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PEMP

AME2510

Elements in LS-DYNA

Session delivered by:

Mr.Suman M.L.J.

 M.S. Ramaiah School of Advanced Studies, Bengaluru

PEMP
AME2510

Session Topics
 Element Library available in LS-Dyna
 Element formulation
 Hourglassing
 Negative volume
 Mass Scaling

 M.S. Ramaiah School of Advanced Studies, Bengaluru

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PEMP
AME2510

ELEMENTS AVAILABLE IN DYNA
• Different solid elements
• 8-node thick shells
• Different 3- and 4-node shells
• Beams
• Welds
• Trusses and cables
• Nodal masses
• Lumped inertias
• Arbitrary Lagrangian/Eulerian
elements
• Eulerian elements
• Element Free Galerkin
formulations
• SPH elements
• Elements for 2D-analysis

 M.S. Ramaiah School of Advanced Studies, Bengaluru

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Bengaluru 4 . Ramaiah School of Advanced Studies.PEMP AME2510 The choice of Element Formulations depends on •Accuracy requirements • speed requirements • type of material to model • type of simulation  M.S.

They cause problems in some situations so these type of solid elements are avoided  M. Solids Purpose: To define section properties for solid continuum and fluid elements • 8-node solid element by default uses one point integration plus viscous hourglass control. They perform better where element distortions are large (like soft materials. as there are no zero-energy modes. Ramaiah School of Advanced Studies. •When full integration is used no hourglass control is needed.PEMP AME2510 Description of Elements 1. but are about four times more costly.e. some of the nodes are repeated). • Fully integrated brick elements are also available. Bengaluru 5 . •Wedges and tetrahedral are simply degenerate bricks (i.S. such as foam).

S. Ramaiah School of Advanced Studies.PEMP AME2510 Solid Element formulation options  M. Bengaluru 6 .

S.It uses reduced one-point integration •Not recommended when element experiences excessive warping. Shells Purpose: Define section properties for shell elements Belytschko Tsay element (B-T): •Default shell element is the Belytschko Tsay (B-T) element. Substantially slower than B-T formulation S/R Co-rotational Hughes-Liu: This type of formulation uses fully integrated element.  M. • Hughes Liu:Hughes Liu (HL) element available in reduced integration and fully integrated formulations. so hourglass deformations does not occur (but much more costly). Ramaiah School of Advanced Studies. Bengaluru 7 .PEMP AME2510 2.

Bengaluru 8 . Ramaiah School of Advanced Studies.PEMP AME2510 Shell Element formulation options  M.S.

S. Ramaiah School of Advanced Studies. Bengaluru 9 . The expression “full integration” refers to the number of Gauss points required to integrate the polynomial terms in an element's stiffness matrix exactly when the element has a regular shape.  Hourglassing typically have no stiffness and give a zig zag deformation appearance to a mesh.  Undesirable phenomenon that occurs due to reduced integration (single point).  M.PEMP AME2510 HOURGLASSING  Hourglassing is a zero energy mode of deformation that oscillates at a frequency much higher than the structure’s global response.

PEMP AME2510 Integration  The stiffness and mass of an element are calculated numerically at sampling points called “integration points” within the element. Bengaluru 10 .  M.S.  The numerical algorithm used to integrate these variables influences how an element behaves. Ramaiah School of Advanced Studies.  Dyna includes elements with both “full” and “reduced” integration.

 It Can be eliminated through full integration  Can be identified through the hourglass energy reported in the d3hsp file and other output files.  Should normally be less than 5% of deformation energy  Hourglass control brings additional stiffness or viscous damping to prevent such modes. quadrilateral shell and 2-D elements. Ramaiah School of Advanced Studies.PEMP AME2510  Affects brick.  M. Bengaluru 11 .S.

Bengaluru 12 .PEMP AME2510 Element with hour glassing mode  M. Ramaiah School of Advanced Studies.S.

PEMP AME2510 Element after hourglass control  M. Ramaiah School of Advanced Studies.S. Bengaluru 13 .

Hourglass deformations are resisted by a structures bulk viscosity.Fully integrated elements do not experience Hourglassing modes. Bengaluru 14 . Use fully integrated elements . Globally adjust the models bulk viscosity .Single point loads are known to excite hourglass modes. Avoid Single point loads . Hourglass control implemented through the use of the keyword *HOURGLASS section 3. Since one excited element transfers the mode to its neighbors. 2.S. Ramaiah School of Advanced Studies.PEMP AME2510 MINIMIZING HOURGLASSING 1. It is possible to increase the bulk viscosity of a model by using various Hourglass viscosity type which is as shown below  M. point loads should not be applied.

Ramaiah School of Advanced Studies. This can be done for the entire model by increasing the Hourglassing coefficient 5. Globally adding elastic stiffness .e.PEMP AME2510 4. Use of a uniform mesh (i.Hourglassing can be eliminated by adding elastic stiffness. Can normally be minimized through good modeling practices 6. Mesh refinement in general)  M.S. Bengaluru 15 .

There is an inherent limit to how much deformation a Lagrangian mesh can accommodate without some sort of mesh smoothing or remeshing taking place.PEMP AME2510 NEGATIVE VOLUMES •In materials that undergo extremely large deformations. Ramaiah School of Advanced Studies.S. an element may become so distorted that the volume of the element is calculated as negative. •This may occur without the material reaching a failure criterion. Bengaluru 16 . such as soft foams.  M.

 M. a negative volume may cause an error termination. Ramaiah School of Advanced Studies. •Even with ERODE and DTMIN set as described.PEMP AME2510 How to control Negative volume •A negative volume calculation in LS-DYNA will cause the calculation to terminate unless ERODE in *CONTROL_TIMESTEP is set to 1 and •DTMIN in *CONTROL_TERMINATION is set to any nonzero value in which case the offending element is deleted and the calculation continues (in most cases).S. Bengaluru 17 .

PEMP
AME2510

Some approaches that can help to overcome negative
volumes include the following

1. In many cases, the problem lies in stress strain curve
2. Simply stiffen up the material stress-strain curve at large
strains. This approach can be quite effective.
 M.S. Ramaiah School of Advanced Studies, Bengaluru

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PEMP
AME2510

3. Avoid fully-integrated solids (formulations 2 and 3)
which tend to be less stable in situations involving large
deformation
4. Use the default element formulation (1 point solid) with
type 4 or 5 hourglass control (will stiffen response).
Preferred hourglass formulations for foams are:
- type 6 with coeficient = 1.0 if low velocity impact
- type 2 or 3 if high velocity impact
5. Model the foam with tetrahedral elements using solid
element formulation 10 although this approach may
give an overly stiff response.
6. Increase the DAMP parameter (foam model 57) to the
maximum recommended value of 0.5.
 M.S. Ramaiah School of Advanced Studies, Bengaluru

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PEMP
AME2510

MASS SCALING
• When FE model contains a few small or stiff elements, the
efficiency of explicit time integration method is compromised
severely, since the time step of the entire mesh is set by these
very stiff elements. Several techniques are available for
overcoming this difficulty.
• The masses of stiffer elements are increased so that the time
step is not decreased.

 M.S. Ramaiah School of Advanced Studies, Bengaluru

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Bengaluru 21 . In this case. Ramaiah School of Advanced Studies.S.PEMP AME2510 How to control Mass scaling Activated primarily through the use of the DT2MS parameter available with the keyword CONTROL_TIMESTEP Positive DT2MS values for quasi-static analyses or time history analyses with negligible inertial effects Negative DT2MS values imply mass scaling will be implemented if time step values fall to lower than TSSFAC* DT2MS When the dynamic effect is big. such as in crash forming simulation. less mass scaling and low punch velocity should be used.  M.

Ramaiah School of Advanced Studies. dz dy RZ RY dx RX d n  f(d CG )  f(R CG )  Rigid body has 6 degrees of freedom.  M.PEMP AME2510 RIGID BODY DEFINITION  A rigid body cannot deform. Bengaluru 22 . 3 transnational and 3 rotational.S.

Ramaiah School of Advanced Studies.S. Bengaluru 23 . Fa M n1 CG Fb  M.PEMP AME2510 RULES FOR RIGID BODIES: • Two rigid bodies cannot share the same node M1 M2 F1 F2 CG1 CG2 n • Constraints must be applied to part or all nodes.

S.  M. Bengaluru 24 . • Rigid bodies can be merged.e. • Rigid bodies can be connected by joints. i.PEMP AME2510 RIGID BODY DEFINITION FEATURES FOR RIGID BODIES: • Extra nodes can be assigned to rigid bodies. slaved to each other. Ramaiah School of Advanced Studies.

• Avoid acute angled elements and warped shells.they are highly not recommended.use mass scaling. • Minimize the use of triangular/tetrahedron/prism elements.  M. Ramaiah School of Advanced Studies. as they will degrade the accuracy of the results. Although these elements are supported.S.If small elements are required. Bengaluru 25 . • Fully integrated elements can be defined in regions of a model where hourglass control is needed.PEMP AME2510 GENERAL ELEMENT GUIDELINES •Avoid small elements whenever possible as they will significantly reduce the time step size.

 M. Bengaluru .J.S. Ramaiah School of Advanced Studies.PEMP AME2510 Material library of LS-Dyna Session delivered by: Mr.Suman M.L.

Ramaiah School of Advanced Studies.S.PEMP AME2510 Session Topics  Overview of material models in LS-Dyna  Brief description of various material models  M. Bengaluru 27 .

Provide Constitutive equations for more than 120 material models 2. SECTIONS •Solids • Elastic-Plastic •Shells • Viscoelastic •Bars •thick shells • Rubber • Foams • Composites and many more…. Bengaluru 28 .  M.PEMP AME2510 MATERIAL MODELS AVAILABLE IN DYNA 1. Material Models • Elastic 4. Ramaiah School of Advanced Studies.S. Default parameters from best practices 3.

S. Bengaluru 29 . Ramaiah School of Advanced Studies.PEMP AME2510 MATERIAL LIBRARY AVAILABLE IN LS-DYNA Linear Elastic Models •Isotropic (MAT1) •Orthotropic (MAT2) •Anisotropic (MAT2) Nonlinear Elastic Models •Blatz-Ko Rubber (MAT7) •Mooney-Rivlin Rubber (MAT27) •Viscoelastic (MAT6)  M.

Bengaluru 30 .PEMP AME2510 Plasticity Models •Bilinear Isotropic (MAT3) •Temperature Dependent Bilinear Isotropic (MAT4) •Bilinear Kinematic (MAT3) •Plastic Kinematic (MAT3) •Powerlaw Plasticity (MAT18) •Rate Sensitive Powerlaw Plasticity (MAT64) •Strain Rate Dependent Plasticity (MAT19) •Piecewise Linear Plasticity (MAT24)  M. Ramaiah School of Advanced Studies.S.

Ramaiah School of Advanced Studies.S. Bengaluru 31 .PEMP AME2510 Foam Models •Low Density Foam (MAT57) •Viscous Foam (MAT62) •Mooney-Rivlin Rubber (MAT27) •Viscoelastic (MAT6) Spring Damper Models •Linear Elastic Spring (MAT18) •Linear Viscous Damper •Nonlinear Elastic Spring •Nonlinear Viscous Damper  M.

S. Ramaiah School of Advanced Studies. Bengaluru 32 .PEMP AME2510 •Elasto-plastic spring •General Nonlinear Spring Composite Models •Composite Damage (MAT22) •Enhance Composite Damage(MAT54-55) •Laminated composite Fabric (MAT58) Others •Rigid (MAT20) •Cable (MAT71)  M.

• Orthotropic: properties have 3 mutually orthogonal planes of symmetry • Anisotropic: properties are independent of position at a point within a material Linear elastic materials do not undergo any plastic deformations and are fully defined by generalized Hooke’s law  M. Bengaluru 33 .S.Linear Elastic Material Models There are three different material models available in the linear elastic family: • Isotropic: Material properties are same in all directions.PEMP AME2510 1. Ramaiah School of Advanced Studies.

This is an isotropic elastic material and is available for beam. This type of material is also used for modeling of fluids.PEMP AME2510 1.1 MAT_ ELASTIC This is Material Type1.shell and solid elements in LS-DYNA. Ramaiah School of Advanced Studies. Bengaluru 34 .S. Card Format used:  M.

Ramaiah School of Advanced Studies.S. Bengaluru 35 .PEMP AME2510  M.

Ramaiah School of Advanced Studies.  M. Bengaluru 36 .shells and thick shells.Anisotropic option is available for solid elements. This material is valid for modeling the elasticorthotropic behavior of solids.2 MAT_OPTIONTROPIC_ELASTIC This is Material Type 2.PEMP AME2510 1.S.

Ramaiah School of Advanced Studies.PEMP AME2510  M. Bengaluru 37 .S.

Ramaiah School of Advanced Studies.PEMP AME2510 2. •Mooney-Rivlin Rubber: Used to define behavior of incompressible rubber materials •Viscoelastic: Defines the behavior of glass and glass-like materials.S. Bengaluru 38 . Nonlinear Elastic Material Models There are three different material models available in the nonlinear elastic family: •Blatz-Ko Rubber: Used for compressible foam-type materials such as polyurethane rubbers. Non-linear elastic materials can undergo large recoverable elastic deformations  M.

Here the Poisson's ratio is fixed to 0.463  M.S.PEMP AME2510 • MAT_BLATZ-KO_RUBBER .This material allows the modeling of nearly incompressible continuum rubber . Ramaiah School of Advanced Studies.This is material Type 7. Bengaluru 39 .

PEMP AME2510  M. Ramaiah School of Advanced Studies. Bengaluru 40 .S.

and solids.shells.S. Bengaluru 41 . Ramaiah School of Advanced Studies.  M.PEMP AME2510 • MAT_VISCOELASTIC This is material Type 6. This model allows the modeling of viscoelastic behavior for beams (Hughes-Liu).

PEMP AME2510  M. Ramaiah School of Advanced Studies.S. Bengaluru 42 .

PEMP AME2510 • MAT_PLASTIC_KINEMATIC . Ramaiah School of Advanced Studies.shell and solid elements. This model is suited to model isotropic and kinematic hardening plasticity with the option of including rate effects. Bengaluru 43 .  M. .This is Material Type 3.It is a very cost effective model and is available for beam(Hughes-Liu).S.

Bengaluru 44 .S. Ramaiah School of Advanced Studies.PEMP AME2510  M.

Bengaluru 45 .S. Ramaiah School of Advanced Studies.PEMP AME2510  M.

Plasticity Material Models • There are different plasticity models available in LS-DYNA • The selection of a specific model depends on the type of material being analyzed and the availability of material constants. Bengaluru 46 .PEMP AME2510 3.  M. Ramaiah School of Advanced Studies. • It is very important to select the correct category for the material being analyzed. It is less important to select the specific model within a category. which is usually controlled by the material data available.S.

Ramaiah School of Advanced Studies. It is an elasto-plastic material with an arbitrary stress verses strain curve and arbitrary strain rate dependency is defined. Bengaluru 47 .0008 0.This is Material Type 24.010  M.S. .005 0.002 0.0 0.PEMP AME2510 • MAT_PIECEWISE_LINEAR_PLASTICITY .Here failure based on a plastic strain or a minimum time step size can be defined s s e 200 220 235 245 250 252 ep 0.0002 0.

PEMP AME2510  M. Ramaiah School of Advanced Studies. Bengaluru 48 .S.

PEMP AME2510  M. Ramaiah School of Advanced Studies. Bengaluru 49 .S.

Ramaiah School of Advanced Studies.PEMP AME2510  M.S. Bengaluru 50 .

S.Foam Material models •There are different foam models available in the LS-DYNA program.  M. Bengaluru 51 .PEMP AME2510 4. •The selection of a specific model depends on the type of material being analyzed. •All of the foam models in LS-DYNA are primarily used in automotive impact applications. Ramaiah School of Advanced Studies.

S.bumpers and interior foams. . Bengaluru 52 .It is mainly for Modeling Low Density Urethane Foam with high compressibility and with rate sensitivity. Ramaiah School of Advanced Studies.PEMP AME2510 • MAT_LOW_DENSITY_VISCOUS_FOAM . .Optionally.Its main applications are for seat cushions.This is Material Type 73.padding on the side impact Dummies (SID). a tension cut-off failure can be defined  M.

Ramaiah School of Advanced Studies. Bengaluru 53 .S.PEMP AME2510  M.

Ramaiah School of Advanced Studies.PEMP AME2510  M.S. Bengaluru 54 .

.This is Material Type 62.mainly under compressive loading  M.S.PEMP AME2510 • MAT_VISCOUS_FOAM . Ramaiah School of Advanced Studies.It is only valid for solid elements. Bengaluru 55 . This type of Material represents the ConFoam on the ribs of EuroSID side impact dummy.

S. Bengaluru 56 . Ramaiah School of Advanced Studies.PEMP AME2510  M.

 M. The major use of this material model is for honeycomb and foam materials with real anisotropic behavior. . Bengaluru 57 . Ramaiah School of Advanced Studies. .S.A nonlinear elastoplastic material behavior can be defined separately for all normal and shear stresses.PEMP AME2510 • MAT_HONEYCOMB -This is Material Type 26.This type of material model is developed for the front end material of a side impact bumper and for aerospace structures.

Bengaluru 58 . Ramaiah School of Advanced Studies.S.PEMP AME2510  M.

PEMP AME2510 • MAT_COMPOSITE_DAMAGE -This is Material Type 22.An orthotropic material with optional brittle failure for composites can be defined. This model is developed for failure of Composite materials which is used for energy absorption. .S.  M. Bengaluru 59 . Ramaiah School of Advanced Studies.

Ramaiah School of Advanced Studies. Bengaluru 60 .PEMP AME2510  M.S.

Ramaiah School of Advanced Studies. Bengaluru 61 .PEMP AME2510  M.S.

.Here global and local constraints on the mass center can be optionally defined.PEMP AME2510 • MAT_RIGID . Bengaluru 62 .S. Ramaiah School of Advanced Studies.Parts made from this material are considered to belong to a rigid body.  M.This is Material Type 20.The coupling of a rigid body with MADYMO can be defined via this material. .

PEMP AME2510  M. Bengaluru 63 . Ramaiah School of Advanced Studies.S.

PEMP AME2510  M. Ramaiah School of Advanced Studies. Bengaluru 64 .S.

Bengaluru 65 . Ramaiah School of Advanced Studies.S.PEMP AME2510  M.

Ramaiah School of Advanced Studies.  M.PEMP AME2510 • MAT_FABRIC -This is Material Type 34. -This model is more suited when the fabrics experiences large deformation.S. Bengaluru 66 .This material is especially developed for airbag materials.

S. Ramaiah School of Advanced Studies.PEMP AME2510  M. Bengaluru 67 .

S. Bengaluru 68 . Ramaiah School of Advanced Studies.PEMP AME2510  M.

0: Young's modulus LCID F0 Load curve ID Initial tensile force  M. Bengaluru 69 .In this model during compression no forces are developed MID Material Identification RO Mass density E GT 0. Ramaiah School of Advanced Studies.This model permits elastic cables to be realistically modeled.S.PEMP AME2510 • MAT_CABLE_DISCRETE_BEAM -This is Material Type 71. .

Spend the extra time and money to obtain accurate material data.  M. Ramaiah School of Advanced Studies. Bengaluru 70 .S. • For each material model. • Make sure to use consistent units when defining your material properties.failure strains can be incorporated into a material that does not have strain rate effects by setting the CowperSymonda constants to zero.Incorrect units will not only effect the material response. •Don’t underestimate the importance of having accurate material data.PEMP AME2510 Material Models .but will also effect the contact stiffness.For example.Guidelines • Not all material models are available for every element type. not all constants and options are required for input.Check the Elements Manual to see which models can be used.