard corns.


J

See the calculation above.

Additions to the mashes on account of heat lost, by the liquor com-

ing from

little

copper, and by mashing and standing.

See page 293,

THE PRACTICE OF BREWING.


A

brewing

for

common

small beer,

299
for

computed

degrees of heat in the air.


6 quarters of malt dried to 130 degrees ; 36 pounds of
hops;
30 barrels | to go out 56 inches above brass.
Grist

Water

Volume
of grist

3,42
14,50
17,92

3,42
3

'

10,26

7 effervescing degree
for malt at 1 30
(see table

1st

2d

Deg.ofheat.. 154
Whole quantity of water

166

* The
charge of the

first

for

new malt hot

page 292.)

17,92) 71,82 (4 degrees of heat


7168
gained in the mash
by effervescence.
14

Mashes

for effervescence.
for hard corns

liquor

3d
170

is

to be deduced
from the first

cooling

in.

4th
..

174 See

for 11 barrels, with

p. 218.

a deduction

of 2 inches, according to the gauges of the coppers, page 221.

These

two inches answer to the 8 degrees of heat for the effervescence, hard
See computation above.
corns, and new malt.
t The second and following mashes are to be charged with as

many

THE PRACTICE OF BREWING.

300

These computations, perhaps,


blesome than they really are

will

appear more trou-

but, besides the facility

which exercise always gives for operations of


the satisfaction of
will, I

this

One advantage must

and

tables for each sort

certi-

recommend

same time secure the uniformity of our

at the

malt liquors

greatly

kind,

principles,

hope, encourage the practitioner to prefer

tude to doubt.
it,

proceeding upon known

and season may be

made beforehand, and

will serve as often as the circum-

stances are the same.

The

will

by

that

different

trouble of the computations

means be saved, and by collecting together

brewings of the same kind, the

any time, have


least deviation

it

power to see what

in his

from

artist will, at

his rules

had upon

effect the

his operations,

and to what degree of precision he may hope to

That nothing may be wanting

in this

work,

tate the intelligence thereof, I shall insert the

keeping the account of actual brewings,


ing to the computations

down.

The

first

arrive.

to facili-

method of

made accord-

have here successively traced

column contains the charges of the

coppers, and the numbers computed

the next,

the

brewings made from these numbers, with their dates,

and the degrees of heat found by observation


tions occasioned

more inches of

boiling water, as

number of degrees of heat


See page 294.

the varia-

by unforeseen incidents are supposed

lost

answer to the fourth part of the

by the refrigeration of the mahes.

THE PRACTICE OF BREWING


to be allowed for, at cooling in,

by

the artist,

301

upon the

principle, that each inch of cooling in answers to four

degrees of heat.
of every brewing

fit

tice

state for use,

Noting in

this

we make, when
we are enabled

with the principles which

manner the elements


the drink comes into
to

compare our prac-

directed

it

by

this

means, experiments constantly before our eyes will be


the most certain and best foundation for improvement.

THE PRACTICE OF BREWING.

302

Small Beer.
ters
to

6 quarBarrels
30
of Hops, for

Heat of

of Malt,

36/6.

air 60 Degrees.

go out 56 Inches above Brass.

THE PRACTICE OF BREWING.


Porter.
ters
to

Heat of the Air 40 Degrees.

303

1 1

quar-

of Malt, I32lb. of Hops for 27 Barrels

go out at 5 WortS) 31 Inches above Brass.

-i,

THE PRACTICE OF BREWING.

304

SECTION
Of

XIV.

Worts when turned out of the

the disposition of the

Copper, the thickness they should be laid at in the

Backs

to cool,

and

the heat they should retain for fer-

mentation, under the several circumstances.

W HEN

a process of brewing

is

regularly carried on

with two coppers, the worts come in course to boil, as


the extracts which formed

them are produced.

be tedious and unnecessary


of the practice

brewing
sils

It

which, in some small degree, varies as

offices are differently constructed, or the

are differently arranged.

a brewhouse,

would

to describe the minutest parts

it is

Without the

uten-

assistance of

perhaps impossible to convey to the

imagination the entire application of the rules before


laid

down, but with one,

hope they need

little, if

any,

farther explanation.

The

worts,

when

boiled, are musts possessing an in-

tended proportion of
cept air

this

great heat

is

all

the fermentable principles, ex-

was expelled by

fire,

and

until their too

removed, cannot be administered to them,.

In musts, which spontaneously ferment, the external air


excites in their oils an agitation, which, heating and open-

ing the pores of the liquor, expands and puts in action


the internal air they possess.

The

case

is

not exactly

THE PRACTICE OF BREWING.

SOS

the same with regard to those musts which require fer-

The

ments.
plied

air

wanted

by

must be sup-

in boiled worts

Was

the means cf yeast.

the heat of the

wort such, as to occasion the immediate bursting of

all

the air bubbles contained in the yeast, an effervescence


rather than a fermentation

perior to

80 degrees has

of the boundaries in

Now a

would ensue.
and

this effect,

artificial

is

heat su-

therefore one

fermentation

40 degrees

of heat, for want of being sufficient to free the air inclos-

ed in the yeast bubbles, and


other.

Within these

limits,

to excite their action,

is

must the wort be cooled

the
to

and the precise degree, which varies according to the


different circumstances they are in,

are to be applied to,

curing

this heat, the

Worts, when

is,

more

the

The

is.

go out of the copper,

any other equal space of time

to the

this section.

in the copper, boil at a heat

ed, the stronger the liquor

in

to the intent they

together with the means of pro-

purport of

superior to that of 212 degrees

suffered to

and

it

instant the

loses

after

somewhat

this is

it

exceed-

wort

is

more heat than

has been exposed

In the course of the natural day, or in 24

air.

hours, the heat of the air varies sometimes, (especially in

summer)

as

much

as

20 degrees.

If the wort, after hav-

ing reached the lowest heat in this interval, was suffer-

ed to remain in the coolers,


in the air,

it

till

the return of a greater

would be influenced by

this increase, cx-

THE PRACTICE OF BREWING.

306

pand, and be put in action


time any elastic

air in

and, should: there be at this

any part of the coolers, which

sometimes happens, either from the sediment of former


worts, from the backs not being clean swept, or from the

wood being

old

to cool, will,
air,

and spungy, the

\vort

supposed to be

left

receiving the additional heat from the

by

and blending with the incidental

elastic air

adhering

to the coolers, bring on, in a lower degree, the act of

fermentation

being

an accident by the

artist called

the backs

set*

For

this reason,

a wort should never be suffered to lay

so long as to be exposed to the hazard of this injury,

may happen in somewhat more than


Thus are we directed to spread or lay our

which generally
twelve hours,

worts so thin in the backs, as they

due temperature within


ficient if the

inches

may

From the

this

space

backs be covered

may come to their


in summer it is suf-

in winter a

depth of two

oftentimes be allowed with safety.


inclination of the coolers or backs to the place,

where the worts run

from

off,

their largeness, or

from

the wind and air warping them, a wort seldom, perhaps


never, lays every
therefore
time.

where

at

an equal depth, and cannot

become uniformly cold

the same space of

This renders the use of the thermometer

though not impracticable.


instrument with

To

some degree of

intended to feel the worts,

is

difficult,

supply the want of this


certainty,

the hand

brought to the heat of the

THE PRACTICE OF BREWING.


body, by placing
ceived

it.

it

in the

Then dipping

judge, by the sensation

bosom,

until

it

has fully re*

we

the fingers into the liquor,


occasions,' whether

it

307

to a proper degree of coolness to

it is

be fermented.

come

As the

external parts of our bodies are generally of about 90

degrees of heat, some degree of cold must be

felt,

before

the worts are ready for the purpose of fermentation.

But

that degree varies for different drinks,

rent seasons.

I will

form a judgment

and

in diffe-

endeavour to point out the rules to

for the heat of small beer worts.

greater precision, both for that and for other drinks, will

be found

in the following table.

In July and August, no other rule can be given, than


that the worts be got as cold as possible.

The same rule

holds good in June and September, except the season

unnaturally cold.
let

down

April,

In

May

is

and October, worts should be

nearly thirty degrees colder than the hand

in

November, and March, the worts should be about

twenty degrees colder than the hand, and only ten in


January, February and December.
It

may

perhaps be thought that the heats here speci-

fied are great,

to the

but worts cool as they run from the backs

working tuns, they are

also affected

by the

cold-

ness of the tuns themselves, and perhaps these circumstances are not so trivial, but that an allowance should

be made for them.

In general, the heat

of no must

should excee4 60 degrees, because fermentation increase?

THE PRACTICE OF BREWING.

308

this or

any other degree,

in proportion to that,

under

To ren-

which this particular part of the process begins.


der the thermometer more useful, and to suit

it

conveniency, AVC have before supposed every

mash

common
morning

small beer to be
:

to cool at
table
last

in this case,

made

said to

and where the worts are not

last

for

let

down

laid

fohWing

be a measure of time, the

worts for this drink should be

A TABLE,

to our

at four o'clock in the

more than one inch in depth, the

may be

and

first

first

and

at.

shewing nearly the times thejirst

worts of common small beers should

be let down in the working tuns, supposing

mash of the brewing to be made at


four o'clock in the morning, and no uncomthe Jirst

mon change happens

in the heat

of the

air.

THE PRACTICE OF BREWING.

309

Small beer worts being nearly alike in consistency, the


necessary variations from this table must be less frequent.
It is true,

some

difference

tion of a brewhouse, or

more

mitting

are

the exposi-

from other circumstances, ad-

or less freely the intercourse of the air,

be such as might

down

may happen from

alter,

upon

in the preceding page.

more thick and

Brown beer

glutinous,

worts, which are stronger

and

the whole, the times set

still,

worts, which

and especially amber


will require other

and

longer terms to come to their due temperature, to be fer-

mented

at

but when once observed and noted, accord-

ing to various degrees of heat in the air, at 8 o'clock each

morning, the conveniency of these observations must be


such, in this business, which requires long watchings and

attendance, that no arguments are necessary to recom-

mend what is

rather indulgence than industry.

A TABLE

shewing the degrees of heat worts

should be

at> to be let

down from the

into

the working tuns, according


several degrees of heat in the air.
Heat of the

air.

30
35

40
45
50
55

Common

small.

All-keeping beers.

59
56
53
50
50
50

75
10
65
60
55
50

25

60 1

In these cases,
is

when

the

medium

coolers

the

to

Amber

or ales.

55

54
55
53
51

50
heat of the air

greater than that which the worts should fer-

THE PRACTICE OF BREWING.

310

ment

at,

the cold of the night must be

bring them

made use

of, to

as near as possible to their temperature.

It

has been observed, that the coldest part of the natural

day

is

The

about one hour before sun

rising.

consequences of worts being set to ferment

an undue heat, are the following.

such as are intended for long keeping,


too cold, a longer time

and the drinks grow

is

fine

at, in

In strong beers, or
if

the worts be

required for their fermentation,

with more difficulty ;

if,

on the

contrary, they are too hot, accidity, and a waste of

of the spiritous parts must ensue.

advantages appears more conspicuous in


beer, as, in winter, this drink

is

some

Either of these dis-

common

seldom kept a

small

sufficient

time to correct the defect, and in summer, from being


too hot,
ery,

is

it

becomes putrid,

hereby foxed.

or, in the terms of the

brew-

THE PRACTICE OF BREWING.

SECTION
Of Yeast,

its

in

it is to

spirit

by

Air

is

distillation,

The

any quantity.

attenuated for this purpose,


ation.

be added

to

the worts.

or worts, though ever so rich,

mented, yield no

drank

XV.

nature, and contents, and of the manner and

quantities in u'hick

JVlUSTS,

311

oils, as

become

when

unfer-

nor inebriate,

if

yet not sufficiently

so only

by ferment-

absolutely necessary for this process, in

the course of which,

some of the

aerial parts

mixing

with, and being enveloped by, oils greatly thinned, are

enclosed in vesicles not sufficiently strong to resist the


force of elasticity, or prevent a bursting and explosion.
In the progress of the act, the air joins with oils both
coarser,

and charged with earthy

formed capable of resisting


bles cannot

come

to a

its

particles,

expansion, and

volume

and upon the liquor, they sink

sufficient to

a coat
if

is

the bub-

be floated in

to the bottom,

and take

the appellation of lees of wine.

Between these two extremes, there

when

is

another case,

the bubbles are sufficiently strong to hold the air,

but not weighty enough to sink.

After floating

in,

they

emerge, and are buoyed upon the surface of the liquor,

and there remaining


n'ine.

Both

lees

entire, are

termed the flowers of

and flowers are, therefore,

vesicle"

THE PRACTICE OF BREWING.

312

formed out of the must,


separately, or

filled

when mixed

with elastic

and, either

air,

together, they obtain the ge-

neral denomination of yeast.

We have often mentioned the power of fire, in driving


the air out of worts.

now wanted

Yeast, fraught with the principle

for fermentation,

therefore, the properest

is,

subject to be added to the must

but

texture

its

vari-

is

ous, in proportion to the different heats of the extracts

was formed from.

which have a greater

ter waters, yield yeast, the oils of


It is

spissitude.

most

fit

it

Keeping drinks, extracted with hot-

consequently slower, more certain, and

to promote a cool and gentle fermentation.

That, on the contrary, which

is

produced from small

beer, being weak, and acting at once,

motion like that of effervescence


therefore, not to be used, but

when

is

apt to excite a

such yeast ought,

there

is

no

possibility

to obtain the other.

The

longer wines or beers are under the

act of

first

fermentation, the greater variety will be found in the

texture of the bubbles, Avhich compose their flower and


lees.

Wines made out

of grapes, in general, require a

time somewhat longer than the worts of malt, before this


first

period

is

fermentation

at

an end

first

and we have seen, that

brings forth air bubbles,

in

whose

them

consti-

tuent parts are most tender, and afterwards some that


are of a stronger texture.

As malt

liquors require a less

time to ferment, their bubbles are more similar: on

this

THE PRACTICE OF BREWING.

313

account, the whole quantity of yeast necessary to a wort

should not be applied at once,

lest the air bladders,

bursting nearly in the same time, should prevent that

gradual action, which seems to be the aim of nature in


all

her operations.

Keeping beers, formed from low dried

malts, occasion

the greatest variety of heat in the extracts, and from

hence these musts form yeast,

most

in

perly

magnitude and strength.

made from

wines, especially
precipitation to

Cleansing

is

whose bubbles

differ

drink, then, pro-

pale malt, nearly resembles natural

when they

become

are so

brewed

as to require

transparent.

dividing the drink into several casks

this

checks the motion occasioned by fermentation, and consequently retards


sensibly

before

felt,

it is

it.

To

prevent this from being too

some yeast should be put

removed into the

parts, in strong beers, are

casks.

As

to the

drink,

the constituent

more tenacious than

in small,

and require a greater motion to entertain the fermentation, the drinks, before

they be thus divided, should, be-

be well roused with a

sides the addition of the yeast,

scoop, or

by some other means,

only blends

all

for

makes

it

ferment again, when in the casks.

whole of the yeast used


;

This not

the parts together, but attenuates and

heats the liquor, and

pose

one hour.

is

and the remainder

more ready

One

to

begin to

sixth part of the

generally reserved for this puris

equally divided as the worts

THE PRACTICE OF BREWING.

314

are let down.

It

must be observed, that

this stirring,

though as necessary to small, as to strong drinks,

is

only

to be continued for a space of time proportioned to their


strength.

We have before seen,

when

common

extracted to form

a grist of malt

is

entirely

small beer, soon to be ex-

pended, one gallon of yeast to eight bushels of grain

af-

fords a sufficient supply of air to perfect the fermentation.

This takes place when the heat of the

air is at

40

degrees, but, at the highest fermentable degree, experi-

ence shews, that half that quantity


sary.

For some

is

as

much

as

is

neces-

ales, the whole virtue of the malt

extracted, and what remains

ing of small beer

is

appropriated to the

is

not

mak-

the quantity of yeast used for these

drinks must be only in proportion to the strength extracted.

From

these premises, the following tables have

been formed, exhibiting the quantity of yeast proper for


the several sorts of drinks, at the different heats of the air.
'-.

THE PRACTICE OF BREWING.

A TABLE

shewing the quantities of yeast

necessary for
season.

air.

35

................

40

...............

45

...............

50

...........

55

...............

60

...............

6 )

65

............ ...

..

9-\

^The whole

C
1^
8

70

5 I

75

80

common small

beer in every

Pints of yeast to one


quarter of malt.

Heat of
the

315

quantity of yeast to be

put into the

first

wort.

The

first

wort to have

The second wort


The first wort

to

have

t6 have one half of the

whole quantity.

4jThe

second wort to have the re-

mainder.

THE PRACTICE OF BREWING.

316

A TABLE

shewing the quantities of yeast ne-

cessary for all keeping drinks, both brown

and pale, small and strong.

02,

* In beers intended for


long keeping, the fermentation

is

to be go-

verned by the heat of the worts or musts, more than by that of the
exterior air.

A must or wort, when

under fermentation, from

its

internal

mo-

heat 10 degrees, and no keeping beers, -when under


this act, should exceed a heat of 60 degrees ; for this reason, worts
tion, increases in

of

this sort

should at

and 50 degrees

is

first

be

nearly the

set to

ferment at a heat of 50 degrees,


heats these liquors are im-

mean of the

when deposited in cellars, from the time of their being


formed, to that of their coming into use. Their long continuance ia
this state is the reason why six pints of yeast per quarter of malt is a
pressed with,

sufficient quantity to

be used when the heat of the

air is at or

below

50 degrees. If, through necessity, processes of this soft are to be


carried on when the mean heat of the natural day is more than this,
the quantities indicated in the table will be the

fittest rule.

THE PRACTICE OF BREWING.

311

A TABLE

shewing the quantities of yeast necessary for amber and all sorts of a les, after
which small beer

is

made.

Heat
of the

30

This table

Pints of yeast

air.

to

one quarter of malt

..........................

7i

35

..........................

40

..........................

45

...........................

61

50

..........................

55

..........................

5i

..........................

10

..........................

^5

..........................

3i

80

..........................

is

^.y

founded on the supposition

that, the vir-

tue or strength extracted from one quarter of malt for

amber,
air,

beer

is

equal to { of the whole.

In every heat of the

the quantity of yeast to be used for

made

after ale,

must be one

fifth

common

small

part of the quanti-

ty which the ale required, the additional strength obtain-

ed from rebelling the hops, requiring further proportion


if,

for

keeping small beer, nearly in the proportion of six

found
pints of yeast to five barrels of beer, this will be
to correspond with the rule delivered in the foregoing
table.

THE PRACTICE OF BREWING.

318

SECTION

XVI.

Fermentation, and the management of the

Of practical

several sorts of Malt Liquors, to the period, at which

they are

to

be cleansed or put into the Casks.

IHE laws of
and when

it

known by
liquor.

its

different periods are

the different appearances of the fermenting

As a

of these,

fermentation are universal and uniform

proceeds regularly,

particular appellation

may

it

is

given to each

not be unnecessary here to describe

them.
1

The

first

sign of a wort fermenting

is

a fine white

line, composed of very small air bubbles, attached to the

sides of the tun

the wort

then said to have taken

is

yeast2.

When

these air bubbles are

whole surface of the must,


3.

it is

Bubbles continuing to

extended over the

said to

rise,

be creamed over.

a thin crust

is

formed

but as the fermentation advances rather faster near the


.

sides of the tun, than in the middle, this crust


ally repelled

from which

arises the

wort parting from the tun


4.

When

is

continu-

denomination of the

side.

the surface becomes uneven, as

if it

\vere

rock work, this stage of fermentation, which has no particular use,

is

distinguished

by

its

height.

THE PRACTICE OF BREWING.


When

5.

the head

319

becomes lighter, more open, more

uniform, and of a greater depth, being round or higher

than in any other part, and seeming to

in the middle,

have a tendency still to

rise,

the liquor

be of so many inches, head not fit


6.

This head having risen to

gins to sink, to

become hollow

same time, more


yellow

to cleanse.

greatest height, be-

its

in the middle, and, at the

solid, the colours

brown

or

denominated to

is

the wort

is

changing to a stronger
then said to be

jit to

cleanse.

After

no farther distinctions are made

this,

mentation

is

continues to sink, and the liquor

As

if

often injured.

is

the denominations and tastes of liquofs

from malt are numerous,


separate one

the fer-

suffered to proceed in the tun, the head

we

it is

brewed

impossible to specify each

shall therefore only particularize

sorts of drinks, as

were taken notice of

extraction, they being most in use

such

in the section of

but, from what will

be said concerning them, the method of managing any


other malt liquor

Spontaneous
of the

oils to

may

easily

be deduced.

pellucidity arises

the

salts, in

from a due proportion

the worts, but the advantage of

long keeping depends not only on the quantity of

and hops the musts possess, but

also

oils

on the fermentation

being carried on in a slow and cool manner.

All drinks,

intended long to be kept, are therefore best formed in


cold weather, and

made

to receive their veast at such

THE PRACTICE OF BREWING.

320

temperature, as

be divided

down,

is

until the whole,

before

just

through the

much

Under

brewed

as

these

is

to

to

be put in

circumstances,

for keeping, are suffered to

process of fermentation,

first

is

being mixed together, receives

cleansing.

drinks, which are

yeast

the quantities of wort let

allotted portion, except so

its

The

set forth in the table.

in proportion to

till

go

they are so

attenuated, that the liquor becomes light, and the head,

or the yeast, laying on the surface of the beer, begins to

When,

sink.

somewhat before,

or

to nearly half the greatest height

able vinous smell

term,

is

to

is

it

By

down

a remark-

be put into casks, being

first

at this

well roused with

manner mentioned

preceding section.
the description given of the origin of yeast,

pears that
worts.

to,

perceived, and the liquor,

the remaining part of the yeast, in the


in the

head has fallen

this

reached

it

is

formed rather of the coarser

If the cleansing is not

done when the head

to half the greatest height

lower, some part of these coarser

it

rose to,

oils

beer, then under fermentation, and gives


taste, technically

oils

termed yeast

bitten.

by

it

ap-

of the

is

sunk

falling

return into the


it

flat,

greasy

When, on

the

contrary, beers or ales are removed too soon from the


first

tumultuous fermentation, for want of having been

sufficiently attenuated,

their lees,

and from not having deposited

nor thrown up in flowers their coarser

oils,

they are less vinous, than otherwise they would have

THE PRACTICE OF BREWING.


been, appear heavy, aley, and are said not

body

to

321

have their

sufficiently opened.

The

fermentation of

common

small beer

necessity, carried on so hastily, that


to wait for the signs,
beers.

it is

isj

through

hardly possible

which direct the cleansing of other

This drink being generally brewed and ferment-

ed within twenty four hours,


best

is

fermentation,

judged

its

of,

state,

by

with regard to

the quantity of

its

froth or head at the time of cleansing, which, in proportion to the heat of the air,

lowing

may be determined by the

fol-

table.

A TABLE

shewing the depth of head, which

common small

beer should have to be proper-

ly cleansed, in every season

Head on

Heat
of the

of the year.

25 Degrees

the beer

in the tun.

air.

..............

6 inches.

30

................... . ......

35

..........................

40

..........................

4|
3i

45

.............. * ...........

2-1

50

....................... ;..

55

..................... .....

li

CO

..........................

65

..........................

80

..........................

just taken.

THE PRACTICE OF BREWING.

322

As

it is

formed,

if

chiefly

we

by the action of the

air that

wines are

contrive to shift this powerful agent on the

surface of a must under fermentation, and to convey

more

forcibly and

hastily into the wort,

its

it

efficacy will

be renewed, the fermentation accelerated, the liquor


quickly become ti'ansparent, and soon ba brought to the
state of maturity

Amber,

age might slowly make

it

arrive at.

or pale ales, require the hottest extracts pel-

lucidity admits of to

be made strong, and

time soft and smooth to the palate

but, as ales

same

at the

do not

admit of any large quantity of hops, which would


their nature, there is a necessity to

act of fermentation,

than

common

is

and to carry

in other

alter

perform hastily the

on to a higher degree

it

malt drinks.

The method

of

exciting and conducting repeated fermentations, with


success,

is

perhaps not only the most

most curious, part of the process,


clude, with an account of

it,

what

difficult,

I shall

but the

therefore con-

have to say with

re-

gard to the practice of fermentation.

The amber wort being

let

down,

at

its

proper degree

of heat, into the fermenting tun, out of the whole quantity

of yeast allowed for this drink, in the table, page 317,

one seventh part must be kept to be used as hereafter


shall

be mentioned.

Suppose the heat of the

air is at

40

degrees, and eight quarters of malt have been brewed


for this

purpose

the whole of the yeast required

is

seven

THE PRACTICE OF BREWING.


gallons,

from which one

remaining gallons^ one


the wort on

its first

to be reserved.*

is

halfj or three,

323

Of

the six

are to be put to

coming down, when the whole must

be well roused, or mixed, thoroughly to disperse the enlivening principle the yeast conveys, hereby to prevent
putrefaction, or foxing in any partj and of the last thrct
gallons, about three quarts

must be added to the drink,

every twelve hours, until

ferments to the highest pitch

it

of the period mentioned in article 5, page 319.


successive putting in of yeast

Though the

air

is

This

called \-feeding the drink

bubbles produced From

rilalt

liquors are

more

uniform, as to their size or consistence, than those of natural wines,


yet they are not perfectly so ; for this reason, and because it requires

a greater power td cause a wort or must of malt to ferment, than it


does to keep this act continued, after it is once bgun, it is necesfirst, to apply such a sufficient quantity of yeast as will obtain
purpose; therefore, one half of the remaining six gallon? of yeast
put to the wort on its first coming down.

iary, at
this
is

t The yeast or

bubbles produced from natural wines, vary not

air

only in their consistence, but also in their volume


act of fermentation,

a progressive

so that, in their

consequence of this
bubbles of barley wines are more

effect is the

want of uniformity. The yeast or

air

uniform; to imitate nature,

necessary to apply this principle

it is

fermentation by degrees, to cause a progressive effect only.

bf drink

is

the only

means

to gain this end; thereby the

plied yeast maintains the drink in

manner

as the increased heat

its

Feeding

newly ap-

required agitation, in a similar

and action raised by fermentation causes

the air bubbles in natural wines to act and explode, iu proportion to


their consistence,

and

to the quantity of elastic air the bubbles con-

and so requisite it is periodically to apply more yeast to this


sort of liquor, or regularly to feed it with this enlivening principle,
tain

that, in

very hot weather,

when

this,

X2

through carelessness, has been

THE PRACTICE OF BREWING.

324

before and about the time the head


all

got to this height,

is

the dirt or foul yeast, that rises on the surface,

be carefully skimmed
the pure white froth,

off;

by

the head occasioned by


attenuate

it is

easily

color,

and by the sinking of

weight.

Length of time might

its

its

some of these coarser

fermentation, but

must

distinguished from

as this

help

in a less artificial

oils,

not to be waited for,

is

and every obstacle to pellucidity must be removed, the


brewer's attention to this point cannot be too great.

The head

of the drink having reached

the reserved gallon of yeast

is

to

its

utmost height,

be used,

in order

to

give to the ale a sufficient power to bear the repeated fer-

mentations

it is

to undergo,

by being beat

in,

every two

hours, with a jett or scoope, for one quarter of an hour,


so that the

head on the drink

to the least height

it is

is

capable

each time to be reduced


of.

This striking in be-

ing continued, the drink will periodically

require

and be damaged

has under-

gone more or

if it

less

be neglected.

After

it

it,

of these fermentations, in proportion

to the heats of the worts

carefully to observe,

and of the

when

air,

the brewer

the head ceases to rise to

is

its

accustomed height, and then to examine the drink, by

omitted, I have

known

this ale to

attribute this accident to

besome foxed or

no other cause but

all

and eould

had been regularly brewed, laid thin in the coolers,


the cold the night could give them, and the tun in which the

as the worts

ceived

putrefied,

to a neglect of this sort,

drink was worked wag perfectly clean.

re-

THE PRACTICE OF BREWING.


having the jett

filled

with

bottom, and brought

at the

it

325

through the whole body to the top, a small part of

which being poured

he

in a handgatherer,

whe-

will see

ther the lees form themselves in large white flakes,


readily subside, and be informed, by the

the sweet of the wort

be beat

gone

and the

oft',

taste,

ale

become

two circumstances concur, the drink

If these

nous.

is

is

vi-

to

but not roused as

in with the jett as before,

porter or other beers are

and

whether

for the lees,

which

in this

drink arc in greater quantity, would, by this manage-

ment, so intimately be mixed with

as with difficulty

it,

to separate themselves again, if at all.

to cleanse
cially

in

it

but the casks, at

summer, must be

drink, that

is,

all

It is

times,

well filled

then time

more espe-

up with clean

part of the very drink, which was cleansed,

want

avoiding that produced in the

stillings, as this, for

of standing a sufficient time,

is

always yeasty, and the

yeast, being greatly attenuated

by the working of the

drink, easily dissolves in the ale, and renders

it

foul

and

ill-tasted.

As

the right forming of

amber

ales

is

looked upon to

be the highest pitch of the art of pale beer brewing, I


have dwelt longer on

seem necessary,

to

this article than otherwise

shew the connexion there

every sort of malt liquors


the

but

same method of fermenting

it

it, is

is

it

might

between

should be observed,
to

be practised both

winter and summer, varying only the quantities of yeast

X3

THE PRACTICE OF BREWING.

32

in proportion to the season


this

drink

is

for where, in winter time,

fed with three quarts of yeast every twelve

hours, half a gallon will answer the same intent in sum-,

met.

Upon

the whole, the process

celerate fermentation, yet, the


it is

performed, the better

hinted,

jf

more

contrived to ac-

Madeira wines were fermented in


fit

method of forming drink

either through

to be soon

interest or prejudice,

have before

this

more

for use,

need no ferment to excite them.

as they

and gently

cooll)

will the ales be.

they would sooner become

this

is

fit

manner,

especially

However,
for use, has,

been taxed with

being unwholesome, but upon what grounds,


confess

moment

must

could never yet discover, as no reason of any


has ever been alled^ed for this assertion.

THE PRACTICE OF BREWING.


-.!

-JV|

SECTION
Of the
and

31

XVII.

signs generally directing the processes of Brewing,


their comparison with the

forgoing Theory and

Practice.

WE
and

have

this

now brought our

on principles,

it is

barley wines into the casks,

thought, agreeable and con-

As the charge of novelty may be


invalidate what has been offered, it is but

sonant to each other.


alledged, to
just to

pay so much regard to a long, and, upon the

whole, successful practice, as to recite,


least the principal

maxims and

signs in

hitherto have guided the artist.

if

not

all,

at

brewing, which

By comparing

with the present method, they will not only

these

illustrate

each other, but perhaps cause both to be better understood

and though, with respect to the

art itself, this

may be thought rather a curious than an instructive part,


yet we may learn, from hence, that such practice, which
long experience has proved to be right, will always cor-

respond with true theory.


1

When

a white ftour

settles, either

in the underback

or copperback, which sometimes is the case of a first extract, it is a sure sign such

an extract has not been made

technical terms, that the liquor


sufficiently hot, or, in

has been taken too slack.

THE PRACTICE OF BREWING

328

when

Malt,

portion to the

dried, has

power

its oils

of heat

the grain, though ground,


tion is not at least as hot as

ness,
first

must remain
extract,

it

made

tenacious, in pro-

has been affected with

what occasioned

in great

and deposit

the water for the extrac-

if

this tenacious-

measure undissolved in the

itself

as just

now was men-

tioned.
2.

The first

extract should always have some froth or

headintheunderback.

The

oils

and

salts

of the malt, being duly mixed,

form a saponaceous body, the character of which


on being shook,
3.

The head

it

bears a froth on

is

that,

surface.

its

or froth in the underback appearing red,

blue, purple, orfiery, shews the liquors

to

have been taken

when applied

to the malt, the

too hot.

The

hotter the water

is,

more must the extract abound with

oils,

and conse-

quently be more capable to reflect colors in a strong

manner.

But how precarious

the quality of an extract

is,

in

this

method of estimating

comparison to that which

the thermometer affords, will appear from the following


observation of Sir Isaac

"
"

"

bles will, for a while,


colors,

Newton

"

Saponaceous bub-

appear tinged with a variety of

which are agitated by the external

air,

and

those bubbles continue until such time as, growing ex-

" cessive
thin, by the water trickling down their sides,
" and
being no longer able to retain the enclosed air,

THE PRACTICE OF BREWING.


Now

they burst."

*f

329

as these bubbles vary in their den-

proportion to their duration, the colors they rer

sity, in

must continually change, and therefore

fleet

possible to

it is

not

form an accurate judgment of the condition

and saponaceousness of the extracts, by the appearance


of their froth.

When

4.

the grist feds slippery,

it

generally

is

a sign

that the liquors have been taken too high.

This appearance proceeds from an over quantity of


being extracted, and

the effect of too

is

Beer ought always

5.

to

much

work kind, out of

'when cleansed, but the froth,

in

oil

heat.

the cask,

sinmner time, will be

somewhat more open than in winter.

The
more

higher and hotter the extracting water

oils

doth

force into the must

it

charged with

full

oils,

is,

the

when a wort

the fermentation

is

neither so

is

strong nor so speedy, and consequently the froth, especially the first, is thin,

as the liquor
all

open, and weak.

more attenuated, and

bodies, must rarify the yeasty

cipal part of

even
the

is

in

first,

nearer to

which

summer

is

elastic air

This improves

heat,

which expands

vesicles,

but

this

time, improves to one

the prin-

open head,

more kind,

as

the most active period of fermentation, draws


its

conclusion.

.However vague and indeterminate these signs

would not be impossible

to bring

them

to

are,

it

some degree

THE PRACTICE OF BREWING.

330

of precision

but,

upon the whole,

this

method would

increase our difficulties, and yet, as to certitude, be inferior to the rules

think

it

we have endeavoured

to establish,

we

unnecessary to pursue any farther a research

most likely neither entertaining nor

useful.

THE PRACTICE OF BREWING.

SECTION
V-.

-,...'

4n

XVIII.

:..

enquiry into what

may

be, at all times,

of Beer, and the management of it in

HE

business of a brewer

less regard,

a proper stpfk

tiie cellars.

not confined to the mere

is

manufacture of his commodity


Reserve no

331

his concerns, as a trader,

in a treatise like this, should

and,

not be entirely omitted.

As
it

it is

a fault not to have a sufficient stock of beers

the cellars, to serve the customers,

more than
freers

is

needful.

By

the

first

would be generally new and

pitation

by the

ill

it is

one also to have

of these errors, the

disposed for preci-

other, quantities of stale beer

must

re-

and

will at last turn stale,

main, which, becoming hard,

be unfit for use, unless blended with new brewed beers,


to their detriment.

These

faults, if

continued,

may

ii>

time affect a whole trade, and ought therefore carefully


to

be avoided.

For these reasons, the whole quantity to

be moved, or expected

to

be supplied from the brewer's

store cellars, during the space of one twelvemonth, should

be calculated, as near as possible; half

ought

to be the stock kept

inclusive,

and nearlyt one

in September.

which

it

will

this

quantity

up from November to

third part thereof

From hence a

may be formed, by
to know the quantity

table

be easy, at one view,

May

be remaining

THE PRACTICE OF BREWING.

$52

tbat should

be maintained at every season of the year,

and to avoid almost every inconveniency, which otherwise must

Suppose, for example, the number of

arise.

casks expected to be

moved

and 249 puncheons, the


plied, as to time

in a year, to

store cellars

and quantity,

be 320 butts,

ought to be sup-

in the following

propor-

tion.

82

107

September
October

133

103

November

160

124

December

160

124

After beers have been started in the cellars, the casks

should be well and carefully stopped down, as soon as


the repelling force of fermentation
as not to

be able to oppose

elastic air,

being

which

lost, it

is

is

so

much

this design.

lessened ,

Otherwise the

the vivifying principle of the drink,

would become vapid, and

flat

and

long time in this condition, perhaps grow sour.


3

if left

THE PRACTICE OF BREWING.


It

are

333

has already been observed, that cellars, in winter,

more hot than the

more cold

in

exterior air

summer by

by

10 degrees, and

But besides

5 degrees.

this

general difference, repositories of beer vary surprisingly


in their

temperature

from the nature of the

which they are built, from

soil

in

their exposition to the sun, or

from other incidental causes.

As heat

ful agent in accelerating fermentation,

is

a very power-

it is

by no means

surprising, not only that some cellars do ripen drinks

much

sooner than others, but also that a difference

often perceived in the

same

cellar.

The

persons

is

n^

trusted with the choice of beers, with Avhich the custom^


ers are to

be served, should not be

satisfied to

send out

their guiles in the progressive order in which they were

brewed, but ought, on every occasion, to note any


ration that happens in the drink, as this

is

both to the commodity, and to the consumer,


.constant right to expect

his

alt.e

doing justice

beer in due order.

who

has 4

THE PRACTICE OF BREWING,

334

SECTION
Of

xix.

and other remedies, applicable

Precipitation,

to the

diseases incident to Beers.

accident can be so detrimental as leaky or stinking


casks,

which

lose or spoil the

tained drink.

The

ons, a

at

remedy

coopers were

whole or part of the con-

necessity of having, on these occasi-

hand, was undoubtedly the reason,

first

introduced in store

cellars.

practice might have qualified their palates so as to

them competent judges of the

tastes of wines

this

service,

The

whom

fittest

preparing or forcing them for

was a matter, which the

thereby made them ready enough


mists,

make

and beers,

and to enable them to know which were the


for immediate use.

why

Constant

profit

gained

to undertake.

Chy-

they consulted on this occasion, gave them

some informations, from whence the c6opers became the


possessors of a few nostrums, the effects of which they

supposed to have experienced.


of most,

if

not

all

were

But, ignorant of the causes

the defects they undertake to remedy,

and unacquainted with the constituent parts of beers,


it is

not to be expected that their success should be con-

stant

and uniform.

The

brewer, earnest to do his duty,

and to excel, ought to keep a particular account of every

brewing

by

this

means he

best can tell

how he formed

THE PRACTICE OF BREWING.

33$

the drink, and ought consequently, in any disorder, to be

prepared to direct th

The

properest remedy.

intent of this treatise has been to discover the

means by which

may be

errors

avoided.

Chymical ap-

plications are intended to remedy thostf errors, which

may be occasioned
The wholesomeness
which

either

by

carelessness or accident.

of the applications,

or propriety

be indicated, must be

will

most

left to

the

my

readers

for

improvement, and we might expect

; it is

whose profession

it is

likely that there

is

judgment of

sufficient
it

room

from those,

to study every thing, that

may

be

conducive to the safety of mankind.

Whatever vegetables wines

are produced from,

when-

ever they deviate from the respective perfection, a well,

conducted fermentation might have made them arrive

may

they

be said to be distempered.

of transparency,
degree,

it

not the least evil, but, according to

From what

plain, than that

has been said, nothing can be


is

it

always in our power to form

beers and ales, which will be bright.

brown beer
tion

is

constantly so

brewed

as to

Yet porter or
need precipita-

management have before been


wait till the liquor became transpa-

the reasons for this

offered.

rent

its

obtains various appellations, and requires diffe-

rent helps.

more

is

at,

Foulness, or want

Were we to

by age, a more

acidity. Precipitation

real disorder
is

would ensue, that of

then serviceable, especially when

beers are to be removed from one cellar to another, a

THE PRACTICE OF BREWING.

336

short space of time before they are to be used.

By

being

shook, and the lees mixed with the liquor, a strong acid
taste

conveyed therein, and the power of subsiding,

is

which

wanted, renders the forcing them, in that case,

is

of absolute necessity.
ficiently

heated, no

case

under

is,

by low

In beers brewed with liquors suf-

flatness

occasioned thereby

is

like circumstances, with liquors

from grain not

extracts,

as the

produced

The

sufficiently dried.

degree of foulness in porter should however be limited


its

bounds ought not to exceed the power of one gallon

of dissolved isinglass, to a butt.

The

the consistence of a jelly.

is

beer

put

dissolved in

sieve, so as to
is set in

with a stick, which reaches one third part


before and after this jelly

is

Isinglass

and strained through a

stale beer,

in

down

be of

motion

the cask,

and a few hours

should be sufficient to obtain the desired

We have

effect.

before observed, that this quantity of jelly of isinglass

equal to a

medium

of 10 degrees dry ness in the malt, and

heat of the extracts.


liquor

is

When the

termed stubborn

solved isinglass repeated,

ounces of the
vescence

is,

oil

by

is

is

opacity exceeds

the

often sufficient,

of vitriol are

this addition,

this,

same quantity of

mixed with
produced

it.

the
dis-

not, six

if

An

effer-

the oils of the

drink become more attenuated, and the weight added to


the precipitating matter,
efficacious.

is

a means to render

it

mose

Instead of the oil of vitriol, six or eight

THE PRACTICE OF BREWING.


ounces of the concrete of

vitriol,

337

pounded and mixed

with the isinglass, are sometimes used with success.

foulness in beer

that

beyond

which

is

called stub-

born, gives to the drink the denomination of

This

arises

from the

which

oils

float

grey beer.
upon the surface,

and which the liquor has not been able to absorb.

same methods

this case, the

repeated

as before

In

mentioned are

the quantity of dissolved isinglass

creased to three gallons, that of vitriol to

is

often in-

more than

ounces, and sometimes a small quantity of aquafortis

added

2
is

to these ingredients.

The next stage of opacity is cloudiness when the cooper


;

confesses that the distemper exceeds the

menstruums" and that

power of

his

his

attempts extend no farther than

to hide the evil, tournsol

and cochineal, were they not so

expensive, might

what

is less

in this case

be used with success

of hiding the dusky colour of the drink,

about three or four ounces of


for a butt of beer.
called blacking,
for,

from

this is the

is

madder

a quart

acidity,

is

it

is

of some small service,

somewhat

lessens the

generally used in a butt

to prevent the defect in the beer being noticed

consumer, the practice


a good cauliflowered
using as

proper quantity

Calcined treacle, by the coopers


its

by coloring the drink,

hue thereon

but

known, and would greatly answer the intent

is

to put thereon

head.

much pounded

salt

what

is

grey
and,

by the
called

This might be done by


of steel as will lay upon a

THE PRACTICE OF BREWING.

338

shilling

but the difference

copperas makes the

in price

between

this salt

generally to be preferred.

last

anc|

The

strong froth on the top of the pot, and that which foams

about

it,

together with somewhat of a yellow cast, are

often mistaken for the signs of a superior

merit and

strength, though, in fact, they are those of deceit.


little

reflection that the natural froth of beer cannot

yellow, nor continue a long time, especially

if

be

the liquor

has some age, would soon cure mankind of this preju-

Cloudy beers, under these circumstances, though

dice.

not cured, are generally consumed.

Beers become

sick,

from their having so large a por-

tion of oils, as to prevent the free admission of the exter-

nal air into them.

The want

makes them appear

flat,

should not,

if

Such beers

possible, be brought immediately into use,

would

as age alone

of this enlivefting element

though not vapid.

effect their cure.

But when

this

cannot be complied with, every means that will put the


beer upon the

fret, or

be of

By

service.

under a new fermentation, must

pitching a butt head over head, the

which contain a large proportion of

air,

being mixed again with the drink, help to bring on

this

lees of the beer,

action,

and to remove the

sickness.

Burnt hartshorn shavings, to the quantity of twopenny-worth, put into a butt, are often of use.
Balls

made with

kneaded with
and promote

eight ounces of the finest flower, and

treacle,

its

convey likewise

briskness.

air to the drink,

THE PRACTICE OF BREWING.

339

Beers, by long standing, often acquire so powerful an

become

acid, as to

recting

this

stances,

and

disagreeable.

defect

is

in general

by
by

perty of absorbing acids.

The means

alkaline,

of cor-

or testaceous sob-

those which have the pro-

all

To

a butt of beer in this con-

dition, from four to eight ounces of calcined powder of

oyster-shells
salt

of

whiting

is

put, or from six to eight ounces of

may be

wormwood.

Sometimes a penny-worth or two- of

used, and often twenty or thirty stones of un-

slacked lime

these are better put in separately, than

mixed with the

From two

isinglass.

to six

pounds of treacle used to one butt of

beer, has a very powerful effect, not only to give a sweet


fulness in the

drink.

mouth, but to remove the acidity of the

Treacle

is

the refused sweet of the sugar baker,

part of the large quantities "of lime used in refining sugars, undoubtedly enter in

occasion of

its

its

composition, and

is

the

softening beers.

In proportion as beers are more or less forward, from

wormwood and

two

to four ounces of salt of

tar,

together with one ounce of pounded ginger,


All

successfully employed.

salt

some measure

is

removed by the use of ginger.

Sometimes,

in

summer, when beer

it

find

it

on the

does not gire

fret

way

as

it

is

are'

these substances absorb

acids, but they leave a flatness in the liquor,

we

of tar-

is

which in

wanted

for use,

then in a repelling

state,

to the finings, so as to precipitate,

THE PRACTICE OF BREWING.

340
For

this,

about two ounces of cream of tartar are mixed

with the isinglass, and

of

vitriol are

if

not sufficient, four ounces of

added to the finings next used,

oil

in order to

quiet the drink.

Some coopers attempt

to extend their art so far as to

add strength to malt liquors; but

let it

be remembered,

be

that the principal constituent parts of beer should

When strength

malt and hops.

any other means,


beer

we

its

nature

is

is

given to the liqugr by

and then

altered,

it is

not

Treacle in large quantities, the berries

drink.

of the Cocculus Indicus, the grains of paradise, or the In-

dian ginger pounded fine, and mixed with a precipitat-

ing substance, are said to produce


strength.

It

would be well

if

this

extraordinary

the attempts

made

to ren-

der beers strong by other means than by hops and malt,

were to be imputed to none but coopers

Cocculus Indi-

ous, and such like ingredients, have been

by brewers

boiled in worts,

known

who were more

to

be

ambitious to

excel the rest of the trade, than to do justice to the consumers.

means

Were

it

not that pointing out vice

to forward the practice of

infamous catalogue, more ingredients,

is

often the

could add to this

it, I

were

it

to

be wished

never knew either the name or nature


practitioners
for fining, softening,

of,

and strengthening.

Formerly brown beers were required to be of a very


dark brown, inclinable tq black.
not be procured

As

this

color could

by malt properly dried, the juice of

THE PRACTICE OF BREWING.

341

was frequently mixed with the

isinglass.

elder berries

This juice afterwards gave way to calcined sugar

both

are needless, as time and knowledge remove our prejudices,

when the malt and hops have been properly chosen,

and applied to

their intended purpose.

Such are the remedies

chiefly

posed to become spontaneously

As

hazard.

be absolutely

by

this

it

is

fine,

and when they are

impossible for any fermented liquor to

method,

is,

thereby they are deprived of a comair,

advantages which age,

ales

brown

at rest, the reason of beers being preserved

munication with the

which

of for

being bottled, they are saved from any farther

by

so,

made use

Drinks formed from pale malts are always sup-

beers.

art

and, without

by slow

can never imitate.

risk,

gain

degrees, procures,

Were we

the

all

and

as curious in our

and beers as we are in the liquors we import, did

give to the

produce of our

own country

the same care

and attendance which we bestow on foreign wines, we


might enjoy them

in a perfection at present scarcely

known, and perhaps cause foreigners


a preference to their own growth.

to give to our beers

THE PRACTICE OF BREWING.

342

SECTION

XX.

OF TASTE*.

DOCTOR GREW, who has treated of this matter, divides taste into simple

and compound

he mentions the

different species of the first,

and calculates the various

combinations of the

number of which exceeds

what

the

latter,

might be expected.

at first

this detail, I

Without entering

into

think that the different tastes residing in

the barleys, or formed by their being malted, and brewed

with hops,

which

is

may be reduced

a simple taste

smoothed with

oils

to the following

the sweet, which

the aromatic, which

is

the acid,

is

the

an acid

compound

ofaspiritous acid, and a volatile sulphur; the bitter,

which, according to our author,

is

produced by an

well impregnated either with an alkaline or an acid

shackled with earth

the austere, which

is

oil

salt,

both astrin-

lastly, the nauseous and rank,

gent and

bitter; and,

which

at least in part, sometimes found in beers,

is,

* I confess this
chapter is rather a matter of curiosity, an effusion
of fancy, than of any use to ine known ; if I have suffered it to remain, it has been to shew that when we have long reflected upon a suln
ject, our ideas often lead us

farther view, that, perhaps,

beyond power of practice ; and with this


tnay become of service in the hands of

it

some more ingenious and more penetrating


ever, if I trouble

my

reader with

it,

it

artist

may be

than myself.

said to

How-

be in imitation

of an author far superior to myself in rank and knowledge.

THE PRACTICE OF BREWING.


which have

either been greatly affected

long age, have


thing

left

fire, or,

by

and have no-

lost their volatile sulphurs;

but the thicker and coarser

empyreumatic

by

343

resembling the

oils,

dregs of distilled liquors not carefully

drawn.

The number

of circumstances on which the taste of

fermented liquors depends, are so various, that perhaps


there never were any two brewings, or any

which produced drinks exactly


case, as well as in

many

let us

two vintages,

But

others, the varieties

duced under some general


guish them,

similar.

classes

as, in

may be

this

re-

the better to distin-

enquire which taste belongs to

differ-

ent malt liquors, according to the several circumstances


''

which they are brewed.

in

'^

In beers and ales, the acid prevails in proportion as the

malt has been

and heat

less dried,

extracting water.

The sweet

\vas

wanting in the

will be the effect of a ba-

lance preserved between the acids and the

by

the means of hotter waters,

^xtracted

phur

aromatic.
the most

becomes higher

If the heat is

still

the hops appears

more

will impress the liquor


;

distinct.

When,

volatile sul-

in relish, or

increased, the acids, and

volatile oils, will in part

be dissipated, and in

part be so enveloped with stronger

taste

oils.

more tenacious are

from the grain, whereby the more

retained, the taste

is

oils

oils,

as the bitter of

greater degree of fire

with an austere, rough, or harsh

and * heat beyond

this so affects the oils of the

THE PRACTICE OF BREWING.

344

extracts to be nauseous to the pagrain, as to cause the

Besides these, there

late.

produce some variation


in the

hops

is

as

a'

superior dryness

too great an impetuosity or slowness in

the fermentation

kept

low degree,

in taste

an irregularity in the ordering of the heat

of the extracts

drink

be other causes which

may

in

the difference of seasons in which the

but as these causes affect the liquor,

in a

comparison to the drying and extracting

heats of the grain, an enquiry into their consequences

is

not absolute!)- material.

Beers or

ales,

portion of acids

formed of pale malt,


is

not only more proper to allay

more aromatic than brown


last,

being,

by the

in

which a greater

contained, with less tenacious

drinks.

effect of fire,

and more tenacious of the

thirst,

but

The

in

oils

oils,

are

general

of these

rendered more compact,

terrestrial parts raised

with

them, are attended with something of an austere and


rank

taste.

beers require
to

come

tens

This seems to be the reason

more

time, after they

to their perfection.

and attenuates

why brown

have been fermented,

The

their oils, and,

air,

by degrees,

sof-

by causing the hete-

rogeneous particles to subside, makes them at

last,

unless

charring heats have been used, pleasing to the palate,

whereas they were before austere, rank, and perhaps


nauseous.

By means

of the thermometer,

we have endeavoured

to fix the different colors of malt, the duration of the

THE PRACTICE OF BREWING.

34*

principal sorts of drink, and the tendency each has to

become

transparent.

The same

instrument cannot pro-

bably have the same use, when applied to distinguish


the

different

tastes, as these

depend on a variety of

causes not easy to be ascertained.


this nature

may be

Yet something of

attempted, upon the following prin-

ciples.

As the
tastes in

chief circumstance which produces a variety of

malt liquors^

and hops, and the

same element, the


what

is

effect

fire

or heat acting on the malt

of the

air,

put in motion by the

table here subjoined

tastes are in general occasioned

by

may

point out

the combination

of these two causes.

A TABLE

determining the tastes of Malt


Liquors.

40

176

.......

Nauseous

THE PRACTICE OF BREWING.

346

The

column of the

first

table shews the fermentable

degrees reversed, as the hotter the season

is,

more

the

fermented drinks tend to acidity, the direct contrary


of which

is

the consequence of an increase in the heat,

malt or hops are dried or extracted with.

The

assistance of this table,

though small, ought per-

haps not to be entirely slighted, as

shew

that the useful

gant, and that a

it

seems

at least to

seldom separated from the ele-

is

medium

betwee'n extremes

most

is

agreeable both to the operations of nature, and the constitution of

The

our organs.

impressions of tastes are less in proportion as

The

the drinks are weak.

most acid vinegar.


sooner, than

hement
it

is,

it

heats.

strongest wine yields the

Time wears away

this acidity

much

doth the nauseousness occasioned by ve-

This circumstance shews how necessary

in the beginning of the process of brewing,

avoid extracts which are too weak, as from hence, in

ta
its

conclusion, such would be required whose great heat

-would render the drink rank and disagreeable.

proportion between the


tutes soundness
taste,

As

salts

and the

and pellucidity,

is

oils,

That

which consti-

most pleasing to the

and seems to be the utmost perfection of the

art.

the sun never occasions a heat capable of charring

the fruits of the vine,

we

never meet with wines endued

with a taste resembling the empyreumatic, which

we

THE PRACTICE OF
have here represented.
in

any

liquor,

we

This error, being inexcusable

lias

here been said,

important truth, that nature

that,

by

shall

341

ought carefully to be guarded against,

and, from what


this

JBREWING.

is

we

should learn

the best guide, and

imitating, as near as possible, her operations,

never be disappointed in our ends.

APPENDIX.
1

HOUGH

great

length, I

done

me

of

will

it,

work has already been

this

hope those of

the honor to

me

pardon

go

my

readers,

carried to

who may have

attentively through the whole

the addition of a few incidental

The

thoughts and queries.

chain of arts

is

so well con-

nected, that researches originally intended for the illustration of

some

light

The

1.

any one of them, can hardly

upon

seed of plants cannot be put in a

for perfect vegetation, than

moisture.

of throwing

fitter

place,

when buried under ground,

at a depth sufficient to defend the


vicissitudes of heat

much

fail

others.

young

shoots from the

and cold, and the disadvantage of too

The manuring

of the earth, and the

steeping the seed into solutions of

salts,

have been found,

in some cases, to increase the strength of the grain, to

correct

its

original defects,

and

to prevent the noxious

impressions of a vicious ground.

germinate in water alone,

and

Plants are

cessfully carried on every Avinter, in

may

still

be improved by dissolving

Could the barley used


its

natural,

more miscible with water, by the

to

warm

salts in

apartments,
the water.

be put in the ground,

for malting

growth would be more

made

experiment so suc-

this

and

saline

rived from the earth, might yield

its oils

becoming

nourishment de-

more vinous, snore

APPENDIX.

350

more

strong, and

But

lasting liquors.

impracticable, would
ficacy of that which

it

is

used

Consult

ture : might not either nitre or


water, with Avhich the grain

salt

method

stances, that

and am

far

ef-

petre be added to the


are they not

Are not solutions of

his

sow-

barely mention these as some of the sub-

might be employed in the malting of barley,

from thinking there are none other.

different salts should


soil,

is

on agricul-

water employed by the farmer to steep

in

ing seed

the

Home

moistened

is

used with success to manure land

them

as this

be impossible to increase the

Perhaps

be used, according to the nature of

from which the corn was produced

but a vari-

ety of experiments seems to be required, in order to dis-

cover

how

far art

might in

this case imitate

and improve

Tiature.
2.

ly

smalt quantity of malt, at

when brewed

in-

all

large vessels, parts too readily with

the heat which extraction requires


if

times, but especial-

and, on the contrary,

the quantity of malt be very great, the heat

be uniformly spread.
acidity

is

may

not

forward beer inclinable

to

often the result of too short a grist

stubborn, and rank liquor


too large a one.

times

many

Every advantage

properly, five or six quarters of

succeed
3.

if

The

the

number exceeds

is

produced from

may be had
malt

a thick,

it

in

brewing,

is difficult

to

fifty.

strong pungent volatile spirit, which exhales

from a must, when under

full

fermentation, has been

APPENDIX.
supposed to be a

351

which might be prevented

loss,

accordingly attempts have been

made

by stopping

ing impetuous particles,

the communication

between the atmosphere and the fermenting drink.


there

is

a dispersion of

spirits

is

loss

is

That

beyond doubt, and

these exhaling vapors consist of the finest

heat forces out of the must,

and

to retain these fly-

oils,

equally certain.

But

seems to be abundantly repaid by the stronger

which the same degree of heat attenuates and


in a larger quantity, to the former.

The

that

which

the,

this
oils,

substitutes,

could

last oils

never come under the form of a vinous liquor, but by a

power, which sooner or

later dissipates

Pale ales or amber not only lay, for


to the

open

air,

but

the action of the

surfer,

air,

spirits,

carried on uniformly.

many

oils

are,

by

many

days, exposed

The

mended

Yet experience shews, that

this

method,

so.

attenuated, that the


is lost.

practice of fermenting by compression, recom-

to distillers, seems,

on

this

account, less useful,

than might be concluded from theory alone


of the

much

than when fermentation

strength acquired greatly surpasses that which


4.

first.

periodical renewal of

every two or four hours, a

more considerable loss of


is

by the

some of the

distiller, as well as of the brewer,

greatest quantity of spiritous

ferment a must in vacuo

oils.

the intent

is

to extract the

It is

impossible to

air is absolutely

necessary to

carry on this operation, even a superabundant quantity


of

oils

admitted into the must, by obstructing the free

APPENDIX.

352
admission of the

impedes fermentation, prevents the

air,

wine from reaching pellucidity, and sometimes


casion of
5.

its

becoming

When the

is

the oc-

putrid.

purest spirit

is

intended to be drawn from

the grain, the fermented wash ought to be suffered to


it

"till

which

the. distillery

this useful

The

becomes transparent.

settle,

dispatch, with

generally carried on, often prevents

is

circumstance taking place, and occasions a

want of vinosity

in the liquor.

In

many

cases, the ex-

traordinary charges of extracting the grist from malted


corn, in the manner, which has been directed for drinks

intended a short space to be kept, and of suffering the

fermented wash to be meliorated by time,

until it be-

comes vinous and spontaneously transparent, might be


abundantly repaid.
distiller's business,

Yet,

;f

hurry must be a part of the

he should at

least

make such

tions as admit of the speediest fermentation

He cannot expect

diest pellucidity.

corn

extrac-

and the rea-

spirits to

equal

the brandies of France, unless his worts are similar to the

wines

distilled in that

purpose are weak,

kingdom, where those used

fine,

and tending to acidity.*

for this

He would

* It must be
observed, the wines of France in general

make

the

best brandies, and of these, such which justly are termed green wines,

(and soon would become acid)

and of the extractions

this leads

us to the nature of the grain,

an equal, pure, nutty spirit.- Barley,


dried scarcely to the denomination of malt, and extracted with the
lowest medium, or perhaps one inferior to this, most likely would answer

this purpose.

manner, and found

it

to procure

I have tried the experiment


answer beyond expectation.

in

a very imperfect

APPENDIX.

353

therefore secure to himself the greatest probability of success, if

he employed only malted corn

in his grist, this of

the best kind, well germinated to form a saccharine basis,

and resolved, with weak

slack dried,
into the

tended

extracts', to

must a proper proportion of

this

wash

to

vinosity.

be formed into a pure

be allowed time to become transparent


late his extracts

common

by such

If

he

in-

should

spirit, it

he might regu-

heats as have been fixed for

when

small beer, brewed

at the lowest fermentable degree,


Jess

preserve

than these, when dispatch

is

the heat of the air

is

though perhaps heats

'required, might better

answer his purpose, especially as the length used in the


distillery is nearly the

same with

for the liquor here referred

that

which brewers use

With

to.

hot waters to at-

tempt to force from the grain more strength or more


than such as

will

a real

distillery,

form a clean
loss

strong heats, more

be converted in

tasteless spirit, is,

and a fundamental

oils

spirits

error.

oils,

uTthe

By

too

are forced into the must than can


;

and fermentation being, by

this

over charge, in some measure, clogged and impeded, a


less yield is

made, and the liquor obtained of a rank and

often empyreumatic taste.


6.

Why

prepared

in

are the brandies of Spain inferior to those

France

The wines

the growth of a weaker sun

of the

last

country are

they contain no

more

oiis

than can be assimilated by fermentation, and form a


clean, dry, nutty spirit.

The

Spanish wines abounding

APPENDIX.

3*4

with more oleaginous than acid parts, this over propor-

becomes not only

tion

useless,

but hurtful in the

and produces the rankness observed

The

in

still,

Spanish brandies.

cleanness of the spirit arises, in great measure, from

the weakness of the must, and

proportion of
reason

why

oils to

the

its

vinosity

from a

less

This seems to be the

salts.

the most grateful spirits are produced from

wines unable to bear the sea, or to be long kept.


7.

The

native spirits of vegetables, says Boerhaave,

are separated

To

by heats between 94 degrees, and 212.

obtain the whole of these, the fire must be gradually

increased

for a superior heat dissipates the spirits raised

by an inferior one.
100 degrees, are
It is true,

Such parts

lost if the

by

might be obtained by

heat applied be

much greater.

the parts of vegetables immersed in water,

cannot so easily be dissipated as


yet,

as

if

they were in open

evaporation, however small, must ensue, or the

by a

greater heat

ones, as to

all

may

oils

raised

so effectually envelope the finer

make them hardly

smell or taste.

extract

air,

the rarefaction of the liquid, a proportional

perceptible either to our

Thus, though heated water

is

able to

the virtues residing in the vegetables, the dif-

ferent application of the fire will alter not only their

proportions, but their properties also,

when we

consi-

der that pure spirit of wine boils at so low a heat as 175


degrees.

If the

above principles be true, that surely

must be the cleanest

spirit

which

is

brought over in the

APPENDIX.
slowest and coolest

tfce

manner

the rules here laid

if

bable,

and

355

is

it

more than pro-

down be put

in practice,

grain of England will be found to yield spirits that

may

vie with the brandies of France,

be more pure than

those of the Indies, and excel those of Holland.

The

8.

vinegar maker

is

equally concerned with the

the brewing process.

distiller in

in the last stage of fermentation,

Vinegar

when

is

produced

a gross, tartare-

ous, unctous matter, consisting of the coarser oils extracted either

its

from the grain or the grapes, generally

the bottom of the liquor, and no longer prevents

falls to

acidity, or affects

its flavor.

Though the

best vinegar

proceeds either from the strongest wines or beers,

this

strength consists in the quantity of fermentable principles,

and not

in that of

mere oleaginous

parts.

By

properly

adapting the extracting waters, this hurtful impediment

may

be removed, and the vinegar from malt liquors be-

come

as neat

and as strong

as that

which

is

made from

wine.
9.

As the

acid taste of vinegar

is

the effect of a conti-

nued fermentation, many people have thought


terial

how

speedily the

carried on.

But

some of the

fine oils,

first

it

imma-

parts of the operation were

violent fermentations not only dissipate

which should be retained

in the

vinegar, but also cause the must to tend towards putrefaction.

Boerhaave, after he has directed a frequent

transvasion of the liquor, observes that, whenever the

Z2

APPENDIX.

356

weather or the workhouse


sary to

fill

is

very hot,

often neces-

it is

the half emptied vessels every twelve hours,

not only to procure a supply of acids from the

tation,

which arising
the

pate

volatile

air, igbt

and check the too violent fermen-

also to cool the wine,

in the half full casks,

before

spirits,

secured and entangled by the acid.

might be sour indeed, but

at the

might

are

they

Hence

dissi-

properly
the liquor

same time

fiat,

and

would never become a sharp and strong vinegar.


10. Application

and uses have frequently been found


were supposed to be of no

for materials, Avhich before


value.

The

brewer has drawn

grains, after the

his worts

out of them, are generally used for the feeding of cattle

but

do not know that hops,

employed to any purpose.


this vegetable, after it

the beer

Is

there nothing

more

left in

has imparted the virtue wanted to

All plants burnt in

have been

after boiling,

open

air yield alkaline

salts, though in a greater or less quantity, according to

Boerhaave says that those

the quality of the plants.

which are austere, acid, or aromatic, yield

in their ashes

a great abundance of salts, and these being put in fusion,

and mixed with

flint

or sand, run into glass.

thrown, after decoction, in no great quantity


fire,

cause the coals to

termed, to

run

vitrify,

into clinkers.

or as

it

is

Hops
on the

generally

If therefore the

remains

of the hops were burnt in open air, or in a proper


furnace,

it

seems most likely that no inconsiderable


3

APPENDIX.

357

quantity of somewhat like pot ashes might be obtained,

and

this,

ployed

considering the

in large cities,

become an

many tun weight

and thrown away as

object of private

emolument

and of public benefit to the kingdom.

FINIS.

Z3

of hops

useless,

em-

might

to the brewer,

INDEX.
A.

Page

ACIDS, what

Air, principal agent in fermentation


why it slacks malt

19, 23

20

not easily expelled from bodies


expelled from worts by long boiling

21

is

84
145

heat of, relative to brewing

Alcohol, what

most effectually dissolves resins

38

Algebraic rules of proportion for mixing cold and


hot water
271
285
Alkali,

what
its

great

power

37

as a solvent

B.

Backs being set, reason


,
Barley, defined
viscous and replete with acids
consequence of
its

its

89

90
90

germinating

state in the field

91

Effect of heating in the

heat which destroys

mow-burned,

how much
Beers,

306

it

its

mow
vegetative

92

power

92, 93

93

unfit for malting


loses

100

by malting

may be dried M'itliout germinating


why deposited in cellars ...
best

Bird, Mr. his

brewed

in

pure
thermometer

Body of a wort

air

47
85, 86
,....

not opened, what

102

43

320, 321

INDEX.

360

Page
Boiling,

how

effected

necessary for worts, and management


Brandies of France and Spain compared

224

Brown

198

ale,

stout,

Burton

353

what
what

199

what

ale,

196

156, 186

Cellars, temperature

331

management of beer
Cleansing keeping beers
.

common

319.

321

small

amber
Cloudy beer, how

325
to

be treated

337

Cocculus Indicus, infamous practice of using


Cold greatest, at London

340

it

145

254

Cooling-in explained
Coppers, method of calculating heights

22Q

D.
Division of water for a brewing

235

239;

200

Dorchester beer^ what


E.

33

Earths defined

sometimes used
Effervescence,

in precipitation

Elements, for forming pale beers


brown do
,

33

79

whence

porter
small beer

purl

172

177
178, 180, 245
190, 248

194

INDEX.
Elements for forming amber

361

195, 251

.,.

keeping small beer

19?

....,

pale keeping strong and small 239

14

Expansion, singular exception in

1&

differs in different fluids

of water just boiling

26

;..

Experiments on Thames, New River,and Hampstead


31

waters
Extraction defined
four different
1st

160

mode

modes

163

.,

2d

.,

3d

.'.

<.

..

169
173

"..

181

192

4th
Extracts under and over -heated shew similar signs

29

F.

32S

Feeding drink, what


Fermentation, what.....
its

6,

its effects

term too generally applied


artificial,

signs

Ferments, what

and

8(5

effects

518

^4

.:

336
13

**
I*

strengthens some bodies


loosens the texture of malt .......-.....*
it

.....<*..*..

preserves bodies

how

to regulate

78

78

defined

Fining beers
Fire, nature and properties
expands all bodies

how

66

6673

several stages

its

degrees

.,

15
*

**

16

INDEX.

362

Page
Flowers of wine, what

311

Foxed, what

G.
Germinating heats of France, Spain,

&c

57

59

England

59

Grapes, their taste in different states


under what heat produced and ripened 51,
54,
why not produced at Jamaica

51

how to discover their


Grey beer, how to be treated

60
64

properties

Grinding malt

55

337
;.

:.

157

H.

Hard

corns, heat they cause in mashes

Heat, medium of London


dissolves

more

17,

295
145, 148, 150

parts than water can contain

difference in shade

and sun

greatest at London, in the shade


Hops, nature and properties
whence difference of Worcestershire

...

26

52, 156
;...
:

& Kentish

145
201

203

useful in extraction

213

calculation

213

to-

regulate purchasing

imposition on purchasers
volume estimated when boiled

216

perhaps useful after being boiled

356

222

I.

Incidents causing heat of extracts to vary from calculation


289
Isinglass,

what
use and application

7
336

INDEX.

363

L.

Page

Lees of wine, what

311

211

Lengths in brewing, explanation

M.
94, 126
Malting, process
48
Malts, alter in color the more they are dried
incapable of retaining more fire than is in external air

*...

99

cannot be made in hot weather

103

degree of heat that constitutes them


degree which charrs them
effect different degrees has upon them.. 108

105

properties
defective

113

first

112

131137
wort contained

their virtue in

in

amazing small
270

space
Mashes, four, their different heats
last

107

62

heat

293
286

Mashing
Maturating and germinating heats

57

59

Menstruums, doctrine of

34

38

water,

oils,

and

salts,

the principal in

35

brewing

Must from grapes,

constituent parts

6S

O.
Oils, constituent principles

Old hock, what

...,

,,~,

35
199

P.
Precipitation, what

remedy

9
for diseased beer

334

INDEX.

36*

Page
Processes of two brewings computed
reduced to one point of view

271

297

303

Purl, what

Putrefaction,

193

whence

78

R.
Rain, which most fruitful
Remedies for diseased beer

53,

54

334
S.

Salts,

a principal menstruum
their nature

Sealing hermetically, how performed


Sick beers, how to be treated

36,

37

37,

38

7
338

Signs general, directing the processes in brewing .. 327


Spirits pungent, exhaling from a fermenting must 350,

351
of rnalt might equal those of wine

352

Spontaneous pellucidity, how produced


Stale beers, how to be treated

339

Steeping barley, how practised in the north


Stock of beer proper

331

Stubborn beers, how to be treated

337

319

94

T.

Table of changes of color

in malt

shewing the age beers

dium

by

heat

115

will require with

me119

heats

shewing the tendency beers have to

become
124

fine

shewing medium heat


the

morning

at

London

at eight in
:

148

INDEX,

S*
Page

Table shewing medium heat of the

air at

London

..

150
155

of incidents affecting heat in brewing


shewing proper dryness of malt

1-62

shewing the quantity of fermentable principles residing in malt

168

to determine heat of first

and

last

extract

...

HO

ditto for porter

175

shewing color of grain


shewing medium heat of each process
shewing heat of first and last extracts

185

common

184

in

191

small beer

shewing value of hops

208

in degrees

shewing the quantity of hops to a quarter of


malt in porter
209
^.
ditto

common

210

small beer

amber
Burton

shewing the
of tengths

^^.. 211

212

ale

medium

price hops should bear 215

219
221

of gauges of coppers
of time of boiling each beer

228

of volume of malt to reduce grist to liquid

254

measure

shewinggreat evaporation of water in brewing 256


shewing volume of malt equal to one barrel

267

of water

292

of effervescence of malt

shewing the times worts should be

let

down 308

should belet down 309


shewing/ieaf at which they
in cleansing small beer 321
of
head
shewing depth

determining taste of malt liquors


Taste, reason of the difference in malt liquors

34.5

342

*6

INDEX.
Page

Technical terms explained

Thermometer, when
its

first

known

in

40

improvements

assists to

45

discovers the strengh of a wort


quality of hops

absurdity of brewers to reject

Two

for

brewings,

43

discover the heat of bodies

when blended

Times proper

-12

39

England

.........

41
48
49

it

146

brewing
circumstances relating

them

to

brought into one point of view

297

303

V.
Vegetables,

why

fit

for wines

74

Vinegar of beer equal to that of wine


best made from strongest liquors

76

355

355

W.
Waste water
Water,

in

brewing each beer

230

expansion by boiling
becomes of equal heat with the
at

what degree

boiled,

its

it

21

air

changes to ice

appearance when froze

'

''

21

21

which makes the strongest extracts

22

being light, a good property

24

great quantities evaporated in brewing


its ultimate
parts less than those of air,

25

necessary to fermentation
excellency of drinks too often attributed to

29

25

how examined
.

233
14

its

its

division into worts

27

30

and mashes

234

252

INDEX.

367

Page
the proper state and time for cool-

Water, boiling

'

290

ing in

Wines, general

50

definition

Tockay and Canary


Madeira

52

63

the most certain signs of their wholesomeness

86

160

their basis

27

Worts, sometimes over-hopped


height in coppers cast up to

fix

the length

..

223
304

cooling-management
Y.
Yeast, replaces the air lost

heat at which

it

by

boiling worts

311

nature and contents


quantity for small beer
strong beer and porter
ales

bitten,

what

and amber

22

305

acts

315
316
317

320

University of California

SOUTHERN REGIONAL LIBRARY

FACILITY
Return this material to the library
from which it was borrowed.

OCT05

ERN REGIONAL LIBRARY

FACILITY

A 000083322

ift

ST

Uni

Related Interests