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AN ASSESSMENT OF

SELDECTED HRM STUDENTS ON

THEIR ON THE JOB TRAINING

AN UNDERGRADUATE THESIS
Presented to
Dean, College of Hotel and Restaurant Management
COLLEGEOF OF

THE IMMACULATE CONCEPTION


Cabanatuan City

_____________________

In Partial Fulfillment of the Requirement


For the Subject Research

___________________

Nicolas Keith Guevarra


Ceanne Buenaventura
John Mark C. Pillarina
Eljean Santos

Chapter 1
The Problem and Its Setting
Introduction
On the job training takes place when students are on their
higher years of their studies. Skills can be gained while
trainees are carrying out their jobs. If their assessment is
worth of their knowledge gained.
On the job training provides some hands-on training
experience while learning the job as well as getting some pays
for learning the job. It can help you get promotions or learn a
task under guidance of people who do this every day and know the
best way to do it (Dizon, 1999).
The most effective method to develop the competence and
skills of students through hand-on training the-on-the-job
training (OJT). This process exposes the students to the
different fields and learned. Such observation and analysis of
organizations in their natural environment falls within the
tradition of experiential learning and cooperative inquiry and
students as adult learners. On-the-job training gain more
specific learning which is gaining experience, confidence,
initiative, high level of responsibility and flexible work.

Training is an act of increasing knowledge and skills of an


employee for doing a particular job. On-the-job training (OJT)
has been used successfully as training procedure from the
beginning of recorded history. This can be an effective training
method or lack of training can cause many problems by not
providing the skills and knowledge needed by the worker (Flippo,
2006).
Being a HRM student one must know how to be naturally happy
because sometimes guests dont only seek for the food we serve
but the service we provide. We also need to be productive and not
to complain at some point that we are commanded by those who are
higher than us because they know how to reward us as we work
hard. These things can be used in schools, offices, and other
industry.
Attitude defines character and character defines lifestyle.
In the restaurant operations, attitude is the most important in
the hospitality industry. If an employee does not have a good
attitude, it will affect the establishments reputation (Buked,
2007).
Concurrently knowledge and understanding can also be further
advanced through planned teaching and learning in the actual
work setting. An efficient on-the-job training or OJT program is
vital for developing the highly skilled employees needed for a

business success. OJT has many advantages as a planned training


program, such as predictable training outcomes and a manageable
process. This can also gain or improve educational attainment and
economic status.
On-the-job training focuses on the acquisition of skills
within the workers environment generally under normal working
conditions. Through on the job training workers acquire both
general skills that they can transfer from one job to another and
specific skills that are unique to a particular job. On-the-job
training typically includes verbal and written instruction and
demonstration. Observation and hands-on practice and imitation
are who party the OJT. On-the-job training is the oldest form of
training. Prior to the advent of off-site training classrooms,
the only practical way of learning a job is working alongside an
experienced worker in a particular trade or profession. On-thejob learning is a practical method that offers an easier, more
effective method to ensure that education is constantly improving
(Manask, 2002).
Focus of training and development activities is on change
and/or improvement in knowledge, skills, and attitude of
employees (Desimone, 2002).
Restaurant practicum exposes the students to a new world
where they can learn the actual operation in the restaurant. It

also enhances the capabilities of every student to do work with


confidence (Walker, 2005).
The students easily relate to the situations and experiences
new to them. They can easily adapt to the situations they are
into. Students nowadays are flexible that is why they can easily
gain knowledge. A study of different experiences has shown one
important effect in hospitality industry. The students will
probably pass through a period of shyness and self-consciousness
towards many people but after they would undergone that period,
the students develop more confidence in themselves (Arduser,
2006)
One goal of a performance is to judge the level of
competency students achieve in doing trainings (Parker, Louie
&ODywer, 2009). Therefore, performance assessments can also
produce useful information for diagnostic
purposes to assess what students know. These assessment
strategies can also be used to monitor students processing
skills and problem-solving approaches, as well as their
competence in particular areas while simulating learning
activities.

Training needs assessment is one of the factors that


determine success of training to bring the said change (Iqbal,
2007).
Assessment of on-the-job training is one of the problems of
students. There are offices that are very conservative on giving
final grades of students. Students are also making hard time
adjusting on their time and the prolong hours of the training.
And also to determine if the program developed and
enhanced the students knowledge and skills that is required in
order to become more responsive to the demands of Hotel and
Restaurant Management profession. And to know if it develops the
value of professionalism, love of work, and commitment to the
people they served, felt and experienced the actual world of work
in different industry.
REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE AND STUDIES
Local Literature
It is important for employees to have good working habits
since

it

gives

them

the

drive

to

succeed

in

their

careers.

Establishing these habits not only improve the quality of work


you put in but also it allows one to have more time for their
personal life since time management is also developed. Developing
good work habits provides you with the chance of being more

productive

and

well-appreciated

at

work.

Applying

positive

attitude towards the tasks at hand can influence other people


around you as well. GOPINOY.com provide a list of good work habit
to develop such as: 1.) Set up a goal or a mission and apply a
strong work ethic to provide you that sense of direction needed
to accomplish quality tasks in the shortest time possible. 2.)
Think positive. Do not think of the complexities of your job
instead, consider these difficulties as a challenge. Deal with
the problem, do not avoid them. You're going to have to face the
same problem eventually. 3.) t is a good work habit to give
importance to good attendance and punctuality. Doing so can get
you off to a good start and it can be a positive asset on your
part.
Apply neatness, orderliness and speed by cleaning up and getting
organized. It allows you to work faster since it's easy to find
things when the workplace is clean and sorted out properly. 6.)
Plan your day ahead of time. This is one of the most important
among the good work habits you should develop. List things that
you should prioritize to work the next day. This could guide you
whenever you get side tracked and forget what your original
purpose was. 7.) Work smarter, not harder. Manage your time well;
segregate activities into time wasters or maximum use of time.
Time wasters such as telephone calls and dealing emails can just
be kept short and on topic as well as keeping email accounts

separate

for

personal

and

work

use.

Focus

on

the

list

of

priorities you make and set limits for each task. 8.) Become
self-employed

psychologically.

Think

of

yourself

as

your

own

boss. You would want to make things happen in the business, do


good quality output and receive bigger income from it. Putting
yourself on the situation can motivate you to do great results.
9.) Play the inner game of work. Know your purpose at work and do
it with your own best innate desires and abilities. These will
help you to acquire all the ideas, successful habits and best
practices

you

procrastination

will
by

need

in

motivating

accomplishing
yourself

tasks.

with

Reduce

rewards

or

punishments. Postponing or delaying one's work can cause career


sabotage so be aware of its consequences and try to be more
positive.
Give importance to rest and relaxation. Good working habits are
not just about working. Our body and mind also needs a breather
from all the office tasks we are doing. When we do relax and rest
even

for

rejuvenate,
properly.

few

minutes

think

more

Working

at

in

between,

clearly
a

steady

and
pace

we
our

allow
bodies

also

ourselves
to

helps.

to

function
12.)

Use

multitasking for routine tasks. Multitasking is also helpful in


accomplishing more tasks at the same time. Routine tasks are
simple tasks which you are anticipating on doing all the time.
You can do some of these tasks all at the same time, as long as

it doesn't require you to be analyzing an important detailBounce


quickly from task to task. As you list down the tasks set up for
the day, it is easier to transfer from one accomplished task to
the next on queue. The quicker the transition, the more tasks are
completed. Prepare time log, set time limits for certain tasks
and evaluate your use of time. These help you assess if you have
done either productive tasks or time wasting activities. Do away
with being a cyber loafer and prioritize in doing your work. Make
good use of office technology and avoid using them for personal
purposes. 16.) Keep track of important names, places and things
to avoid unnecessary and time consuming recalls and backtracks.
It would be helpful to list or take note of them if you must.
. Point out a problem but bring solutions. Problems you
highlight to your superior without your recommended solutions
merely construes as complains. So before approaching them with
the problem, make sure you already thought of suggested solutions
to solve it.
Be nice to people. This is not just a good work habit, but also
applicable to your life outside of work. It is already a common
courtesy and by doing so can give you better chances of people
wanting you on their team, and they tend to go out of their way
to help you in time of need. You can start this off by greeting
everyone with a smile.

Volunteer for assignments. This could label you as a keen learner


who is unafraid of hard work. But first assess on your own skills
and knowledge before volunteering on an assignment. It is best to
be confident about yourself when completing a volunteered task.
Finish things by being decisive. Being decisive would mean having
the ability to firmly decide with speed and clarity. Decisionmaking is oftentimes crucial, so it is better to observe and
analyze all the information available and decide on the best
course of action. Although there are risks for decisions to have
negative results, the important thing is to learn from it and to
avoid doing the same thing all over again.
Foreign Literature
Your attitude in the workplace can be one of the most - if not
the most - telling aspect of how others in the company look at
you and feel about you as a coworker stated by Mueller (2006).
Your attitude therefore will definitely define you. Personality
according to psychology is made up of the characteristic patterns
of thoughts, feelings and behaviors that make a person unique. In
addition to this, personality arises from within the individual
and remains fairly consistent throughout life. Experience and
academic research has shown that an individuals personality has
a strong influence on how they work within an organization. One's
image in the eyes of other people is important. If one is to

represent

company

and

indeed

one's

self,

an

image

of

orderliness is vital, to win confidence.

According

to

Koontz

(2007)

many

opportunities

for

development can be found on-the-job. Trainees can learn as they


contribute to the aims of the enterprise. However, because this
approach requires competent higher level managers who can teach
and

coach

trainees,

there

are

limitations

to

do

on-the-job

training. Planned progression is a technique that gives managers


a clear idea of their path of development. It may be perceived by
trainees as a smooth path to the top, but it really is a step-bystep approach which requires that task to be done well at each
level. Trainees learn about different enterprise functions by job
rotations.

They

may

rotate

through:

non-supervisory

work,

observation assignments (observing what managers do, rather than


managing

themselves)

and

therefore

has

positive

aspects

and

should benefits the trainees. Assistant - to positions are


frequently

created

to

broaden

the

viewpoint

of

trainees

by

allowing them to work closely with experienced managers who can


give

special

attention

to

the

developmental

needs

of

the

Patience

and

trainees.

On-the-job

training

is

never-ending

process.

wisdom are required of superiors, who must be able to delegate

authority and give recognition and praise for jobs well done.
Effective coaches will develop the strength and potentials of
subordinates

and

help

them

overcome

their

weaknesses.

As

mentioned by on-the-job training is one of the oldest and most


used

types

of

informal

training.

It

is

considered

informal

because it does not necessarily occur as part of a training


program and because managers or peers can serve as trainers. He
further

stated

learning

will

that

if

on-the-job

not

occur.

training

On-the-job

is

too

training

has

informal,
several

advantages over other training methods. It can be customized to


the

experiences

and

abilities

of

trainees.

Training

is

immediately applicable to the job because OJT occurs on the job


using actual tools and equipment. As a result, trainees are
highly motivated to learn. There are several disadvantages in the
OJT approach. Managers and peers may not use the same process to
complete the task. They may pass on bad habits as well as useful
skills.

Also,

they

may

not

understand

that

demonstration,

practice and feedback are important conditions for effective onthe-job training.
Effective

OJT

program

include:

1.

policy

statement

that

describes the purpose of OJT and emphasizes the companys support


for

it.

2.

clear

specification

of

who

is

accountable

for

conducting OJT. 3. A thorough review of OJT practices at other


companies in similar industries. 4. Training of managers and

peers in the principles of structured OJT. 5. Availability of


lesson plans, checklists, procedure manuals, learning contracts
and progress report forms for use by employees who conduct OJT.
6. Evaluation of employees level of basic skills before OJT.
Principles of On-the-Job Training Preparing for Instruction 1.
Break down the job into important steps. 2. Prepare the necessary
equipment, materials and supplies. 3. Decide how much time you
will devote to OJT and when you expect the employees to be
competent in skill areas. Actual instruction 1. Tell the trainees
the objective of the task and ask them to watch you demonstrate
it. 2. Show the trainees how to do it without saying anything. 3.
Explain the key points or behaviors. (Write out the key points
for the trainees, if possible.) 4. How the trainees how to do it
again. 5. Have the trainees do one more single parts of the task
and praise them for correct reproduction (optional). 6. Have the
trainees

do

the

entire

task

and

praise

them

for

correct

production. 7. If mistakes are made, have the trainees practice


until accurate reproduction is achieved.
Praise the trainees for their success in learning the task.
The same statement by (Gaudencio,2009) pointed out problems
on interpersonal relationship between students and supervisor
during training , students among the problems which cam out in
their study were

some boss were not approachable that makes the

students hesitant to ask for help and they felt nervous while
performing the procedures etc.
Seingh

(204)emphasized

that

experiences whether in the OJT

in

order

to

improves

some

or in the classroom, it is

necessary to understand the students, it is not advisable to


criticize students for their fault, much less cold them for their
inadequacy, establish harmonious relationship and they should be
supervised.
Educators

should

see

to

it

that

all

students

are

well

oriented regarding facilities, rules and regulations , placement


of all supplies and equipment including office procedures the
instructors

should

be

more

objective

and

fair

in

evaluating

students.
Local Studies
Cristobal (2008), conducted a study entitled The On-the-Job
Training

Program

of

Urdaneta

City

University.

The

research

respondents were the students enrolled in the Bachelor of Science


in Commerce, Major in Management, Management accounting, Banking
in

finance,

Bachelor

of

Science

in

accountancy

and

computer

secretarial and who are currently enrolled in their practicum


course S.Y 2007-2008. The respondents overall perception toward
relevance

and

suitability

along

OJT

are:

1.)

The

students

practices weighted mean of 2.94; 2.) The problems encountered by


the students in the OJT program were slightly serious as shown by
the

weighted

mean

2.14;

3.)

The

problem

encountered

by

the

supervisor in the OJT program was slightly serious as evidenced


by weighted mean of 1.78; 4.) The problems encountered by the
instructor in OJT program were slightly serious as shown by the
weighted mean of 2.11.
According to Cristobal the OJT program is a good program for
augmenting the knowledge skills and competencies of the task and
activities included in the OJT are routine that do not really
require

the

application

of

the

higher

knowledge,

skills

and

competencies learned in the classroom. Initially the respondents


are

not

familiar

and

have

difficulties

in

using

the

modern

devices and equipment used in their OJT.


Mendoza

as

cited

by

Bahian

(2008)

asserted

that

the

students level of achievement in significantly related to the on


the job training what the students learn from the classroom is
what the students apply during OJT. The school provided related
instruction ad related skills; the role of industries is to
sharpen

the

students

competencies

ad

activities.

Thus,

cooperating industries should provided the student trainees the


necessary reserves needed to improve their performance level of
proficiency and specific skills and field of specialization.

Jaso

(2007),

proposed

on

the

training

for

automotive

technology at Sorsogon State College. In his study he include the


problems not by students along the in the job training. It was
disclosed

that

non-congruence

between

the

acquired

level

of

competence is an automotive technology of their in job work


experience.
The following are the problem encountered: 1.) Lack of
congruency between competencies learned in automotive. 2.) Lack
of coordination between ILDO and the partner industry. 3.) No
work

plan

clearly

requirements,

presented

expected

to

behavior

the

and

OJT

along

placement.

4.)

training
Lack

of

supervision on the OJTs work performance. 5.) Lack of identified


local shops and industries where OJTs area of competencies in
the areas AT-51, AT-52 and AT-53 are needed. 6.) Work assignments
of OJTs include menial and unrelated jobs. 7.) Lack of options
for

OJTs

to

choose

their

work

assignments

in

the

partner

industry. 8.) Financial difficulties among OJTs. 9.) Lack of


administrative support to OJTs.
Another problem is the absence of work plan where training
requirements, expected behavior and replacement are identified
the

OJTs

trainees

performance.

They

are
also

not

always

disclosed

supervised
that

local

in

their

shops

are

work
not

identified where they could apply their competencies in AT-51-52


and AT-53. Some of the on the job trainees are asked to do menial

jobs

unrelated

wherein

to

to

their

training.

choose

their

work

They

do

assignments.

not

have

Most

of

options
the

OJT

trainees felt the lack of administrative support in the outside


school training and many experienced financial problems. From the
disclosed problems among on the job training could be deduced
that the objective of this training program for students in
automotive technology is defeated. It means that there is a need
to look into these problems for the benefit of these students.
The revealed problems imply that the success of the on the job
training programs depends on the collaborative efforts of the
college and the partner industry where students are assigned. The
solutions to these problems rest on the persons concerned for the
welfare of the students.
Mamadra (2005), also conducted a study to find out the
impact of the on-the-job training programs on the skills and
values

development

specialization

such

of

students

in

as

automotive,

the

four

electronics

areas

of

technology,

computer technology and electrical technology as well as the


students values development in terms of work attitude, selfreliance, self-discipline, resourcefulness, honesty and patience
among

selected

vocational-technical

tertiary

institutions

in

Mindanao. In her study it was found out that the impact of the
on-the-job training program on skills and values development of
the students depend on the approaches of the skilled mentors to

supplement the student trainees competence in the classroom as


well as the concepts that both the school and the industries work
together in the training of technological students as future
industrial workers.
The study of Decena (2005), entitled On the job training
program of the two year trade Technological University in Iba ,
Zambales

give

emphasis

to

some

items

in

the

assessment

instruments where the response of cooperating trainees ad student


trainees are not different such as: a. For objectives (to enable
the students to work a sophisticated equipment ad to prepare
students

for

social

ad

personal).

b.

For

the

assessment

instrument on linkage (Inform the head of educational institution


of

developments

negative).

c.

in

For

the
the

establishments
assessment

whether

instruments

positive
on

or

industrial

policies (Help student trainees for advancement opportunities in


the cooperating establishments); and (Observe general rules and
regulations of the company such as filing of leave, working
hours, use of uniform, good grooming, safety housekeeping). d. On
monitoring of trainees (OJT coordinators meet with industrial
trainer and student trainees during work site visitation); (Keeps
records of all activities related to industrial training); and
(Participates

in

the

evaluation

of

student

trainees).

e.

On

problems encountered (tools are just enough for regular workers

Foreign Studies
Sony and Kim (2005) conducted study entitled Changes in
attitude

toward

work

and

workers

identity

in

Korea.

They

summarize the conceptualization of work ethic to the fact that


the concept of work ethic has multiple meanings and implication,
pertaining to a variety of aspects related to work, including
work commitment, work value, attitude toward work, occupational
value,

organizational

commitment,

perception

of

career

development, ad work achievement.


In the statistical analysis in the study of Sirota et. al
(2005)

showed

that

level

of

achievement

has

six

primary

sources: 1.) Challenge of the work itself - The extent to which


the job uses an employees intelligence, abilities and skills.
2.) Acquiring of new skills; 3.)Ability to perform having the
training,

direction,

resources

authority,

information

and

cooperation needed to perform well. 4.) Perceived importance of


the employees job the importance to the organization, to the
customer

and

to

the

society;

5.)

Recognition

received

from

performance non- financial (such as a simple thank you from


the

boss

or

customer)

and

financial

(compensation

advancement that are based on performance.); and 6.)

and

Working for a company of which the employee can be proud


because of its purpose, its products (their quality and their
impact

on

customers

and

society),

its

business

success,

its

business ethics (treatment of customers, employees, investors,


and community), and the quality of its leadership. The quality of
interaction in organization is obviously greatly affected not
just by friendliness and mutuality of interest, but also by co
workers competence and cooperation.
Theoretical Framework
One

important

psychological

theory

where

the

concept

of

competence plays an important role is action theory. Action


theory

is

general

theory

of

work

behaviour

that

defines

competence as the ability to act self-responsibility in complex


situations

of

the

job.

To

act

competently,

goal-oriented

behaviour has to be developed.


This

means

that

learners

have

to

develop

behavioural

abilities that are regulated by action goals, well organized


plans of actions, and feedback processes to monitor and control
if goals have been reached. Action theory is mainly cognitively
oriented.
So,

it

redefinition

focuses
as

on

goals,

the
the

role

of

work

hierarchical

tasks

structure

and
of

their
action

organization and its implications for action planning and levels

of

regulation

(sensorimotor

level,

level

of

flexible

action

patterns, intellectual level), and its role concerning monitoring


and feedback processes while executing actions. In supplemental
approaches, also the motivational and social aspects of goaloriented behaviour have been theoretically modelled.
According

to

Spears

(1995),

internship

or

OJT

is

often

described as a time when theory is applied to real-life seeing;


we believe that the relationship between theory and practice is
more complex than that. Thus, internship is a chance to develop
the relationship between theory and practice for each should
inform the other. Sullivan (2005) explained that theories are
transformed through their application, and one will be actively
involved in that process as an intern or trainee.

Conceptual Paradigm
Input

Profile of the respondents be describe in terms of:

Age
Gender
Assessment on OJT

Process

Questionnaires
Instructed Interview
Output

Successful and effective On the Job-training


Among HRM students

Figure 1
Research Paradigm

Statement of the Problem


This study aimed to determine the Assessment of HRM Students
on the On the Job Training
Specifically it sought answers to the following:
1. How may the profile of the respondent be described in terms
of:
1.1 age,
1.2 gender?
2. How may assessment of HRM students on their OJT described in
term of:
2.1relationship,
2.2 value of training and
2.3 benefits of training

3. Is there significant relationships with profile variables and


the topic?
4. What are the implications of the result to HRM education at
CIC?
Scope and Delimitation of the Study
The

study

is

focused

on

the

assessment

of

Hotel

and

Restaurant Management students on their on-the-job training or


OJT. The respondents of the study are the 3rd Year students of

Bachelor of Science in Hotel and Restaurant Management from the


College of the Immaculate Conception at Cabanatuan City, Nueva
Ecija. These respondents are now finished with their first onthe-job training.
Significance of the Study
The result of the study may greatly benefit the following:
Students. They may be made aware of the importance of their onthe-job training to their career in the near future.
Trainers of the Future Candidates for OJT. They will have an idea
and knowledge about how to fully handle first-timers undertaking
internship.
Establishment. The study may help and benefit the establishment
by giving feedbacks about the establishment itself after the onthe-job trainings.
General Public. The study will make them knowledgeableabout the
importance of OJT and the readiness for it. It will give them a
background especially for those who want to take the HRM course
in the future.
Parents of HRM Students
making

onto

planning,

The study will support their decisionpreparing,

and

before sending them on their internship.

clearing

their

children

HRM

Students. This research study will benefit students as to

discover psychological and physical problems that will affect


their

skills

and

capabilities

with

regards

to

their

OJT

experiences and will develop through a greater consciousness to


their chosen profession.
Professors/ Instructors. They
needs

of

the

experiences,

students
with

regards

will now know and understand the


with
to

regards
their

to

the

their

responsibility

OJT
and

performance.
Future HRM

Students. A greater consciousness on their future

responsibility to their chosen profession will be developed and


existence

of

the

psychological

and

physical

reactions

with

regards to their experiences whether it is good or bad.


Parents. A similar degree of consciousness will be developed so
that moral supports needed by their sons / daughters will be
given.
To the Future Researchers: This study may serve as a guide by
having a baseline data for the next researchers regarding the
performance of

OJT experiences.

Definition of Terms
The following were conceptually defined to give clarity and
understanding of the study.

Assessment . It means to examine the significance and value of


the

factors

that

affects

the

on-the-job

training

of

the

practicumers.
Benefits and Incentives . This refers to the rewards, privileges,
payment and allowances receive by the practicumers during their
on-the-job training.
Competence . It pertains to the job knowledge, comprehension and
professionalism of the respondents.
Cooperating firm . This refers to the industry, company or agency
that

partners

the

school

for

the

actual

training

of

the

practicumers.
Course Major . This refers to the specialization in the College
of

Business

Administration

such

as

operations

management,

marketing management and financial management.


Linkage . It is the collaboration made between the school and the
cooperating firm in the on-the-job training program.
On the job training . This term refers to the program
conducted by the cooperating firm, company or industry, sponsored
by the school in order to expose the students to actual training.
Personality and appearance . This pertains to the totality of the
practicumers

personal

and

social

behavior, conduct and the like.

traits

such

as

character,

Practicumers . This refers to the student trainees who are


currently

enrolled

business

administration

students

of

the

University of Manila in their practicum course.


Problems Encountered. These are the common problems faced by the
practicumers while conducting their on-the-job training.
Training Evaluation . This refers to the performance rating
provided by the school and where grade is accomplish by the
immediate boss of the practicumers.
Work Attitude . It is the characters possesses and showed by the
practicumers towards training like resourcefulness, dependability
and initiative. Work Habit. This refers to the acts used to be
done by the practicumers in the duration of the training program
such as punctuality and regularity in attendance.
Hotel and Restaurant Management

It is a program that provides

knowledge and skills to HRM OJT for careers in the Filipino


industry
addresses

of

Hospitality,

the

needs

of

Hotel

and

sectors

Restaurant

such

as

Management.

fast

food

It

chains,

restaurants, and resorts and makes HRM OJT efficient, competent,


and

globally

competitive.

Moreover,

the

program

develops

the

students professional and technical competence in preparation


for

leadership

enterprises.

responsibilities

in

hospitality

related

Hospitality

This is the relationship between guest and host,

or the act or practice of being hospitable. Specifically, this


includes the reception and entertainment of guests, visitors, or
strangers, membership clubs, conventions, attractions special
events, and other services for travellers and tourists.
Hospitality

Industry.This

industry

is

one

that

is

primarily

focused on customer satisfaction. For the most part, it is built


on leisure or is luxury-based, as opposed to meeting basic needs.
Hotels and resorts, cruise lines, airlines, and other various
forms of travel, tourism, special event planning, and restaurant
all generally fall under the hospitality industry.
Career.

This

pertains

to

the

chosen

pursuit,

profession

or

occupation, especially one requiring special training, followed


as ones lifework.
Training Area. A unit or division in the local vicinity where
students do activities related to their practice in their chosen
career.

Chapter 2
PROCEDURES AND METHODOLOGY

This

chapter

participants,

presents

research

the

site,

following:

materials

and

research

design,

instruments,

data

collection and data analysis.


Research Design
The study used the descriptive method of research. type of
research work needs more specification on data gathering.

This

research method is commonly used and has significance in the


research

methodology

because

the

data

necessary

for

the

completion of this work are all concise and the capacity to


discuss it alone with the survey.
According to Fonolera (1993), descriptive research involves
collecting data in order to test hypothesis or answer question
concerning the current status of the subject. Padua(2003) says,
the purpose of the descriptive method is to describe status of
the events, people or subjects, as they exist. The descriptive
method usually make sense
correlation

and

sometimes

type of comparison and contrast, and


in

carefully

planned

orchestrated

descriptive

researches,

cause

established to an extent.
says,

descriptive

description,

effect

relationship

maybe

Likewise, Manuel and Medel (1997)

research

recording,

and

describes

analysis,

and

what

is.

It

interpretation

involves
of

the

present nature, composition or a process of phenomenon.


Sanchez (1989) cited the process of descriptive research as
beyond mere gathering and tabulation of data.

It involves the

elements of interpretation with the meaning of what is described.


Thus, description is often combined with comparison and contrast
involving

measurement,

classification,

interpretation

and

evaluation.
Participants
A total of 30
of the study.

respondents were utilized as the population

They are randomly drawn from the College of the

Immaculate Conception HRM Department , Cabanatuan City


Research Site
The research was conducted at College of the Immaculate
Conception (CIC) which is located at Del Pilar St. Cabanatuan
City, Nueva Ecija.

College of the
Immaculate Conception
Maria Assumpta
Seminary

NE Pacific Mall

Nueva Ecija
Doctors
Hospital

Figure 1.
College of the Immaculate Conception is diocesan Catholic
institution

that

focuses

on

building

the

faith,

mind

and

character of each of its students in order for them to achieve


their goals later in life. CIC promotes the Hospitality Industry
through

enhancing

their

HRM

students

to

the

best

of

their

abilities thus, the rise of the HRM building giving the HRM
students a better and more comfortable place to study and polish
their skills. Every course in CIC is competitive throughout the
province

yet

they

still

remain

grounded

in

spite

of

their

excellence.

College

of

the

Immaculate

Conception

is

small

institution where big dreams come true.


All of our respondents will come from the College of the
Immaculate Conception, Institute of Higher Studies, Hotel and
Restaurant Management Department. So it is only natural for us to
conduct our research on the said college institution. It will be
less of a hustle and less time consuming to conduct our study on
their college ground.
Respondents of the Study
The respondents of our study are the third year HRM students
of the College of the Immaculate Conception who have already
experienced

and

finished

their

first

on-the-job

training

in

different varieties of restaurants and hotels.


It is essential to conduct the study with the help and
opinions of those students that have already undertook their onthe-job training. They have both the knowledge and experience of
how things work during an OJT. Regardless of age and gender, the
fact that they have already took and finished the said internship
is a reason enough why should they be qualified as a respondent
for our study.

Data Gathering tool/s


The

instruments

used

for

gathering

data

were

the

questionnaire-checklist, and the interview.


Questionnaire-Checklist

The

questionnaire-checklist

was

the main instrument used in the gathering data.. According to


Good(1993),

questionnaire

is

list

of

planned,

written

questions related to a particular topic, with space provided for


indicating

the

response

to

each

questions,

intended

for

submission to a number of persons for reply; commonly used in


normative survey

studies and in the measurement of attitudes and

opinions.
The Interview technique was also used to complement the
gathering of data for the study. Interview provided information
which may be confidential that may not ordinarily be given in
writing. The interview according to (Vockel, 1989) is a technique
in which the researchers stimulate the respondents to give the
needed information for the study.
Data Collection Procedures
The researchers asked for the permission of the Dan, College
of Hotel and Restaurant Management, College of the Immaculate
Conception , Cabanatuan City

and they were permitted to conduct

the study about the Assessment of HRM Students on their on

the

Job Training
Upon

permit

was

granted

the

researchers

made

questionnaire-checklist provided variables with regards to the


subject research study.
Statistical Treatment of Data
The
checklist

responses
were

of

the

carefully

respondents
tallied,

to

the

tabulated

questionnaire
and

organized

including those derive from interviews, observation. The data


were

presented,

analyzed

and

interpreted

with

the

used

of

weighted mean, frequency counts, percentage and ranking system.


The presentation, analysis and interpretation of the data
were

based on the weighted mean as shown by the scale ranges as

follows:
a. For percentage computation is:
f
% = _______x 100
n
Where:
% = percentage
f = number of respondents for every item
n = total number of respondents
a. For weighted mean:

TWF
WM = _______
n
Where:
WM = stands for weighted mean
f = stands for frequencies
W = stands for weighted
TWF = stands for weighted frequency
n = total number of respondents
The table of equivalent which is the basis of the interpretation
of the data will be:
Part 11
Scale

Weight

Verbal Interpretation

5
4
3
2
1

4.21-5.00
3.41-4.20
2.61-3.40
1.81-2.60
1.00-1.80

Strongly Agree
Agree
Moderately Agree
Disagree
Strongly Disagree

Ranking
The researchers used ranking as a tool in order to know the
value from the highest to lowest. Ranking obtained by adding all
the rank given by the respondent by the total number of the
respondents. This was used to know all about Assessmenrt
students on their On the Job Training

of

HRM

Ranking = R1 + R2 + R3 +
n
Where:
R1 = rank given by the first respondent
R2 = rank given by the second respondent
R3 = rank given by the third respondent
n = total number of respondents.

CHAPTER 3:
PRESENTATION, ANALYSIS AND INTERPRETATION OF DATA
This chapter shows the result of the survey conducted in the
assessment of the Assessment of HRM students on their OJT Yhe
respondents of the study are Third year HRM students of College
of the Immaculate Conception Cabanatuan City First Semester of
school year 2015-2016. The tables presented are in accordance
with the order being stated in the Statement of the Problem. The
result of this study is given below.
Respondents Profile
1. Age
Table 1.3
Age Distribution of Respondents
No. of
Respond
ents

Percentage

16-17

16.6

18-19

18

60

16.6

6.6

30

100%

Age

20-21
22 and
above
Total

Table 1.1 shows the age distribution of the respondents of


the study. It shows that majority of them are 18 - 19 years old

that represents 60.% of the whole population. Followed by 16-17


and 20-21` old representing 16.6 percent.
This implies that majority of the respondents are 18-19
years old because this is the usual age for college students.
Most teenagers received formal education when they were teenagers
age 16 to 19 (centerforeducationcontrol)

2. Gender
Table 1.2
Gender Distribution of Respondents

Gender

Freque
ncy

Percent
age

Male

10

33.3

Female

20

66.6

Total

30

100%

Table 1.2 shows that 20 respondents are females and 10 are


males. This 66.6 and33.3 of the population respectively.
This

implies

that

the

majority

of

the

respondents

are

predominated by female. Because usually in HRM course majority of


its members are females.

I.

Assessment of HRM students towards OJT

This study determines the assessment of

respondents towards

OJT in terms of Relationship


Table 3
Relationship
Variables

Weighted Mean

2.1.1
friendly
and
harmonious relationship
with co students
2.1.2
competition and
rivalry among
co students

3.09

Verbal
Interpretation
Moderately Agree

3.08

Moderately Agree

2.1.3.personal and social


adjustment
2.1.4 They could adjust to
every situations
and circumstances

3.20

Moderately Agree

3.04

Moderately Agree

2.2.5 disagreement with


co- students on certain issues

2.90

Moderately

3.05

Agree
Moderately Agree

Average weighted
Mean

Table 3 shows the assessment of the respondents towards


their

On the Job Training in terms of relationship item 2.1.1

friendly

and

harmonious

weighted mean of

3.09

relationship
verbally

with

co

interpreted

students
as

has

Moderately

Agree, item 2.1.2 competition and rivalry among co students has


weighted mean of 3.08 verbally interpreted as Moderately Agree

item .1.3.personal and social

adjustment 3.20

Moderately

Agree 2.1.4 They could adjust to every situations

and

circumstances has weighted mean of 3.04 verbally interpreted as


Moderately Agree and item 2.2.5 disagreement with co- students on
certain issues
Moderately

has weighted mean of 2.90 verbally interpreted as

Agree

With

an

Average

weighted

Mean3.05Moderately

Agree
This

could

be

implied

that

the

respondents

experience

different kind of relationship between co students and their


superior or mentors during their

On the Job Training.

Table 4
Value Of Training
Variables
2.2.1 build HRM students in selfconfidence and commitment

3.46

Moderately
Agree

3.2.2 provide opportunities for students to


accept greater challenges

3.50

Moderately
Agree

3.2.3 produce a measurable change in


performance

3.5

Moderately
Agree

3.2.4 foster growth and development

3.4

Moderately
Agree

3.2,5 bring about the desired changes that


can solve a variety of problems

3.3

Moderately
Agree

3.03

Moderately
Agree

Average Weighted Mean

The table 4 shows the distribution of respondents as to Assessment to OJT in terms of


Value Of Training In item 2.2.1 build HRM students in self-confidence and commitment has
weighted mean of

3.46 verbally interpreted as ModeratelyAgree3.2.2 provide opportunities

for students to accept greater challenges has weighted mean of

3.50 verbally

interpreted

asModeratelyAgree3.2.3 produce a measurable change in performance has weighted mean of


3.5verbally interpreted as Moderately Agree3.2.4 foster growth and development has weighted
mean of 3.4 verbally interpreted as Moderately Agree3.2,5 bring about the desired changes that
can solve a variety of problems has weighted mean of 3.3 verbally interpreted asModerately
Agree with an Average Weighted Mean 3.03verbally interpreted as Moderately Agree

This could be implied that the respondents are moderately agreed towards On the Job
Training in terms of Value of Training.
Table 5
Benefits of Training

Variables
2.3.1 improving an students performance

3.46

Moderately
Agree

2.3.2 developing the group and team skills


needed to achieve organizational goals

3.50

Moderately
Agree

2.3.3 preparing employees for promotional


opportunities

3.5

Moderately
Agree

2.3.4 enhancing employee morale,


motivation, and creativity

3.4

Moderately
Agree

2.3.5 motivating students to achieve higher


standards

3.3

Moderately
Agree

Average Weighted Mean

3.03

Moderately
Agree

The table 5 shows the distribution of respondents as to Assessment to OJT in terms of Benefits
of Training Item 2.3.1 improving an students performance
has
weighted mean of 3.46
Moderately Agree
2.3.2 developing the group and team skills needed to achieve
organizational goals has weighted mean of 3.46

3.50

verbally

interpreted as Moderately Agree item 2.3.3 preparing employees


for promotional opportunities has weighted mean of 3.item 2.3.4
enhancing

employee

morale,

weighted men of 3.4 verbally


2.3.5

motivating

weighted mean of

students

motivation,
interpreted
to

achieve

and
as

creativity
Moderately

higher

3.3 verbally interpreted as

has
Agree

standards
Moderately

has

Agree and has an Average Weighted Mean

3.03verbally

interpreted

as Moderately Agree.

Table 6
Summary table

Assessment

Weighted

Verbal
Interpretation

Mean
3.05

Moderately Agree

Value Of Training

3.03

Moderately Agree

Benefits of Training

3.03

Moderately Agree

General weighted mean

3.03

Moderately Agree

Relationship

This table presents the summary of the assessment

of the

respondents. in terms of Relationship has Average weighted mean of


3.05

interpreted

as

Moderately

Agree

in

terms

of

Value

Of

Training has an average weighted mean of 3.03 interpreted as


Moderately Agree in terms of Benefits of Training has
weighted mean of

an average

3.03 verbally interpreted as Moderately Agree

with general weighted mean of 3.03 interpreted as Moderately


agree.

This

implies

that

the

respondents

can

express

emotions and understanding freely without any pressures.

their
People

are giving more importance in training before they can get their
jobs after

graduation.

Table 7
Result of Correlation Analysis between Profile Variables of the
Respondents and their Assessment in their OJT
Profile
Decision
Variables
Average
Age
Correlation -.014
Do not reject
Coefficient
hypothesis
Sig. (2.828
tailed)
N
133
Gender
Correlation .133
Do not reject
Coefficient
hypothesis
Sig. (2.066
tailed)
N
133

Sig. (2tailed)
N

.038
133

*. Correlation is significant at the 0.05 level (2-tailed).

Table 6 shows the result of correlation analysis made to


determine significant relationship between profile variables of
the respondents and their assessment level. All has coefficients
resulting to more than .05. However, the findings reveal that one
variable is correlated enough to reject the hypothesis of the

study.

There

is

significant

relationship

variables and their assessment level

between

profile

CHAPTER 4
SUMMARY, CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS
This

chapter

presents

the

summary

of

findings,

and

the

corresponding conclusion derived in the conduct of the study. It also


provides recommendation that could be pursued by other researchers.
SUMMARY
This study was anchored on the assessment of

students on their OJT

30 selected

HRM third

selected HRM
Year College

students during the 1st semesters of school year 2015-2016. The


researchers

conducted

the

study

through

descriptive

research

which

they thought the most appropriate methodology used in this activity


respondents are chosen through simple random
The study tried to answer the

sampling.

question stated at chapter I such

as:

1. What is the demographic profile of the student respondents


in such variables:
1.1 age,
1.2

gender?

2. How may assessment of HRM students on their OJT described


in term of:
2.1relationship,

2.2 value of training and


2.3 benefits of training

3. Is there significant relationships with profile variables and


the topic?
4. What are the implications of the result to HRM education at
CIC?
SUMMARY OF FINDINGS
The following findings were obtained.

Age Distribution of Respondents


That majority of them are 18 - 19 years old that represents
60.% of the whole population. Followed by 16-17 and 20-21` old
representing 16.6 percent.
Gender
That 20 respondents are females and 10 are males. This 66.6
and 33.3 of the population respectively.
II Assessment of HRM students towards OJT
Relationship
On the Job Training in terms of relationship item 2.1.1
friendly

and

harmonious

weighted mean of

3.09

relationship
verbally

with

co

interpreted

students
as

has

Moderately

Agree, item 2.1.2 competition and rivalry among co students has

weighted mean of 3.08 verbally interpreted as Moderately Agree


item .1.3.personal and social
Agree

2.1.4

They

could

adjustment 3.20

adjust

to

Moderately

every

situations

and

circumstances has weighted mean of 3.04 verbally interpreted as


Moderately Agree and item 2.2.5 disagreement with co- students on
certain issues
Moderately

has weighted mean of 2.90 verbally interpreted as

Agree

With

an

Average

weighted

Mean3.05Moderately

Agree
Value Of Training
An Assessment to OJT in terms of Value Of Training In item 2.2.1 build HRM students
in self-confidence and commitment has weighted mean of 3.46

verbally

interpreted as

ModeratelyAgree3.2.2 provide opportunities for students to accept greater challenges has


weighted mean of

3.50 verbally interpreted asModeratelyAgree3.2.3 produce a measurable

change in performance has weighted mean of 3.5verbally interpreted as Moderately Agree3.2.4


foster growth and development has weighted mean of 3.4 verbally interpreted as Moderately
Agree3.2,5 bring about the desired changes that can solve a variety of problems has weighted
mean of 3.3 verbally interpreted asModerately Agree with an Average Weighted Mean 3.03
verbally interpreted as Moderately Agree
Benefits
Assessment to OJT in terms of Benefits of Training Item 2.3.1 improving an
students performance has weighted mean of 3.46

Moderately

Agree2.3.2 developing the group and team skills needed to achieve


organizational goals has weighted mean of 3.46

3.50

verbally

interpreted as Moderately Agree item 2.3.3 preparing employees


for promotional opportunities has weighted mean of 3.item 2.3.4

enhancing

employee

morale,

weighted men of 3.4 verbally


2.3.5

motivating

students

motivation,
interpreted
to

achieve

and
as

creativity
Moderately

higher

has
Agree

standards

has

weighted mean of 3.3 verbally interpreted as Moderately Agree and


has

an

Average

Weighted

Mean3.03verbally

interpreted

as

Moderately Agree.
Summary table
of the respondents. in terms

The summary of the assessment

of Relationship has Average weighted mean of 3.05 interpreted as

Moderately Agree in terms of

Value Of Training has an average

weighted mean of 3.03 interpreted as Moderately Agree in terms of


Benefits of Training has

an average weighted mean of

3.03

verbally interpreted as Moderately Agree with general weighted


mean of 3.03 interpreted as Moderately agree.
Result of Correlation Analysis between Profile Variables of the
Respondents and their Assessment in their OJT
The

result

significant
respondents

of

correlation

relationship
and

their

analysis

between

assessment

made

profile
level.

to

variables

All

has

determine
of

the

coefficients

resulting to more than .05. However, the findings reveal that one
variable is correlated enough to reject the hypothesis of the
study.

There

is

significant

relationship

variables and their assessment level

between

profile

CONCLUSIONS
Based on the above findings, the following conclusions are
deduced:

1. The

vast majority of respondents are in are at their

very young ages , female, HRM

students and predominantly

18-19 years old


2.

The

implications

of

OJT

to

them

they

made

them

stronger and firmed which are necessary in their life being


a graduating students. Another is it resulted from more
viable inputs to their academic performance as they became
les worthy and survive in most difficult trials of their
pursuing their career
3.

Respondents

activities

and

have

learning

values

which

and
will

understanding
overcome

the

OJT

troubles

and

reduces worries and anxieties. Also, it is an eye opener and


guide for them to equip themselves for the vagaries of not
only as student but also in their daily life as it also a
solution

to

solve

many

problems

they

encountered

during

studying.
Recommendations
Based on the findings and conclusions, the researcher strongly
recommends the following:

1. Nurtured the maturity and giving due considerations to


what had experienced from their OJT training;
2. Ready to apply on what they had experienced has to be
done in every students so that by doing so, they make
their studies more stable, appreciated by both mentors
and co students

and for self-assurance and satisfaction

that it has done the

job training;

3. Since there is a very significant implications in their


school performance they

must now maintain and even make

it more better enhanced their maturity by really applying


what they have experienced during OJT they got with so
that such positive implications be always maintained and
enhanced.
4.

That similar study should be conducted on the different


levels

of

students

in

College

Conception and other schools


Responses

if

the

respondents

of

the

Immaculate

to further determine the


undergone

Training as part of their academic routine

On

the

Job