Raw water and wastewater is normally turbid containing solid particles of varying sizes.
Turbidity in water is caused by suspended and colloidal matter such as clay, silt, finely divided
organic and inorganic matter, and plankton and other microspic organisms. Particles with sizes
greater than 50 µm settle fairly rapidly. The settling velocities of colloidal particles of sizes less
than 50 µm are very slow. Thus, these particles are encouraged to collide leading to coalescence
of particle to form flocs particles, which are bigger and heavier. These particles will have higher
settling velocities and easily settle out.
A very important step in water and wastewater treatment is the coagulation-flocculation process
which is widely used, due to its simplicity and cost-effectiveness. Coagulation and flocculation
consist of adding a floc-forming chemical reagent into water or wastewater to encourage the nonsettleable colloidal solids (or particles) to collide, leading to coalescence of particle to form flocs
particles (which are bigger and heavier).

The objective of jar test is:
 To determine the optimal coagulant dose which will produce the highest removal of a

given water turbidity.
To identify the most common coagulant used in the coagulant process.
To determine the most effective and optimum dosage of coagulant for a particular

mixing intensity and duration.
To understand the complex interrelationships that exists between the chemicals and the
constituents of the water being treated, as well as other factors such as pH, temperature,
intensity and duration of mixing.





Jar test apparatus with six 1 2 3 rotating paddles blade Beakers ( six) pH meter 2 .

4.4 5 Turbidity meter Pipette REAGENT Aluminum sulfate (alum) with a known concentration or anionic/cationic coagulant such as ferrous sulfate and ferric chloride.0 PROCEDURES 3 .

8. 2.4. The blade was inserted into the beakers and the depth of the blade was calculated. 11. 9. The stirrer was stopped when the stirring period was over and the floc was allowed to settle for about 5 minutes.5 5. The temperature. The speed was reduced to 30 rpm for about 20 minutes. pH and turbidity for each beaker of the clarified water was determined and recorded. 10. Figure 4. 500 ml of settled water for each beaker was separated and was putted into another beaker.3. The prepared wastewater was placed in 6 different beakers (plexiglass graduated beakers) with one litre each. pH and tubidity of the water sample were measured. The wastewater sample was prepared. 4.0 RESULTS AND DATA ANALYSIS JAR TEST (Set the coagulant dose) 4 . 6. 1-5 ml of coagulant (alum) was added by using a measuring pipette into beaker 1. The flocculation process was observed and the floc formation was recorded in the final 10 minutes by referring to the chart of particles size provided. while no alum was added in beaker 6 because it acts as a control sample. 3. 7.1.1 5. The temperature. The wastewater sample was started stirring rapidly (70 rpm) for 3 minutes. 2. The sample was premixed to obtain consistent condition in all jars.

71 6 11.5 %___ mg/L Jar No PH Coagulant dose (mg/L) Agitate (minute) Fast (rpm) Slow (rpm) Settling depth (mm) Turbidity (NTU) Floc formation (final 10 minutes) * 1 11.12 2 10.Initial turbidity: __9.37 7. 5 .99_____ NTU Initial pH: __6.24 3 10.22 Size F Size E Size C Size C Size B Size A * Floc formation can be recorded by referring to the measurement scale as depicted in Figure 1.37 3.75 4 10.27 9.08 1 2 3 4 5 control 23 70 30 23 70 30 23 70 30 23 70 30 23 70 30 23 70 30 70 70 70 70 70 70 6.13 4.78 5 10.59 4.11_____ pH adjustment (base: _ 3_____ mg/L of _NaOH pH adjustment (acid : ___0___ mg/L of __HCl__ Coagulant concentration: ____8.

0 DATA ANALYSIS 6 .Figure 1: Scale for measurement of floc sizes 6.

1. The last beaker that is beaker 6 has the second lowest value of turbidity that is 4. From the graph. 2. Beaker 5 has the highest value of turbidity among the six beakers that is 9. Show the relationship between turbidity with respect to coagulant dosage.13. 7 . With the aid of a graph: i.From the graph.37 for the turbidity. .27.59. Compare the level of turbidity in each sample.22. ii. get the optimum value for coagulant dose of the coagulation process. 3. . Beaker 2 has the second highest value of turbidity that is 7. it shows that beaker 1 has the value of 6. Show the relationship between pH with respect to coagulant dosage. the optimum value for coagulant dose is 4 mg/L. Beaker 3 has the value of 4.37 for the turbidity. Beaker 4 has the lowest value for the turbidity that is 3.From the data that have been recorded.

0 DISCUSSION 1. 8 . -FeCl3 + 3H2O Fe(OH) 3 + 3HCl 2. These particles form lumps flocs are joined together. with the help of coagulant 3.7. the mechanism is : Al3+ + 3H2O  Al(OH)3 + 3H Describe the mechanism of reaction if the aluminum sulphate is replaced by ferum chloride (FeCl3). Differentiate between coagulation and flocculation process. By using aluminum sulphate. it basically Flocculation means to form flocs. It can be refers to a chemical process in which the described as a physical or a mechanical destabilization of non-settleable particles process in which the coagulated clumps or takes place. Coagulation Flocculation Coagulation means to curdle. What is the common coagulant used? -Aluminum sulfate or alum is commonly used as coagulant reagent.

Second is making sure that the equipment used to determine the pH is washed with distilled water first before put it into the sample water. the floc formation will disappeared and there will be no left to be observed. it will produce an amount of floc but if it continues to be at high speed. -The temperature of water sample -The pH reading of water sample -The turbidity of water sample -The alkalinity of water sample 7. Discuss the caution that you consider and errors occur (if any) during the experiment. there some precaution during the experiment. make sure that the wastewater is neutral before proceeding with the next procedures. the speed of the flocculator needed to be reduce. - From the experiment. Describe how the coagulant works during coagulation-flocculation process? - Coagulant with charges opposite to those of the suspended solids are added to the water to neutralize the negative charges on dispersed non-settleable solids such as clay and organic substances during coagulation.4. The velocity or the speed of flocculator is one of the important factors during coagulation. List another three important factors influencing coagulation. During the experiment. 6. 9 . Lastly. So that. the speeds of the flocculator need to be reduced from 80 rpm to 30 rpm. One of them is make sure that the small bottle used to determine the turbidity is cleaned and dried first before use. During the flocculation. the coagulant mix and bring the fine particles produced during coagulation into contact with each other. 5. Why? - At high speed.

8. jar test is an experimental method where optimal conditions are determined empirically rather than theoretically. Jar test are meant to mimic the conditions and process that take place in the clarification portion of water and wastewater treatment plants. The two graphs drawn is between pH with respect to coagulant dosage and between turbidity with respect to coagulant dosage. 10 .0 CONCLUSION As a conclusion. Based on the graph. This is because the lowest turbidity value is the beaker that was added with 4 mg/L of coagulant. the optimum coagulant dosage obtained is 4 mg/L. The values that are obtained from the experiment are correlated and adjusted in order to account for the actual treatment system.


filtronics.com/2013001/03/jar-test/ 12 .wordpress.html  http://sarat212.info/content/coagulation-floccuation  http://www.sswm.10.0 REFERENCES  http://www.comflocculation.