You are on page 1of 1

INTRODUCTION.

viii

The lower
pulse

the

figure indicates the note taken as the unit of the beat or

upper

figure, the

number

measure

of these units that each

must contain.

The

first

two

and g, are survivals of the old sign for

signs,

what was

called imperfect time

two beats

in the

The

measure.

broken

viz., a

first

which

circle,

signified

always means

of these signs,
|Jj,

two beats

in the

out the line

The

first

measure, and

the

is

same

called alia breve time

i.

e.,

four are called Simple

means an even number


a single rhythmic unit
strictly

as

is

speaking, a

compound

of

the

Common

Common Time.
measure

units, but

time

simple means that

(g

contained in each measure,

is

with-

four beats in the measure.

of beats in a

two rhythmic

custom includes

it

among

or

is,

the simple

times.)

The second

four are called Simple Triple

Time because each meas-

ure contains three beats, or one rhythmic unit of

The Compound Times


the upper figure
are

made

into one;

The

if

all

the

upper

last

as 6

Triple Time.

two measures

figure

Then,
made
Compound Common Time.

2, 3.

1,

made from Simple

signifies that

into one.

triple are

called

is 6, it

are

is 12, four measures of simple


and 12 are even numbers, it is

four consist of three measures of triple time

one; and as the upper figure

is

If

of simple triple

the odd

number

9, it is

made

called

into

Com-

pound Triple Time.

from a
There are two kinds of scale, Diatonic and Chromatic.
A Diatonic Scale moves through the letters without omission or
repetition.
A Chromatic Scale repeats the letters, changing their
pitch by means of signs called sharp ($), flat (b), natural (fc[), double
Scale

is

a succession of sounds ascending or descending

given sound.

sharp (x), double

The

flat (bb).

between a given letter and the next above or below is


called a whole tone if another sound comes between them, and a half
tone if no sound comes between them. Natural half-tones are found
between
and J?, and
and C; in every other case, if a half-tone
is desired between two letters, one or the other must be modified in
pitch by means of a sharp or flat.
interval