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HIGHER CORTICAL

FUNCTIONS and the


BASIS OF LANGUAGE

Imelda D. Rivera, RMT, MD, FPSP


Department of Anatomy
College of Medicine
UERMMMCI

OBJECTIVES
At the end of the study, the student should be
able to:
Identify the lobes, gyri and sulci.
Enumerate the subdivisions & regions of the cerebral
cortex.
Describe the layers of the cortex.
Differentiate the anatomical, functional and Brodmann
areas.
Discuss the basis of language.
Explain cerebral dominance.
Differentiate common disorders of the cortex.

DIENCEPHALON

INFERIOR

SUPERIOR

CHOROID PLEXUS

STRIA
MEDULLARIS
THALAMI

THALAMUS

HYPOTHALAMUS

OPTIC CHIASM

INFUNDIBULUM

TUBER
CINEREUM

MAMMILARY
BODY

MEDIAL

Central sulcus of
Rolando

Posterior ramus
Parietooccipital sulcus
Anterior ascending ramus

Calcarine
sulcus
Anterior horizontal ramus

Lateral sulcus of
Sylvius

FRONTAL
sulcus
gyrus

PRECENTRAL
PRECENTRAL

SUPERIOR FRONTAL
SUPERIOR FRONTAL
MIDDLE FRONTAL
INFERIOR FRONTAL
INFERIOR FRONTAL

Opercular

Triangular

Orbital

STRAIGHT/GYRUS RECTUS
OLFACTORY SULCUS

ORBITAL GYRI

PARIETAL
SULCUS
GYRUS
POSTCENTRAL
INFERIOR LOBULE/ANGULAR
POSTCENTRAL
SUPERIOR LOBULE

INTRAPARIETAL

PARACENTRAL LOBLE
PRECUNEUS

TEMPORAL
GYRUS
SULCI
SUPRAMARGINAL
SUPERIOR TEMPORAL
SUPERIOR

MIDDLE

INFERIOR
INFERIOR TEMPORAL

TEMPORAL

TRANSVERSE/HESCHL

INSULA

OCCIPITAL

CUNEUS

CALCARINE
SULCUS

LINGUAL GYRUS

LIMBIC

CINGULATE SULCUS

CINGULATE

COLLATERAL SULCUS

PARAHIPPOCAMPAL

RHINAL SULCUS

OCCIPITOTEMPORAL
SULCUS

LATERAL
OCCIPITOTEMPORAL

MEDIAL
OCCIPITOTEMPORAL

CAUDATE NUCLEUS,
HEAD

CLAUSTRUM
PUTAMEN
GLOBUS
PALLIDUS

FIBERS (WHITE MATTER)


COMMISSURAL
ASSOCIATION
PROJECTION

Commissural Fibers

Corpus callosum
Anterior commissure
Posteior commissure
Commissure/Crura of the fornix
Habenular

Association Fibers
Short
Arcuate loops

Long
Uncinate fasciculus
Cingulum
Superior longitudinal fasciculus
Inferior longitudinal fasciculus
Fronto-occipital fasciculus

Projection Fibers

Internal capsule
External capsule
Corona radiata
Optic radiations

Whats a good pick up line an axon terminal


can use on a dendrite?
Lets connect!

Why are neuroanatomy classes the


smartest?
Because they have lots of brains.

CORTEX (GRAY MATTER)

Cells
Layers
Functional areas
Brodmann areas

Cells

Pyramidal
Stellate/Granule
Fusiform
Horizontal cells (of Cajal)
Cells of Martinotti

Cortex
SUBDIVISIONS

REGIONS

Neocortex
Paleocortex
Archicortex

Isocortex
Mesocortex
Allocortex
Corticoid areas

Functional Areas

Functional Areas
Primary areas
Association areas
Unimodal
Heteromodal

Brodmann Areas

DISORDERS OF CORTICAL NETWORKS


AGNOSIAS
Visual
Tactile
Auditory

APRAXIAS

Ideomotor
Ideational
Kinetic/Motor
Gait

APHASIAS

Broca
Wernicke
Global
Conduction

Thank you.