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European Curricular Methods

Dalcroze Eurhythmics
Eurhythmics is an approach developed by Jaques-Dalcroze (1865-1950) that uses rhythm
as the primary element in music. The philosophical basis is that the body has within it
natural rhythms that we can use to experience musical rhythm. By 1905 Dalcroze had
worked out thousands of exercises and games linking music, intense listening, and
improvised movement. Eurhythmic teachers are also expected to be able to improvise (at
the piano) music for the lessons. Composed music is not used until later, after the
elements have been thoroughly studied.
A combination of Eurhythmics, Solfege, and Improvisation are incorporated in the
Jaques-Dalcroze approach.
Philosophy
1. The source of music is human emotion
2. We sense emotion from our body
3. The body expresses emotion through posture, gestures and various movement.
4. Therefore, the first instrument that must be trained in music is the human body
This came to be what is called Eurhymics Training and includes many elements.
Example: personal expressiveness through performance, using the laws of time---space--energy---weight---balance---gravity
The Orff Approach
Carl Orff (1895-1982), a German composer and educator, developed a pedagogy that
incorporates speech rhythms, moving and singing to lead to creative and improvisatory
learning experiences. The Orff approach is one of process, exploration and
experience. Children are encouraged to explore space, sound, form, and creativity.
The body may be used to explore four types of sound at different spatial levels:
Snap
Clap
Pat
Stamp

soprano
alto
tenor
bass

at ear level
in front, midbody
on thighs/lap
feet

Orff also developed various percussion instruments, including barred instruments


(xylophones, metallophones, glockenspiels), to be used for Orff experiences. These
became known as the Orff Instrumentarium. Later, recorders are also added to the
ensemble. Below are examples of early instructional sequences:
1.

Rhythm: Rhythmic speechaccompanied movement (clapping, finger snapping,


stamping, and patschen)substituting percussion instruments for movement activity

2.

Improvisation: bordun on Orff tone bellspentatonic fragments from rhythmic


speechpentatonic fragments from movement activitieseventual use of other scale
systems

The Orff process includes exploration of space (movement), sound (voice and
instruments) and form (improvisation). Learners proceed from imitation to creation, part
to whole, and individual to ensemble.
The goal is to make music a real experience for children.
Kodly Method
The Kodly (1882-1967) methodology is highly structured and sequenced, and relates to
child developmental levels. Some instructional sequences include:
Duple meter used first; triple only used after duple is firmly mastered.
Tonic solfa, hand signs and rhythm duration syllables are used as the basic tools of
instruction.
Ta

ti-ti

tika-tika

ti-tika

tika-ta

tri-o-la

syncopa

tum-ti

ti-tum

too-

toe--

tay---

Melody: Intervallic memory is used by using patterns from daily life


Sequence of patterns groupings (example):
(1) s-m
(2) s-m-l
(3) s-m-r-d
(4) d-r-m-s (5) m-r-d-s

Philosophy underlying the Kodaly approach:


1. Music literacy is for everyone and everyone can be musically literate to their ability
level.
2.

Singing is a natural activity and is the best foundation for musicianship.

3.

Music education must begin with the young child.

4.

Folk music from the childs linguistic heritage should be used for early instruction.

5.

Only good and great music should be used in teaching.