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Middle School

8th Grade Social Studies


Power TEKS Review Book
Student Name:

____________

Table of Contents
Eras of American of History
European Exploration
Physical Map
13 Colonies: climate, resources,
economics, religious groups,
governments
French & Indian War
Causes of the American Revolution
Events of the American Revolution
Declaration of Independence
Individuals and Groups in the
American Revolution
Articles of Confederation
Constitutional Convention
U.S. Constitution
Bill of Rights
Early Republic Presidents
(Washington)
Early Republic Presidents
(Washington, Adams, Jefferson)
Early Republic Presidents
(Jefferson, Madison, Monroe)
Industrial Revolution
vocabulary
Industrial Revolution Technological
Innovations
Age of Jackson
Jacksonian Democracy
Westward Expansion
Reform Movements
Causes of the Civil War
Civil War
Civil War U.S.A. v. C.S.A.
Reconstruction
Important: Dates, Rebellions, Supreme
Court Cases
Important Concepts
European Influence in America
Political Parties

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KEY
War or Battle

** Important/Famous Quote
Rebellion

ERAS (TIME PERIODS) OF AMERICAN HISTORY

EXPLORATION
17th Century

COLONIZATION

1607

1620

CONFEDERATION TO CONSTITUTION

1787

INDUSTRIAL
REVOLUTION

REFORM

AMERICAN
REVOLUTION
18th Century

EARLY REPUBLIC
Louisiana Purchase

19th Century

AGE OF
JACKSON

1776

1803

WESTWARD
EXPANSION

CIVIL WAR

RECONSTRUCTION

1861-1865

Reasons for European Exploration & Colonization

European Rivalries: all countries competing for the same lands


Economic Gains: gold, land, resources, and a market for exports
Religion: religious freedom and the spread Christianity
Northwest Passage: a quicker route to Asia

PHYSICAL MAP, USA

Mississippi River

Sierra Nevada Mts.


Rocky Mountains

Appalachian
Mountains

New Orleans

Cities established by water for survival, transportation, and trade


Mountains and rivers formed natural barriers to the pioneers
moving west
Mississippi River was important for transportation of goods and
people

COLONIAL CLIMATE, RESOURCES, & ECONOMICS

2
2

NEW ENGLAND
COLONIES
Harsh Winters
Water, Trees, and Rocky
Soil
Fishing, Whaling
Lumbering, Ship Building
Trapping, Trading
Subsistence Farming

MIDDLE COLONIES
Mild Climate
Rivers & Fertile
SOUTHERN COLONIES
Soil
Hot Climate
Shipping &
Fertile Soil
Farming
Cash Crops - Cotton,
Indigo, Tobacco, Sugar, Cash Crops Grains,
Rice
Breadbasket
Long Growing Season
Short Growing
Season
RELIGIOUS GROUPS:

Puritans the Great Migration, wanted to purify the Church of England,


settled in Massachusetts Bay Colony, Anne Hutchinson
Pilgrims Separatists (to separate from the Church of England),
Mayflower, Plymouth Rock, Mayflower Compact, 1620
Quakers Wanted peace and harmony, William Penn, Pennsylvania,
later worked for abolition and womens rights
Catholics Maryland, Act of Toleration (diverse religions developed)
GOVERNMENTS:
Mayflower Compact Pilgrims, majority rule, rule of law

Fundamental Orders of Connecticut first constitution in North


America
Virginia House of Burgesses first representative assembly, first town
meeting concept

IMPORTANT FACTS: Jamestown, Virginia - 1607, starving time,


Georgia - James Olgethorpe, convicts, debtors, convicts, indentured servants,
New York called, New Amsterdam, settled by the Dutch from Netherlands

FRENCH AND INDIAN WAR

French & Indians versus England and Colonists


Fought over the Ohio River Valley where the French were fishing,
hunting, and trapping
George Washington Ft. Necessity
Benjamin Franklins Albany Plan of Union
Both had
Benjamin Franklins Join or Die**
same message
Final battle fought at Ft. Quebec
Treaty of Paris 1763 gave the land west of the colonies to the
Mississippi River to the British

CAUSES OF THE AMERICAN REVOLTUION

Taxation without Representation**


Acts passed by Parliament: Proclamation of 1763, Sugar, Stamp,
Townshend, Quartering, Tea, Intolerable Acts
Tyranny of King George III
Resentment of mercantilism, effects of Salutary Neglect, and desire for
free enterprise

EVENTS LEADING TO THE AMERICAN REVOLUTION

Stamp Act Congress - colonists boycott Great Britain taxation


without representation**
Boston Massacre Crispus Attucks dies, John Adams defends the
Redcoats, Paul Revere uses event as propaganda
Boston Tea Party Sons of Liberty throw tea off
British East India Tea Company ships

First Continental Congress reaction to Intolerable Acts, Nonimportation agreements on Great Britain
Lexington & Concord first battles shot heard round the
world**
The British are coming - Paul Revere**

Second Continental Congress Olive Branch Petition, Washington


made Commander-in-Chief of the Continental Army, Declaration of
Independence written, & Articles of Confederation will be written

DECLARATION OF INDEPENDENCE

Preamble (introduction) it included the reference to unalienable


rights: Life, Liberty, & Pursuit of Happiness
Grievances complaints about King George III these grievances
became important parts of the Constitution
Thomas Jefferson author of the Declaration of Independence
Date July 4, 1776
Abigail Adams wrote to her husband in response to all men are
created equal and said to remember the ladies? **

EVENTS OF THE AMERICAN REVOLUTION

Bunker Hill (Breeds Hill) dont shoot until you see the whites
of their eyes (warning to save their ammunition)
Trenton Washington
crosses the icy
Delaware River and
surprises the Hessians

Saratoga, N.Y. turning point 1. Colonists begin winning 2. France


decides to help the colonists

Valley Forge, P.A. where Washington retreats to set up winter camp


because his men need food, clothing,
and medical attention, men stayed
and endured the hardships
These are the times that try
mens souls Thomas Paine,
An American Crisis** - used to
inspire soldiers

Yorktown, V.A. final battle of the revolution, French fleet of ships


blockaded the British fleet Cornwallis surrenders

Treaty of Paris 1783 ended the


American Revolution and Britain
recognizes the United States as
an independent nation

INDIVIDUALS & GROUPS IN THE AMERICAN REVOLUTION


5

America

Great Britain

George Washington Commander-in-Chief

King George III


Tyrannical King of England

Patriots - colonists who wanted to be


independent from Great Britain (England)

Loyalists colonists who wanted


to remain loyal to Great Britain
(England)
Redcoats military of Great
Britain (England)

Minutemen colonists ready to fight


in a minute generally those at the
Battles of Lexington & Concord

Gage British general in Boston


Benjamin Franklin sent to France as
a diplomat to ask France to help the
colonists in the American Revolution
Lafayette French general who helped
train the men in the Continental Army
(army of the colonists)

Hessians professional soldiers


hired by the King of England from
Germany to fight with Great
Britain in the American Revolution
Cornwallis British general who
was defeated at Yorktown which,

Samuel Adams leader of boycott


organization Sons of Liberty,
Committees of Correspondence,
spy system in Boston, and the Boston Tea
Party
John Adams defended the Redcoats
after the Boston Massacre, organized the
Sons of Liberty, mastermind of the
Declaration of Independence
Sons of Liberty secret organization of
colonists whose purpose was to protest for
rights of colonists and to protest the British
actions , some violence

ended the American Revolution

Haym Soloman - helped finance


the American Revolution
John Paul Jones naval officer
I have not yet begun to fight**
Wentworth Cheswell - gathered
signatures of Patriot pledges
against England and helped
Committee of Safety
Bernanrdo de Galvez - supplies
for colonists & fighting in

Florida
Mercy Otis Warren writer and
propagandist
Thomas Paine Common Sense and
An American Crisis
liberty

James Armistead - spy

Give me
orPatrick
give meHenry
death**

ARTICLES OF CONFEDERATION
The original constitution of the US, ratified in 1781,
which was replaced by the US Constitution in 1789.
Weaknesses:
no executive
no court system
could not levy (collect) taxes,
Confederation Congress regulated by the states
states had the power, not the national government
Strengths:
Land Ordinance of 1785 set up the Northwest Territory
Northwest Ordinance of 1787 was process for territories to become
equal states population of 60,000 required individual rights
protected no slavery
SHAYS REBELLION
farmers in Massachusetts were having money problems
and the state would not help
national government could not help

showed that the Articles of Confederation were NOT working!


Americans realized they had to restructure the government

CONSTITUTIONAL CONVENTION

PLANS
New Jersey
Virginia
-Small states
-Large states
-Equal
-Representation by
representation
population
COMPROMISES
-Great Compromise
-Three Fifths Compromise
-Two plans together
-Three of every five slaves would
-Three branches
be counted toward population
-Two House Legislature
-Senate equal representation
-House of Representatives representation by population
RATIFICATION
Federalists FOR
Anti-Federalists-AGAINST
1. Federalist Papers
1. Thought national government had too
2. Wanted strong
much power
national government
2. Believed individual rights were not
3. Leaders: Alexander
protected
Hamilton & James
3. Leaders: Patrick Henry & George Mason
Madison

U.S. CONSTITUTION

PREAMBLE introduction
PRINCIPLES:
Popular Sovereignty We the People** the people are the source of power
for the government
Republicanism people are the source of\
power by electing (voting for) representatives
Separation of Power - the power of the
government is divided into three
separate branches
Checks and Balances in order to limit the power of the three branches, each
branch has powers that check the other branches and keep the power balanced
Ex: President can veto laws by Congress
Federalism - both the national government and
the state governments have powers and
the national government have powers that are

shared
Limited Government all people, even
those who work for the government, are
limited by what is in the Constitution
Individual Rights Bill of Rights:
Individuals liberties and privileges
protected
AMENDMENT PROCESS - done by Legislative Branch

BILL OF RIGHTS

Separation8
of church
and state

FIRST - Freedom of speech, religion, press, and


the right to assemble and petition (protest)
SECOND - Right to bear arms (weapons)
THIRD - No quartering of soldier
FOURTH - Protection against unreasonable search
and seizure of property
FIFTH - No double jeopardy, do not have to testify
against self, property cannot be taken away
without compensation
SIXTH - speedy public trial, impartial jury of peers,
right to a lawyer, right to hear charges,
right to hear and question witnesses

SEVENTH - right to a jury trial in common law cases,


jurys verdict cannot be overturned by a
judge
EIGHTH - no excessive bail or punishments
NINTH - There are other rights than those listed
TENTH - States and people have powers not listed
in the Constitution

EARLY REPUBLIC PRESIDENTS

George Washington Domestic Policy

Judiciary Act
2 levels:
Supreme Court
District Courts

Whiskey
Cabinet
Battle of Fallen Timbers
Rebellion
-gives advice
-Treaty of Greenville
-National
to the
- Natives lost land
government
President
-Maintained national
enforced law
security
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PRESIDENTS CONTINUED
George Washington Beginnings of Political Parties
Federalists
Hamilton
Strong
Loose
Manufacturing

Government
Interpret Constitution
Economy

Democratic-Republicans
Jefferson
Weak
Strict
Agriculture

George Washington Foreign Policy


Jays Treaty Great Britain
Pickneys Treaty- Spain

Mississippi River Access

Proclamation
of
Neutrality

George Washington - Farewell Address


Political parties will weaken the nation
Steer clear of permanent alliances**

John Adams
Alien & Sedition Acts Adams (Federalist) wanted to keep the
immigrants (aliens) from voting for Jefferson (Democratic-Republican)
XYZ Affair Diplomats sent to France because of seizure of American
ships. They were told they would have to pay a bribe in order to speak
to the government

Thomas Jefferson
Louisiana Purchase 1803 doubled the size of the United States and
opened up the west for settlement and trade
Lewis and Clark Expedition sent to map and write about the
Louisiana Territory escorted by Sacagawea a Native American Guide

10

Jefferson continued.
Marbury v. Madison set the principle of Judicial
Review only the Supreme Court can determine the
constitutionality of laws

Embargo Acts Jefferson was angry


with European countries for seizing
ships and placed an embargo so there
would be no importing/exporting; this
had to be repealed because it hurt the
American economy

James Madison
-Father of the Constitution
-War of 1812: Second Revolutionary War, the WarHawks called for war
against Britain in part due to the impressment of U.S. sailors

-Francis Scott Key wrote The Star Spangled Banner Battle of New
Orleans (Jackson hero)
-Treaty of Ghent: ends the War of 1812
Started Era of Good Feelings and caused Americans to want to
produce more of their own goods

James Monroe
Era of Good Feelings nationalism & patriotism
Monroe Doctrine stated that Europe could not colonize in the Western
Hemisphere and land was protected from colonization

THE INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION

Industrialization
Making by Hand (Cottage/Craftsmanship)

11

Industry

Urbanization
Rural (agriculture/farm)

Immigration
People from other countries

Cities (factories)

Jobs

By rivers (power)

Factory

By city (market)

Factory System everything is made under


one roof

Interchangeable Parts
(Replacement parts)

Assembly Line

Mass Production
Technological Innovation
COTTON GIN

Description

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Removed seeds from cotton
(cleaned fiber)
ELI WHITNEY
Increased slavery because cotton
could be cleaned faster so they
were able to plant more

TEXTILE FACTORIES

Cloth is made
Power loom
Lowell Mills
Women & children workers

TELEGRAPH

SAMUEL MORSE
Morse Code
Communication
Connectivity

STEAMBOAT

Powered by steam engine


Faster, more efficient
ROBERT FULTON
New markets

RAILROADS

Powered by steam locomotive


TRANSCONTINENTAL
RAILROAD
East/West met at Promontory
Point
Populated west
Built by Chinese & Irish
HENRY BESSEMER
Process removes impurities from
iron
Iron remains molten so it can be
poured and molded
Construction is easier & cheaper
Transportation
Population
Communication
Connectivity
New Markets

More trade & economic growth

BESSEMER STEEL (process)

EFFECTS

13

AGE OF JACKSON JACKSONIAN DEMOCRACY

Jacksonian Democracy - peoples president - common people (selfmade men: shopkeepers, farmers) universal, white man suffrage
(voting)

Spoils System those who helped get him


elected received a government job whether
or not they were qualified

National bank veto Jackson vetoed the


re-charter and this led to the Panic and
then Depression of 1837

Trail of Tears Indian Removal Bill (Act), Worchester v. Georgia,


moved Indians to Indian Territory (Oklahoma)

Protective Tariff of 1828 tariff (tax) placed on foreign goods to


protect American manufacturers this caused people to buy more
American goods South became angry because less cotton was bought
and goods from foreigners cost more Nullification Crisis (South
threatened do secede)

Westward Expansion-Territorial Expansion 14

Manifest Destiny

Manifest Destiny The belief that America had the God-given right to
expand from the Atlantic Ocean to the Pacific Ocean
Louisiana Purchase 1803 doubled the size of the U.S.Lewis & Clark Expedition Sacagawea
Texas Annexation dispute with Mexico over river border led to War
with Mexico General Zachary Taylor sent by President Polk
annex land, territory, becomes a part of a country
Mexican Cession Polk expansionist president Treaty of GuadalupeHidalgo(cession give up land, territory)
Gadsden Purchase purchased by U.S. from Mexico - land needed
for transcontinental railroad
Oregon Country 5440 or Fight! ** settled peacefully with a
treaty with Great Britain
Spanish Cession Adams-Onis Treaty
California Gold Rush 49ers Sutters Mill
Mormon Trail Brigham Young Salt Lake City, Utah

A CHANGING AMERICA REFORM


American Progress - John Gast

15

Womens Rights: Pioneer, Abigail Adams Seneca Falls


Convention Declaration of Sentiments Elizabeth Cady Stanton,
Lucretia Mott, Lucy Stone, & Susan B. Anthony

American Temperance Society:


women against use of alcohol because men
spent all their $ on it and neglected their families

Abolition: to get rid of slavery Benjamin Lundy (Quaker),


Frederick Douglas (North Star), Sojourner Truth, Grimke Sisters
(Quakers), William Lloyd Garrison (The Liberator), Underground
Railroad, Harriet Tubman, conductors, safe houses, Fugitive Slave
Law

Care of the Disabled Dorthea Dix indigent mentally insane

Prisons alternative and less harsh punishments

Labor child labor laws and labor unions were created to protect
rights of workers

Urbanization crowded cities, unsanitary conditions, settlement


houses Jane Addams & Hull House

Art, Music, and Literature unique to American culture, Hudson


River School artists, John James Audubon, Battle Hymn of the
Republic, transcendentalism

Immigration factors:

Push religious freedom, Irish potato famine


Pull Gold Rush, Chinese (helped build railroad) factory
work, road, canal, and railroad building

CAUSES OF THE CIVIL WAR

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SECTIONALISM ECONOMICS SLAVERY STATES RIGHTS

Missouri Compromise 1820 Missouri slave, Maine free, 36 30 line


drawn (no slaves above this parallel)
Protective Tariff of 1828 Jackson raised the prices of foreign
goods and protected American sales South was against the tariff and
called it the Tariff of Abominations
Nullification Crisis South threatens to nullify (not follow) the
Protective Tariff of 1828 and to secede (leave the country)
Compromise of 1850 California slavery Fugitive Slave Act
strengthened & the rest of territories in Mexican Cession would decide
slavery issue by popular sovereignty
Uncle Toms Cabin Harriet Beecher Stowe evils of slavery

1854 Kansas-Nebraska Act Kansas was to use popular sovereignty


(people voting) to decide slavery issue and fighting broke out called
bleeding Kansas
1856 Dred Scott v Sandford the ruling that slaves were not citizens
and the Missouri Compromise 36 30 line determined to be
unconstitutional angered abolitionists
Harpers Ferry John Brown and other abolitionists attacked a
federal arsenal and were caught he was hanged
1860 Abraham Lincoln President the South believes that Lincoln
will end slavery and they begin to secede (leave the country).

THE CIVIL WAR 1861 1865

Ft. Sumter first shots fired in Civil War


Gettysburg turning point, Lincoln made his famous address
Merrimack v. Monitor - battle of ironclad ships
Shermans March to the Sea burned from Atlanta to the Atlantic
Antietam bloodiest day of fighting
Shiloh bloodiest battle
Emancipation Proclamation a military strategy in which Lincoln
freed the slaves in the South (he couldnt free them in the North
because of the Constitution)
Vicksburg North gained control of the Mississippi River
Appomattox Courthouse final surrender of Lee
(South) to Grant (North

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UNITED STATES
OF AMERICA

CONFEDERATE STATES
OF AMERICA

Abraham Lincoln
U. S. Grant
Billy Yanks
54th Regiment African Americans
Copperheads Northerners didnt want
war

Jefferson Davis
Robert E. Lee
Johnny Rebs
Stonewall Jackson

Advantages:
-Large Population
-Industry

Advantages:
-Good Military Leaders
-Fighting in own territory

-More Railroads
-Larger Navy
-Food Production

RECONSTRUCTION
With malice (evil) toward none and charity (love) for all Abraham Lincoln**

Plans Lincoln (lenient), Radical Republican (harsh) , Johnson


Freedmens Bureau assistance for former slaves
Carpetbaggers Northerners who went to South to make money off of
the Southerners during Reconstruction
Scalawags southerners who supported Reconstruction
Acts Morrill, Dawes, and Homestead
Hiram Rhodes Revels first African American in the Senate
Amendments:
FREE = 13th Amendment Abolished slavery
CITIZENS = 14th Amendment Made former slaves citizens and
gave equal protection under the law for all citizens
VOTE = 15th Amendment African-American male suffrage (voting)

DATES

18

1607 Jamestown, Virginia is founded


1620 Pilgrims & Mayflower land Plymouth Rock, Mayflower
Compact written
1776 Declaration of Independence
1787 Constitutional Convention & Adoption of Constitution
1803 Louisiana Purchase
1861-1865 Civil War

REBELLIONS

Bacons people in Jamestown, Virginia not being protected from


Indians by governor first rebellion in the colonies
Pontiacs also called Pontiacs War after the French and Indian War
the colonists tried to settle in the Ohio River Valley and the Indians

were organized by Pontiac, the King passed the Proclamation of1763


due to this rebellion
Shays farmers in Massachusetts having financial problems and
Massachusetts government would not help and the national government
could not help important because people realized the Articles of
Confederation were not working and the government needed to
restructured
Whiskey the government taxed the sale of whiskey and the farmers
did not want to pay the tax put down by the government and it is
important because it proved the government could enforce its laws

SUPREME COURT CASES

Marbury v. Madison established the principle of Judicial Review


Supreme Court could determine constitutionality of laws
McCulloch v. Maryland national bank was determined free from
state involvement
Gibbons v. Ogden determined that Congress regulates interstate
(between states) commerce (buy & sell)
IMPACT: 1. Strengthened Supreme court
2. Strengthened federal (national) power
over the states
Worcester v. Georgia ruled that the Cherokees did NOT have to leave
Georgia
Dred Scott v. Sandford ruling that slaves are not citizens and the
Missouri Compromise 3630 is unconstitutional

CONCEPTS

19

Abolition the movement to get rid of slavery

American System the policy by Henry Clay


that promoted (helped) U.S. industry with
protective tariffs and the development of
internal improvements

Civil Disobedience refusal to obey laws, pay taxes, etc. as a


nonviolent way to protest - examples include the Boston Tea Party and
Thoreaus opinion of the War with Mexico

Civic Virtue the act of putting the good of the country before ones
own personal interests

Foreign Policy how America deals with other countries

Founding Fathers men who took part in winning independence and


creating the United States of America
Framers wrote the Constitution

Free Enterprise businesses have few restrictions put on them and


little government involvement

Mercantilism money is increased in a countrys treasury by creating


a favorable balance of trade in which the exports are larger than the
imports (enforced by Navigation Acts)

Nullification the refusal of a state to enforce a federal law


Example = the South wanted to nullify the tariff

Popular Sovereignty the people rule by consent (voting)

Protective Tariff a tariff (tax) placed on foreign goods coming into


the country so that American goods are protected by having lower
prices and thus selling more goods

Separation of Church and State the church and the


state(government) are organized separately Roger Williams started
Rhode Island this way and today it is separate because of the First
Amendment
Salutary Neglect a time when Great Britain did not force
Americans colonists to follow all of its laws to allow the economy to
prosper

INFLUENCES FROM EUROPE

20

Magna Carta First document to limit power of the king

English Bill of Rights Protected individual rights and privileges

John Locke English philosopher unalienable rights

William Blackstone English politician - self-government

Montesquieu French - separation of powers in government

Great Awakening movement from Europe that will encourage


ideas of equality and challenging authority

Enlightenment movement of reasoning and science

POLITICAL PARTIES
Federalists
(initial leader Hamilton)

Democratic-Republicans
(initial leader Jefferson)

Federalists against the


War of 1812 = fade away
Jacksons election:
Started the Democratic Party
& the National Republicans
Democrat

National Republicans
Whig
Republican Party formed
by those against slavery

Democrat
(Know Nothing against immigrants)

Republican
(Free Soil against slavery)

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