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ANNEX 02 – EPCs Country Overview

Valuing
Sustainability

Co-funded by the Intelligent Energy Europe
programme of the European Union

April 2016

ANNEX 02

At the end of this section, you will be enabled to:
• Understand valuation professionals’
responsibility/role in relation to the topics of
energy efficiency and sustainability

Country
overview

ANNEX 02

At the end of this section, you will be enabled to:
• Understand valuation professionals’
responsibility/role in relation to the topics of
energy efficiency and sustainability

Country
overview

Belgium

ANNEX 02

Belgium
Existing buildings – Flanders

Residential and public:
When a building is sold or let, it has to comply to the rules of the
Energieprestatiecertificaat (EPC). The certificate informs about the energy
efficiency measures which can be taken. The result has to be published when
advertising, to enhance the comparability of the respective building with others.

Non residential:
Similar to residential and public. The legislation will become compulsory in the
course of 2016.
For more information: www.energiesparen.be

ANNEX 02

Belgium
Example: EPC (Energieprestatiecertificaat) for residential buildings – Flanders
Key elements:
• Calculated Energy score (energy usage (kWh/m² a year)
based upon the wall, roof, windows doors and installations of
the building, ranging from 0 to 700
• A colour scale
• Energy efficiency of the building envelope, heating system
and CO2 emission impact on the environment
• Recommendations
• Overview of the results found by the expert and the
software used

ANNEX 02

Belgium
New construction – Flanders

Upon completion of the building, the ‘EPC-bouw’ is mandatory.
It is slightly different form the EPC for existing buildings and works
with a ‘E-peil’ and KWh/ m².
The ‘E’ level is a measure of the energy performance of a property and
its fixed installations in standard conditions. The lower the E-level, the
more energy efficient the home is.
For more information: http://www2.vlaanderen.be

ANNEX 02

Belgium
Example: EPC (Certificat Performance Énérgetique des Bâtiments - PEB) – Wallonia
Key elements:
• Identification number
• Building description
• Energy consumption indicators
• Labelling
• Energy balance
• Minimum requirements new buildings
• Average performance buildings in Wallonia
• Indicators per: envelope, heating water, ventilation and
renewable energy
For residential buildings: For sale and letting the PEB certificate is obligatory and has to
publicised when marketing the building. For public buildings: Under development by the
administration. For Commercial buildings: Under development by the administration.

For more information: http://energie.wallonie.be

ANNEX 02

Belgium
Example: (Certificat Performance Énérgetique des Bâtiments - PEB)– Brussels
• Compulsory for residential buildings and offices larger than 500
square metres.
• Based upon a theoretical energy usage of the building and calculated
on the basis of the characteristics of the building .
• Comprises surface heat loss of the building envelope, insulation, type
of heating and ventilation.
• Result has to be publicised when marketing.
In addition to the EPB-certificate, Brussels has the EPB-certificate for
public buildings. This certificate is based upon the actual energy usage
of the user and is connected to the user. It has to be shown at the
entrance of the building and the certificate is only valid for one year.

ANNEX 02

Belgium
National benchmarks – classification of efficiency classes

Note that different efficiency classes are used in Belgium according to
region:
• Wallonia and Brussels use a labelling system from class A until G.
• In Flanders, a red to green scale is used. This classification represents the
(calculated/ theoretical) energy consumption of a property, from low
consumption of kWh/ m2 a year (G) until a high usage (A).

ANNEX 02

Belgium
Using EPCs in valuation

When valuing real estate in Belgium the EPC is usually not available. This
means that the valuation is done under the assumption of a beneficial EPC:

ANNEX 02

Belgium
Sources for advising clients on average costs for energy efficiency retrofits

Vlaams Energieagentschap (nl)
http://www.energiesparen.be/energiewinst
Energieportaal van het Waals Gewest (fr)
http://energie.wallonie.be/fr/isoler-ventiler-gerer-la-surchauffe.html?IDC=8605

Leefmilieu Brussel - Brussels Instituut voor Milieubeheer (nl/fr)
Guide: http://gidsduurzamegebouwen.leefmilieubrussel.be/nl/index.html?IDC=3
Tool: http://www.leefmilieu.brussels/themas/energie/de-energieprestatie-vangebouwen-epb/bouwen-en-renoveren/epb-software/epb-software-0

ANNEX 02

At the end of this section, you will be enabled to:
• Understand valuation professionals’
responsibility/role in relation to the topics of
energy efficiency and sustainability

Country
overview

Germany

ANNEX 02

Germany
Example: EPC-demand based – residential buildings

ANNEX 02

Germany
Benchmarks: final energy (kWh/m²a)

ANNEX 02

Germany
EPC-consumption based – residential buildings

ANNEX 02

Germany
Recommendations for modernisation within EPCs - residential

ANNEX 02

Germany
Cost figures for quantifying refurbishment backlog

Average cost figures (in €/m²)
for energy efficiency
refurbishments/modernisations
of entire buildings (displayed for
different energy consumption
levels and for different degrees
of modernisation).

ANNEX 02

Germany
EPC-demand based – for office buildings

ANNEX 02

Germany
EPC-consumption based – for office buildings

ANNEX 02

Germany
Recommendations for refurbishments within EPCs – non-residential

ANNEX 02

Germany
Public display of EPCs for office buildings

ANNEX 02

At the end of this section, you will be enabled to:
• Understand valuation professionals’
responsibility/role in relation to the topics of
energy efficiency and sustainability

Country
overview

Italy

ANNEX 02

Italy
The ‘Attestato di Prestazione Energetica’ describes the energy
characteristics of a building or dwelling, i.e. a house or apartment.

It provides information on the energy quality of buildings with a focus on:
• The evaluation of the cost-effectiveness to achieve energy upgrading of
housing , and
• The purchases and leases of properties that take proper account of the energy
performance of buildings themselves.

ANNEX 02

Italy
Features of the building

Recommendations
for interventions

Building energy
class
Building energy class

Achievable energy
performance

Building energy
performance
Quality of building
envelope

Source: http://www.certificato-energetico.it/certificazione-energetica.html

ANNEX 02

Italy
The EPC (existing and new as well as public and private) is mandatory in the
following cases:
• Marketing a building for sale or rent
• When a property is being donated
• For new buildings (at the end of the construction phase)
• ‘Major’ renovation - when the work involves over 25% of the surface of
the envelope (walls and roofs) of the entire building
• Public buildings
• For all new or renewed contracts for the management of heating systems
or air conditioning of buildings

For more information: http://www.certificato-energetico.it

ANNEX 02

Italy
Exceptions:
• Industrial buildings heated for the needs of production processes or that
use energy recovery (from production processes)
• Rural non-residential buildings without air conditioning systems
• Isolated buildings with a total useful floor area less than 50 m2
• Buildings whose standard use does not require the installation and use of
technical systems for air conditioning, such as boxes, cellars, garages,
parking garages, warehouses, seasonal structures protecting sporting
facilities
• Buildings used as places of worship and for religious activities

ANNEX 02

italy
Penalties:
• If the property is sold without the energy performance certificate, the
seller incurs a penalty of between 3,000 and 18,000 €.
• If the property is rented without the energy performance certificate, the
tenant incurs a penalty of between 1,000 and 4,000 €.
• If the ‘for sale’ or ‘for rent’ announcement of a property does not include
the energy parameters, the administrative sanction is variable between
500€ and 3,000€.

For more information: http://www.certificato-energetico.it/sanzioni.html

ANNEX 02

Italy
National classification of energy efficiency classes

Energy performance classes have intervals that depend on the overall energy
performance, a physical value measured in kWh/m2 year. Intervals between the various
classes are not always the same but they depend on two variables: the degree days and
the ratio between building surface and volume.
The energy performance certificate has a validity for a maximum 10 years, but must be
renewed following ‘renovation’ involving a change in its energy performance.

ANNEX 02

At the end of this section, you will be enabled to:
• Understand valuation professionals’
responsibility/role in relation to the topics of
energy efficiency and sustainability

Country
overview

Netherlands

ANNEX 02

Netherlands
Example: EPC for residential buildings

For more information: http://www.zoekuwenergielabel.nl

ANNEX 02

Netherlands

Compulsory for residential buildings since 1 January 2015 when selling or
letting real estate.

Home owners who do not yet have an EPC receive a provisional EPC. The
provisional EPC is based on general information that the authorities
have about a dwelling, such as the type of building, floor area and the
year of construction. The provisional EPC is therefore merely an
estimate.
When there no label available, administrative fines can be issued
ranging from a maximum of € 405 for residential and € 20.250,- for
commercial real estate!

For more information: http://www.zoekuwenergielabel.nl

ANNEX 02

Netherlands
Example: EPC for residential buildings

For more information: http://www.government.nl/issues/energy-performance-certificates-for-homes-and-buildings/mandatory-epcs-for-buildings
http://www.ep-online.nl/ep-online/

ANNEX 02

Netherlands

Energy performance certificates are mandatory for the owners of
commercial and public buildings when the buildings are put up for sale
or rent or when construction is completed. This category of buildings
includes schools and hospitals.
There are some exceptions such as listed historic buildings.
The certificate is valid for 10 years.

Labelling has to be done by an energy consultant with a BRL Certificate.
Part of the EPC is an Energy Performance Advice (EPA).

For more information: http://www.zoekuwenergielabel.nl

ANNEX 02

Netherlands

Label class A++ until G for
commercial and public buildings and
buildings A until G for residential
buildings .
The system is based upon a
calculation method considering
energy use by heating, hot water
supply, lighting, ventilation and
cooling.

For more information: http://www.zoekuwenergielabel.nl

ANNEX 02

netherlands
Average costs for energy efficiency retrofits

The Dutch government has provided several ways to gain insight in
specific energy efficiency situations for residential and commercial
real estate. The websites below offer the available tools.
Residential buildings:
http://energiebesparingsverkenner.nl/p001.asp#
Commercial and public buildings:
http://www.rvo.nl/onderwerpen/duurzaam-ondernemen/gebouwen/duurzamegebouwen/gebouwfasen/beheer-en-onderhoud/gebouwgebondenenergie/energiebesparingsverkenner-utiliteitsbouw

ANNEX 02

Netherlands
Average costs for energy efficiency retrofits – calculation example
3 Scenarios:
1. Current situation
2. Low modernisation level
3. Maximum modernisation level

1. No investments: Energy label E
2. 66 EUR per m²: Energy label C

3. 500 EUR per m²: Energy label A

Calculation example with regard to average costs for energy efficiency retrofits. The
example is a terraced house 106 qm2 dating from 1966-1975 with two occupants.
Sources: http://energiebesparingsverkenner.nl/p001.asp#

ANNEX 02

Netherlands
• There are no legislative
requirement.
• The Dutch Platform Valuers and
Accountants (PTA) published
‘good practices’ for better
valuation of real estate.
• It mentions sustainability in best
practice 21 as a subject which
should be taken into account
when there is a certificate
available. It does mention
however the recommendation to
consult an expert when a client
wants more insight in this field.
Sources: http://energiebesparingsverkenner.nl/p001.asp#

ANNEX 02

At the end of this section, you will be enabled to:
• Understand valuation professionals’
responsibility/role in relation to the topics of
energy efficiency and sustainability

Country
overview

Poland

ANNEX 02

Poland
Energy performance certificate

ANNEX 02

Poland
Examples of national benchmarks
450

450
400

400

One family
house

350

300

250

Multi-family
house

200
150
100

Nonresidential
buildings

50

kWh/(m2year)

300

kWh/(m2year)

One family
house

350

250

Multi-family
house

200
150
100

Nonresidential
buildings

50

0

0

primary
final energy usable energy
energy factor factor EK
factor EU
EP

primary
final energy usable energy
energy factor factor EK
factor EU
EP

Source: BuildDesk - Energy state buildings in Poland - Raport stan energetyczny budynków w Polsce
http://6paliwo.pl/wp-content/uploads/2012/04/2010-12-stan-energetyczny-budynkow_1.pdf

ANNEX 02

Poland
Average energy consumption: different building types

Source: Building modernisation strategy: road map 2015 – Strategia Modernizacji budynków: mapa drogowa 2015
http://www.renowacja2050.pl/files/raport.pdf

ANNEX 02

At the end of this section, you will be enabled to:
• Understand valuation professionals’
responsibility/role in relation to the topics of
energy efficiency and sustainability

Country
overview

United Kingdom

ANNEX 02

United Kingdom
Average energy consumption: different building types

Energy Performance Certificates (EPCs) are needed whenever a property is:
• Built
• Sold
• Rented
An EPC for potential buyers and tenants needs to be arranged before the property can
be marketed to be sold or rented.
In Scotland, the EPC must be displayed somewhere in the property, e.g. in the metre
cupboard or next to the boiler

Source: Building modernisation strategy: road map 2015 – Strategia Modernizacji budynków: mapa drogowa 2015
http://www.renowacja2050.pl/files/raport.pdf

ANNEX 02

United Kingdom
Average energy consumption: different building types

An EPC contains:
• Information about a property’s energy use and typical energy costs
• Recommendations about how to reduce energy use and save money on energy bills
An EPC is valid for 10 years. Vendors, landlords or their instructed property agent whose
properties do not have a valid EPC in place, risk being reported to their local Trading
Standards and the Office of Fair Trading.

ANNEX 02

United Kingdom
Average energy consumption: different building types

Penalty for failing to provide a prospective byer or tenant with an EPC: for commercial
buildings from a minimum of £500 to a capped maximum of £5,000 and for residential
properties the penalty is £200.
It is possible to look at EPCs of other properties free of charge. This lets you compare the
property’s energy performance with that of similar ones. You can search by the property’s
address or by the EPCs report reference

ANNEX 02

United Kingdom
Example: EPC for residential buildings

ANNEX 02

United kingdom
Example: EPC for non-domestic buildings

ANNEX 02

United Kingdom
Example: Display Energy Certificate (DEC)

Mandatory for all public buildings with a total useful
floor area greater than 500m² or part occupied by
public authorities or by institutions providing public
services and therefore frequently visited by the
public.

ANNEX 02

United Kingdom
DECs provide an energy rating of a building from A-G, where ‘A’ is very efficient
and ‘G’ is the least efficient (in a similar way to energy performance certificates
for domestic properties).
A DEC must be accompanied by an advisory report and the owner of the building
must have a valid one available. The advisory report highlights recommendations
to improve the energy performance of the building.
A local authority can issue a penalty charge notice of £500 for failing to display a
DEC at all times in a prominent place clearly visible to the public, and £1,000 for
failing to possess or have in their control a valid advisory report. In addition to
these penalties, it will still be necessary to commission the documents.

About RENOVALUE

The Project

The use of property valuation is an
essential aspect of the property
lifecycle and directly influences
financial decision making that is why
encouraging the consideration of
energy efficiency and renewable energy
needs to start here.
Being able to demonstrate the business
case to prospective buyers, sellers,
lenders and investors is prerequisite to
accelerating the market transition
towards Nearly Zero Energy Buildings
(NZEBs).

About RENOVALUE

The Project

Yet the ability to demonstrate this
business case for sustainable buildings
is exactly what is missing at present:
many valuation professionals lack both
the skills and the knowledge to
consistently take energy efficiency and
renewable energy issues into account
when advising their clients.
RenoValue aims to fill this knowledge
and skills gap by developing training
material for practising valuation
professionals on how to factor energy
efficiency and renewable energy issues
into valuation practices and how to
advise their clients accordingly.

Partners

Funded By
RenoValue is funded by the Intelligent Energy
Europe Programme of the European Union and is
managed by the Executive Agency for Small and
Medium sized Enterprises (EASME)

The content of this document does not
reflect the official opinion of the
European Union. Responsibility for the
information and views expressed lies
entirely with the author(s).

Website
www.renovalue.eu

Contacts

Twitter
@renovalueEU